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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Priming the Pump in the Fight against Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis The Ties that Bind Metals to Proteins A Novel Nanobio Catalyst for Biofuels Multiple Crystal Cavities for Unlimited X-ray Energy Resolution and Coherence Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress OCTOBER 10, 2012 Bookmark and Share Lead-free SAC305 solder joints are often a single crystal upon solidification. Thermal strain in the corner joint of a WLCSP package was measured in situ by the peak shift in diffraction patterns during a thermal cycle: Unstrained (420) plane spacing in the unit cell (black) varies with

2

Lead-free solder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Sn--Ag--Cu eutectic alloy is modified with one or more low level and low cost alloy additions to enhance high temperature microstructural stability and thermal-mechanical fatigue strength without decreasing solderability. Purposeful fourth or fifth element additions in the collective amount not exceeding about 1 weight % (wt. %) are added to Sn--Ag--Cu eutectic solder alloy based on the ternary eutectic Sn--4.7%Ag--1.7%Cu (wt. %) and are selected from the group consisting essentially of Ni, Fe, and like-acting elements as modifiers of the intermetallic interface between the solder and substrate to improve high temperature solder joint microstructural stability and solder joint thermal-mechanical fatigue strength.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Lead Free Solder - Energy Innovation Portal  

Lead Free Solder A lead free solder, developed at The Ames Laboratory, combines tin, silver and copper in a novel alloy combination that is low ...

4

Lead-Free Solder Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Solder and solderability are increasingly tenuous links in microelectronics assembly as a consequence of ever shrinking chip and package ...

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

5

WEB RESOURCE: European Lead Free soldering NETwork  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... It initial objective is to enable electronics producers in the European Union (EU) to meet an EU directive to introduce lead-free soldering. "

6

Lead-Free Solder - Home - Energy Innovation Portal  

Energy Innovation Portal ... Technology Marketing Summary A lead-free solder for use in electronic soldering including ... Benefits * An industry standard for lead ...

7

Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder May 24, 2012 - 10:45am Addthis Iver Anderson, senior metallurgist at Ames Laboratory, explains the importance of...

8

“Performance Considerations in Lead-Free Solder Implementation”  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plus, get answers to your specific lead-free solder questions during the webcast. Register your site* before November 13 for only $179 ($129 academic rate) at.

9

The 8th TMS Lead Free Solder and Interconnect Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS 2012: Continuing Education: The 8th TMS Lead Free Solder and Interconnect Technology Workshop March 11-15, 2012 • Orlando, FL. Who should attend:

10

High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives: Possibilities and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of high-temperature lead-free solders has become an important issue for both the electronics and automobile industries because of the health ...

11

6th Lead-Free Solder and Technology Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

139th Annual Meeting & Exhibition. February 14 - 18, 2010, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, Washington USA. 6th Lead-Free Solder and ...

12

Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lead-free Solder Lead-free Solder Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder May 24, 2012 - 10:45am Addthis Iver Anderson, senior metallurgist at Ames Laboratory, explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs "Many creative solutions to problems in one field can be borrowed from another field..." Dr. Iver Anderson, Ames National Lab senior metallurgist Dr. Iver Anderson, Ames National Laboratory materials scientist, developed

13

Lead-Free Solder: Digital Resource Center - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are currently 0 guests browsing this forum, which makes a total of 0 users using this forum. Spacer 62103 users are registered to the Lead-Free Solder: ...

14

8th Annual TMS Lead Free Solder and Interconnect Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

8th Annual TMS Lead Free Solder and Interconnect. Technology Workshop. Sunday, March 11, 2012 • 9:00 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.. Member fee: $15. Nonmember fee: ...

15

nano sized lead free solder paste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dec 16, 2010 ... A while ago, I read an article about development of nano size Pb-free solder paste to reduce the melting point by increasing surface energy.

16

Discussions@TMS - What is the biggest lead-free soldering process ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nov 13, 2007 ... Question posed by the Moderator to David Hillman: What is the biggest lead-free soldering process logistics issue currently being reviewed ...

17

TMS 2010 6th Lead-Free Solder and Technology Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS 2010: 6th Lead-Free Solder and Technology Workshop February 14-18, 2010 • Washington State Convention Center • Seattle, WA. The focus of this ...

18

Lead-Free Solder: Digital Resource Center -- Getting Lead out of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ARTICLE: Public Health and Environmental Benefits of Adopting Lead-Free Solders O.A. Ogunseitan; JOM article overviewing indutrial ecology and global ...

19

7th TMS Lead Free Solder and Interconnect Technology Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overview. This workshop is organized to serve as the industry roadmap for Pb free solder technology in high reliability and consumer electronic packaging and.

20

Suppression of Tin Whiskers in Lead-Free Solder - Energy ...  

Vehicles and Fuels; Wind ... solder has since been replaced with alloys but require acceptance testing standards and mitigation practices to help manufacturers ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

2006 TMS Lead-Free Solder Technology Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 11, 2007 ... A compilation of slide presentations from a one-day workshop, covering recent results and challenges for the implementation of lead-free ...

22

Lead-Free Solder: Digital Resource Center - BOOK: Structural ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 11, 2007 ... Topic Title: BOOK: Structural Integrity and Reliability in Electronics: Enhancing Performance in a Lead-Free Environment Topic Summary: ...

23

Lead-free solder technology transfer from ASE Americas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To safeguard the environmental friendliness of photovoltaics, the PV industry follows a proactive, long-term environmental strategy involving a life-of-cycle approach to prevent environmental damage by its processes and products from cradle to grave. Part of this strategy is to examine substituting lead-based solder on PV modules with other solder alloys. Lead is a toxic metal that, if ingested, can damage the brain, nervous system, liver and kidneys. Lead from solder in electronic products has been found to leach out from municipal waste landfills and municipal incinerator ash was found to be high in lead also because of disposed consumer electronics and batteries. Consequently, there is a movement in Europe and Japan to ban lead altogether from use in electronic products and to restrict the movement across geographical boundaries of waste containing lead. Photovoltaic modules may contain small amounts of regulated materials, which vary from one technology to another. Environmental regulations impact the cost and complexity of dealing with end-of-life PV modules. If they were classified as hazardous according to Federal or State criteria, then special requirements for material handling, disposal, record-keeping and reporting would escalate the cost of decommissioning the modules. Fthenakis showed that several of today's x-Si modules failed the US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for potential leaching of Pb in landfills and also California's standard on Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) for Pb. Consequently, such modules may be classified as hazardous waste. He highlighted potential legislation in Europe and Japan which could ban or restrict the use of lead and the efforts of the printed-circuit industries in developing Pb-free solder technologies in response to such expected legislation. Japanese firms already have introduced electronic products with Pb-free solder, and one PV manufacturer in the US, ASE Americas has used a Pb-free solder exclusively in their modules since 1993. Finding a safe, reliable and cost-effective substitute for lead-containing solders is not easy. Tin/lead solder has been the standard solder technology for several decades and extensive knowledge has been gained on the practical and theoretical aspects of its use. The printed circuit and the electronics industries recently embarked on a multi-million-dollar R and D effort to develop such alternatives, focusing on material properties, manufacturing processes, cost of alloys and long-term availability and reliability. Fthenakis outlined such efforts and listed alternatives examined by the electronics industries. One of the most promising alternatives (for electronics) is the 96.5%Sn/3.5%Ag solder that ASE Americas developed and use. ASE Americas' research and independent field testing showed it is at least as reliable as the standard one. This solder is slightly more expensive than the regular Sn/Pb solder. However, to the audience gratification, Steel Heddle, a solder manufacturer, announced that they will absorb the incremental cost and will supply 96.5%Sn/3.5%Ag at the same price as the conventional Sn/Pb solder ribbon. Another issue is the low TTLC for Ag in California (i.e., 0.5 g / kg of module), but Fthenakis showed that the Sn/Ag solder will add less than 10% of this quantity (i.e., 0.05 g of Ag / kg of module). The major point made by Fthenakis was that alternatives exist that are both environmentally benign and cost-effective, and that the PV industry can only benefit by being proactive in switching to Pb-free materials, thereby exceeding the expectations of its supporters and averting potential future legislation.

FTHENAKIS,V.

1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

24

Lead-Free Solder: Digital Resource Center - BOOK: A Guide to Lead ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 10, 2007 ... This book provides an overview of the principles of soldering technology in the beginning with the theory underlying each concept. Focusing on ...

25

Shear and Bending Fatigue Failure of Lead Free Solder Joint and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Among many mechanisms leading to solder joint failure, the fracture by cyclic bending, shear, and shock load is particularly concerned. Conventionally, those ...

26

Characterization of Cell Phone and Personal Computers Lead Free ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Use of lead free solders in printed circuit boards is expanding since the adoption of Reduced of Hazardous Substances directive by European Union.

27

Wave soldering with Pb-free solders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The manufacturing feasibility and attachment reliability of a series of newly developed lead-free solders were investigated for wave soldering applications. Some of the key assembly aspects addressed included: wettability as a function of board surface finish, flux activation and surface tension of the molten solder, solder joint fillet quality and optimization of soldering thermal profiles. Generally, all new solder formulations exhibited adequate wave soldering performance and can be considered as possible alternatives to eutectic SnPb for wave soldering applications. Further process optimization and flux development is necessary to achieve the defect levels associated with the conventional SnPb process.

Artaki, I.; Finley, D.W.; Jackson, A.M.; Ray, U. [AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States); Vianco, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Progress in Lead-Free Solders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 23, 2007 ... Non-member price: 179.00. TMS Student Member price: 179.00. Product In Stock . Description Learn about progress in the implementation of ...

29

Lead Free Solder - Energy Innovation Portal  

Energy Innovation Portal ... the worldwide electronics assembly industry and can be found in many new consumer ... | U.S. Department of Energy | USA.gov

30

Lead-Free Solders and Whiskering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 26, 2009... Ervina Efzan Mhd Noor1; Zuhailawati Hussain1; Ahmad Badri Ismail1; Nurulakmal Mohd Sharif1; Tadashi Ariga2; 1Universiti Sains Malaysia; ...

31

Lead-free Technology Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lead-free Technology Workshop. Sponsored by: The TMS Electronic, Magnetic & Photonic Materials Division (EMPMD) Date: Sunday, February 13, 2005

32

WEB RESOURCE: Reliability Test Matrices for Lead-Free Solder ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... A test matrix for reliability testing with the following objectives: 1) Determine the moisture and temperature sensitivity of package types to 260 ...

33

Lead-Free Solder: Digital Resource Center - WEB RESOURCE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 10, 2007 ... An extensive FAQ document intended to help authorities in the member states of the European Union to interpret Directive 2002/95/EC on the ...

34

Age-aware solder performance models : level 2 milestone completion.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Legislated requirements and industry standards are replacing eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders with lead-free (Pb-free) solders in future component designs and in replacements and retrofits. Since Pb-free solders have not yet seen service for long periods, their long-term behavior is poorly characterized. Because understanding the reliability of Pb-free solders is critical to supporting the next generation of circuit board designs, it is imperative that we develop, validate and exercise a solder lifetime model that can capture the thermomechanical response of Pb-free solder joints in stockpile components. To this end, an ASC Level 2 milestone was identified for fiscal year 2010: Milestone 3605: Utilize experimentally validated constitutive model for lead-free solder to simulate aging and reliability of solder joints in stockpile components. This report documents the completion of this milestone, including evidence that the milestone completion criteria were met and a summary of the milestone Program Review.

Neilsen, Michael K.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

2006 Lead-Free Technology Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of the workshop was to provide an up-to-date review of Pb-free solder technology, focusing on implementation issues and solutions as well as new ...

36

Pb-free Solders for Flip-Chip Interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... "This article, the full text of which is provided, reviews the physical metallurgy and mechanical metallurgy of lead-free solders as well as a test ...

37

Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Capacitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Capacitors ... Oxide Nanostructures and Their Potential for Mechanical Energy Scavenging.

38

Effects of Cu-Bearing Flux on Sn-3.5Ag Soldering with Electroless Ni ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The content of the Cu compound in a flux varies from 0 wt. ... Electromigration Behavior of Sn-In Lead-Free Solder Alloy Under High Current Stress ... Phase-

39

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components: Tin Whisker Growth METALS This project degraded by the switch to lead- free technology. In particular, the state of compressive stress and the localized creep response (whisker growth) of tin-based lead-free electrodeposits are being measured

Magee, Joseph W.

40

Brazing and Soldering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 4   Comparison of the most common brazing and soldering process methods...brazing (a) Torch soldering (a) Gas furnace or oven (Gas) furnace brazing (Gas) oven soldering Heat of condensation Vapor-phase brazing Condensation soldering Exothermic reactions Combustion synthesis (a) Reaction soldering Electrical heat sources Furnace or oven (Electric) furnace brazing...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Synthesis of Lead-free Nanosolders Using Microfluidic Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this presentation, a novel microfluidic device enabled approach has been developed to synthesize lead-free nanosolder particles. We show that a continuous ...

42

Available Technologies: Lead-free Thin Film Piezoelectric ...  

In a breakthrough discovery, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Robert Zeches, and their research team at Berkeley Lab have developed a technology for lead-free ...

43

Lead-free Thin Film Piezoelectric Devices - Energy ...  

In a breakthrough discovery, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Robert Zeches, and their research team at Berkeley Lab have developed a technology for lead-free ...

44

Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors, Capacitors, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors, Capacitors, and ... Acknowledgement: This study was sponsored by Office of Basic Energy ...

45

Mechanisms of Texture Development in Lead-Free Piezoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The anisotropy in surface energy plays an important role to determine the ... Mechanisms of Texture Development in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics Made by ...

46

Influence of Vibration at High Temperature on Lead-Free Solder ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design of Pre-Weakening and Evaluation of Structural Safety for Explosive ... Crystallization Temperature of Pd-Cu-Si System Using Integrated Thin Film Samples ... Mechanical Properties of 5083 Aluminium Welds after Manual and Automatic ...

47

Solderability perservative coatings: Electroless tin vs. organic azoles  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares the solderability performance and corrosions ion protection effectiveness of electroless tin coatings versus organic azole films after exposure to a series of humidity and thermal (lead-free solders) cycling conditions. The solderability of immersion tin is directly related to the tin oxide growth on the surface and is not affected by the formation of Sn-Cu intermetallic phases as long as the intermetallic phase is protected by a Sn layer. For a nominal tin thickness of 60{mu}inches, the typical thermal excursions associated with assembly are not sufficient to cause the intermetallic phase to consume the entire tin layer. Exposure to humidity at moderate to elevated temperatures promotes heavy tin oxide formation which leads to solderability loss. In contrast, thin azole films are more robust to humidity exposure; however upon heating in the presence of oxygen, they decompose and lead to severe solderability degradation. Evaluations of lead-free solder pastes for surface mount assembly applications indicate that immersion tin significantly improves the spreading of Sn:Ag and Sn:Bi alloys as compared to azole surface finishes.

Artaki, I.; Ray, U.; Jackson, A.M.; Gordon, H.M. [AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States); Vianco, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

SOLDERING OF URANIUM  

SciTech Connect

One of Its Monograph Series, The Industrial Atom.'' The joining of uranium to uranium has been done successfully using a number of commercial soft solders and fusible alloys. Soldering by using an ultrasonic soldering iron has proved the best method for making sound soldered joints of uranium to uranium and of uranium to other metals, such as stainless steel. Other method of soldering have shown some promise but did not give reliable joints all the time. The soldering characteristics of uranium may best be compared to those of aluminum. (auth)

Hanks, G.S.; Doll, D.T.; Taub, J.M.; Brundige, E.L.

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Soldering instrument safety improvements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A safe soldering device includes a retractable heat shield which can be moved between a first position in which the solder tip of the device is exposed for soldering operation and a second position in which the solder tip is covered by the heat shield. Preferably, the heat shield is biased towards the second position and may be locked in the first position for ease of use. When the soldering device is equipped with a vacuum system, the heat shield may serve to guide the flow of gases and heat from the solder tip away from the work area. The heat shield is preferably made of non-heatsinking plastic.

Kosslow, William J. (Jefferson Boro, PA); Giron, Ronald W. (Delmont, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Battery cell soldering apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A battery cell soldering apparatus for coupling a plurality of battery cells within a battery casing comprises a support platform and a battery casing holder. The support platform operatively supports a soldering block including a plurality of soldering elements coupled to an electrical source together with a cooling means and control panel to control selectively the heating and cooling of the soldering block when the battery cells within the battery casing are held inverted in operative engagement with the plurality of soldering elements by the battery casing holder.

Alvarez, O.E.

1979-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

51

Assuring QoS in wireless mesh networks with misbehaving users  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the problem of QoS provisioning in wireless mesh networks in the presence of misbehaving users. To mitigate the impact of such users, a misbehavior-aware QoS architecture is proposed. The results of simulation studies show the most ...

Szymon Szott

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

PEREA: Practical TTP-free revocation of repeatedly misbehaving anonymous users  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several anonymous authentication schemes allow servers to revoke a misbehaving user's ability to make future accesses. Traditionally, these schemes have relied on powerful Trusted Third Parties (TTPs) capable of deanonymizing (or linking) users' connections. ... Keywords: Privacy, anonymous authentication, anonymous blacklisting, privacy-enhanced revocation, user misbehavior

M. Ho Au; P. P. Tsang; A. Kapadia

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Soldering instrument safety improvements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of the present invention to make soldering instruments safer and easier to use. According to one aspect of the present invention, a non-heatsinking, protective shield is provided around the soldering tip of the solder iron. This heat shield covers the iron`s hot tip throughout the soldering process with the exception of the time needed to perform an actual solder connection using the tip. The shield protects the user or nearby personnel from harm when the soldering iron is at elevated temperatures (500{degrees}F to 800{degrees}F).Moreover, the shield is capable of preventing fires which might result if the iron`s tip inadvertently comes into contact with an object that can be easily ignited, e.g. paper. In addition, an air vacuum system is incorporated into the shield to remove the solder smoke.

Kosslow, W.J.; Giron, R.W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Solderability test system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new test method to quantify capillary flow solderability on a printed wiring board surface finish. The test is based on solder flow from a pad onto narrow strips or lines. A test procedure and video image analysis technique were developed for conducting the test and evaluating the data. Feasibility tests revealed that the wetted distance was sensitive to the ratio of pad radius to line width (l/r), solder volume, and flux predry time.

Yost, Fred (Cedar Crest, NM); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM); Jellison, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Short, Bruce (Beverly, MA); Giversen, Terri (Beverly, MA); Reed, Jimmy R. (Austin, TX)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Solderability test system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new test method to quantify capillary flow solderability on a printed wiring board surface finish. The test is based on solder flow from a pad onto narrow strips or lines. A test procedure and video image analysis technique were developed for conducting the test and evaluating the data. Feasibility tests revealed that the wetted distance was sensitive to the ratio of pad radius to line width (l/r), solder volume, and flux predry time. 11 figs.

Yost, F.; Hosking, F.M.; Jellison, J.L.; Short, B.; Giversen, T.; Reed, J.R.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

56

Low-Temperature Sintering of Nanosilver Paste for Lead-Free Chip ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Pb-Free Solders and Next Generation Interconnects. Presentation Title ...

57

SOLDERING OF ALUMINUM BASE METALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent deals with the soldering of aluminum to metals of different types, such as copper, brass, and iron. This is accomplished by heating the aluminum metal to be soldered to slightly above 30 deg C, rubbing a small amount of metallic gallium into the part of the surface to be soldered, whereby an aluminum--gallium alloy forms on the surface, and then heating the aluminum piece to the melting point of lead--tin soft solder, applying lead--tin soft solder to this alloyed surface, and combining the aluminum with the other metal to which it is to be soldered.

Erickson, G.F.

1958-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

58

LALP-08-045 Licensable Lead-Free Super-Thermite Electric Matches  

Licensable Technologies Lead-Free Super-Thermite Electric Matches An Equal Opportunity Employer / Operated by Los Alamos National Security LLC for DOE/NNSA

59

Synthesis of High-temperature Lead-free Nanosolders and Their ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One high melting temperature alloy candidate, Au-20Sn, has shown to be a strong contender for the transition into lead-free interconnects with its bulk melting ...

60

063 Synthesis and Characterization of New Lead-Free Low Melt ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

063 Synthesis and Characterization of New Lead-Free Low Melt Sealing Glasses ... Powders by Using a Solution Combustion Synthesis in an Air Atmosphere.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Solder-related Reliability Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Comparison of Cu Pad Consumption between Sn Solder and Sn3.5Ag: ... EM- induced Cu consumption was observed in the cathode Cu ...

62

METHOD FOR SOLDERING NORMALLY NON-SOLDERABLE ARTICLES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are presented for coating and joining materials which are considered difficult to solder by utilizing an abrasive wheel and applying a bar of a suitable coating material, such as Wood's metal, to the rotating wheel to fill the cavities of the abrasive wheel and load the wheel with the coating material. The surface of the base material is then rubbed against the loaded rotating wheel, thereby coating the surface with the soft coating metal. The coating is a cohesive bonded layer and holds the base metal as tenaciously as a solder holds to easily solderable metals.

McGuire, J.C.

1959-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

63

Lead-free precussion primer mixes based on metastable interstitial composite (MIC) technology  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lead-free percussion primer composition and a percussion cup containing e composition. The lead-free percussion primer composition is comprised of a mixture of about 45 wt % aluminum powder having an outer coating of aluminum oxide and molybdenum trioxide powder or a mixture of about 50 wt % aluminum powder having an outer coating of aluminum oxide and polytetrafluoroethylene powder. The aluminum powder, molybdenum trioxide powder and polytetrafluoroethylene powder has a particle size of 0.1 .mu.m or less, more preferably a particle size of from about 200-500 angstroms.

Dixon, George P. (Alexandria, VA); Martin, Joe A. (Espanola, NM); Thompson, Don (Ridgecrest, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

The Effects of Geometric Parameters Variation on Lead-Free Flip-Chip Package under Temperature Cycling Test.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thermal fatigue failure, due to the fracture of solder bumps which was cased by the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch deformation, is frequently encountered in… (more)

Tsai, Chin-chieh

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Physical metallurgy issues in solder joint performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to simulate solder fabrication, a simplified axisymmetric ''microcell'' model of the assembly was used. Results of constant temperature compressive creep experiments were fitted to the Sherby-Dorn steady state creep equation for use in the analyses. Experimental studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of material layup, solder joint thickness, and number of thermal cycles on the tensile strength of solder bonds. (LEW)

Stephens, J.J. Jr.; Bourcier, R.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Available Technologies: Nano-soldering to a Single Atomic Layer  

Alex Zettl and Ça?lar Girit of Berkeley Lab have developed a miniaturized soldering technology to solder submicron-sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures of even ...

67

Fracture Mechanics of Solder Joint under Mechanical Fatigue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structural similarities in solder joint used in these studies yet varying locations of cracking site suggest that fracture in solder joint is affected greatly by a subtle ...

68

Pb-free Solders and Advanced Interconnecting Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Pb-free solders and interconnects for automotive and power electronics ... and Orientation Evolution in Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints in Ball Grid Array Packages.

69

Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... This book has been developed as a resource to be used in developing a solder joint reliability assessment. Topics include: the mechanics of ...

70

Phase Diagrams & Computational Thermodynamics-Solder ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 8, 2007 ... This webpage contains a collection of calculated binary and ternary systems that are relevant to solders. The thermodynamic descriptions of ...

71

Nano-soldering to single atomic layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

Girit, Caglar O. (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, CA)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

72

Outsmarting Flu Viruses | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Priming the Pump in the Fight against Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis The Ties that Bind Metals to Proteins A Novel Nanobio Catalyst for Biofuels Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Outsmarting Flu Viruses OCTOBER 9, 2012 Bookmark and Share Surface representation of influenza hemagglutinin (white) with the newly identified sites of vulnerability colored red. Each site is unique and targeted by a different antibody. CR8033 (blue) binds to the head of HA, CR8071 (green) just below the head, while CR9114 (yellow) binds the stem. The stem binding CR9114, with its cross-neutralizing ability for influenza

73

Solderability Study of RABiTS-Based YBCO Coated Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solderability of commercially available YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) coated conductors that were made from Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS)-based templates was studied. The coated conductors, also known as second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires (in the geometry of flat tapes about 4 mm wide), were laminated with copper, brass, or stainless steel strips as stabilizers. To understand the factors that influence their solderability, surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the wire surfaces. The solderability of three solders, 52In48Sn, 67Bi33In, and 100In (wt.%), was evaluated using a standard test (IPC/ECA J-STD-002) and with two different commercial fluxes. It was found that the solderability varied with the solder and flux but the three different wires showed similar solderability for a fixed combination of solder and flux. Solder joints of the 2G wires were fabricated using the tools and the procedures recommended by the HTS wire manufacturer. The solder joints were made in a lap-joint geometry and with the superconducting sides of the two wires face-to-face. The electrical resistances of the solder joints were measured at 77 K, and the results were analyzed to qualify the soldering materials and evaluate the soldering process. It was concluded that although the selection of soldering materials affected the resistance of a solder joint, the resistivity of the stabilizer was the dominant factor.

Zhang, Yifei [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Ha, Tam T [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as Al, Ti, Ta or stainless steel. The composition comprises Sn and Zn; Ge as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of Cu and Sb; and a grit, such as SiC. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the Ge penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The Ge comprises less than 10 wt.% of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so that the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

75

Aging Effects on the Microstructure, Surface Characteristics and Wettability of Cu Pretinned with Sn-Pb Solders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chairman, "Accelerated Aging for Solderability EvaluationsA Survey of Accelerated Aging Techniques for SolderableJ. K. ,andG. J. Davis,"Aging Solder hickness Solder lloy T

Linch, H.S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Coarsening of the Sn-Pb Solder Microstructure in Constitutive Model-Based Predictions of Solder Joint Thermal Mechanical Fatigue  

SciTech Connect

Thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) is an important damage mechanism for solder joints exposed to cyclic temperature environments. Predicting the service reliability of solder joints exposed to such conditions requires two knowledge bases: first, the extent of fatigue damage incurred by the solder microstructure leading up to fatigue crack initiation, must be quantified in both time and space domains. Secondly, fatigue crack initiation and growth must be predicted since this metric determines, explicitly, the loss of solder joint functionality as it pertains to its mechanical fastening as well as electrical continuity roles. This paper will describe recent progress in a research effort to establish a microstructurally-based, constitutive model that predicts TMF deformation to 63Sn-37Pb solder in electronic solder joints up to the crack initiation step. The model is implemented using a finite element setting; therefore, the effects of both global and local thermal expansion mismatch conditions in the joint that would arise from temperature cycling.

Vianco, P.T.; Burchett, S.N.; Neilsen, M.K.; Rejent, J.A.; Frear, D.R.

1999-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

77

Solder Mechanics: A State of the Art Assessment - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... This important monograph is a summation of work in solder research examining the areas of the field which are well understood, addressing ...

78

Pb-Free Solders and Next Generation Interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Pb-Free Solders and Next Generation Interconnects. Sponsorship. Organizer(s), Thomas R. Bieler , ...

79

Pb-Free Solders and Next Generation Interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Pb-Free Solders and Next Generation Interconnects. Sponsorship, MS&T ...

80

Soldering Small Beads to Fine Wires  

SciTech Connect

One method suggested for soldering small beads to fine wires using a torch to heat the bead, flux, and magnesia brick did not prove entirely satisfactory in this case. It was found the brick would draw heat away from the bead and flux at too fast a rate resulting in a poor weld, a rough surface, and an excessive accumulation of flux on the bead. Secondly, removal of the depleted flux presented a problem when the welding was done on the surface of the brick.

Stanton, J. S.

1950-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Thermal fatigue evaluation of solder alloys. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation was made of the relative thermal fatigue resistance of 29 solder alloys. A number of these alloys were found to be less susceptible to thermal fatigue cracking in encapsulated printed wiring board applications than the commonly used tin-lead eutectic (63Sn-37Pb). Three alloys, 95Sn-5Ag, 96.5Sn-3.5Ag, and 95Sn-5Sb offered the greatest resistance to thermal fatigue. The selection of the encapsulation materials was confirmed to be a significant factor in thermal fatigue of solder joints, regardless of the solder alloy used.

Jarboe, D.M.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Solder technology in the manufacturing of electronic products  

SciTech Connect

The electronics industry has relied heavily upon the use of soldering for both package construction and circuit assembly. The solder attachment of devices onto printed circuit boards and ceramic microcircuits has supported the high volume manufacturing processes responsible for low cost, high quality consumer products and military hardware. Defects incurred during the manufacturing process are minimized by the proper selection of solder alloys, substrate materials and process parameters. Prototyping efforts are then used to evaluate the manufacturability of the chosen material systems. Once manufacturing feasibility has been established, service reliability of the final product is evaluated through accelerated testing procedures.

Vianco, P.T.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Solderability of environmentally exposed Sn-plated surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solderability of Class II environmentally exposed Ni-Sn plated Cu substrates was evaluated with 60Sn-40Pb solder. Tin thickness were 10, 50, and 150 {mu}in. The 10 {mu}in. plating gave the smallest solder meniscus rise. A general decrease in contact angle, or increase in wettability, was observed with increasing Sn plating. The environmental exposures retarded the wetting rate and increased the time to maximum wetting, particularly with only 10 {mu}in. of Sn. Although the solderability of the 50 and 150 {mu}in. surfaces were not significantly affected by the test conditions, an intermediate plating thickness of 100 {mu}in. is preferred for processing flexibility. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Hosking, F.M.; Sorensen, N.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Solderability and environmental testing of Sn-plated surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of atmospheric corrosion on the solderability of Sn plated surfaces was evaluated with 60Sn-40Pb solder. Tin thicknesses of 10, 50, and 150 {mu}in on Ni plated Cu were studied. The 10 {mu}in. plating gave the smallest solder meniscus rise. A general decrease in contact angle, or increase in wettability, was observed with increasing Sn plating. The environmental exposures retarded the wetting rate and increased the time to maximum wetting, particularly with only 10 {mu}in. of Sn. Although the solderability of the 50 and 150 {mu}in. surfaces wee not significantly affected by the test conditions, an intermediate plating thickness of 100 {mu}in. is preferred for processing flexibility. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Sorensen, N.R.; Hosking, F.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Pb-Free Solders and Emerging Interconnect and Packaging ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thomas Bieler, Michigan State University ... Improvement of Heat Dissipation in High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes Using Highly Heat Conductive ... Study of UBM Consumption in Flip Chip Solder Joints with Local Temperature Control.

86

Soldering to a single atomic layer - Lawrence Berkeley National ...  

Soldering to a single atomic layer Ça?lar Ö. ... age V bg, where the contact resistance R c is extracted from the ?ts Fig. 3 a , dashed black lines .

87

Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

1987-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

88

Development of a new Pb-free solder: Sn-Ag-Cu  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the ever increasing awareness of the toxicity of Pb, significant pressure has been put on the electronics industry to get the Pb out of solder. This work pertains to the development and characterization of an alloy which is Pb-free, yet retains the proven positive qualities of current Sn-Pb solders while enhancing the shortcomings of Sn-Pb solder. The solder studied is the Sn-4.7Ag-1.7Cu wt% alloy. By utilizing a variety of experimental techniques the alloy was characterized. The alloy has a melting temperature of 217{degrees}C and exhibits eutectic melting behavior. The solder was examined by subjecting to different annealing schedules and examining the microstructural stability. The effect of cooling rate on the microstructure of the solder was also examined. Overall, this solder alloy shows great promise as a viable alternative to Pb-bearing solders and, as such, an application for a patent has been filed.

Miller, C.M.

1995-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

89

Interfacial delamination and fatigue life estimation of 3D solder bumps in flip-chip packages  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fracture behaviors under thermal load. The 3D analysis also estimated thermal fatigue life of solder bumps, small profiles, and good electrical performance, area-array solder-bumped flip-chip technology-dimensional finite element analysis was carried out for area-array solder-bumped flip-chip packages. The analysis

Nakamura, Toshio

90

AMES Success Stories - Energy Innovation Portal  

1 Success Stories; Category Title and Abstract Company / Laboratories Date; Industrial Technologies Lead Free Solder. A lead free solder, developed at ...

91

Pb-Free Solders for Flip-Chip Interconnections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the Sn-3.5Ag solder theCu6Sn5 is present due to the dissolution of some of the .... Silicon wafers with aluminum daisy chain test structures were bumped with ... 4 parts glycerol +1 part acetic acid +1part nitric acid at 80ºC for a few seconds ...

92

The Applications of Synchrotron Radiation X-rays 3D Imaging Techniques to The Study of Electromigration Failure in Flip-Chip Solder Joints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

induced Failure in Pb-free Flip Chip Solder Joints”,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flip_chip 4. K. N. Tu, "Recentcompound and solder in flip chip solder joints", Appl. Phys.

Tian, Tian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Numerical prediction and experimental validation of flip chip solder joint geometry for MEMS applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??xvii, 162 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm HKUST Call Number: Thesis MECH 2008 Lo Solder bumped flip chips are one of the superior interconnection… (more)

Lo, Chi Chuen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Effect of Solder Bump Heights on Cu Dissolution Rate in Pb-Free ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Effect of Solder Bump Heights on Cu Dissolution Rate in Pb- Free ... Effect of Zn Content on the Electrification-Fusion and Failure Behaviors of  ...

95

TMS 2011: Plenary Presentations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS · CASTING & SOLIDIFICATION OF METALS · ENERGY MANAGEMENT · LEAD FREE SOLDER · SELF-DIFFUSION MOBILITY DBASE.

96

Biomimetic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ENERGY MANAGEMENT · LEAD FREE SOLDER · SELF-DIFFUSION MOBILITY ... MARRIOTT HOTEL · CONVENTION CENTER TECHNICAL PROGRAM INFO ...

97

Method and apparatus for jetting, manufacturing and attaching uniform solder balls  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process are disclosed for jetting molten solder in the form of balls directly onto all the metallized interconnects lands for a ball grid array package in one step with no solder paste required. Molten solder is jetted out of a grid of holes using a piston attached to a piezoelectric crystal. When voltage is applied to the crystal it expands forcing the piston to extrude a desired volume of solder through holes in the aperture plate. When the voltage is decreased the piston reverses motion creating an instability in the molten solder at the aperture plate surface and thereby forming spherical solder balls that fall onto a metallized substrate. The molten solder balls land on the substrate and form a metallurgical bond with the metallized lands. The size of the solder balls is determined by a combination of the size of the holes in the aperture plate, the duration of the piston pulse, and the displacement of the piston. The layout of the balls is dictated by the location of the hooks in the grid. Changes in ball size and layout can be easily accomplished by changing the grid plate. This invention also allows simple preparation of uniform balls for subsequent supply to BGA users. 7 figs.

Yost, F.G.; Frear, D.R.; Schmale, D.T.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

98

Effects of electromigration on microstructural evolution of eutectic SnPb flip chip solder bumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flip chip solder bump was investigated in situ with current stressing in an ambient temperature of 423K. For the in situ investigation of the solder joints, a single flip chip package was examined during whole investigation time. Cross-sectional ... Keywords: Electromigration, Flip chip, Reliability, Sn-37Pb

Dae-Gon Kim; Won-Chul Moon; Seung-Boo Jung

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Method and apparatus for jetting, manufacturing and attaching uniform solder balls  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process for jetting molten solder in the form of balls directly onto all the metallized interconnects lands for a ball grid array package in one step with no solder paste required. Molten solder is jetted out of a grid of holes using a piston attached to a piezoelectric crystal. When voltage is applied to the crystal it expands forcing the piston to extrude a desired volume of solder through holes in the aperture plate. When the voltage is decreased the piston reverses motion creating an instability in the molten solder at the aperture plate surface and thereby forming spherical solder balls that fall onto a metallized substrate. The molten solder balls land on the substrate and form a metallurgical bond with the metallized lands. The size of the solder balls is determined by a combination of the size of the holes in the aperture plate, the duration of the piston pulse, and the displacement of the piston. The layout of the balls is dictated by the location of the hooks in the grid. Changes in ball size and layout can be easily accomplished by changing the grid plate. This invention also allows simple preparation of uniform balls for subsequent supply to BGA users.

Yost, Frederick G. (Cedar Crest, NM); Frear, Darrel R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schmale, David T. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Understanding, Modeling and Predicting Hidden Solder Joint Shape Using Active Thermography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterizing hidden solder joint shapes is essential for electronics reliability. Active thermography is a methodology to identify hidden defects inside an object by means of surface abnormal thermal response after applying a heat flux. This research focused on understanding, modeling, and predicting hidden solder joint shapes. An experimental model based on active thermography was used to understand how the solder joint shapes affect the surface thermal response (grand average cooling rate or GACR) of electronic multi cover PCB assemblies. Next, a numerical model simulated the active thermography technique, investigated technique limitations and extended technique applicability to characterize hidden solder joint shapes. Finally, a prediction model determined the optimum active thermography conditions to achieve an adequate hidden solder joint shape characterization. The experimental model determined that solder joint shape plays a higher role for visible than for hidden solder joints in the GACR; however, a MANOVA analysis proved that hidden solder joint shapes are significantly different when describe by the GACR. An artificial neural networks classifier proved that the distances between experimental solder joint shapes GACR must be larger than 0.12 to achieve 85% of accuracy classifying. The numerical model achieved minimum agreements of 95.27% and 86.64%, with the experimental temperatures and GACRs at the center of the PCB assembly top cover, respectively. The parametric analysis proved that solder joint shape discriminability is directly proportional to heat flux, but inversely proportional to covers number and heating time. In addition, the parametric analysis determined that active thermography is limited to five covers to discriminate among hidden solder joint shapes. A prediction model was developed based on the parametric numerical data to determine the appropriate amount of energy to discriminate among solder joint shapes for up to five covers. The degree of agreement between the prediction model and the experimental model was determined to be within a 90.6% for one and two covers. The prediction model is limited to only three solder joints, but these research principles can be applied to generate more realistic prediction models for large scale electronic assemblies like ball grid array assemblies having as much as 600 solder joints.

Giron Palomares, Jose

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217.degree. C. and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid "mushy" zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15.degree. C. above the eutectic melting temperature).

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Yost, Frederick G. (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, John F. (Ames, IA); Miller, Chad M. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

102

Effects of soldering void on recovery characteristics of a cryostable superconductor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conductor for a cryostable magnet is usually made by soldering a superconducting matrix to an OFHC copper strip. The presence of voids between the matrix and the stabilizer due to the imperfection in the soldering bond is of great concern to magnet designers. An experiment was set up to investigate the effect of the void on the characteristics of hot end recovery and cold and recovery for CFFF superconductors. Tests were made on samples having different lengths of soldering void under various magnetic field strengths and injecting energies. The recovery current and the temperature distributions along the matrix and the copper stabilizer were mentioned. The test results are presented.

Huang, Y.; Wang, S.T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder - Energy ...  

A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu ...

104

Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force  

SciTech Connect

The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burress, R.V. [SEHO (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Life Prediction of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu/ENIG and OSP Pb-Free Solder ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Therefore, in this study, we have predicted solder joints life of chip scale package (CSP) for automotive cabin electronics. For the experiment, 84 ball CSP was ...

106

RNA Folding: A Little Cooperation Goes a Long Way | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Phase in Cellular Communication A New Phase in Cellular Communication Engineering Thin-Film Oxide Interfaces Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit Outsmarting Flu Viruses How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed RNA Folding: A Little Cooperation Goes a Long Way NOVEMBER 19, 2012 Bookmark and Share Shown here is the energy landscape for folding of a ribozyme, and how cooperation between tertiary interactions at different parts of the structure (red dots) help the RNA reach its unique native structure and avoid non-native intermediates. The nucleic acid RNA is an essential part of the critical process by which

107

Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Outsmarting Flu Viruses Outsmarting Flu Viruses How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Priming the Pump in the Fight against Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis The Ties that Bind Metals to Proteins Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit NOVEMBER 9, 2012 Bookmark and Share Illustration of a 4-unit-cell film of NdNiO3 (white) confined by LaAlO3 (blue) at the boundaries to make a quantum well structure. Our computers carry out their functions on several semiconducting devices layered together in the very smallest of spaces, known as quantum wells,

108

A New Phase in Cellular Communication | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Thin-Film Oxide Interfaces Engineering Thin-Film Oxide Interfaces Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit Outsmarting Flu Viruses How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A New Phase in Cellular Communication NOVEMBER 15, 2012 Bookmark and Share Interactions between N-WASP, phospho-Nephrin and Nck produce large polymers (top panel) that phase separate to produce liquid droplets suspended in aqueous solution (bottom panel). In many physical processes, substances undergo phase transitions, where they are transformed from one state (solid, liquid, or gas) to another.

109

Engineering Thin-Film Oxide Interfaces | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit Outsmarting Flu Viruses How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Priming the Pump in the Fight against Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Engineering Thin-Film Oxide Interfaces NOVEMBER 12, 2012 Bookmark and Share LAO thin films on STO substrates are depicted in the top schematics (LAO indicated by blue spheres, STO by green spheres). The top left-hand panel demonstrates a chemically broad interface resulting from conventional growth in a low pressure oxygen environment. In contrast, the top

110

Anodic dissolution characteristics and electrochemical migration lifetimes of Sn solder in NaCl and Na2SO4 solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ water drop tests and anodic polarization tests of pure Sn solder were carried out in deaerated 0.001% NaCl and Na"2SO"4 solutions to determine the correlation between anodic dissolution characteristics and the electrochemical migration lifetime. ... Keywords: Anodic dissolution, Electrochemical migration, Life time, Na2SO4, NaCl, Sn solder

Ja-Young Jung; Shin-Bok Lee; Young-Chang Joo; Ho-Young Lee; Young-Bae Park

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Design of Experiments to Determine Causes of Flex Cable Solder Wicking, Discoloration and Hole Location Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design of Experiments (DoE) were developed and performed in an effort to discover and resolve the causes of three different manufacturing issues; large panel voids after Hot Air Solder Leveling (HASL), cable hole locations out of tolerance after lamination and delamination/solder wicking around flat flex cable circuit lands after HASL. Results from a first DoE indicated large panel voids could be eliminated by removing the pre-HASL cleaning. It also revealed eliminating the pre-HASL bake would not be detrimental when using a hard press pad lamination stackup. A second DoE indicated a reduction in hard press pad stackup lamination pressure reduced panel stretch in the y axis approximately 70%. A third DoE illustrated increasing the pre-HASL bake temperature could reduce delamination/solder wicking when using a soft press pad lamination stackup.

Wolfe, Larry

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

112

Sensitivity of Solder Joint Fatigue to Sources of Variation in Advanced Vehicular Power Electronics Cooling  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates a methodology for taking variation into account in thermal and fatigue analyses of the die attach for an inverter of an electric traction drive vehicle. This method can be used to understand how variation and mission profile affect parameters of interest in a design. Three parameters are varied to represent manufacturing, material, and loading variation: solder joint voiding, aluminum nitride substrate thermal conductivity, and heat generation at the integrated gate bipolar transistor. The influence of these parameters on temperature and solder fatigue life is presented. The heat generation loading variation shows the largest influence on the results for the assumptions used in this problem setup.

Vlahinos, A.; O' Keefe, M.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Microstructural characterization and mechanical property of active soldering anodized 6061 Al alloy using Sn-3.5Ag-xTi active solders  

SciTech Connect

Active solders Sn-3.5Ag-xTi varied from x = 0 to 6 wt.% Ti addition were prepared by vacuum arc re-melting and the resultant phase formation and variation of microstructure with titanium concentration were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Sn-3.5Ag-xTi active solders are used as metallic filler to join with anodized 6061 Al alloy for potential applications of providing a higher heat conduction path. Their joints and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated in terms of titanium content. The mechanical property of joints was measured by shear testing. The joint strength was very dependent on the titanium content. Solder with a 0.5 wt.% Ti addition can successfully wet and bond to the anodized aluminum oxide layers of Al alloy and posses a shear strength of 16.28 {+-} 0.64 MPa. The maximum bonding strength reached 22.24 {+-} 0.70 MPa at a 3 wt.% Ti addition. Interfacial reaction phase and chemical composition were identified by a transmission electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer. Results showed that the Ti element reacts with anodized aluminum oxide to form Al{sub 3}Ti-rich and Al{sub 3}Ti phases at the joint interfaces. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Active solder joining of anodized Al alloy needs 0.5 wt.% Ti addition for Sn-3.5Ag. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum bonding strength occurs at 3 wt.% Ti addition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ti reacts with anodized Al oxide to form Al{sub 3}Ti-rich and Al{sub 3}Ti at joint interface.

Wang, Wei-Lin, E-mail: wangwl77@gmail.com; Tsai, Yi-Chia, E-mail: tij@itri.org.tw

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Task 7: Die soldering during host site testing. Final report, January1--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

To provide industrial confirmation of laboratory results produced in Task 6 of this project, five industrial trials were organized with cooperative die casters in the USA. Components cast during these trials ranged from functional electronic heat sinks to decorative household plumbing components. Whereas laboratory work indicated that die temperature and draft angle were the most important process factors influencing solder accumulation, it was not possible to vary draft angle on the established production dies used for these trials. Substantial variations in die temperature were realized however and also die surface conditions were varied, confirming the influence of a secondary variable in the laboratory investigation. Substantial evidence from the trials indicated that die surface temperature is the most important factor for controlling solder build up. The surface roughness of the die casting die greatly influenced the number of castings that could be run before solder initially appeared. Development of careful thermal management techniques, now judged to be beyond the capabilities of most US die casters, will be necessary to control incidences of die soldering found in typical production. Thermal control will involve both control of the bulk die temperature through use of thermally controlled cooling lines, and also regulation of surface temperature by well controlled cooling lines, and also regulation of surface temperature by well controlled die spraying (lubrication) techniques. Further research, development and technology transfer to enhance thermal control capabilities of US die casters is recommended.

Goodwin, F.E. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Walkington, W.G. [Walkington (William G.), Cottage Grove, WI (United States)

1998-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

Reliability of Sn-3.5Ag Solder Joints in High Temperature Packaging Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a significant need for next generation, high performance power electronic packages and systems with wide band gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential operating temperatures up to 200oC. However, there is a need to understand thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large area Sn-3.5Ag solders joints between silicon dies and DBC substrates subject to thermal cycling between 200oC and 5oC is presented in this paper. Damage accumulation was followed using high resolution X-ray radiography techniques while nonlinear finite element models were developed based on the mechanical property data available in literature to understand the relationship between the stress state within the solder joint and the damage evolution occurring under thermal cycling conditions. It was observed that regions of damage observed in the experiments do not correspond to the finite element predictions of the location of regions of maximum plastic work.

Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Kurumaddali, Nalini Kanth [ORNL; Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Leslie, Dr Scott [Powerex Inc

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

TMS 2008 Annual Meeting & Exhibition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

…advanced lead-free solder and packaging technologies ... Severe plastic deformation; Nanocrystalline materials; Thermal stability; Deformation and fracture ...

117

LCD, low-temperature soldering and compound semiconductor : the sources, market, applications and future prospects of indium in Malaysia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indium is a minor but very valuable metal. Decreasing supplies of indium from refining and increasing demands from LCD, low-temperature soldering and compound semiconductors have stimulated the indium price increase ...

Yong, Foo Nun

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

A study of thermal cycling and radiation effects on indium and solder bump bonding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The BTeV hybrid pixel detector is constructed of readout chips and sensor arrays which are developed separately. The detector is assembled by flip-chip mating of the two parts. This method requires the availability of highly reliable, reasonably low cost fine-pitch flip-chip attachment technology. We have tested the quality of two bump-bonding technologies; indium bumps (by Advanced Interconnect Technology Ltd. (AIT) of Hong Kong) and fluxless solder bumps (by MCNC in North Carolina, USA). The results have been presented elsewhere[1]. In this paper we describe tests we performed to further evaluate these technologies. We subjected 15 indium bump-bonded and 15 fluxless solder bump-bonded dummy detectors through a thermal cycle and then a dose of radiation to observe the effects of cooling, heating and radiation on bump-bonds.

Selcuk Cihangir et al.

2001-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

119

Electrical Resistance of Nb3Sn/Cu Splices Produced by Electromagnetic Pulse Technology and Soft Soldering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electrical interconnection of Nb3Sn/Cu strands is a key issue for the construction of Nb3Sn based damping ring wigglers and insertion devices for third generation light sources. We compare the electrical resistance of Nb3Sn/Cu splices manufactured by solid state welding using Electromagnetic Pulse Technology (EMPT) with that of splices produced by soft soldering with two different solders. The resistance of splices produced by soft soldering depends strongly on the resistivity of the solder alloy at the operating temperature. By solid state welding splice resistances below 10 nOhm can be achieved with 1 cm strand overlap length only, which is about 4 times lower than the resistance of Sn96Ag4 soldered splices with the same overlap length. The comparison of experimental results with Finite Element simulations shows that the electrical resistance of EMPT welded splices is determined by the resistance of the stabilizing copper between the superconducting filaments and confirms that welding of the strand matr...

Schoerling, D; Scheuerlein, C; Atieh, S; Schaefer, R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Process for reducing series resistance of solar cell metal contact systems with a soldering flux etchant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a process for substantially reducing the series resistance of a solar cell having a thick film metal contact assembly thereon while simultaneously removing oxide coatings from the surface of the assembly prior to applying solder therewith. The process includes applying a flux to the contact assembly and heating the cell for a period of time sufficient to substantially remove the series resistance associated with the assembly by etching the assembly with the flux while simultaneously removing metal oxides from said surface of said assembly.

Coyle, R. T. (Lakewood, CO); Barrett, Joy M. (Eldorado Springs, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A study of thermal cycling and radiation effects on indium and solder bump bonds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The BTeV hybrid pixel detector is constructed of readout chips and sensor arrays which are developed separately. The detector is assembled by flip-chip mating of the two parts. This method requires the availability of highly reliable, reasonably low cost fine-pitch flip-chip attachment technology. We have tested the quality of two bump-bonding technologies; indium bumps (by Advanced Interconnect Technology Ltd. (AIT) of Hong Kong) and fluxless solder bumps (by MCNC in North Carolina, USA). The results have been presented elsewhere [1]. In this paper we describe tests we performed to further evaluate these technologies. We subjected 15 indium bump-bonded and 15 fluxless solder bump-bonded dummy detectors through a thermal cycle and then a dose of radiation to observe the effects of cooling, heating and radiation on bump-bonds. We also exercised the processes of HDI mounting and wire bonding to some of the dummy detectors to see the effect of these processes on bump bonds.

Simon Kwan et al.

2001-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

122

Strength and Lifetime Analysis of SMT Solder Joints: An Exemplary Study of the MiniMELF Component  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-linear three-dimensional finite element (FE) analysis of the thermally loaded struc- ture. In the present case by using the CAD software I-DEAS [2]. To allow for a swift and reliable stress / strain analysis including626 Strength and Lifetime Analysis of SMT Solder Joints: An Exemplary Study of the Mini

Berlin,Technische Universität

123

SOLDER?FILLING OF A CICC CABLE FOR THE EFDA DIPOLE MAGNET  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several prototype Cable?In?Conduit?Conductors (CICC) for the superconducting EDIPO (Efda DIPOle) revealed a degradation of their critical current (Ic) increasing with each loading cycle. The strong Lorentz?forces during operation in combination with the limited support of the single strands against these forces are thought to be the cause of the permanent degradation of the brittle Nb3Sn superconductor from which the multi?stranded CICC are made. In summer 2006 EFDA started to explore the possibility to remedy the Ic degradation by solder?filling the conductor in order to mechanically stabilize the twisted?strand cable inside the conduit. This solution was not considered as the main one

P. Bauer; P. Bruzzone; F. Cau; K. Weiss; A. Portone; E. Salpietro; M. Vogel; A. Vostner

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Evaluation of the impact of solder die attach versus epoxy die attach in a state of the art power package  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Subject of this paper is the thermal investigation of epoxy (EDA) and solder (SDA) die attaches by a comparison of an ASIC with multiple heat sources in different package assemblies. Static and transient thermal measurements and simulations were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of two samples in a state of the art QFP power package differing only in the die attach material (EDA and SDA).

J. Czernohorsky; B. Maj; Matthias Viering; L. Wright; G. Balanon

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

125

TMS e-News: The monthly electronic newsletter for TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article provides an overview of current research projects on lead-free solders at Arizona State University and links to additional papers describing the ...

126

MATERIALS & TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICROELECTRONICS: II: An ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A summary of the completed 4 year study of lead free solder alloys will be ... kinetic energy and aspect ratio on deposit morphology/microstructure and step ...

127

ALSNews Vol. 309  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contact: Johanna Nelson Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent...

128

aqueous and electrochemical processing ii  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Dynamic LCA Model For Assessing The Impact Of Lead Free Solder [pp. .... For Recycling Of Spent Nickel-Metal Hydride Secondary Battery (Invited) [pp.

129

Getting the Lead Out  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Discarded electronics no longer pose an environmental hazard from lead solder thanks to a lead-free alternative developed at the Ames Laboratory.

Gibson, Kerry

2011-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

130

Lead Zinc and Tin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"High Temperature Lead-free Solder for Microelectronics" (Overview), Frank R. Gayle, Gary Becka, Jerry Badgett, Gordon Whitten, Tsung-Yu Pan, Angela Grusd,

131

Process for reducing series resistance of solar-cell metal-contact systems with a soldering-flux etchant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a process for substantially reducing the series resistance of a solar cell having a thick film metal contact assembly thereon while simultaneously removing oxide coatings from the surface of the assembly prior to applying solder therewith. The process includes applying a flux to the contact assembly and heating the cell for a period of time sufficient to substantially remove the series resistance associated with the assembly by etching the assembly with the flux while simultaneously removing metal oxides from said surface of said assembly.

Coyle, R.T.; Barrett, J.M.

1982-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

132

Solderability study of 63Sn-37Pb on zinc-plated and cadmium-plated stainless steel for the MC4636 lightning arrestor connector.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cadmium plating on metal surfaces is commonly used for corrosion protection and to achieve good solderability on the 304L stainless steel shell of the MC4636 lightning arrestor connector (LAC) for the W76-1 system. This study examined the use of zinc as a potential substitute for the cadmium protective surface finish. Tests were performed with an R and RMA flux and test temperatures of 230 C, 245 C, and 260 C. Contact angle, {theta}{sub c}, served as the generalized solderability metric. The wetting rate and wetting time parameters were also collected. The solderability ({theta}{sub c}) of the Erie Plating Cd/Ni coatings was better than that of similar Amphenol coatings. Although the {theta}{sub c} data indicated that both Cd/Ni platings would provide adequate solderability, the wetting rate and wetting time data showed the Amphenol coatings to have better performance. The Zn/Ni coatings exhibited non-wetting under all flux and temperature conditions. Based on the results of these tests, it has been demonstrated that zinc plating is not a viable alternate to cadmium plating for the LAC connectors.

Lopez, Edwin Paul; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Rejent, Jerome Andrew; Martin, Joseph J.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Microstructure Design of Lead-Free Piezoelectric R. E. Garcia,,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technological Institute Nagoya, 468-8511, Japan Corresponding Author. phone: (765) 494-0148 email: redwing

Rohrer, Gregory S.

134

Lead-free Piezoelectric Films for Transducer Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

First, K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) and Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) thick films were prepared by PVP-modified chemical solution deposition process. The effects of ...

135

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components: Tin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... tin with the substrate. Our focused ion beam (FIB) milling has revealed this internal microstructure. We have also developed ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

136

Enhanced Piezoelectric Properties of Lead-Free Piezoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finally, for BT grain oriented ceramics, it was revealed that piezoelectric constant ... High-Energy Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction for In-Situ Study of Structural ...

137

Public Health and Environmental Benefits of Adopting Lead-Free ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

However, the legacy of “hot spots” including old mines, fugitive releases from .... of the bill of materials in high-volume products such as cell phones needs to be ...

138

Study of Lead Free Ferroelectric Films for New Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

We report on the deposition by a sol-gel process of Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} films on platinum coated silicon substrates. X-Ray diffraction patterns show that the films are (111) preferentially oriented. The surface morphology is smooth, without cracks and the grain size is about 50 nm as determined by AFM and SEM. The dielectric constant measured from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} Hz decreases slightly and is around 400 at 10{sup 4} Hz. The losses are constant in a first approximation for a 1.5 {mu}m thick BST(80/20) film with a value of 0.03 at 10 kHz. The existence of an hysteresis cycle attests that the films, whatever their thickness, are in a ferroelectric state. Pyroelectric coefficients have been determined and the best figure of merit obtained on BST(90/10) at 293 K and 10 kHz is of 149 {mu}C/m{sup 3}/K. The best dielectric and pyroelectric properties (tg{delta} = 0.006 at 1 MHz, tunability = 30%, {gamma} = 340 {mu}C/m{sup 2}/K) were obtained on the 400 nm BST(90/10) film. Work is in progress to characterize the piezoelectric and photovoltaic properties of our BST films.

Fasquelle, D.; Mascot, M.; Carru, J. C. [LEMCEL, Universite du Littoral Cote d'Opale, 50 rue F. Buisson, BP717-62228-Calais-France (France); Hikam, M.; Iriani, Y.; Soegijono, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Indonesia, Depok 16424 Indonesia (Indonesia)

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

139

An analysis of the pull strength behaviors of fine-pitch, flip chip solder interconnections using a Au-Pt-Pd thick film conductor on Low-Temperature, Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) substrates.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The assembly of the BDYE detector requires the attachment of sixteen silicon (Si) processor dice (eight on the top side; eight on the bottom side) onto a low-temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate using 63Sn-37Pb (wt.%, Sn-Pb) in a double-reflow soldering process (nitrogen). There are 132 solder joints per die. The bond pads were gold-platinum-palladium (71Au-26Pt-3Pd, wt.%) thick film layers fired onto the LTCC in a post-process sequence. The pull strength and failure modes provided the quality metrics for the Sn-Pb solder joints. Pull strengths were measured in both the as-fabricated condition and after exposure to thermal cycling (-55/125 C; 15 min hold times; 20 cycles). Extremely low pull strengths--referred to as the low pull strength phenomenon--were observed intermittently throughout the product build, resulting in added program costs, schedule delays, and a long-term reliability concern for the detector. There was no statistically significant correlation between the low pull strength phenomenon and (1) the LTCC 'sub-floor' lot; (2) grit blasting the LTCC surfaces prior to the post-process steps; (3) the post-process parameters; (4) the conductor pad height (thickness); (5) the dice soldering assembly sequence; or (5) the dice pull test sequence. Formation of an intermetallic compound (IMC)/LTCC interface caused by thick film consumption during either the soldering process or by solid-state IMC formation was not directly responsible for the low-strength phenomenon. Metallographic cross sections of solder joints from dice that exhibited the low pull strength behavior, revealed the presence of a reaction layer resulting from an interaction between Sn from the molten Sn-Pb and the glassy phase at the TKN/LTCC interface. The thick film porosity did not contribute, explicitly, to the occurrence of reaction layer. Rather, the process of printing the very thin conductor pads was too sensitive to minor thixotropic changes to ink, which resulted in inconsistent proportions of metal and glassy phase particles present during the subsequent firing process. The consequences were subtle, intermittent changes to the thick film microstructure that gave rise to the reaction layer and, thus, the low pull strength phenomenon. A mitigation strategy would be the use of physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques to create thin film bond pads; this is multi-chip module, deposited (MCM-D) technology.

Uribe, Fernando R.; Kilgo, Alice C.; Grazier, John Mark; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Zender, Gary L.; Hlava, Paul Frank; Rejent, Jerome Andrew

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

TMS News Article  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 4, 2009... Community: “JOM Examines Lead-Free Solder Reliability Issues” provides a brief synopsis of the ... POLL: What steps should the United States take to ensure its nuclear power ... Posted: 2010-11-22; Views: 11217 [READ] ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

TMS e-News: The monthly electronic newsletter for TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

on Environmental Impact of Electronics and Progress in Lead-Free Solders ..... benefits for public health and the environment, and how these benefits may help secure ... a key materials issue to be considered is the disposal of nuclear waste.

142

162 The Characteristics of High Strength and Lead-Free Machinable ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

005 Calcium Phosphates for Drug Carrier: Adsorption and Release Kinetics of Drugs ... 058 Properties Optimization of Refractory Mineral Resources in China.

143

High temperature ultrasonic gas flow sensor based on lead free piezoelectric material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are satisfied by flow meters with multiple ultrasonic measurement paths, typically supplied as a spool piece and used in custody transfer applications such as natural gas pipelines. With respect to flow metering in general, a substantial and key body of work... and ?T is the differential temperature. The disadvantages of thermal mass flow meters are discussed at length by Baker [11] and Miller [10]. The response of the instrument to changes in flow velocity is typically slow due to the thermal inertia...

Krsmanovic, Dalibor

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

144

Mn Doping Effect on Electrical Properties of Lead-Free K0.5Na0 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ferroelectrics with Giant Electrocaloric Effect for Dielectric Refrigeration ... Processes during Sintering: Establishing a Tool Kit for Materials Design in PZT.

145

Kinetic electrocaloric effect and giant net cooling of lead-free ferroelectric refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

The electrocaloric effect of BaTiO{sub 3} multilayer thick film structure was investigated by direct measurement using differential scanning calorimeter. The samples show a giant electrocaloric effect of 0.89 J/g under E=176 kV/cm, which also depends on the varying rate of applied field, following a general power-law relation. Based on the large net-cooling (0.37 J/g) resulting from the difference in the varying rates of rising and falling fields, the kinetic electrocaloric effect provides a solution for the design of refrigeration cycle in ferroelectric microrefrigerator.

Bai Yang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Key Laboratory of Environmental Fracture, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083 (China); Zheng Guangping; Shi Sanqiang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

In RoHS Testing—Lead-Free Is not Always Trouble-Free  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 15, 2006 ... The electronics industry is scrambling to comply with the RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) Directive that takes effect on July 1, ...

147

Epitaxial Stabilization of a Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Lead-Free Ferroelectric Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy barrier for phase transformation in these films. The piezoelectric andpiezoelectric charge coefficient direct current density functional theory dysprosium scandate electric field coercive field energyenergy surface” near a structural phase boundary is the origin of the enhanced piezoelectric

Zeches, Robert James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

052- Ferroelectric Hysteresis Scaling Behavior of Lead-Free Bi 0.5 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

085- Highly Efficient Comprehensive Utilization of Kaolin Tailings from ... 086- Improvement in Gas Tightness of YSZ Coatings Produced by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying ... 145- The Synergy of XRD and XRF in a Shale and Slate Analysis.

149

Critical temperatures of superconducting solders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Different magnetic strengths in MRIs produce different reactions and provide more insight into what being imaged. Being able to more quickly switch between two or more different magnet strengths would allow scientists in ...

Pavão, Erica Medeiros

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

01 - 27310 of 28,904 results. 01 - 27310 of 28,904 results. Article SunShot Shoots for the Moon with First Grand Challenge Event We invite you to join us for The SunShot Initiative Grand Challenge: Summit and Technology Forum, where we will discuss our progress in driving down the cost of solar technologies, June 13-14, in Denver, Colorado. http://energy.gov/articles/sunshot-shoots-moon-first-grand-challenge-event Article Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder Iver Anderson, Ames National Laboratory materials scientist, discusses the impact of a lead-free solder he invented 15 years ago, the road to commercialization and the lab resources that made it possible. http://energy.gov/articles/lab-breakthrough-lead-free-solder Download EA-1913: Mitigation Action Plan Springfield Sockeye Hatchery Project, Springfield, Bingham County, Idaho

151

After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab January 20, 2012 - 11:32am Addthis Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide and has generated more than $39 million in licensing income. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? As of the end of June 2011, lead-free solder generated $38.9 million

152

AWS breaks new ground with soldering specification.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Joining technologies continue to advance with new materials, process innovations, and inspection techniques. An increasing number of high-valued, high-reliability applications -- from boilers and ship hulls to rocket motors and medical devices -- have required the development of industry standards and specifications in order to ensure that the best design and manufacturing practices are being used to produce safe, durable products and assemblies. Standards writing has always had an important role at the American Welding Society (AWS). The AWS standards and specifications cover such topics as filler materials, joining processes, inspection techniques, and qualification methods that are used in welding and brazing technologies. These AWS standards and specifications, all of which are approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), have also provided the basis for many similar documents used in Europe and in Pacific Rim countries.

Vianco, Paul Thomas

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Lower-Melting-Point Solder Alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant manufacturing cost reductions can be realized with ... and/or circuit board materials in product assembly in order to reduce production costs.

154

design and reliability of solder interconnections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X. Wu, K. Hu, X. Dou, G. Mui, C.-P. Yeh and K. Wyatt. Combined ... Reliability Considerations When Choosing Water Soluble Flux for Electronic Assembly [pp.

155

Recent News from the National Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

24, 2012 24, 2012 Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder Iver Anderson, Ames National Laboratory materials scientist, discusses the impact of a lead-free solder he invented 15 years ago, the road to commercialization and the lab resources that made it possible. May 24, 2012 After pitching their business plan to panels of judges at the regional semifinal and final, six teams advanced to the national competition for a chance at the cash grand prize. | Energy Department file graphic. America's Best Student Start-Up Companies Pitch for Your Vote Voting opened on May 24 for voters to review company summaries online, view their 3-minute video pitches, and then 'like' the companies they think will most positively impact America's energy future. May 23, 2012 Unlocking the Power of Energy Data

156

Energy Blog | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4, 2012 4, 2012 Application Engineer Eric Biedermann of Vibrant supervises an automated nondestructive testing system. | Photo courtesy of Sandia National Lab. New Mexico Scientists Help Local Businesses Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories are teaming up with small businesses in New Mexico to provide technical assistance free of charge. May 24, 2012 Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder Iver Anderson, Ames National Laboratory materials scientist, discusses the impact of a lead-free solder he invented 15 years ago, the road to commercialization and the lab resources that made it possible. May 24, 2012 After pitching their business plan to panels of judges at the regional semifinal and final, six teams advanced to the national competition for a chance at the cash grand prize. | Energy Department file graphic.

157

Interfacial Reactions of the Pb-free Solder Joints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... High-temperature electronics has been widely applied in critical and harsh environments ranging from power engineering to aerospace.

158

Pb-free Solders and Emerging Interconnect and Packaging ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Sponsored by: TMS Electronic, Magnetic, and Photonic Materials Division, .... combined with their increasing power dissipation requirements, requires a new .... Pedro Quintero-Aguiló1; 1University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez

159

Effect of Solder Microstructure on Mechanical and Thermal Shock ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Critical tests were designed to couple the corresponding microstructure with mechanical and thermal shock properties. For thermal shock resistance of ...

160

The Characteristics of Electrolytic Refining of Tin Soldering Scrap ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective Recovery of Gold from E-wastes by Using Cellulosic Wastes · Stabilization of Chromium-Based Slags with FeS2 and FeSO4 · Sulphide Precipitation ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Pb-free Solders and Emerging Interconnect and Packaging ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this Symposium, emerging interconnect and packaging technologies and insights into existing materials and technologies, including Pb-free, Pb-

162

Pb-free Solders and Emerging Interconnect and Packaging Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fan-yi Ouyang, National Tsing Hua University Chang-Woo Lee, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology Won Sik Hong, Korea Electronics Technology Institute

163

Interfacial reaction between eutectic SnPb solder and electroplated ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

consumption rate of the electroplated Ni ?lm, as well as the activation energy of IMC ... The Ni consumption rate, IMC growth rate, and activation energy.

164

Leaching of Lead from Solder Material Used in Electrical and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Leaching Toxicity of Pb and Ba Containing in Cathode Ray Tube Glasses by SEP -TCLP · Mechanical Recycling of Electronic Wastes for Materials Recovery.

165

Physical Metallurgy and Alloy Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

FORUMS > PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND ALLOY DEVELOPMENT ... A TMS Knowledge Packet on the Physical Metallurgy of Solders and Solder Interfaces

166

High-temperature Soft Solders: The Ni-Sn-Zn Phase Diagram  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this contribution, the phase diagram information from a large amount of own experimental data and various available literature reports were merged into a ...

167

Comparison of Accelerated Testing with Modeling to Predict Lifetime of CPV Solder Layers (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) cell assemblies can fail due to thermomechanical fatigue in the die-attach layer. In this presentation, we show the latest results from our computational model of thermomechanical fatigue. The model is used to estimate the relative lifetime of cell assemblies exposed to various temperature histories consistent with service and with accelerated testing. We also present early results from thermal cycling experiments designed to help validate the computational model.

Silverman, T. J.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Phase Equilibria and Transformations of the Pb-free Solders and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012... ASCR; 2National Physical Laboratory,; 3Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds; 4Department of Chemistry, Masaryk University

169

Phase Equilibria and Transformation of the Pb-Free Solders and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 3, 2011... of the Ag-Sb-Sn System: Simona Delsante1; Dajian Li1; Gabriella Borzone1; Andy Watson2; 1University of Genoa; 2University of Leeds

170

Flip Chip Bonding of Sn-58Bi Solder Bumps Formed on Flexible PCB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution · AlGaAs-Based Optical ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC ... Enhancing Mineral Beneficiation by High Intensity Power Ultrasound.

171

Phase Equilibria and Transformations of the Pb-free Solders and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013... efficient water desalination, and enhanced energy conversion. Recent studies have focused on using a combination of nanoscale roughness ...

172

Thermomigration and Creep in Pb-Free Flip Chip Solder Joints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bending and Strain/Stress Distribution on Flip Chips Measured by Using Synchrotron X-Ray Laue Microdiffraction · Characterization of Metal Whisker Growth in ...

173

Impacts of Cooling Technology on Solder Fatigue for Power Modules in Electric Traction Drive Vehicles: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Describes three power module cooling topologies for electric traction drive vehicles: two advanced options using jet impingement cooling and one option using pin-fin liquid cooling.

O' Keefe, M.; Vlahinos, A.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Comparison of Cu Pad Consumption between Sn Solder and Sn3.5Ag  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Phase Stability, Phase Transformations, and Reactive Phase Formation in ...

175

Effect of joint thickness on Cu consumption for Pb-free solders under ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Phase Stability, Phase Transformations, and Reactive Phase Formation in ...

176

Pb-Free Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn Solder - Energy Innovation Portal  

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA), Harringa, Joel (Ames, IA), Walleser, Jason K. (Idaho Falls, IA) Assignee: Iowa State University Research Foundation, ...

177

Improved electromigration resistance of Pb-free solders by using Cu ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We proposed that this improved electromigration resistance in the composite samples is mainly because the void propagation in the composite samples was ...

178

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

179

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

180

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Towards safe and productive development of secure software: FADES and model-based software engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost effective development of secure software is a key goal for many software organizations as they seek to manage the risks of misbehaving software. Employing Formal Methods (FMs) in the Model-Based Software Engineering (MBSE) paradigm that systematically ...

Riham Hassan; Shawn Bohner; Mohamed Eltoweissy

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Efficient system-enforced deterministic parallelism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deterministic execution offers many benefits for debugging, fault tolerance, and security. Current methods of executing parallel programs deterministically, however, often incur high costs, allow misbehaved software to defeat repeatability, and transform ...

Amittai Aviram; Shu-Chun Weng; Sen Hu; Bryan Ford

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Structure and temperature-dependent phase transitions of lead-free Bi[subscript 1/2]Na[subscript 1/2]TiO[subscript 3]?Bi[subscript 1/2]K[subscript 1/2]TiO[subscript 3]?K[subscript 0.5]Na[subscript 0.5]NbO[subscript 3] piezoceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structure and phase transitions of (1-y)((1-x)Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-xBi{sub 1/2}K{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3})-yK{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} (x; y) piezoceramics (0.1 {le} x {le} 0.4; 0 {le} y {le} 0.05) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, neutron diffraction, temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The local crystallographic structure at room temperature (RT) does not change by adding K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} to Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-xBi{sub 1/2}K{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} for x = 0.2 and 0.4. The average crystal structure and microstructure on the other hand develop from mainly long-range polar order with ferroelectric domains to short-range order with polar nanoregions displaying a more pronounced relaxor character. The (0.1; 0) and (0.1; 0.02) compositions exhibit monoclinic Cc space group symmetry, which transform into Cc + P4bm at 185 and 130 C, respectively. This high temperature phase is stable at RT for the morphotropic phase boundary compositions of (0.1; 0.05) and all compositions with x = 0.2. For the compositions of (0.1; 0) and (0.1; 0.02), local structural changes on heating are evidenced by Raman; for all other compositions, changes in the long-range average crystal structure were observed.

Anton, Eva-Maria; Schmitt, Ljubomira Ana; Hinterstein, Manuel; Trodahl, Joe; Kowalski, Ben; Jo, Wook; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Rödel, Jürgen; Jones, Jacob L. (TU Darmstadt); (VUW); (Florida)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

184

Growth of a Au-Ni-Sn intermetallic compound on the solder-substrate interface after aging (thesis)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chan and J.K.L. Lai, “Aging Studies of Cu-Sn Intermetallicfound that after extensive aging (150 “C for two weeks inDarveaux, “Effect of the Aging on the Strenght and Ductility

Minor, A.M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Effect of bonding and aging temperatures on bond strengths of Cu with 75Sn25In solders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present study, the interaction between thin film Cu and non-eutectic Sn-In is studied. The effects of the bonding and aging temperature on microstructure, IMC formation and also shear strength are investigated by ...

Thompson, Carl V.

186

Multiwire conductor having increased interwire resistance and good mechanical stability and method for making same  

SciTech Connect

An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature sufficient to make the solder brittle, but below the melting point of the solder. While still hot, the conductor is flexed, causing the solder to separate from the wires comprising the conductor, thereby increasing the interwire resistance. In one embodiment the conductor may be heated to a temperature above the eutectic temperature of the solder so that a controlled amount of solder is removed. The subject invention is particularly suited for use with braided, ribbon-type, solder filled superconductors.

Luhman, Thomas (Seattle, WA); Klamut, Carl (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

187

A Study on the Fracture Mechanism of Poly Crystalline Silicon in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the soldering process of the photovoltaic module, fracture of solar cell occasionally occurred during ribbon soldering process. In this study, mechanical

188

Multiwire conductor having increased interwire resistance and good mechanical stability and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature sufficient to make the solder brittle, but below the melting point of the solder. While still hot, the conductor is flexed, causing the solder to separate from the wires comprising the conductor, thereby increasing the interwire resistance. In one embodiment the conductor may be heated to a temperature above the eutectic temperature of the solder so that a controlled amount of solder is removed. The subject invention is particularly suited for use with braided, ribbon-type, solder filled superconductors.

Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.

1982-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

The only official copy of this file is the one on-line in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

work within the soldering station boundaries. The use of soldering irons for repairs at remote equipment locations should meet the following requirements: Keep food and...

190

Understanding and predicting metallic whisker growth and its effects on reliability : LDRD final report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tin (Sn) whiskers are conductive Sn filaments that grow from Sn-plated surfaces, such as surface finishes on electronic packages. The phenomenon of Sn whiskering has become a concern in recent years due to requirements for lead (Pb)-free soldering and surface finishes in commercial electronics. Pure Sn finishes are more prone to whisker growth than their Sn-Pb counterparts and high profile failures due to whisker formation (causing short circuits) in space applications have been documented. At Sandia, Sn whiskers are of interest due to increased use of Pb-free commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and possible future requirements for Pb-free solders and surface finishes in high-reliability microelectronics. Lead-free solders and surface finishes are currently being used or considered for several Sandia applications. Despite the long history of Sn whisker research and the recently renewed interest in this topic, a comprehensive understanding of whisker growth remains elusive. This report describes recent research on characterization of Sn whiskers with the aim of understanding the underlying whisker growth mechanism(s). The report is divided into four sections and an Appendix. In Section 1, the Sn plating process is summarized. Specifically, the Sn plating parameters that were successful in producing samples with whiskers will be reviewed. In Section 2, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of Sn whiskers and time-lapse SEM studies of whisker growth will be discussed. This discussion includes the characterization of straight as well as kinked whiskers. In Section 3, a detailed discussion is given of SEM/EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) techniques developed to determine the crystallography of Sn whiskers. In Section 4, these SEM/EBSD methods are employed to determine the crystallography of Sn whiskers, with a statistically significant number of whiskers analyzed. This is the largest study of Sn whisker crystallography ever reported. This section includes a review of previous literature on Sn whisker crystallography. The overall texture of the Sn films was also analyzed by EBSD. Finally, a short Appendix is included at the end of this report, in which the X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results are discussed and compared to the EBSD analyses of the overall textures of the Sn films. Sections 2, 3, and 4 have been or will be submitted as stand-alone papers in peer-reviewed technical journals. A bibliography of recent Sandia Sn whisker publications and presentations is included at the end of the report.

Michael, Joseph Richard; Grant, Richard P.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Pillars, Jamin; Susan, Donald Francis; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth; Yelton, William Graham

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Discontinuities Associated With Specialized Welding Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...R. Gordon, Overview of Weld Discontinuities, Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, Vol 6, ASM Handbook,

192

Holm_USRCAMS_talk.ppt  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

the aging and reliability of solder joints the aging and reliability of solder joints Elizabeth Holm, Michael Neilsen, and Paul Vianco Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185 USA * Typical circuit boards contain thousands of solder joints. * Solder joints function at a high homologous temperature under thermomechanical fatigue conditions. ⇒Solder joints fail. surface mount connectors through hole How big is the problem? * Studies indicate that at least 48% of electronics failures are likely due to solder joint failure. * Solder joints must remain reliable beyond their initial design lifetimes Military and commercial aircraft Satellites Nuclear and conventional weapons ⇒ Solder joints are a design problem: Design for reliability beyond commercial product lifetimes. ⇒ Solder joints are a stewardship problem:

193

Deterministic Secure Positioning in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Position verification problem is an important building block for a large subset of wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. As a result, the performance of the WSN degrades significantly when misbehaving nodes report false location information in ... Keywords: Distributed Protocol, Secure Positioning, Wireless Sensor Network

Sylvie Delaët; Partha Sarathi Mandal; Mariusz A. Rokicki; Sébastien Tixeuil

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Daniel Josell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... has focused on advanced interconnects for ... Experimental and computational studies of solder joint ... Philosophy in Materials Science from Harvard's ...

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

195

POLL: How can materials help meet US energy goals? - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 24, 2010... Solders, Webinar Discussion: Materials Science and Policy for Environmentally Benign Electronics, Sandbox ... Vehicular energy efficiency

196

Berkeley Lab Small Business Office  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

services, electrical, laboratory, photographic, plumbing, vacuum system products, welding and soldering material; automotive; instrument replacement parts; v-belts, motors,...

197

A computer music instrumentarium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 6. COMPUTERS: To Solder or Not toMusic Models : A Computer Music Instrumentarium . . . . .Interactive Computer Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Oliver La Rosa, Jaime Eduardo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Eleven Local Residents Receive High Honors from ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ranging from solidification of superalloy turbine blades to solder ... Richard HF Jackson, Director, Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory "For his ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

199

Implications of Pb-free microelectronics assembly in aerospace applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

three-dimensional laser-based measurement system. Componentlaser-based solder paste height and width measurement system

Shapiro, A A; Bonner, J K; Ogunseitan, O A; Saphores, JDM; Schoenung, J M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Training Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Training Program EHS 0243 Soldering Awareness Training Course Syllabus Subject Category: General Course Prerequisite: None Course Length: 30 Minutes Medical...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Multiwire conductor having greatly increased interwire resistance and method for making same  

SciTech Connect

An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a tin based solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature above its melting point for a period long enough to allow a substantial amount of copper to be dissolved from the wires comprising the conductor. The copper forms the brittle intermetallic compound Cu.sub.5 Sn.sub.6 with tin in the solder. After cooling the conductor is flexed causing a random cracking of the solder, and thereby increasing the interwire resistance of the conductor. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with braided, ribbon-type solder filled superconductors.

Luhman, Thomas (Seattle, WA); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY)

1984-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

202

Multiwire conductor having greatly increased interwire resistance and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a tin based solder filler is described. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature above its melting point for a period long enough to allow a substantial amount of copper to be dissolved from the wires comprising the conductor. The copper forms the brittle intermetallic compound Cu/sub 5/Sn/sub 6/ with tin in the solder. After cooling the conductor is flexed causing a random cracking of the solder, and thereby increasing the interwire resistance of the conductor. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with braided, ribbon-type solder filled superconductors.

Luhman, T.; Suenaga, M.

1982-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Recent Advances in Temperature Dependent Ionic Radii Using the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy Landscape in Frustrated Systems: Cation Hopping and Relaxation in Pyrochlores ... Lead-free Piezoelectric Films for Transducer Applications.

204

Electronics and Magnetic Materials.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy Landscape in Frustrated Systems: Cation Hopping and Relaxation in Pyrochlores ... Lead-free Piezoelectric Films for Transducer Applications.

205

Removal of aqueous rinsable flux residues in a batch spray dishwater  

SciTech Connect

An alkaline detergent solution used in an industrial dishwasher was evaluated to remove aqueous rinsable flux residues on printed wiring boards (PWBs) after hot air solder leveling and hot oil solder dip and leveling. The dishwasher, a batch cleaning process, was compared to an existing conveyorized aqueous cleaning process. The aqueous soluble flux residues from both soldering processes were removed with a solution of a mild alkaline detergent dissolved in hot deionized (DI) water.

Slanina, J.T.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Improvement of Heat Dissipation in High-Power Light-Emitting ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat generated by LED chip must be dissipated to the environment ... solder paste (~ 20 W/mk) can promote greatly the heat conductive capacity of the die ...

207

Joining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"The Compression Stress-Strain Behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder" (Research ..... " Submicron Particle Chemistry: Vapor Condensation Analogous to Liquid ...

208

PHEV and Grid Interfacing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

changes that degrade properties of solder joints (die attach materials) and wire bonds - Decrease lifetime and reliability Reliability of high temperature packages...

209

Tuesday Session - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Department 1831, Mail Stop 0340, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185; .... and failure process that makes prediction of solder joint lifetime complex.

210

Monday Session  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... National Laboratory, Mail Stop 1411, Albuquerque, NM 87185; S.M.L. Sastry, .... (3) the ductility change is complex: for lead matrix solid solution solders; the ...

211

September 2011 Member News_6M.indd  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

tions to the knowledge base of materi- als science and .... more stone setting into his own pieces, using the ... rate pieces are joined by soldering with ternary ...

212

Effect of focused solar power on the structure and phase ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EFFECT OF FOCUSED SOLAR POWER ON THE STRUCTURE ... soldering, single-crystal growing, and remelting in both land-based and space facilities [1].

213

Technology@TMS: Online Article  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive 2002/95/EC requires the substitution of various ... How does solder volume (size) affect the IMC layer?

214

Mechanical Behavior II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... Impact of Cooling Rate on Low Silver Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Interconnect Board Level Mechanical Shock and Thermal Cycling Performance: ...

215

Carocal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Current >200 Amp Frequency >20 kHz Fully Soldered Packaging on all terminals 7 High Voltage SiC Epitaxial Design Epitaxial thickness determines Blocking Voltage ...

216

Pirotechnia of Vannoccio Biringuccio, 1943 - Title Page  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

having traveled in Germany, and he also visited the brass works in Milan. .... definite information regarding gold alloys, brass, solders, and other metal-.

217

Process modification and reliability study of nonconductive adhesive flip chip assembly for smart card application.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Adhesive flip chip interconnection technology is known as one alternative solution to solder interconnection technology. Advantages offered include cost reduction, manufacturing simplicity, a fine pitch… (more)

Ma, Ying (??)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Development of a flip-chip composite interconnection system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this research is to develop a novel flip-chip composite interconnect structure to overcome the inherent weaknesses of the conventional solder bump interconnection.… (more)

Wong, Stephen Chee Khuen.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Synthesis and Characterization of Bulk Nano Crystalline Pb Free ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High energy ball milling route was adopted for production of bulk nano crystalline solders from these alloy powders. The milling was carried out for a period of ...

220

Nanofunctional Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 6, 2013 ... High energy ball milling route was adopted for production of bulk nano crystalline solders from these alloy powders. The milling was carried out ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Metallurgical Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) Study Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, (1993), ASM International, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002, Fig. 3A Fig 3B, P. 1096. The distribution of ...

222

Effects of Joule Heating on One-Dimensional Heat Conduction of Sn ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to clarify the basic understanding of Joule heating effect and corresponding mechanism of heat conduction, solder joints with same cross-

223

Effect of Plastic Deformation on Sn Whisker Growth in Electroplated ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Pb-free Solders and Emerging Interconnect and Packaging Technologies. Presentation Title, Effect of Plastic Deformation on Sn Whisker Growth in ...

224

Tin Whisker and Hillock Growth Mechanism Via Grain Boundary ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Pb-free Solders and Emerging Interconnect and Packaging ... Effect of Plastic Deformation on Sn Whisker Growth in Electroplated Sn and Sn-Ag.

225

ET ALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 2009 with a meeting of selected international experts in diffusion mobility modeling, first ... on the Solidification Behavior of Sn-Pb Solders J. Electron. ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

226

Conference on Advances in Materials Science - Presentations ...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Presentations-Session 1 Modeling of Plutonium Ageing The Spectroscopic Signature of Aging in -Pu Modeling the Aging and Reliability of Solder Joints Polymer Material Thermal...

227

PS Tech Spaces: Electro-Mechanical Assembly Only  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

recycled. Solder areas should be cleaned periodically (lead wipes area available in the stock room). When using knivesrazor blades: * Be aware of hand positioning * Use safety...

228

Microstructure and electrical mechanism of Sn-xAg-Cu PV-ribbon for solar cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microstructure, fusion current, and series resistance of photovoltaic (PV) ribbon containing SAC105 and SAC305 alloys are investigated. After reflow, the interfacial microstructures of solder/Cu and solder/Ag were observed and an electrical current ... Keywords: Electrical properties, Photovoltaic ribbon, Sn-Ag-Cu

Kuan-Jen Chen, Fei-Yi Hung, Truan-Sheng Lui, Li-Hui Chen, Dai-Wen Qiu, Ta-Lung Chou

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Commercial Forms and Uses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Industrial applications of precious metals...contact resistance Au-Pd-Pt Electrodes for ceramic condensers Applicability, nonoxidizing, solderability Ag or Pt, with bonding agent Electrodes for air condensers Corrosion resistance Ag and Au Conductors in printed circuits Corrosion resistance, solderability, wear resistance

230

Examples of Phase Diagrams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...The phase diagram of the lead-tin system ( Fig. 31 ) shows the importance of the low-melting eutectic in this system to the success of lead-tin solders. While solders having tin contents between 18.3 to 61.9%

231

Modeling and optimization of stencil printing operations: A comparison study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparison study for the optimization of stencil printing operations using hybrid intelligence technique and response surface methodology (RSM). An average 60% of soldering defects are attributed to solder paste stencil printing ... Keywords: DPMO, Fuzzy quality loss function, Genetic algorithms, Neural network, Printed circuit board, Stencil printing, Surface mount technology

Tsung-Nan Tsai

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Investigations of Microscopic Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Case Study in Future Energy Challenges: Towards In Situ Hard X-ray Microscopy of ... of Crystal Structure and Domain Character in Lead Free Piezoceramics.

233

Maureen Williams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI) Sn whisker projects and from ... 1 & 2 of the Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project (LFMP), sponsored ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

EMPMD 2013 Student Poster Contest - Undergraduate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013... Sebastian Husein1; Rajitha Vermuri1; Terry Alford1; 1Arizona State University ... Markets outside of the United States require lead-free TE ...

235

Poling-Induced Single-Crystal-like Piezoelectric Anisotropy in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Enhanced Piezoelectric Properties of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials by ... High-Energy Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction for In-Situ Study of Structural Phase ...

236

Kinetics of the wetting of tin on air-passivated copper in the absence of a fluxing agent  

SciTech Connect

A specially designed ultrahigh vacuum in situ surface analysis and wetting system has been constructed to study the spreading of liquid metal solders on carefully prepared and well-characterized solid substrates. Initial studies have been completed for the spreading of pure tin solder on copper substrates in the absence of any fluxing agent. Surface chemical analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the air-exposed surface to consisted of about 3 nm of Cu{sub 2}O, while the as-received surface consisted of about 8 nm of Cu{sub 2}O. The sputter-cleaned surface contained less than one monolayer (0.3 nm) of Cu{sub 2}O. Sample surfaces were prepared and spreading experiments performed without intermediate exposure of the surfaces to contaminating atmospheres. Solder spreading was performed under 50 torr of highly purified helium gas to allow for adequate thermal coupling between the solder and the substrate. Spreading experiments utilizing a linear temperature ramp show that pure tin solder spreads readily on oxidized copper surfaces at elevated temperatures. The initiation temperature for rapid tin spreading on the as-received copper surface was 325{degrees}C, similar to the temperature where isothermal spreading changes activation energy or rate. Decreasing the thickness of the oxide on the surface lowered the observed temperature for the initiation of spreading and increased the rate of spreading. On the sputter-cleaned copper surface, rapid solder spreading was observed immediately upon melting of the solder.

Peebles, D.E.; Peebles, H.C.; Ohlhausen, J.A.; Yost, F.G.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Hazardous material minimization for radar assembly. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendment, enacted in November 1990, empowered the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to completely eliminate the production and usage of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by January 2000. A reduction schedule for methyl chloroform beginning in 1993 with complete elimination by January 2002 was also mandated. In order to meet the mandates, the processes, equipment, and materials used to solder and clean electronic assemblies were investigated. A vapor-containing cleaning system was developed. The system can be used with trichloroethylene or d-Limonene. The solvent can be collected for recycling if desired. Fluxless and no-clean soldering were investigated, and the variables for a laser soldering process were identified.

Biggs, P.M.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Vectorial voltage measurement for ICs on multi-IC PWB Mart Coenen, Richard Derikx  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that heat spreaders are applied in the PWB grid to ease the soldering process. Due to this grid structure package applications on a PWB it is assumed that a grid structure will result in the PWB layer underneath

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Santa Fe Community College offers new welding program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The U.S. Department of Labor expects the need for welders, cutters, solderers, and brass workers to increase by 15% by 2020. "We believe that Santa Fe Community College needs...

240

WELDING UNUSUAL METALS  

SciTech Connect

Methods of welding including electron beam welding, diffusion bonding, motor-arc welding, and combination methods are discussed. The successful welding and soldering of uranium in different shapes are discussed. (C.J.G.)

Grobecker, D.W.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Establish Electromigration-induced Failure Map for Flip-chip Sn/Cu ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we will talk about two kinds of EM-induced failures would occur in a flip-chip Cu/Sn/Cu solder joint under EM test first. Then, we calculated the ...

242

Wednesday Session  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

JPL, in a partnership with an industrial consortium, is engaged in the ... conducted on joined flip chip packages with 33X33 area array of Sn-3.5Ag solder bumps.

243

Thermionic emission cooling in single barrier heterostructures Ali Shakouria)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Te3, the current industry standard, must be found. A so- lution is to use thermionic emission is an indication of the relatively high thermal resistance of the ceramic package and the soldering layer used

244

Poster Session  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 27, 2011 ... Also, the grow rate of (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 was found to be slower in the ENEPIG solder ... Effect of Zn Content on the Electrification-Fusion and Failure ...

245

Prediction of Two-Phase Creep Behavior from Constituent Phase ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of the time-dependent deformation behavior of this key Bi-Sn solder alloy is the ..... Northern Telecom, Thomson Electronics, and the U.S. Army, without whose ...

246

Low-temperature hermetic sealing of optical fiber components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for manufacturing low-temperature hermetically sealed optical fiber components is provided. The method comprises the steps of: inserting an optical fiber into a housing, the optical fiber having a glass core, a glass cladding and a protective buffer layer disposed around the core and cladding; heating the housing to a predetermined temperature, the predetermined temperature being below a melting point for the protective buffer layer and above a melting point of a solder; placing the solder in communication with the heated housing to allow the solder to form an eutectic and thereby fill a gap between the interior of the housing and the optical fiber; and cooling the housing to allow the solder to form a hermetic compression seal between the housing and the optical fiber.

Kramer, D.P.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

Frequency Response of a Thermistor Temperature Probe in Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical study was conducted of the thermal frequency response of an atmospheric temperature probe consisting of a thermistor bead with two lead wires soldered to thin support posts. Such probes are used in aircraft temperature sensors and ...

P. L. Fuehrer; C. A. Friehe; D. K. Edwards

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Effect of Isothermal Aging and Thermal Cycling on Interfacial IMC ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The growth of IMCs of SnAgCu/Cu solder joint in isothermal aging and thermal cycling, was investigated with the focus on the growth kinetics.

249

Back-Stress Induced Single Crystal Hillock Growth in Unpassivated ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and Nanotwinned Copper Lines under Electromigration at Device Operation Temperature ... of 100°C by using ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy. ... Internal Strain Evolution during Thermal Cycling in a Row of Lead- Free ...

250

Lanthanide Compound LaGdO 3 Grown by Pulsed Llaser ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Ultra-thin layers of SiO2 to SiONx (?r = 3.9 to 7) ... Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors, Capacitors, and Actuators.

251

912 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 19, NO. 3, JULY 2004 Robotic Monitoring of Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and magnetic materials cover: sensors, piezoelectric devices, ceramic semiconductors, magnetic and magnetocaloric materials, lead-free piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin films, oxide thermoelectric materials of steels; failure analyses, fatigue crack growth, fracture and fatigue behavior of railway rails and wheels

Mamishev, Alexander

252

Three-dimensional Green's functions of steady-state motion in anisotropic half-spaces and bimaterialsq  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and magnetic materials cover: sensors, piezoelectric devices, ceramic semiconductors, magnetic and magnetocaloric materials, lead-free piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin films, oxide thermoelectric materials of steels; failure analyses, fatigue crack growth, fracture and fatigue behavior of railway rails and wheels

Pan, Ernie

253

Journal of Sound and Vibration (1996) 193(1), 417426 ACTIVE CONTROL OF FRICTION-DRIVEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and magnetic materials cover: sensors, piezoelectric devices, ceramic semiconductors, magnetic and magnetocaloric materials, lead-free piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin films, oxide thermoelectric materials of steels; failure analyses, fatigue crack growth, fracture and fatigue behavior of railway rails and wheels

Abrahams, I. David

254

Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

256

72nd AWS annual meeting  

SciTech Connect

Detailed summaries are given for papers on resistance welding of coated steels, weldability of materials, computer predictions systems, laser welding, consumables, weld pool modeling, gas tungsten arc welding, welding of aluminium and titanium, computer control systems for welding machines, friction welding, finite element modeling, electron beam welding, structural welding, surfacing, pipeline welding, aerospace and aircraft welding, gas metal arc welding, nickel alloys, submerged arc welding, stainless steels, thermal phenomena, real-time radioscopy, advanced systems control, and weld metal investigations. The International Brazing and Soldering conference papers included developments in solders and soldering, high temperature brazing, and ceramic brazing. The Thermal Spray Symposium papers discussed thermal spraying and transferred arc, industry application and economics, current and emerging thermal spray materials and equipment, and training methods.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Automated solar cell assembly teamed process research. Semiannual subcontract report, December 6, 1993--June 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the second Semiannual Technical Progress Report for the program titled `Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research` funded under National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract No. ZAG-3-11219-01. This report describes the work done on Phase II of the program in the period from December 6, 1993 to June 30, 1994. Spire`s objective in this program is to develop high throughput (5 MW/yr) automated processes for interconnecting thin (200 {mu}m) silicon solar cells. High yield will be achieved with these fragile cells through the development of low mechanical stress and low thermal stress processes. For example, a machine vision system is being developed for cell alignment without mechanically contacting the cell edges, while a new soldering process is being developed to solder metal interconnect ribbons simultaneously to a cells` front and back contacts, eliminating one of the two heating steps normally used for soldering each cell.

Nowlan, M. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Automated solar panel assembly line. LSA task: production processes and equipment. Quarterly report No. 2  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to design, fabricate and demonstrate an automated solar cell module production line with the ultimate goal of reducing module assembly costs. During this reporting period a redesign of the SCAP soldering mechanism was effected due to temperature/friction problems encountered. The in-line cleaning system was designed and ordered and the Mular backbone attachment mechanism was assembled. The SPLP production prototype was fabricated and operated. Two hand-assembled versions of the automated module design completed 750 thermal cycles. Albuquerque Laboratory, Ardev Inc., is under subcontract to develop the soldering equipment on this program. The lamination development is being done by ARCO Solar, Inc.

Somberg, H.

1979-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

260

The evaluation of mechanical stresses developed in underlying silicon substrates due to electroless nickel under bump metallization using synchrotron X-ray topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The switch-over to the use of flip-chip Si integrated circuit bonding techniques has been driven by a need to develop higher power and lower voltage devices, capable of carrying larger currents with greater reliability. With the increased use of solder ... Keywords: 07.10.Pz, 61.10.Yh, 61.72.Ff, 62.20.-x, 65.70.+y, 68.35.Ct, 68.35.Gy, 85.40.-e, 85.40.Ls, 85.40.Sz, 89.20.+a, Electroless Ni(P) deposition, Electronic packaging, Reliability, Solder bump, Strain, Under-bump metallization (UBM), X-ray topography

D. Noonan; P. J. McNally; W. -M. Chen; A. Lankinen; L. Knuuttila; T. O. Tuomi; A. N. Danilewsky; R. Simon

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

262

IRON COATED URANIUM AND ITS PRODUCTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of applying a protective coating to a metallic uranium article is given. The method comprises etching the surface of the article with an etchant solution containlng chloride ions, such as a solution of phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid, cleaning the etched surface, electroplating iron thereon from a ferrous ammonium sulfate electroplating bath, and soldering an aluminum sheath to the resultant iron layer.

Gray, A.G.

1960-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Optimization Case Study of CSP Temperature Cycle and Board Bending Reliability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RE1-3 1 Optimization Case Study of CSP Temperature Cycle and Board Bending Reliability Ian R attach, CSP, chip scale package, solder joint reliability, fatigue cracking, board flex sensitivity of our CSP products because of a tensile sensitivity that was not characterized by a controlled test

Harvey, Ian R.

264

Mechanical Bending Technique for Determining CSP Design and Assembly Mark R. Larsen, Ian R. Harvey Ph.D.,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S34-3-1 Mechanical Bending Technique for Determining CSP Design and Assembly Weaknesses Mark R at the Chip Size Package (CSP) solder fillet. Mechanically stressing the package serves as a valuable tool bending results compare different CSP architectures thus demonstrating the utility of the test technique

Harvey, Ian R.

265

Development and evaluation of sealing technologies for photovoltaic panels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a study to develop and evaluate low temperature glass sealing technologies for photovoltaic applications. This work was done as part of Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) No. SC95/01408. The sealing technologies evaluated included low melting temperature glass frits and solders. Because the glass frit joining required a material with a melting temperature that exceeded the allowable temperature for the active elements on the photovoltaic panels a localized heating scheme was required for sealing the perimeter of the glass panels. Thermal and stress modeling were conducted to identify the feasibility of this approach and to test strategies designed to minimize heating of the glass panel away from its perimeter. Hardware to locally heat the glass panels during glass frit joining was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. The same hardware could be used to seal the glass panels using the low temperature solders. Solder adhesion to the glass required metal coating of the glass. The adhesion strength of the solder was dependent on the surface finish of the glass. Strategies for improving the polyisobutylene (PIB) adhesive currently being used to seal the panels and the use of Parylene coatings as a protective sealant deposited on the photovoltaic elements were also investigated. Starting points for further work are included.

Glass, S.J.; Hosking, F.M.; Baca, P.M. [and others

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Modeling and simulating thermomigration in power electronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Miniaturization of electronics to nanoscale leads to significantly higher current density levels and larger thermal gradients in electronics packaging. Laboratory test data show that thermomigration plays a significant role in high current density induced ... Keywords: damage mechanics, electromigration, nanoelectronics, power electronics packaging, solder joint reliability, thermomigration

Cemal Basaran; Shidong Li

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Oxidation Behavior of ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finish  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) ... Calculation of Ni/Cu6Sn5 Inter-Diffusion Coefficient and Activation Energy by Using .... On the Driving Force for Massive Spalling in Solder Systems ... Plasticity and Reliability: From Unexpected Plasticity-Induced Damages in Advanced Cu ...

268

Practical 1P6 Thermal Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and loaded into the tube furnace. The computer software `RS Recorder' logs the data from two furnacesPractical 1P6 Thermal Analysis 1 1P6 ­ Thermal Analysis 1. What you should learn from-tin (electrical solder) by thermal analysis. The results will show that whereas pure metals freeze at one

Paxton, Anthony T.

269

Metallization of large silicon wafers. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A metallization scheme has been developed which allows selective plating of silicon solar cell surfaces. The system is comprised of three layers. Palladium, through the formation of palladium silicide at 300/sup 0/C in nitrogen, makes ohmic contact to the silicon surface. Nickel, plated on top of the palladium silicide layer, forms a solderable interface. Lead-tin solder on the nickel provides conductivity and allows a convenient means for interconnection of cells. To apply this metallization, three chemical plating baths are employed. Palladium is deposited with an immersion palladium solution and an electroless palladium solution, and nickel is deposited with an electroless nickel solution. Solder is applied with a molten solder dip. Extensive development work has been performed to achieve an effective immersion palladium solution formulation, leading to reproducible formation of the palladium silicide contact layer. This metallization system has been repeatedly demonstrated to be extremely effective. Current-voltage characteristic curve fill factors of 78% are easily achieved. This has been done while maintaining metal contact adhesion at such a strength as to fail by fracturing silicon upon perpendicular pull testing rather than be delaminating the metal system. Process specifications and procedures have been prepared.

Pryor, R.A.

270

Delamination in Thermohyperelastic Plastic IC Packaging Material Due to Thermal Load and Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lamination failure as “popcorn” form of plastic electronic packages under thermal stress induced by heat mismatch and vapor pressure induced by the moisture during the solder-reflow process is studied. When plastic electronic packages are ... Keywords: popcorn failure, thermohyperelastic material, vapor pressure

Zhigang Li; Xuexia Yang; Xuefeng Shu

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Development and Qualification of the Hypertronics Stackable Connector for RBSP mission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) program office has taken the initiative of developing a solderable and stackable connector as a drop-in replacement of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) heritage AirBorn press-fit ...

Sharon Ling; Bob Wallis; Dan Matlin; David Kusnierkiewicz

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Appendixes Appendix I. Published Reports of Less Common Causes of Elevated Blood Lead Levels (EBLLs) in Children.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lead fillings used in stone mills E Investigation of 43 symptomatic 25 East) contaminated flour evaporator that had lead solder joining the interior seams. CR Report of a 7-year-old child. 8 Flour (Middle that 33 (23%) of 146 community stone mills had lead contamination and that 171 (30.4%) of 563 children had

273

Diamond and Related Materials 7 (1998) 14911502 Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Sorensen, Model DCS bottom of the burner. No thermocouple was placed in 33-33). The substrate and heater-red optical pyrometer (Williamson, Model 8200), water and a microprocessor thermometer (Model HH23 in a flat copper, and water cooled via a 0.25-inch copper tubing soft-soldered to the burner body

Dandy, David

274

Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole %.iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

Cao, Hui (Middle Island, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY)

1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

275

Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

Cao, Hui (Middle Island, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY)

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

276

Explosive complexes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

277

Explosive complexes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

278

Understanding Cascading Failures in Power Grids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past, we have observed several large blackouts, i.e. loss of power to large areas. It has been noted by several researchers that these large blackouts are a result of a cascade of failures of various components. As a power grid is made up of several thousands or even millions of components (relays, breakers, transformers, etc.), it is quite plausible that a few of these components do not perform their function as desired. Their failure/misbehavior puts additional burden on the working components causing them to misbehave, and thus leading to a cascade of failures. The complexity of the entire power grid makes it difficult to model each and every individual component and study the stability of the entire system. For this reason, it is often the case that abstract models of the working of the power grid are constructed and then analyzed. These models need to be computationally tractable while serving as a reasonable model for the entire system. In this work, we construct one such model for the power grid...

Kadloor, Sachin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

No Slide Title  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DoE Quarterly Review DoE Quarterly Review 08/13/08 Machine and Alternator Inspections 2 Status * Disassembly of C-Mod is complete - Inspection of feltmetal proceeding * Documenting condition of all 1920 feltmetal pads * Some feltmetal has been removed and finger joints have been prepared for soldering of new feltmetal * Induction heating procedures have been reviewed and the first soldering tests completed successfully - Inspection of coils, coaxes, heaters, cooling lines, etc, proceeding * Alternator Inspection began on 08/04/08 - Drive motor removed - Coupling between flywheel and alternator disengaged, alignment checked and recorded, and surfaces inspected and in good condition - Removal of rotor will begin this week 3 Machine Inspection * All feltmetal was replaced in 1998, a few pads

280

73rd American Welding Society annual meeting  

SciTech Connect

The volume includes the abstracts of papers presented at the 73rd American Welding Society Annual Meeting. Detailed summaries are given for 118 technical sessions papers discussing computer and control applications in welding, stainless steel, nickel and nickel alloys, weld metal microstructure, shipbuilding, consumables, structural welding, investigations in arc welding and cutting, arc welding processes, weldability testing, piping and tubing, high energy beam welding processes, welding metallurgy of structural steels, new applications, weld metal behavior, NDT certification, aluminum welding, submerged arc welding, modeling studies, resistance welding, friction welding, and safety and health. The 23rd International AWS Brazing and Soldering Conference was also held during this meeting. The topics presented in 24 papers included recent developments in soldering technology, brazing of stainless steel, brazing of ceramics and nickel material, filler metal developments for torch brazing, and developments in diffusion and induction brazing.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Multi-lead heat sink  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again. 4 figs.

Roose, L.D.

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

282

Multi-lead heat sink  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again.

Roose, L.D.

1982-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

283

Multi-lead heat sink  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

SOLERAS Photovoltaic Power Systems Project. Interim report: module failure analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of the failure analysis performed during the past several months on the open circuit modules and the assessment of the feasibility of repairing these modules on site at the Solar Village are reported. Background information as related to the module failures and the effects of such failures on the overall PV field power output are provided. In addition, a plan to continue the monitoring of the rate of failure and analyzing the failure mechanisms is presented. Sandia National Laboratories conducted analyses of various solder joint problems related to the SOLERAS PV modules. Martin Marietta Corporation, the subcontractor for the SOLERAS PVPS project, performed an analysis of the cell interconnect solder joint failure. Their analyses are included in this report.

Huraib, F.S.; Imamura, M.S.; Salim, A.A.; Rao, N.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Development of the bus joint for the ITER Central Solenoid  

SciTech Connect

The terminations of the Central Solenoid (CS) modules are connected to the bus extensions by joints located outside the CS in the gap between the CS and Torodial Field (TF) assemblies. These joints have very strict space limitations. Low resistance is a common requirement for all ITER joints. In addition, the CS bus joints will experience and must be designed to withstand significant variation in the magnetic field of several tenths of a Tesla per second during initiation of plasma. The joint resistance is specified to be less than 4 nOhm. The joints also have to be soldered in the field and designed with the possibility to be installed and dismantled in order to allow cold testing in the cold test facility. We have developed coaxial joints that meet these requirements and have demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate and assemble them in the vertical configuration. We introduced a coupling cylinder with superconducting strands soldered to the surface of the cable that can be installed in the ITER assembly hall and at the Cold Test Facility. This cylinder serves as a transition area between the CS module and the bus extension. We made two racetrack samples and tested four bus joints in our Joint Test Apparatus. Resistance of the bus joints was measured by a decay method and by a microvoltmeter; the value of the current was measured by the Hall probes. This measurement method was verified in the previous tests. The resistance of the joints varied insignificantly from 1.5 to 2 nOhm. One of the challenges associated with a soldered joint is the inability to use corrosive chemicals that are difficult to clean. This paper describes our development work on cable preparation, chrome removal, compaction, soldering, and final assembly and presents the test results.

Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL] [ORNL; Irick, David Kim [ORNL] [ORNL; Kenney, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Fermilab ES&H Manual Rev. 07/2009 5041-1 Revised 07/2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Honored Solution Contrary to common belief, soldering conductor splices is allowed by the NEC (see Section 110.14(B and the NEC Handbook are available from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 11 Tracy Dr., Avon, MA 02322 · 800-344-3555 or 508-895-8300 · Fax: 800-593-6372 or 508-895-8301 · custserv@nfpa.org · www.nfpa

Quigg, Chris

287

For Designing & Installing a PV System Sponsored by the Photovoltaic Systems Assistance Center,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Honored Solution Contrary to common belief, soldering conductor splices is allowed by the NEC (see Section 110.14(B and the NEC Handbook are available from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 11 Tracy Dr., Avon, MA 02322 · 800-344-3555 or 508-895-8300 · Fax: 800-593-6372 or 508-895-8301 · custserv@nfpa.org · www.nfpa

Johnson, Eric E.

288

Flash Point: Tag Open Cup 110F (minimum) Flammable Limits: (Solvent Portion) [Lel] 1.0% [Uel] 6.0%  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Honored Solution Contrary to common belief, soldering conductor splices is allowed by the NEC (see Section 110.14(B and the NEC Handbook are available from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 11 Tracy Dr., Avon, MA 02322 · 800-344-3555 or 508-895-8300 · Fax: 800-593-6372 or 508-895-8301 · custserv@nfpa.org · www.nfpa

Holsinger, Kent

289

F A C I L I T I E S M A N A G E M E N T A N D O P E R A T I O N S C E N T E R Specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Honored Solution Contrary to common belief, soldering conductor splices is allowed by the NEC (see Section 110.14(B and the NEC Handbook are available from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 11 Tracy Dr., Avon, MA 02322 · 800-344-3555 or 508-895-8300 · Fax: 800-593-6372 or 508-895-8301 · custserv@nfpa.org · www.nfpa

290

UCAT Data Network Wiring Standard................................................................................................................................1 PART 1 GENERAL..............................................................................  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Honored Solution Contrary to common belief, soldering conductor splices is allowed by the NEC (see Section 110.14(B and the NEC Handbook are available from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 11 Tracy Dr., Avon, MA 02322 · 800-344-3555 or 508-895-8300 · Fax: 800-593-6372 or 508-895-8301 · custserv@nfpa.org · www.nfpa

Su, Xiao

291

Planar triode pulser socket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A planar triode is mounted in a PC board orifice by means of a U-shaped capacitor housing and anode contact yoke removably attached to cathode leg extensions passing through and soldered to the cathode side of the PC board by means of a PC cathode pad. A pliant/flexible contact attached to the orifice make triode grid contact with a grid pad on the grid side of the PC board, permitting quick and easy replacement of bad triodes.

Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Planar triode pulser socket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A planar triode is mounted in a PC board orifice by means of a U-shaped capacitor housing and anode contact yoke removably attached to cathode leg extensions passing through and soldered to the cathode side of the PC board by means of a PC cathode pad. A pliant/flexible contact attached to the orifice make triode grid contact with a grid pad on the grid side of the PC board, permitting quick and easy replacement of bad triodes. 14 figs.

Booth, R.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

293

STRESS-DEPENDENT INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CESIUM AND OTHER MATERIALS. Summary Report, February 15, 1962-February 15, 1963  

SciTech Connect

Metals and alloys germane to thermionic energy converter usage were screened for embrittlement by liquid cesium. Techniques are described for more detailed studies of ceramics and susceptible metals. Definite reductions in tensile ductility were observed for 302 stainless steel and molybdenum. Bend ductility was lowered in titanium, titanium-8 aluminum-4 vanadium alloy, niobium, tantalum, and silver-- copper eutectic solder. Some difficulty in reproducibly wetting samples was evident. Slightly contaminating the cesium with oxygen (or water) was observed to increase cesium wettability. (auth)

Levinson, D.W.

1963-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

294

Low resistivity contact to iron-pnictide superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method of making a low resistivity electrical connection between an electrical conductor and an iron pnictide superconductor involves connecting the electrical conductor and superconductor using a tin or tin-based material therebetween, such as using a tin or tin-based solder. The superconductor can be based on doped AFe.sub.2As.sub.2, where A can be Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu or combinations thereof for purposes of illustration only.

Tanatar, Makariy; Prozorov, Ruslan; Ni, Ni; Bud& #x27; ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

295

Updated April 2010 Reliability Concerns Associated with PV Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stress H/M/H IR Camera; Hot/humid vs. damp heat CIS Cell layer integrity ­ contact stability H/H/H Mo Flexible roofing products Cell­to-cell interconnect (discrete cells) H/M/H IR Camera; Hot/humid vs. damp it periodically. 1.0 Wafer Silicon 1.1 Cracked cells (bonding processes, strain, etc.) [1-4] 1.2 Solder joint

296

Phase Structure and Cyclic Deformation in Eutectic Tin-Lead Alloy: A Numerical Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is devoted to providing a mechanistic rationale of coarsening induced failure in solder alloys during thermomechanical fatigue. Micromechanical modeling of cyclic deformation of eutectic tin-lead alloy was undertaken using the finite element method. The models consist of regularly arranged tin-rich and lead-rich phases, simulating the lamellar array and colony structure in a typical eutectic system. A fine structure and a coarse structure, bearing the same phase fraction but different in the aspect ratio of each lead-rich layer and in the number of lead-rich layers in each colony, are utilized for representing the microstructure before and after coarsening, respectively. Both phases are treated as elastic-plastic solids with their respective properties. For simplicity the creep effect is ignored without compromising the main objective of this study. Cyclic loading under pure shear and uniaxial conditions is modeled. It is found that both the fine and coarse structures exhibit essentially the same macroscopic stress-strain response. The coarse structure, however, shows a greater maximum effective plastic strain on a local scale throughout the deformation. The numerical result implies that, in a solder joint, a locally coarsened region may not be mechanically weaker than its surrounding, but it is subject to early damage initiation due to accumulated plasticity. Other implications regarding solder alloy failure and micromechanical modeling of two-phase materials are discussed.

FANG,HUEI ELIOT; Li,W; SHEN,Y.-L

1999-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

297

The influence of temperature and humidity on the wettability of immersion tin coated printed wiring boards  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the merits and drawbacks of immersion tin coatings as potential printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes. Immersion tin films applied in various thicknesses (0.2 to 2 {mu}m) to different copper substrates were characterized relative to thermal stability and shelflife. Thermal excursions included those typical in mixed technology assembly processes. Exposure to temperature/humidity was varied from near ambient (35{degree}C/85%RH) to harsh (steam aging). A minimum thickness of {approximately}60{mu}in (1.5{mu}m) was determined to be critical for assembly operations involving multiple thermal excursions. Even though formation of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMC) is facile, at the copper-tin interface, these compounds do not adversely affect the soldering performance, as long as the IMC phase is protected by a tin surface layer. Immersion tin finishes are relatively stable to thermal exposure, but are readily oxidized in the presence of humidity. This oxide growth is directly responsible for solderability degradation. The underlying copper substrate was also found to have a significant impact on the thermal stability of tin films. An electroless copper substrate caused significantly more intermetallic formation, that resulted in poor solderability even under moderate temperature, humidity conditions.

Ray, U.; Artaki, I. [AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States); Vianco, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work has been divided into five phases. The first phase is to modify existing hardware and controlling computer software to: (1) improve cell-to-cell placement accuracy, (2) improve the solder joint while reducing the amount of solder and flux smear on the cell's surface, and (3) reduce the system cycle time to 10 seconds. The second phase involves expanding the existing system's capabilities to be able to reject broken cells and make post-solder electrical tests. Phase 3 involves developing new hardware to allow for the automated encapsulation of solar modules. This involves three discrete pieces of hardware: (1) a vacuum platen end effector for the robot which allows it to pick up the 1' x 4' array of 35 inter-connected cells. With this, it can also pick up the cover glass and completed module, (2) a lamination preparation station which cuts the various encapsulation components from roll storage and positions them for encapsulation, and (3) an automated encapsulation chamber which interfaces with the above two and applies the heat and vacuum to cure the encapsulants. Phase 4 involves the final assembly of the encapsulated array into a framed, edge-sealed module completed for installation. For this we are using MBA's Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) in panels such as those developed by MBA for JPL under contract No. 955281. The GRC panel plays the multiple role of edge frame, substrate and mounting structure. An automated method of applying the edge seal will also be developed. The final phase (5) is the fabrication of six 1' x 4' electrically active solar modules using the above developed equipment. Progress is reported. (WHK)

Hagerty, J. J.

1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

QualityAssurance&Testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Testing and Testing Manufacturing Technologies The Manufacturing Science & Technology Center provides customers with manufacturing quality requirements, testing standards and specifica- tions for new product designs, including the implementation of these requirements into final product acceptance complete with documenta- tion. Technical support and procedures are fur- nished for Interagency Product Acceptance. Capabilities * Will inspect printed circuit (PC) boards, wire wrap boards, boxes, chassis, cables, racks, systems, etc. * Work from sketches or formal drawings * Review drawings and requirements * Visual inspections for layout, markings, solder joints, components, mechanical assembly, general workmanship, safety * Point-to-point continuity checks

300

New method for sand control and well stimulation in unconsolidated dirty sands  

SciTech Connect

A new technique, the Solder Glass sand consolidation well completion method, has been developed which allows unlimited drawdown and improves productivity in wells completed in unconsolidated formations containing shales and clays. This technique eliminates the problems of sand production and fines migration by artificially consolidating a volume of reservoir sand near the wellbore. The consolidation is resistant to high temperature, chemical attack, and degradation resulting from high velocity fluid flow. Additionally, porosity and permeability in the consolidated volume of reservoir sand are improved as a result of irreversible dehydration of clays. 12 refs.

Aslesen, K.S.; Short, C.J.; Terwilliger, P.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H. (Powell, TN), Wereszczak, Andrew A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN); Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

302

Method of monolithic module assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Worobey, Walter (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Phase 2 of the array automated assembly task for the low cost silicon solar array project. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Studies were conducted on several fundamental aspects of electroless nickel/solder metallization for silicon solar cells. A process proposed by Motorola, which precedes the electroless nickel plating with several steps of palladium plating and heat treatment, was compared directly with single step electroless nickel plating. Work has directed toward answering specific questions concerning the effect of silicon surface oxide on nickel plating, effects of thermal stresses on the metallization, sintering of nickel plated on silicon, and effects of exposure to the plating solution on solar cell characteristics. The Motorola process was compared with simple electroless nickel plating in a series of parallel experiments. Results are presented. (WHK)

Petersen, R.C.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

GOMA 6.0 : a full-Newton finite element program for free and moving boundary problems with coupled fluid/solid momentum, energy, mass, and chemical species transport : user%3CU%2B2019%3Es guide.  

SciTech Connect

Goma 6.0 is a finite element program which excels in analyses of multiphysical processes, particularly those involving the major branches of mechanics (viz. fluid/solid mechanics, energy transport and chemical species transport). Goma is based on a full-Newton-coupled algorithm which allows for simultaneous solution of the governing principles, making the code ideally suited for problems involving closely coupled bulk mechanics and interfacial phenomena. Example applications include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, super-alloy processing, welding/soldering, electrochemical processes, and solid-network or solution film drying. This document serves as a user's guide and reference.

Schunk, Peter Randall; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Chen, Ken Shuang; Labreche, Duane A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Roach, Robert Allen; Hopkins, Polly L.; Notz, Patrick K.; Roberts, Scott Alan; Sackinger, Philip A.; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Baer, Thomas A.; Noble, David R.; Secor, Robert B. [3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Method of fabricating a solar cell array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A first set of pre-tabbed solar cells are assembled in a predetermined array with at least part of each tab facing upward, each tab being fixed to a bonding pad on one cell and abutting a bonding pad on an adjacent cell. The cells are held in place with a first vacuum support. The array is then inverted onto a second vacuum support which holds the tabs firmly against the cell pads they abut. The cells are exposed to radiation to melt and reflow the solder pads for bonding the tab portions not already fixed to bonding pads to these pads.

Lazzery, Angelo G. (Oaklyn, NJ); Crouthamel, Marvin S. (Pennsauken, NJ); Coyle, Peter J. (Oaklyn, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes  

SciTech Connect

The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Programmable Multi-Chip Module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

Kautz, David (Lenexa, KS); Morgenstern, Howard (Lee' s Summit, MO); Blazek, Roy J. (Overland Park, KS)

2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

308

Programmable Multi-Chip Module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

Kautz, David (Lenexa, KS); Morgenstern, Howard (Lee' s Summit, MO); Blazek, Roy J. (Overland Park, KS)

2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

309

Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Construction of the components of an automated solar cell layup and interconnect system is now complete. This system incorporates a Unimate 2000 B industrial robot with an end effector consisting of a vacuum pick up and induction heating coil. The robot interfaces with a smart cell preparation station which correctly orients the cell, applies solder paste and forms and positions the correct lengths of interconnect lead. The system is controlled and monitored by a TRS-80 micro computer. The entire system is presently undergoing integration prior to formal testing. A survey of elastomer manufacturers has shown transfer molded EPDM to be a strong candidate for the edge sealing material.

Hagerty, J.J.

1979-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Magnetically attached sputter targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material is described. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly. 11 figures.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Laminated photovoltaic modules using back-contact solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photovoltaic modules which comprise back-contact solar cells, such as back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells, positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The module designs allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Worobey, Walter (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

312

Method for producing low-resistivity electrical contacts for high-temperature superconducting ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Production of low-resistivity electrical contacts for high-temperature superconducting ceramics capable of supporting large current densities by plasma spraying of a noble metal powder onto a chosen surface area of the ceramic and electrically contacting a metal conductor to the metallic pad formed thereby by either soldering or by use of a conducting epoxy is described. Surface resistivities in the 10{sup {minus}8} {Omega}-cm{sup 2} range have been measured at 76 K. Most experimental variables were found to have little effect on the properties of the contacts produced. 2 tabs.

Katz, J.D.; Willis, J.O.; Maley, M.P.; Castro, R.G.

1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

313

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

314

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Improved ion detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved ion detector device of the ionization detection device chamber type comprises an ionization chamber having a central electrode therein surrounded by a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber with a collar frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collar has electrical contact means carried in an annular groove in an inner bore of the collar to contact the outer surface of the electrode to provide electrical contact between an external terminal and the electrode without the need to solder leads to the electrode.

Tullis, A.M.

1986-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

316

Fuel Cell Systems for Portable, Backup, and UPS Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

U.S. Federal Agency Purchasing Managers Federal Agency Purchasing Managers Fuel Cell Systems for Portable, Backup and UPS Fuel Cell Systems for Portable, Backup and UPS Applications Applications Eric Simpkins, USFCC President Eric Simpkins, USFCC President Vice President, IdaTech, LLC Vice President, IdaTech, LLC Washington, DC Washington, DC April 26, 2007 April 26, 2007 Definitions Introduction What's Available & How Used Typical Operation & Maintenance Time: Order to Site Installation Pricing Summary 1 i l Megawatts l backup, cogeneration, trigeneration Material handling et. al. Micro & Man-Portable * Less Than 100 Watts * Consumer electronics, defense (solder power), speciality appl cations Portable, Backup, APU * 100 Watts to 15 Kilowatts * Battery rep

317

Electrical and thermal finite element modeling of arc faults in photovoltaic bypass diodes.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Arc faults in photovoltaic (PV) modules have caused multiple rooftop fires. The arc generates a high-temperature plasma that ignites surrounding materials and subsequently spreads the fire to the building structure. While there are many possible locations in PV systems and PV modules where arcs could initiate, bypass diodes have been suspected of triggering arc faults in some modules. In order to understand the electrical and thermal phenomena associated with these events, a finite element model of a busbar and diode was created. Thermoelectrical simulations found Joule and internal diode heating from normal operation would not normally cause bypass diode or solder failures. However, if corrosion increased the contact resistance in the solder connection between the busbar and the diode leads, enough voltage potentially would be established to arc across micron-scale electrode gaps. Lastly, an analytical arc radiation model based on observed data was employed to predicted polymer ignition times. The model predicted polymer materials in the adjacent area of the diode and junction box ignite in less than 0.1 seconds.

Bower, Ward Isaac; Quintana, Michael A.; Johnson, Jay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Experimental studies of helical solenoid model based on YBCO tape-bridge joints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Helical solenoids that provide solenoid, helical dipole and helical gradient field components are designed for a helical cooling channel (HCC) proposed for cooling of muon beams in a muon collider. The high temperature superconductor (HTS), 12 mm wide and 0.1 mm thick YBCO tape, is used as the conductor for the highest-field section of HCC due to certain advantages, such as its electrical and mechanical properties. To study and address the design, and technological and performance issues related to magnets based on YBCO tapes, a short helical solenoid model based on double-pancake coils was designed, fabricated and tested at Fermilab. Splicing joints were made with Sn-Pb solder as the power leads and the connection between coils, which is the most critical element in the magnet that can limit the performance significantly. This paper summarizes the test results of YBCO tape and double-pancake coils in liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, and then focuses on the study of YBCO splices, including the soldering temperatures and pressures, and splice bending test.

Yu, M.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab; Flangan, G.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Lopes, M.L.; /Fermilab; Johnson, R.P.; /Fermilab

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Development of a Fluxless Flip Chip Bonding Process for Optical Military Electronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As military electronics tend to become lighter, smaller, thinner, and lower cost, the use of flip chip technology is becoming more common place to meet system requirements, yet survive environments. This paper explores the development of an optical flip chip application and details the selection/qualification of the substrate. The selected assembly consists of a procured 1x12 Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) die, having 80um diameter eutectic AuSn solder bumps at 250um pitch and flip chip bonded to a .006” thick 99.6% alumina substrate with .006” diameter thru holes and metallized with 500Å WTi, under minimum 2.0-3.0?m (80-120?”) thin film deposited Au. An 8 run, 3 factor, 2 level Full Factorial Design of Experiments (DOE) was completed on procured detector arrays and procured ceramic substrates using the Suss Microtec FC150. The optimum settings for the peak temperature, peak time and final die z-height were selected using the ANOVA results and interaction plots. Additional studies were completed to qualify in-house produced substrates. An epoxy glob-top encapsulant was selected to dissipate stress on the flip chip solder joints and to enhance thermal shock performance.

Girardi, Michael

2007-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

320

Review of PV module performance at DOE/MIT Lincoln Laboratory test sites during the period 1977 to 1982  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the years 1977 to 1982, over 11,000 photovoltaic (PV) modules have been placed at experimental PV power generating systems in a number of field test sites in the United States. Prominent among these are a 100-kW system at Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah, a 25-kWp system at Mead, Nebraska, and a 15-kW system at Bryan, Ohio. Through a program of periodic surveillance, measurements, and inspections at the aforementioned sites, electrically failed modules were located, removed and analyzed during this six-year period. The principal causes of failure were: (1) cells cracked due to weathering or internal module stresses, (2) failed solder joints, (3) interconnects not soldered to rear sides of cells at assembly, (4) cells or interconnects electrically shorted to metallic substrates, and (5) broken or split interconnects. Details and photographs of many of the different types of failures are presented and some of the analysis techniques used to locate the failures are described.

Forman, S E; Themelis, M P

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Active devices for high temperature microcircuitry. [Silicon and gallium arsenide devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of a program to develop high temperature electronics for geothermal well instrumentation, a number of solid state diode and transistor types were characterized from room temperature to 300/sup 0/C. The temperature dependence and aging stability of transport and leakage properties were measured. Included in the study were silicon diodes, bipolar transistors, JFETs, MOSFETs, and GaAs MESFETs and JFETs. In summary the results are: diodes and bipolar transistors became extremely leaky at high temperature and are therefore of limited use; silicon MOSFETs and GaAs devices showed unacceptable aging instabilities at high temperatures; silicon JFETs from certain manufacturers were sufficiently stable and had suitable temperature dependent characteristics so that operational circuits could be made. Comparisons were made of experimental device characteristics and those predicted by theory. The theoretical calculations were done using standard equations revised to include appropriate temperature dependent parameters. Close agreement between theory and experiment was found, indicating that unexpected high temperature effects were insignificant. In order to facilitate the use of devices in high temperature hybrids, it was necessary to develop bonding and prescreening techniques. A large variance of JFET 300/sup 0/C operating parameters was found even within a single production lot. Consequently, high temperature prescreening allowed each circuit to be specifically ''pretuned.'' Standard solder, epoxy, and chip and wire attachment technologies were not functional at 300/sup 0/C. Gold-germanium solder, aluminum wire to DuPont 9910 gold film, and diffusion barrier pads were developed to allow high temperature attachment.

Palmer, D.W.; Draper, B.L.; McBrayer, J.D.; White, K.R.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Twenty years of service at NBNM - Analysis of Spectrolab module  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study of adhesional strength and surface analysis of encapsulant and silicon cell samples from a Natural Bridges National Monument (NBNM) Spectrolab module is an attempt to understand from its success. The module was fabricated using polyvinyl butyral (PVB) as an encapsulant. The average adhesional shear strength of the encapsulant at the cell/encapsulant interface in this module was 4.51 MPa or {approximately} 18% lower than that in currently manufactured modules. Typical encapsulant surface composition was as follows: C 75.0 at.% O 23.2 at.%, and Si 1.6 at.%, with Ag {approximately}0.2 at.% and Pb {approximately} 0.5 at.% with some tin respectively over the grid lines and solder bond. Representative silicon cell surface composition was: K 1.4 at.%, C 20.8 at.%, Sn 0.94 at.%, O 15.1 at.%, Na 2.7 at.% and Si 59.0 at.%. The presence of tin detected on the silicon cell surface may be attributed to corrosion of solder bond. The module differs from typical contemporary modules in the use of PVB, metallic mesh type interconnection, and silicon oxide AR coating.

DHERE,N.G.; PANDIT,M.B.; GHONGADI,S.R.; QUINTANA,MICHAEL A.; KING,DAVID L.; KRATOCHVIL,JAY A.

2000-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

323

Export.gov - Home Welcome Message  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Colombianos Colombianos Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Colombia Local Time: Print | E-mail Page Colombia Colombia Home Upcoming Events Doing Business in Colombia Market Research on Colombia Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Business Service Providers Links Frequently Asked Questions U.S. - Colombia Free Trade Agreement Press Release Special OFAC Announcement Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room

324

Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Research at the ALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Research at the ALS Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Research at the ALS Print Friday, 09 November 2012 10:06 Lead-free components have been increasingly used in electronics manufacturing since the European Union passed its 2003 Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS), which banned the use of certain hazardous materials in electrical and electronic equipment. To ensure the long-term reliability of mission-critical equipment such as networking hardware, a significant amount of research and development must be undertaken by the industry to ensure lead-free (Pb-free) metallurgies are sufficiently reliable. One of the unique reliability issues associated with electroplated Pb-free lead finishes [typically pure tin (Sn) or high-Sn alloys] is the growth of "whiskers," which is the spontaneous growth of long filament-like grains on the leads, or "legs," of electronic components. If the growth of these whiskers is not controlled, shorting between the lead can occur and thus cause system failures.

325

Micro and Man-Portable Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& USFCC Fuel Cells Meeting: & USFCC Fuel Cells Meeting: US DOE & USFCC Fuel Cells Meeting: Matching Federal Government Energy Needs Matching Federal Government Energy Needs with Energy Efficient Fuel Cells with Energy Efficient Fuel Cells Micro & Man Micro & Man - - Portable Fuel Cells Portable Fuel Cells Jerry Hallmark Jerry Hallmark Motorola Labs Motorola Labs - - President USFCC President USFCC Hotel Palomar Hotel Palomar Washington, DC Washington, DC April 26th, 2007 April 26th, 2007 US DOE & USFCC Fuel Cells Meeting 1 4/26/2007 U.S. Fuel Cell Council Micro & Man-Portable * Less Than 100 Watts * Consumer electronics, defense (solder power), speciality applications Portable, Backup, APU * 100 Watts to 10 Kilowatts * Battery replacement or charging, defense (platoon power), telecom backup,

326

Energy Blog | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3, 2012 3, 2012 Seasonal Tips I've often wished I lived in one of those fabulous places where it's 72 degrees and sunny year-round. But unfortunately, most of us don't. January 20, 2012 Increasing Energy Security There is a lot of discussion lately about domestic energy production and American energy security. For the Obama Administration, moving towards the goal of energy independence has been a clear priority since day one. January 20, 2012 After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab Fifteen years ago, a team led by Ames senior metallurgist Iver Anderson made a breakthrough in developing a tin-silver-copper alloy to replace the potentially dangerous lead-based solder. It is now the highest grossing patent from Ames Lab. January 20, 2012 Have You Ever Tried Composting?

327

GlassMelt&Sealing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glass Melting and Sealing Glass Melting and Sealing Manufacturing Technologies The Manufacturing Science & Technology Center performs process development of glass and glass-ceramic-to-metal seals. Small batches of specialty glass can be melted from reagent grade oxide powders. Glass and glass-ceramic-to-metal seals are made in microprocessor controlled inert atmospheres and are checked for her- meticity after sealing. Sandia's extensive properties database of low melting solder glasses is used to aid in material and processing decisions when making glass-to-glass, ceramic-to-ceramic, and glass-to-ceramic seals. These seals are typically done in air at much lower tem- peratures than glass and glass-to-ceramic seals. Capabilities * Interface with designers and vendors to assure that the most appropriate materi-

328

Joining  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Joining & Heat-treating Joining & Heat-treating Manufacturing Technologies The joining and heat-treating technologies in the Thin Film, Vacuum, & Packaging depart- ment include brazing, heat-treating, diffusion bonding and soldering. The technical staff pro- vides expertise in the filler metal selection, proper joint design, active filler metal brazing and the design of custom alignment fixtures. The department can join large complex parts or micro-mechanical devices of metal, ceramic and composite substrates. Capabilities * Conventional and active metal brazing of ceramics and cermets * Binder burnout and densification of cermets and ceramics in reducing or inert atmos- pheres * Hydrogen firing, inert gas, high vacuum or partial pressure heat treating * Oxide coating (Greening) of Stainless

329

CX-008648: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

48: Categorical Exclusion Determination 48: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008648: Categorical Exclusion Determination Printed Circuit Board Through-Hole Plating, Masking, and Legending Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/22/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office A MiniContac RS electrochemical plater is used to plate through-holes with copper between surface layers on electronic printed circuit boards . Additionally, a ProMask (solder mask) process and ProLegend (legend printing or silkscreening) are used to process the printed circuit boards. All equipment and chemical supplies are procured from LPKF Laser & Electronics. CX-008648.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-006931: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007668: Categorical Exclusion Determination

330

Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 5  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Construction of an automated solar cell layup and interconnect system is now complete. This system incorporates a Unimate 2000 B industrial robot with an end effector consisting of a vacuum pick up and induction heating coil. The robot interfaces with a smart cell preparation station which correctly orients the cell, applies solder paste and forms and positions the correct lengths of interconnect lead. The system is controlled and monitored by a TRS-80 micro computer. The first operational tests of the fully integrated station have been run. These tests proved the soundness of the basic design concept but also pointed to areas in which modifications are necessary. These modifications are nearly complete and the improved parts are being integrated. Development of the controlling computer program is progressing to both reflect these changes and reduce operating time.

Hagerty, J.J.

1980-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Low thermal resistance power module assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power module assembly with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate with passageways or openings for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface to an upper surface. A circuit substrate is provided and positioned on the spreader plate to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate includes a bonding layer configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening in the plate. The assembly includes power modules mounted on the circuit substrate on a surface opposite the bonding layer. The power modules are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

Hassani, Vahab (Denver, CO); Vlahinos, Andreas (Castle Rock, CO); Bharathan, Desikan (Arvada, CO)

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

332

Relative Lifetime Prediction for CPV Die-Attach Layers: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) cell assemblies, a large-area die-attach layer is subjected to thermal cycles, leading to thermomechanical fatigue. This causes cracking and the eventual failure of the CPV cell by thermal runaway. We define a damage metric representing lumped progress toward failure and present a numerical model for computing the accumulation of damage for arbitrary transient temperature conditions. The model is applied to a particular design with a solder die-attach layer. We show that accelerated-test thermal cycles with higher ramp rates cause more damage, both per cycle and per unit time. Outdoor exposure to one entire year in two geographic locations is also simulated, revealing that a year of exposure in Golden, Colorado is equivalent to 1.4 years of exposure in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

Silverman, T. J.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar-array project. Quarterly report, July-October, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The attributes of the various metallization processes have been investigated which express themselves in economic results. It has been shown that several metallization process sequences will lead to adequate metallization for large area, high performance solar cells at a metallization add-on price in the range of $6.- to 12.-/m/sup 2/, or 4 to 8 cents/W(peak), assuming 15% efficiency. Conduction layer formation by thick film silver or by tin or tin/lead solder leads to metallization add-on prices significantly above the $6.- to 12.-/m/sup 2/ range. The wet chemical processes of electroless and electrolytic plating for strike/barrier layer and conduction layer formation, respectively, seem to be most cost-effective. Vacuum deposition of the strike/barrier layer can be competitive with electroless plating.

Wolf, M.; Goldman, H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

ES&H development activities for the W89 warhead  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) issues became an important design consideration during the development of the W89 warhead for the SRAM 11 (Short-Range Attack Missile) missile. An action plan was developed to handle these issues at all the production agencies and at both the system and the component level. The main thrust was in the area of solvent substitution, in particular for solder flux removal. The cleaner d-limonene followed by an isopropyl alcohol rinse was selected for applications were the traditional cleaners were 1,1,1 trichloroethane or trichloroethylene. Compatibility testing rather than efficacy testing dominated the development effort. In addition to other solvent substitution applications, organic materials that were free of toluene diisocynate (TDI), and methylene dianiline (MDA) were explored for use in the W89.

Pretzel, C.W.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

336

Automated solar cell assembly teamed process research. Semiannual subcontract report, 7 January 1993--30 June 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work done under Phase 3A of the PVMaT project to address problems that are generic to the photovoltaics (PV) industry. Crystalline silicon solar cells were used in the majority of all terrestrial power modules shipped in 1992. Spire`s analysis in Phase 1 of the PVMaT project indicated that the use of thin ({le}200-{mu}m) silicon cells can substantially reduce module manufacturing costs, provided that processing yields remain as high as they are now for processing standard thickness cells. Because present solar cell tabbing and interconnecting processes have unacceptably high yield losses with such thin cells, the objective of this Phase 3A subcontract is to use Spire`s light soldering technology and experience in designing and fabricating solar cell tabbing and interconnecting equipment to develop high yield throughput, fully automated processes for tabbing and interconnecting thin cells.

Nowlan, M.J.; Hogan, S.J.; Darkazalli, G.; Breen, W.F.; Murach, J.M.; Sutherland, S.F. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

The environmentally safe battery  

SciTech Connect

There are three aspects to an environmentally safe battery. The first deals with the manufacturing process, the second with the use of environmentally friendly materials, and the third with the disposal and/or recycling of spent units. In this paper, several ongoing programs at Sandia National Laboratories that relate to the environmentally conscious manufacturing of batteries, are discussed. The solvent substitution/elimination program is a two-pronged effort, aimed at identifying new solvents which are compatible with the environment, while at the same time developing dry process cleaning technology. The joining program is evaluating new solvents for flux removal as well as the development of fluxless soldering processes. In the area of welding, new cleaning processes are under study. Chemical microsensors are under development that are capable of identifying and quantifying single chemical species. These sensors have been used to monitor and improve processes using toxic/hazardous solvents. 1 ref., 1 fig.

Levy, S.C.; Brown, N.E.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF THE ATOMIC BATTERY  

SciTech Connect

Electron-voltaic effects in diffased p-n junctions of Ge were obtained by diffusing As at 210 deg C in 10/sup -5/ Hg vacuum on a p-type Ge, doped with In, of 3 OMEGA /cm resistivity. A thin Au wire was attached to the surface of this junction by soldering. The p-n junction was irradiated with a 50mc Sr/sup 90/-Y/sup 90/ source, and the electron-voltaic effect was measured from room temperature down to -78 deg C. The general condition of an atomic battery was similar to that of a solar battery except that the atomic battery offers the possibility of current multiplication but presents the problem of radiation damage in the crystal lattice. At room temperature no radiation damage was observed. The junction and radiation damage of a Si-based atomic battery was also studied. (OID)

Yamanaka, C.; Wada, H.; Yamamura, Y.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

A numerical investigation on the influence of liquid properties and interfacial heat transfer during microdroplet deposition onto a glass substrate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work investigates the impingement of a liquid microdroplet onto a glass substrate at different temperatures. A finite-element model is applied to simulate the transient fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the process. Results for impingement under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions are presented for four liquids: isopropanol, water, dielectric fluid (FC-72) and eutectic tin-lead solder (63Sn-37Pb). The objective of the work is to select liquids for a combined numerical and experimental study involving a high resolution, laser-based interfacial temperature measurement to measure interfacial heat transfer during microdroplet deposition. Applications include spray cooling, micro-manufacturing and coating processes, and electronics packaging. The initial droplet diameter and impact velocity are 80 {\\mu}m and 5 m/s, respectively. For isothermal impact, our simulations with water and isopropanol show very good agreement with experiments. The magnitude and rates of spreading for all four liquids ...

Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Attinger, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Fan-fold shielded electrical leads  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figs.

Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

Rohatgi, Rajeev R. (Mountain View, CA); Cowan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figures.

Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

343

Fan-fold shielded electrical leads  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

Rohatgi, Rajeev R. (Mountain View, CA); Cowan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Electrochemical Approaches to PV Busbar Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Busbars are an integral component of any thin-film photovoltaic module and must be easy and quick to apply by PV manufacturers, as well as provide long-term reliability in deployed modules. Potential reliability issues include loss of adhesion and delamination, chemical instability under current collection conditions (electromigration or corrosion), compatibility of material and application method with subsequent encapsulation steps. Several new and novel busbar materials and application methods have been explored, including adhering metal busbars with various one- and two-part conductive epoxies or conductive adhesive films, ultrasonic bonding of metal busbar strips, and bonding of busbar strips using low-temperature solders. The most promising approach to date has been the direct application of metal busbars via various electrochemical techniques, which offers a variety of distinct advantages.

Pankow, J. W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Tests of prototype salt stripper system for IFR fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the waste treatment steps for the on-site reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles is stripping of the electrolyte salt used in the electrorefining process. This involves the chemical reduction of the actinides and rare earth chlorides forming metals which then dissolve in a cadmium pool. To develop the equipment for this step, a prototype salt stripper system has been installed in an engineering scale argon-filled glovebox. Pumping trails were successful in transferring 90 kg of LiCl-KCl salt containing uranium and rare earth metal chlorides at 500{degree}C from an electrorefiner to the stripper vessel at a pumping rate of about 5 L/min. The freeze seal solder connectors which were used to join sections of the pump and transfer line performed well. Stripping tests have commenced employing an inverted cup charging device to introduce a Cd-15 wt % Li alloy reductant to the stripper vessel.

Carls, E.L.; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Johnson, T.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ogata, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Partitioning of residual D-limonene cleaner vapor among organic materials in weapons  

SciTech Connect

D-limonene is a replacement solvent selected by Sandia and Allied-Signal to clean solder flux from electronics assemblies in firesets and programmers. D-limonene is much slower drying than the solvents it has replaced and this has raised concerns that residual quantities of the cleaner could be trapped in the electronics assemblies and eventually carried into warhead assemblies. This paper describes a study designed to evaluate how vapors from residual d-limonene cleaner would be partitioned among typical organic materials in a Livermore device. The goal was to identify possible compatibility problems arising from the use of d-limonene and, in particular, any interactions it may have with energetic materials. To predict the partitioning behavior of d-limonene, a simple model was developed and its predictions are compared to the experimental findings.

LeMay, J.D.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Vacuum Glazing; A Thermally Insulating Window Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacuum Glazing; A Thermally Insulating Window Technology Vacuum Glazing; A Thermally Insulating Window Technology Speaker(s): Cenk Kocer Date: May 31, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Sunnie Lim The vacuum glazing consists of two panes of glass separated by a sub-millimetre vacuum gap. Under the action of atmospheric pressure the separation of the panes is maintained by an array of high strength spacers in the gap. The glass panes are hermetically sealed at the edge using a low melting point glass frit (solder glass). Since 1913 many have worked on a practical implementation of such a flat insulating glass structure, with success finally being reported in 1989 by Collins et al. at the University of Sydney. The purpose of this talk is to present a brief history of the vacuum glazing research at the University of Sydney, and outline in detail

348

CX-006931: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: Categorical Exclusion Determination 1: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006931: Categorical Exclusion Determination Printed Circuit Board Through-Hole Plating, Masking, and Legending Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 10/12/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, National Energy Technology Laboratory A MiniContac RS electrochemical plater is used to plate through-holes with copper between surface layers on electronic printed circuit boards. Additionally, a ProMask (solder mask) process and ProLegend (legend printing or silkscreening) are used to process the printed circuit boards. All equipment and chemical supplies are procured from LPKF Laser & Electronics. CX-006931.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-008648: Categorical Exclusion Determination

349

Bilayer membranes in micro-fluidics: from gel emulsions to soft functional devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We outline a concept of self-assembled soft matter devices based on micro-fluidics, which use surfactant bilayer membranes as their main building blocks, arrested in geometric structures provided by top-down lithography. Membranes form spontaneously when suitable water-in-oil emulsions are forced into micro-fluidic channels at high dispersed-phase volume fractions. They turn out to be remarkably stable even when pumped through the micro-fluidic channel system. Their geometric arrangement is self-assembling, driven by interfacial energy and wetting forces. The ordered membrane arrays thus emerging can be loaded with amphiphilic functional molecules, ion channels, or just be used as they are, exploiting their peculiar physical properties. For wet electronic circuitry, the aqueous droplets then serve as the 'solder points'. Furthermore, the membranes can serve as well-controlled coupling media between chemical processes taking place in adjacent droplets. This is shown for the well-known Belousov-Zhabotinski reac...

Thutupalli, Shashi; Seemann, Ralf; 10.1039/C0SM00312C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Automated solar cell assembly team process research. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1993--31 December 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work done under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, Phase 3A, which addresses problems that are generic to the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Spire`s objective during Phase 3A was to use its light soldering technology and experience to design and fabricate solar cell tabbing and interconnecting equipment to develop new, high-yield, high-throughput, fully automated processes for tabbing and interconnecting thin cells. Areas that were addressed include processing rates, process control, yield, throughput, material utilization efficiency, and increased use of automation. Spire teamed with Solec International, a PV module manufacturer, and the University of Massachusetts at Lowell`s Center for Productivity Enhancement (CPE), automation specialists, who are lower-tier subcontractors. A number of other PV manufacturers, including Siemens Solar, Mobil Solar, Solar Web, and Texas instruments, agreed to evaluate the processes developed under this program.

Nowlan, M.J.; Hogan, S.J.; Darkazalli, G.; Breen, W.F.; Murach, J.M.; Sutherland, S.F.; Patterson, J.S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Export.gov - Ireland Home  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Doing Business in Ireland Doing Business in Ireland Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Ireland Local time in Ireland: Print | E-mail Page Ireland Ireland Home Recent Events Doing Business in Ireland Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Business Service Providers Links Internship 2014 U.S. Franchises Tourism Information Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room Other European Markets Other Worldwide Markets Welcome to the U.S. Commercial Service in Ireland

352

Export.gov - Home - Namaste Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Click here for services for Indian companies Click here for services for Indian companies Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > India Local Time: Print | E-mail Page India India Home Doing Business in India Market Research on India Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events India Aviation 2014 Trade Leads from India SelectUSA Business Service Providers Links Frequently Asked Questions U.S. Embassy In India Internship Program American Business Corners Share Your Success in India

353

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354

Export.gov - France - Home Page  

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355

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356

Export.gov - Malaysia - Welcome Page  

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357

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358

Export.gov - Welcome  

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359

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360

Export.gov - CS Japan top page  

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361

Export.gov - Home Welcome to Canada  

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362

Export.gov - 02092011Thailand Welcome  

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363

Export.gov - Home Kazakhstan - Welcome Page  

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€ÑƒÑÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ €ÑƒÑÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Kazakhstan Local Time in Astana: Print | E-mail Page Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Home Doing Business in Kazakhstan Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Business Services Providers On-line IP Education Course Central Asia Corner Northern Distribution Network About CS Kazakhstan Internship Program Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About us Press Room Other Worldwide Markets

364

Export.gov - Welcome page SA  

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South African Importers South African Importers Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > South Africa Local Time: Print | E-mail Page South Africa South Africa Home Doing Business in South Africa Doing Business in Sub-Saharan Africa Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Business Service Providers Links Frequently Asked Questions Major Funded Projects SelectUSA 2013 Investment Summit Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room

365

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deutsche Unternehmen deutsche Unternehmen Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Germany Local Time in Germany: Print | E-mail Page Germany Germany Home Doing Business in Germany Market Research on Germany Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Business Services Providers Links Internship Frequently Asked Questions Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room Other European Markets Other Worldwide Markets Welcome to the U.S. Commercial Service Germany

366

Export.gov - Center Content - Home April 2011  

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367

Export.gov - Australia Home  

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368

Export.gov - Index_Page_Welcome_to_Pakistan  

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Pakistani Importers Pakistani Importers Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Pakistan Local Time: Print | E-mail Page Pakistan Pakistan Home Doing Business in Pakistan Market Research on Pakistan Services for Pakistani Companies Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Useful Links Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room Other Worldwide Markets Welcome to the U.S. Commercial Service Pakistan kistan_banner The U.S. Commercial Service in Pakistan is responsible for U.S. export

369

Refiners around the world must cope with changing markets, environmental regulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil consumption is expected to grow slowly into the next century, middle distillates are expected to be the fastest growing major products, and the quality of the typical crude fed to refineries will continue to deteriorate. Those are key challenges facing refiners around the world. Changing product specifications - from lead-free gasoline in Europe to new lube oils for tomorrow's engines - will also continue to demand more of refinery processes and equipment. Through it all, refiners will be faced with changing crude and products markets that will constantly test their ability to achieve a reasonable margin. The problems associated with excess capacity have not been completely solved; there is still considerable rationalization of worldwide capacity to be done. Success will depend in large part on the development and proper application of new technology, and the imaginative use of sophisticated operating techniques.

Nunn, J.A.

1987-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

370

Export.gov - Chile - Welcome Page  

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371

Export.gov - Welcome to Paraguay  

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372

Export.gov - Home page  

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373

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to study the combined effects of die design, proper internal cooling and efficient die lubricants on die life. The project targeted improvements in die casting insert life by: Optomized Die Design for Reduced Surface Temperature: The life of die casting dies is significantly shorter when the die is exposed to elevated temperature for significant periods of time. Any die operated under conditions leading to surface temperature in excess of 1050oF undergoes structural changes that reduce its strength. Optimized die design can improve die life significantly. This improvement can be accomplished by means of cooling lines, baffles and bubblers in the die. A key objective of the project was to establish criteria for the minimal distance of the cooling lines from the surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. The Uddeholm Dievar steel evaluated in this program showed superior resistance to thermal fatigue resistance. Based on the experimental evidence, cooling lines could be placed as close as 0.5" from the surface. Die Life Extension by Optimized Die Lubrication: The life of die casting dies is affected by additions made to its surface with the proper lubricants. These lubricants will protect the surface from the considerable temperature peaks that occur when the molten melt enters the die. Dies will reach a significantly higher temperature without this lubricant being applied. The amount and type of the lubricant are critical variables in the die casting process. However, these lubricants must not corrode the die surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. Chem- Trend participated in the program with die lubricants and technical support. Experiments conducted with these lubricants demonstrated good protection of the substrate steel. Graphite and boron nitride used as benchmarks are capable of completely eliminating soldering and washout. However, because of cost and environmental considerations these materials are not widely used in industry. The best water-based die lubricants evaluated in this program were capable of providing similar protection from soldering and washout. In addition to improved part quality and higher production rates, improving die casting processes to preserve the life of the inserts will result in energy savings and a reduction in environmental wastes. Improving die life by means of optimized cooling line placement, baffles and bubblers in the die will allow for reduced die temperatures during processing, saving energy associated with production. The utilization of optimized die lubricants will also reduce heat requirements in addition to reducing waste associated with soldering and washout. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.1 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on commercial introduction in 2010, a market penetration of 70% by 2020 is 1.26 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.025 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

374

Lithium-Ion Battery Teacher Workshop  

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Lithium Ion Battery Teacher Workshop Lithium Ion Battery Teacher Workshop 2012 2 2 screw eyes 2 No. 14 rubber bands 2 alligator clips 1 plastic gear font 2 steel axles 4 nylon spacers 2 Pitsco GT-R Wheels 2 Pitsco GT-F Wheels 2 balsa wood sheets 1 No. 280 motor Also: Parts List 3 Tools Required 1. Soldering iron 2. Hobby knife or coping saw 3. Glue gun 4. Needlenose pliers 5. 2 C-clamps 6. Ruler 4 1. Using a No. 2 pencil, draw Line A down the center of a balsa sheet. Making the Chassis 5 2. Turn over the balsa sheet and draw Line B ¾ of an inch from one end of the sheet. Making the Chassis 6 3. Draw a 5/8" x ½" notch from 1" from the top of the sheet. Making the Chassis 7 4. Draw Line C 2 ½" from the other end of the same sheet of balsa. Making the Chassis 8 5. Using a sharp utility knife or a coping saw, cut

375

Apparatus And Method Of Using Flexible Printed Circuit Board In Optical Transceiver Device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a flexible printed circuit board that is used in connection with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. In one embodiment, the flexible printed circuit board has flexible metal layers in between flexible insulating layers, and the circuit board comprises: (1) a main body region orientated in a first direction having at least one electrical or optoelectronic device; (2) a plurality of electrical contact pads integrated into the main body region, where the electrical contact pads function to connect the flexible printed circuit board to an external environment; (3) a buckle region extending from one end of the main body region; and (4) a head region extending from one end of the buckle region, and where the head region is orientated so that it is at an angle relative to the direction of the main body region. The electrical contact pads may be ball grid arrays, solder balls or land-grid arrays, and they function to connect the circuit board to an external environment. A driver or amplifier chip may be adapted to the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. In another embodiment, a heat spreader passes along a surface of the head region of the flexible printed circuit board, and a window is formed in the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. Optoelectronic devices are adapted to the head spreader in such a manner that they are accessible through the window in the flexible printed circuit board.

Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM); Peterson, Gary D. (Albuquerque, NM); Reysen, Bill H. (Lafayette, CO)

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Corrosion resistance of metallic solar absorber materials in a range of heat transfer fluids. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report is intended to provide manufacturers, designers, and installers with reliable corrosion compatibility data, meaningful maintenance schedule, and confidence in durability and performance of solar collector units. The corrosion behavior of Cu alloy 122, Al alloy 1100, mild steel 1010, and a ferritic stainless steel (alloy 444) was determined in a variety of potential solar heat transfer fluids. The fluids included potable waters, water glycol solutions, and four non-aqueous fluids. The test apparatus cycled the temperatures of the fluids through those typical of an operating solar energy collector unit. The 444 stainless steel was the most corrosion resistant material and in uninhibited solutions demonstrated only extremely shallow pits during the 180 day test. The use of inhibited solutions generally prevented pits from forming. Cu alloy 122 showed quite low corrosion rates in uninhibited solutions although the presence of excess solder flux promoted some crevice corrosion. In such solutions, uniform, corrosive attack produced general surface roughening along with a protective surface oxide. The overall corrosion rate of the alloy was generally lower in inhibited glycol solutions although pitting within the crevice region occurred in limited cases. Exposure in the non-aqueous fluids resulted in extremely low corrosion rates with little evidence of localized attack.

Brock, A.J.; Smith, E.F. III

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Development of large-area monolithically integrated Silicon-Film photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 November 1991--31 December 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to develop Silicon-Film{trademark} Product III into a low-cost, stable solar cell for large-scale terrestrial power applications. The Product III structure is a thin (< 100-{mu}m) polycrystalline layer of silicon on a durable, insulating, ceramic substrate. The insulating substrate allows the silicon layer to be isolated and metallized to form a monolithically interconnected array of solar cells. High efficiency is achievable with the use of light trapping and a passivated back surface. The long-term goal for the product is a 1200-cm{sup 2}, 18%-efficient, monolithic array. The short-term objectives are to improve material quality and to fabricate 100 cm{sup 2} monolithically interconnected solar cell arrays. Low minority-carrier diffusion length in the silicon film and series resistance in the interconnected device structure are presently limiting device performance. Material quality is continually improving through reduced impurity contamination. Metallization schemes, such as a solder-dipped interconnection process, have been developed that will allow low-cost production processing and minimize R{sub s} effects. Test data for a nine-cell device (16 cm{sup 2}) indicated a V{sub oc} of 3.72 V. These first-reported monolithically interconnected multicrystalline silicon-on-ceramic devices show low shunt conductance (< 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}) due to limited conduction through the ceramic and no process-related metallization shunts.

Rand, J.A.; Cotter, J.E.; Ingram, A.E.; Ruffins, T.R.; Shreve, K.P.; Hall, R.B.; Barnett, A.M. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A Compact Parallel-plane Perpendicular-current Feed for a Modified Equiangular Spiral Antenna and Related Circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work describes the design and measurement of a compact bidirectional ultrawideband (UWB) modified equiangular spiral antenna with an integrated feed internally matched to a 50-Ohm microstrip transmission line. A UWB transition from microstrip to double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) soldered to a short (1.14 mm) twin-line transmission line feeds the spiral. The currents on the feed travel in a direction approximately perpendicular to the direction of the currents on the spiral at the points where the feed passes the spiral in close proximity (0.57 mm). Holes were etched from the metal arms of the spiral to reduce the impedance mismatch caused by coupling between the transmission line feed and the spiral. This work also describes a low-loss back-to-back transition from coaxial line to DSPSL, an in-phase connectorized 3 dB DSPSL power divider made using three of those transitions, a 2:1 in-phase DSPSL power divider, a 3:1 in-phase DSPSL power divider, a radial dipole fed by DSPSL, an array of those dipoles utilizing the various power dividers, and a UWB circular monopole antenna fed by DSPSL. Measured and simulated results show good agreement for the designed antennas and circuits.

Eubanks, Travis Wayne

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Meso-/micro-optical system interface coupling solutions.  

SciTech Connect

Optoelectronic microsystems are more and more prevalent as researchers seek to increase transmission bandwidths, implement electrical isolation, enhance security, or take advantage of sensitive optical sensing methods. Board level photonic integration techniques continue to improve, but photonic microsystems and fiber interfaces remain problematic, especially upon size reduction. Optical fiber is unmatched as a transmission medium for distances ranging from tens of centimeters to kilometers. The difficulty with using optical fiber is the small size of the core (approximately 9 {micro}m for the core of single mode telecommunications fiber) and the tight requirement on spot size and input numerical aperture (NA). Coupling to devices such as vertical cavity emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photodetectors presents further difficulties since these elements work in a plane orthogonal to the electronics board and typically require additional optics. This leads to the need for a packaging solution that can incorporate dissimilar materials while maintaining the tight alignment tolerances required by the optics. Over the course of this LDRD project, we have examined the capabilities of components such as VCSELs and photodetectors for high-speed operation and investigated the alignment tolerances required by the optical system. A solder reflow process has been developed to help fulfill these packaging requirements and the results of that work are presented here.

Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Boye, Robert R. (01713 Photonic Microsystems Technology)

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Investigation of proposed process sequence for the array automated assembly task. Phase I and II. Final report, October 1, 1977-June 30, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A selected process sequence for the low cost fabrication of photovoltaic modules was defined during this contract. Each part of the process sequence was looked at regarding its contribution to the overall dollars per watt cost. During the course of the research done, some of the initially included processes were dropped due to technological deficiencies. The printed dielectric diffusion mask, codiffusion of the n+ and p+ regions, wraparound front contacts and retention of the diffusion oxide for use as an AR coating were all the processes that were removed for this reason. Other process steps were retained to achieve the desired overall cost and efficiency. Square wafers, a polymeric spin-on PX-10 diffusion source, a p+ back surface field and silver front contacts are all processes that have been recommended for use in this program. The printed silver solderable pad for making contact to the aluminum back was replaced by an ultrasonically applied tin-zinc pad. Also, the texturized front surface was dropped as inappropriate for the sheet silicon likely to be available in 1986. Progress has also been made on the process sequence for module fabrication. A shift from bonding with a conformal coating to laminating with ethylene vinyl acetate and a glass superstrate is recommended for further module fabrication. The finalized process sequence is described.

Mardesich, N.; Garcia, A.; Eskenas, K.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

``Lithium-free'' thin-film battery with in situ plated Li anode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Li-free thin-film battery with the cell configuration Li diffusion blocking overlayer/Cu/solid lithium electrolyte (Lipon)/LiCoO{sub 2} is activated by in situ plating of metallic Li at the Cu anode current collector during the initial charge. Electrochemical cycling between 4.2 and 3.0 V is demonstrated over 1,000 cycles at 1 mA/cm{sup 2} or over 500 cycles at 5 mA/cm{sup 2}. As corroborated by scanning electron microscopy during electrochemical cycling, the overlayer is imperative for a high cycle stability; otherwise the plated Li rapidly develops a detrimental morphology, and the battery loses most of its capacity within a few cycles. The Li-free thin-film battery retains the high potential of a Li cell while permitting its fabrication in air without the complications of a metallic Li anode. Thus, the Li-free thin-film battery survives solder reflow conditions, simulated by a rapid heating to 250 C for 10 min in air followed by quenching to room temperature, without any signs of degradation.

Neudecker, B.J.; Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Residual gas analysis (RGA) and shear strength characteristics of a silver-filled epoxy and polyimide under long-term, high-temperature storage conditions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Introduction of organic materials into hermetically sealed electronic packages increases the risk of failure due to contamination. The contaminants of concern are moisture and ionics. This combination can lead to unwanted electrical pathways and/or corrosion. To minimize sealed-in moisture, packages are vacuum-baked for 16 hours at 200 C and Au/Sn solder-sealed i a glove box purged with dry nitrogen. Even following this procedure, the package plating and organic adhesive can still outgas moisture during high-temperature storage. Long-term aging characteristics for a silver-filled epoxy and a silver-filled polyimide were investigated. Leadless chip carriers (LCCs) containing die attached with epoxy or polyimide were aged at 25 C, 100 C, 150 C, and 200 C for up to six months. Residual gas analysis (RGA) and die shear testing were performed on each package. Results indicate that the epoxy can withstand storage at 150 C with no increase in internal moisture. The polyimide could only be stored at 100 C. No loss in shear strength for epoxy or polyimide was noted at any storage condition.

Adams, B.E.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

AC Loss Measurements on a 2G YBCO Coil  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems (WES) to continue development of HTS power transformers. For compatibility with the existing power grid, a commercially viable HTS transformer will have to operate at high voltages in the range of 138 kV and above, and will have to withstand 550-kV impulse voltages as well. Second-generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors will be required for an economically-competitive design. In order to adequately size the refrigeration system for these transformers, the ac loss of these HTS coils must be characterized. Electrical AC loss measurements were conducted on a prototype high voltage (HV) coil with co-wound stainless steel at 60 Hz in a liquid nitrogen bath using a lock-in amplifier technique. The prototype HV coil consisted of 26 continuous (without splice) single pancake coils concentrically centered on a stainless steel former. For ac loss measurement purposes, voltage tap pairs were soldered across each set of two single pancake coils so that a total of 13 separate voltage measurements could be made across the entire length of the coil. AC loss measurements were taken as a function of ac excitation current. Results show that the loss is primarily concentrated at the ends of the coil where the operating fraction of critical current is the highest and show a distinct difference in current scaling of the losses between low current and high current regimes.

Rey, Christopher M [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Schwenterly, S W [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Flow visualization of molten alloys using real-time neutron radiography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to visualize the flow of molten alloys using real-time neutron radiography. Initial experiments were performed using solder (50% tin, 50% lead), with nickel tracer particles, heated in a furnace to its liquid state. An experiment was also performed using an aluminum-silicon carbide bar, heated in a furnace to its liquid state. These experiments revealed that neutron radiography can be used to observe the flow of metals in a convective field as they undergo a phase change. To observe the flow of molten metals induced by natural convection, an experiment was attempted using the lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) eutectic with tracer particles made of the intermetallic compound gold-cadmium (AuCd4). The Pb-Bi material, with the AuCd4 particles, was placed in a brass container (10 cm x 10 cm x I cm). The container was uniformly heated to above the melting temperature of the material. Natural convection was obtained by increasing the temperature at one end of the container while keeping the temperature at the other end constant. Neutron radiography was used to record and observe the particle motion and the flow of the Pb-Bi material due to natural convection.

Bennett, Tami Norene

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Demountable externally anchored low-stress magnet system and related method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Toroidal field coils are interlaced with other toroidal structures and are operated under supercooled conditions. To facilitate demounting the toroidal field coils, which are supercooled, they are made in the form of connected segments constituting coils of polygonal form. The segments may be rectilinear in form, but some may also be U-shaped or L-shaped. The segments are detachable from one another and are supported in load relieving manner. Power devices are used to displace the segments to facilitate removal of the coils from the aforesaid toroidal structures and to provide for the accommodation of dimensional changes and stresses due to thermal and magnetic conditions. The segments are formed of spaced parallel conductive slabs with the slabs of one segment being interdigitated with the slabs of the adjacent segment. The interdigitated slabs may be soldered together or slidingly engaged. The slabs are shaped to accommodate superconductors and to provide passages for a cooling medium. The slabs are moreover separated by insulator slabs with which they form a coil structure which is jacketed.

Powell, James (Wading River, NY); Hsieh, Shih-Yung (Centereach, NY); Lehner, John R. (Rocky Hill, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Development of economical improved thick film solar cell contact. Extension final report, April-December 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the second half of the investigation of all metal screened electrodes, the focus was on base metal pastes in addition to further work with the silver systems. Contact resistance measurements were refined. A facility allowing firing in hydrogen and other atmospheres was acquired. Several experiments were made applying screenable pastes to solar cells. Doping investigations emphasized eutectic alloys reduced to powders. Metal systems were reviewed. A previously published vapor pressure curve for silver fluoride was corrected. Base metal experiments were done with nickel and copper using lead and tin as the frit metals. Severe adhesion problems were experienced with hydrogen atmospheres in all metal systems. A two step firing schedule was devised based upon experimentation which gave evidence that the silver fluoride-silicon dioxide reaction was modified by the presence of hydrogen. It was found that nitrogen prefiring allowed the silver fluoride dissociation and oxide removal without causing catastrophic oxidation of the base metal powders. The subsequent hydrogen firing step reduced oxides tht had formed and gave the proper sintered structure. Electrodes were coherent, adherent, and solderable in both nickel lead and copper lead systems. Towards the end of the contractual period aluminum-silicon and aluminum-germanium eutectic doping additions to copper pastes were tried on 2 1/4'' diameter solar cell back contacts, both with good results (eta = 9.4% AM1 uncoated).

Ross, B.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Low thermal resistance power module assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power module assembly (400) with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate (410) with passageways or openings (414) for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface (411) to an upper surface (412). A circuit substrate (420) is provided and positioned on the spreader plate (410) to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate (420) includes a bonding layer (422) configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer (422) may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface (412) of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening (414) in the plate. The assembly includes power modules (430) mounted on the circuit substrate (420) on a surface opposite the bonding layer (422). The power modules (430) are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

Hassani, Vahab (Denver, CO); Vlahinos, Andreas (Castle Rock, CO); Bharathan, Desikan (Arvada, CO)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

389

Low cost impulse compatible wideband antenna  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An antenna apparatus and method for building the antenna is disclosed. Impulse signals travel through a feed point of the antenna with respect to a ground plane. A geometric fin structure is connected to the feed point, and through a termination resistance to the ground plane. A geometric ridge structure connected to the ground is positioned with respect to the fin in order to receive and radiate electromagnetic energy from the impulse signal at a predetermined impedance and over a predetermined set of frequencies. The fin and ridge can be either a wire or a planar surface. The fin and ridge may be disposed within a radiation cavity such as a horn. The radiation cavity is constructed of stamped and etched metal sheets bent and then soldered together. The fin and ridge are also formed from metal sheets or wires. The fin is attached to the feed point and then to the cavity through a termination resistance. The ridge is attached to the cavity and disposed with respect to the fin in order to achieve a particular set of antenna characteristics.

Rosenbury, Erwin T. (Livermore, CA); Burke, Gerald J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Tracy, CA); Stever, Robert D. (Lathrop, CA); Governo, George K. (Livermore, CA); Mullenhoff, Donald J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

Kirpich, A.S.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

391

Investigation of proposed process sequence for the array automated assembly task. Phase II. Quarterly technical progress report, March 28, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evaluation of infrared drying (at approximately 300/sup 0/C) PX-10 diffusion source in about one minute or less, revealed comparable results to the conventional oven drying at 150/sup 0/C for 15 minutes. Initially investigation of the fritted-nickel paste front contact indicated high series resistance. Series resistance was reduced upon solder dipping. Further experimentation on junction isolation by laser scribing the front edge of finished, non-AR coated, solar cells continued this period. All scribing was done in the TEM/sub 00/ laser mode. Non-AR coated cell efficiency as high as 10.4% was achieved at a laser output level of 7 watts/cm/sup 2/ and a Q-factor of 3000 pulse/inches. This performance was equivalent to non-AR coated control cells processed by back side scribing and breaking. Further evaluation of the titanium-isopropoxide base spray-on AR solution applied with the Advanced Concepts spray system located at Sensor Technology, Inc., revealed no new results. System is still plagued with problems that interfere with the atomization of the source. A new lamination lay-up procedure has been successfully demonstrated using Crane-Glas to prevent gas entrapment and aluminum foil as a vapor barrier.

Garcia, A.; Bunyan, S.; Wong, B.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Structure/property relationships in multipass GMA welding of beryllium.  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is an interesting metal that has a strength to weight ratio six times that of steel. Because of its unique mechanical properties, beryllium is used in aerospace applications such as satellites. In addition, beryllium is also used in x-ray windows because it is nearly transparent to x-rays. Joining of beryllium has been studied for decades (Ref.l). Typically joining processes include braze-welding (either with gas tungsten arc or gas metal arc), soldering, brazing, and electron beam welding. Cracking which resulted from electron beam welding was recently studied to provide structure/property relationships in autogenous welds (Ref. 2). Braze-welding utilizes a welding arc to melt filler, and only a small amount of base metal is melted and incorporated into the weld pool. Very little has been done to characterize the braze-weld in terms of the structure/property relationships, especially with reference to multipass welding. Thus, this investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of multiple passes on microstructure, weld metal composition, and resulting material properties for beryllium welded with aluminum-silicon filler metal.

Hochanadel, P. W. (Patrick W.); Hults, W. L. (William L.); Thoma, D. J. (Dan J.); Dave, V. R. (Vivek R.); Kelly, A. M. (Anna Marie); Pappin, P. A. (Pallas A.); Cola, M. J. (Mark J.); Burgardt, P. (Paul)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Center punched solar cell module development effort. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of an advanced module development program with the objective of providing a low cost solar cell mechanical interconnect design are presented. The design approach, which avoids soldering or welding operations, lends itself to automated assembly techniques thus supporting the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project goals. During the course of the program, a total of twelve modules were delivered to JPL for qualification testing. The first group of six modules contained aluminum contact cells and the second group of six modules contained silver-titanium-palladium contact cells. Extensive component and environmental testing by Xerox Electro-Optical Systems at the module level has shown that reliable cell mechanical interconnection can be achieved when utilizing the proper electrical contact materials and pressures. Environmental testing of XEOS modules at JPL, in accordance with the same JPL specification used by XEOS, will be performed and the results will be separately published. The module design, manufacturing procedure, test program, significant problem areas and solutions, and conclusions and recommendations as formulated and conducted by XEOS are discussed.

Ross, R.E.; Mortensen, W.E.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Capillary test specimen, system, and methods for in-situ visualization of capillary flow and fillet formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A capillary test specimen, method, and system for visualizing and quantifying capillary flow of liquids under realistic conditions, including polymer underfilling, injection molding, soldering, brazing, and casting. The capillary test specimen simulates complex joint geometries and has an open cross-section to permit easy visual access from the side. A high-speed, high-magnification camera system records the location and shape of the moving liquid front in real-time, in-situ as it flows out of a source cavity, through an open capillary channel between two surfaces having a controlled capillary gap, and into an open fillet cavity, where it subsequently forms a fillet on free surfaces that have been configured to simulate realistic joint geometries. Electric resistance heating rapidly heats the test specimen, without using a furnace. Image-processing software analyzes the recorded images and calculates the velocity of the moving liquid front, fillet contact angles, and shape of the fillet's meniscus, among other parameters.

Hall, Aaron C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hosking, F. Michael (Albuquerque, NM),; Reece, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

395

MOD silver metallization for photovoltaics. Quarterly technical report, March 1, 1984-May 31, 1984. [Metalloorganic deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It was demonstrated that the nature of the initial solvent used to extract the silver neodecanoate during synthesis or to render it into solution for ink formulation has a profound influence on fired film properties. The lower the boiling point of the initial solvent, the more of it was removed during rotary vacuum evaporation, and the less effect it had on fired film properties. Benzene and tetrahydrofuran were superior to xylene and toluene, and inks which used them in their preparation produced fired films with excellent appearance and adhesion if the proper firing sequence was used. The best films also had electrical resistivities very close to that of pure silver, which indicates that near theoretical density was achieved. Platinum and palladium metallo-organic compounds were investigated so that fired films with good solder leach resistance could be produced. Six metallo-organic compounds were synthesized, four of them were used to make inks, and the properties of films made from these inks were evaluated. The most promising compound evaluated was Pt 2,4 pentane dionate, but additional studies are required.

Vest, G.M.; Vest, R.W.

1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

396

Innovative Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A functioning SOFC requires different type of seals such as metal-metal, metal-ceramic, and ceramic-ceramic. These seals must function at high temperatures between 600--900{sup o}C and in oxidizing and reducing environments of the fuels and air. Among the different type of seals, the metal-metal seals can be readily fabricated using metal joining, soldering, and brazing techniques. However, the metal-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic seals require significant research and development because the brittle nature of ceramics/glasses can lead to fracture and loss of seal integrity and functionality. Consequently, any seals involving ceramics/glasses require a significant attention and technology development for reliable SOFC operation. This final report is prepared to describe the progress made in the program on the needs, approaches, and performance of high temperature seals for SOFC. In particular, a new concept of self-healing glass seals is pursued for making seals between metal-ceramic material combinations, including some with a significant expansion mismatch.

Singh, Raj

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

397

Module experimental process system development unit (MEPSDU). Quarterly report No. 4, September 1, 1981-November 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the technical readiness of a cost-effective process sequence that has the potential for the production of flat plate photovoltaic modules which meet the price goal in 1986 of 70 cents or less per Watt peak. The major accomplishments of the program to date have been the development of an improved AR coating technique, the development of sand blast back clean-up to reduce clean up costs and to allow much of the Al paste to serve as a back conductor, and finally the development of wave soldering for use with solar cells. During the quarter, program efforts included: suspension of all module processing efforts per JPL's orders; redefining the program budget, schedule and program plan to reflect the reduced funding level and scope of work; processing of control and test material via a controlled process sequence to determine the material capability; experimentation with diffusion barrier materials; cell processing to evaluate different process steps; preparation of a cell and minimodule test plan; and collecting data for preliminary Samics cost analysis.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

Kirpich, Aaron S. (Broomall, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

SULTAN measurement and qualification: ITER-US-LLNL-NMARTOVETSKY- 092008  

SciTech Connect

Measuring the characteristics of full scale ITER CICC at SULTAN is the critical qualification test. If volt-ampere characteristic (VAC) or volt-temperature characteristic (VTC) are distorted, the criterion of 10 uV/m may not be a valid criterion to judge the conductor performance. Only measurements with a clear absence or low signals from the current distribution should be considered as quantitatively representative, although in some obvious circumstances one can judge if a conductor will meet or fail ITER requirements. SULTAN full scale ITER CICC testing should be done with all measures taken to ensure uniform current redistribution. A full removal of Cr plating in the joint area and complete solder filling of the joints (with provision of the central channel for helium flow) should be mandatory for DC qualification samples for ITER. Also, T and I should be increased slowly that an equilibrium could be established for accurate measurement of Tcs, Ic and N. It is also desirable to go up in down in current and/or temperature (within stable range) to make sure that the equilibrium is reached.

Martovetsky, N N

2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

400

Bilayer membranes in micro-fluidics: from gel emulsions to soft functional devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We outline a concept of self-assembled soft matter devices based on micro-fluidics, which use surfactant bilayer membranes as their main building blocks, arrested in geometric structures provided by top-down lithography. Membranes form spontaneously when suitable water-in-oil emulsions are forced into micro-fluidic channels at high dispersed-phase volume fractions. They turn out to be remarkably stable even when pumped through the micro-fluidic channel system. Their geometric arrangement is self-assembling, driven by interfacial energy and wetting forces. The ordered membrane arrays thus emerging can be loaded with amphiphilic functional molecules, ion channels, or just be used as they are, exploiting their peculiar physical properties. For wet electronic circuitry, the aqueous droplets then serve as the 'solder points'. Furthermore, the membranes can serve as well-controlled coupling media between chemical processes taking place in adjacent droplets. This is shown for the well-known Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction. Suitable channel geometries can be used to (re-) arrange the droplets, and thereby their contents, in a controlled way by just moving the emulsion through the device. It thereby appears feasible to construct complex devices out of molecular-size components in a self-assembled, but well controlled manner.

Shashi Thutupalli; Stephan Herminghaus; Ralf Seemann

2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Microchannel heat sink assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

402

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1996--31 December 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes Solarex`s accomplishments during this phase of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program. During this reporting period, Solarex researchers converted 79% of production casting stations to increase ingot size and operated them at equivalent yields and cell efficiencies; doubled the casting capacity at 20% the cost of buying new equipment to achieve the same capacity increase; operated the wire saws in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; purchased additional wire saws; developed and qualified a new wire-guide coating material that doubles the wire-guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; ran an Al paste back-surface-field process on 25% of all cells in manufacturing; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; substituted RTV adhesive for the 3M Very High Bond tape after several field problems with the tape; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; demonstrated the use of light soldering for solar cells; demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers; and presented three PVMaT-related papers at the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E November 8, 2013 - 10:22am Addthis Inspired by the design of jet engines, ARPA-E awardee FloDesign flipped wind turbine design on its head and developed a shrouded turbine -- essentially three blades surrounded by two different sized fiberglass frames. | Photo courtesy of Fast Company. Inspired by the design of jet engines, ARPA-E awardee FloDesign flipped wind turbine design on its head and developed a shrouded turbine -- essentially three blades surrounded by two different sized fiberglass frames. | Photo courtesy of Fast Company. Urban Electric Power is one of the spin-off companies created by ARPA-E awardees to take their technologies from the lab to the marketplace. The company is commercializing low-cost, lead-free zinc anode rechargeable batteries that are designed for a wide range of applications in the growing energy storage market. | Photo by Matty Greene, Energy Department.

404

Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ARPA-E ARPA-E Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E November 8, 2013 - 10:22am Addthis Inspired by the design of jet engines, ARPA-E awardee FloDesign flipped wind turbine design on its head and developed a shrouded turbine -- essentially three blades surrounded by two different sized fiberglass frames. | Photo courtesy of Fast Company. Inspired by the design of jet engines, ARPA-E awardee FloDesign flipped wind turbine design on its head and developed a shrouded turbine -- essentially three blades surrounded by two different sized fiberglass frames. | Photo courtesy of Fast Company. Urban Electric Power is one of the spin-off companies created by ARPA-E awardees to take their technologies from the lab to the marketplace. The company is commercializing low-cost, lead-free zinc anode rechargeable batteries that are designed for a wide range of applications in the growing energy storage market. | Photo by Matty Greene, Energy Department.

405

Microsoft Project - BEPII6.mpp  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Predecessors Predecessors 1 Design 77 days Tue 9/30/03 Tue 1/27/04 4 Parts, Tooling Fab & Instl 198 days Mon 9/1/03 Wed 6/16/04 9 Magnet Fabrication 391 days Thu 2/19/04 Wed 9/7/05 10 Magnet #1 351 days Thu 2/19/04 Tue 7/12/05 11 Coil Assembly 241 days Thu 2/19/04 Thu 2/3/05 5FS-2 wks 12 SCQ Quad Coils 105 days Thu 2/19/04 Fri 7/16/04 13 insulate w/ kapton, hypot 1 day Thu 2/19/04 Thu 2/19/04 14 Mount/indicate tube 2 days Fri 2/20/04 Mon 2/23/04 13 15 install substrate 1 day Tue 2/24/04 Tue 2/24/04 14 16 wind layer 1 2 days Wed 2/25/04 Thu 2/26/04 15 17 install G-10 parts, leads 3 days Fri 2/27/04 Tue 3/2/04 16 18 install substrate 1 day Wed 3/3/04 Wed 3/3/04 17 19 wind layer 2 2 days Thu 3/4/04 Fri 3/5/04 18 20 solder outgoing lead 1 day Mon 3/8/04 Mon 3/8/04 19 21 install G-10 parts 3 days Tue 3/9/04 Thu 3/11/04 20 22 prepare for cure

406

Development of a commercial photovoltaic concentrator module  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ojective of this work was to develop the design and prototype of a commercial high-concentration photovoltaic (PV) module. The design is for a 282-sun point-focus concentrating module. Most of the components, subassemblies, and design features incorporate simplifications and ease of manufacturing. The Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) module is designed to incorporate high-efficiency, single-crystal silicon PV cells. The housing is made with aluminum laminated for voltage stand-off and simultaneously providing high thermal conductivity. The Fresnel lens injection molded by American Optical (AO) as singles. The cell assembly consists of a copper heat spreader, a photovoltaic cell soldered, a top and bottom contact, and a reflective secondary optical element (SOE). The cell assemblies passed all of the initial electrical characterization and high-potential tests. Under environmental cycling, the only bond that failed was the PV cell-to-heat spreader interface. The other components (top contact, bottom contact, SOE) passed all the environmental cycling tests. The cell assemblies were designed to be mounted onto the receiver section with a thermally conductive RTV. This geometry was subjected to environmental testing. There was no delamination of this bond nor was there electrical breakdown when the assemblies were subjected to the hi-pot test. A mock module was fabricated for environmental evaluation. This module was subjected to the humidity/freeze cycling to assess the performance of the lens mounting design. This module was also subjected to the rain test after the humidity/freeze cycling and checked for water leaks. The lens showed small displacement from its original position after the environmental cycling. One tablespoon of water did collect inside the module.

Saifee, S.T.; Hutchison, G. [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Segmented dish concentrator design project. [For solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The module uses a non-imaging thermoformed reflector consisting of tiers of conical reflecting surfaces sealed to a curved window which seals the mirror surfaces and the solar cells from the environment. A reflective coating is applied after the module is formed to the inside of the curved surfaces. Coatings of aluminum, silver, and copper were used. The receiver is a hexagonal prism machined on the surface of a metal pipe with the hexagonal shape around the circumference. The receiver holds 18, 2x2 cm. 40X solar cells. Three cells are mounted on each face of the six faces and can be wired in series or series-parallel. The cells are individually soldered to molybdenum with a tab for the back electrical connection. The molybdenum-solar cell combination is mounted to the heat sink with silicon rubber impregnated with powdered silicon. This provides an electrically insulating medium with reasonable thermally conductive properties. The hexagonal heat sink is inserted into the module from the rear, extending far enough into the module to intercept the light reflected from the conical tiers. Each tier illuminates the entire cell surface with the 5 tiers adding together to yield 40X concentration. Water flows inside the heat sink to dissipate the heat generated by the module. Electrical leads, water lines, and thermocouple wires are fed through the back and sealed to prevent environmental interference with the inner surfaces of the module. The module was tested at The University of Arizona. For the silver coated module, an overall efficiency of 7.6% was obtained with an input of 346 watts. Solar cell surface temperature was 50/sup 0/C. The cells were wired in series-parallel and a V/sub oc/ = 4 volts and an I/sub sc/ = 9.2 A was obtained. Four modules were delivered to Sandia in March 1979.

Call, R.L.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

SI PC104 Performance Test Report  

SciTech Connect

The Spectral Instruments (SI) PC104 systems associated with the SI-1000 CCD camera exhibited intermittent power problems during setup, test and operations which called for further evaluation and testing. The SI PC104 System is the interface between the SI-1000 CCD camera and its associated Diagnostic Controller (DC). As such, the SI PC104 must be a reliable, robust system capable of providing consistent performance in various configurations and operating conditions. This SI PC104 system consists of a stackable set of modules designed to meet the PC104+ Industry Standard. The SI PC104 System consists of a CPU module, SI Camera card, Media converter card, Video card and a I/O module. The root cause of power problems was identified as failing solder joints at the LEMO power connector attached to the SI Camera Card. The recommended solution was to provide power to the PC104 system via a PC104+ power supply module configured into the PC104 stack instead of thru the LEMO power connector. Test plans (2) were developed to test SI PC104 performance and identify any outstanding issues noted during extended operations. Test Plan 1 included performance and image acquisition tests. Test Plan 2 verified performance after implementing recommendations. Test Plan 2 also included verifying integrity of system files and driver installation after bootup. Each test plan was implemented to fully test against each set of problems noted. Test Plan presentations and Test Plan results are attached as appendices. Anticipated test results will show successful operation and reliable performance of the SI PC104 system receiving its power via a PC104 power supply module. A SI PC104 Usage Recommendation Memo will be sent out to the SI PC104 User Community. Recommendation memo(s) are attached as appendices.

Montelongo, S

2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

409

Highly Insulating Windows for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reliability in Fenestration Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EverSealed Windows, Inc. (ESW) agreed in early 2006, prior to the contract award, to add three additional deliverables to the Project (new Milestones 30, 31 and 32), and have the results of these three deliverables form the basis of the go/no-go decision for proceeding from BP1 to BP2. ESW completed all three milestones and the DOE agreed in November 2006 to continue the Project. ESW subsequently initiated work on BP2 and its two milestones. These were to (1) Assemble and test glass-to-metal bonded coupons to test the strength of ESW's glass-to-metal bonds (ESW's Test Vehicle 1 or TV1), and (2) to assemble and test the hermeticity of glass and metal packages (ESW's Test Vehicle 2 or TV2). ESW completed both milestones of BP2 in late 2010, demonstrating that its bonds were both strong enough and hermetic enough that vacuum insulating glass units could be assembled and survive a 40+ year service life in any climate in North America. Based on the accomplishments in BP-1, the DOE held a go/no-go meeting in Washington, DC in mid-November 2006 and moved the Project into Budget Period 2 (BP-2). During this go/no-go meeting, the DOE expressed a concern that ESW did not have a back-up plan or process should ESW be unable to make its diffusion bonding process more than adequate for the necessary bond strength and hermeticity of the seal. ESW suggested and volunteered to investigate using a glass frit (i.e., solder glass) as a back-up to its diffusion bonding of glass to oxidized metal.

Stark, David

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

410

Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 5. [Cost analysis and factory design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter, an interim 1982 factory was designed for the large-scale production of silicon solar cell array modules. The boundary conditions for this design are the use of Czochralski silicon crystals and $25/kg polycrystalline silicon. The objective is a large-scale production facility to meet an intermediate ERDA cost goal of $2.00/W in 1982. The approach was to first consider a panel design which could be expected to have a 20-year life and would also meet the JPL specification on mechanical, electrical, and environmental stability. Attention was then directed to a cost analysis of the production of the elements comprising this panel. Since it was expected that wafer production would comprise a major fraction of the cost, several cost reduction schemes were considered for the Czochralski pulling and sawing of the wafers. A solar-cell processing sequence was selected on the basis of our previous cost studies and the projected availability of production equipment by 1982. These criteria resulted in the selection of POCl/sub 3/ gaseous diffusion for junction formation, thick-film Ag screen-printed metallization, spray-on antireflection (AR) coating, and solder reflow interconnect technology. The economic study was made by computer analysis of the cost elements of these process sequences at production levels ranging from 3 to 100 MW/yr. With the results of this study, a 30-MW/yr factory was designed, and a preliminary floor plan layout is given. A manufacturing cost of $2.01/W is projected and, including factory overhead and profit, a selling price of $2.27/W is projected.

D'Aiello, R.V.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Continuous, Automated Manufacturing of String Ribbon Si PV Modules: Final Report, 21 May 1998 - 20 May 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done under a three-year PVMaT Phase 5A2 program. The overall goal was to attain a continuous, highly automated, fully integrated PV production line. In crystal growth, advances were made that resulted in lower substrate costs, higher yields, and lower capital and labor costs. A new string material was developed and implemented. Following this development, better control of the edge meniscus was achieved. A completely new furnace design was accomplished, and this became the standard platform in our new factory. Automation included ribbon thickness control and laser cutting of String Ribbon strips. Characterization of Evergreen's String Ribbon silicon was done with extensive help from the NREL laboratories, and this work provided a foundation for higher efficiency cells in the future. Advances in cell manufacturing included the development of high-speed printing and drying methods for Evergreen's unique cell making method and the design and building of a completely automated cell line from the beginning of front-contact application to the final tabbing of the cells. A so-called no-etch process whereby substrates from crystal growth go directly into p-n junction formation and emerge from this sequence without needing to go in and out of plastic carriers for any wet-chemical processing was developed. Process development as well as automation were brought to bear on improvements in soldering technology and cell interconnection in general. Using state-of-the-art manufacturing science, the Fraunhofer USA Center for Manufacturing Innovation at Boston University facilitated layout and process flow for the operation of our new factory. Evergreen Solar's new factory began operations in the second quarter of 2001. A good measure of the significant impact of this PVMaT subcontract is that virtually all of the manufacturing developments stemming from this project have been incorporated in this new factory.

Hanoka, J. I.

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

An evaluation of chemical screening test kits for lead in paint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X) requires abatement and management of lead-based paint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three chemical screening test kits using materials and methods from one study and subjecting the results to the statistical analysis of another. The three kits were used to predict the presence of lead in paint at ten weight concentrations from 0.04 to 3.97%. Paint was applied to four wood boards yielding a sample size of 40. Four boards were painted with lead-free paint and used as blanks. All of the boards were tested with the three test kits by an untrained individual having no knowledge of the actual lead content. Sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates were calculated for the test kit results. The manufactures` detection limits, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.80, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.42, false positive ranged from 0 to 58%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. At the 0.5% Federal threshold level, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.94, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.5, false positives ranged from 0 to 11.1%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. The observed false positive and false negative rates for all three kits were found to be significantly lower than those reported in a previous study. These results indicate that the kits perform very well at the Federal threshold, with two of the kits having false negative rates below 12.5% and false positive rates of 3.13%. These results indicate that these two kits would probably be acceptable screening tests for lead in paint.

Oglesby, L.S.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Gamma and X-ray shielding compositions utilizing bauxite - Red Mud regional research laboratory (CSIR), Bhopal, India  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The application spectrum of X-ray and Gamma radiation is increasing exponentially in the area of diagnostic, nuclear medicine, food preservation, nuclear power plants and strategic utilities. To prevent the harmful effects of these radiations, shielding materials based on lead metal and its compounds are being used historically, which are toxic in nature. To protect environment it has become necessary to develop non-toxic lead free shielding materials. The use of titanium metal and its compounds as synthetic rock i.e. SYNROC are reported to be very effective non-toxic shielding materials for various applications. Red mud waste generated in aluminum producing industries possesses a unique mineralogical compositions containing fairly high quantity of titanium oxide and iron oxide useful for making non toxic shielding compositions and therefore red mud has been utilized for the first time in the world for making radiation shielding materials. The red mud based compositions developed have been characterized for their various physico-mechanical properties namely compressive strength, impact strength, density and X-ray and gamma radiation shielding capacity in terms of shielding thickness i.e. HVT. Based on the characterization results it is found that the red mud based materials can be used for the construction of X-ray diagnostic and CT-Scanner room and as a substitute shielding material for concrete in the nuclear reactors and other radiation based applications. Studies on the identification of shielding phases and their morphology present, in the red mud based shielding compositions has been carried out using X-ray diffraction and SEM technique. The results of these studies are presented in this paper. (authors)

Anshul, Avneesh; Amritphale, Sudhir Sitaram; Chandra, Navin; Ramakrishnan, N. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Activation energy of degradation in GaAlAs double heterostructure laser diodes  

SciTech Connect

Aging test of GaAlAs double heterostructure (DH) laser diodes is performed in the temperature range of 50--180 /sup 0/C. In samples for the aging test, AuSn-alloy bonding solder is used and the facet coating with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ film is performed. Samples are operated in the light emitting diode (LED) mode with the application of the constant current of 4 kA/cm/sup 2/ and 6 kA/cm/sup 2/ at temperatures above 80 /sup 0/C and in the automatic power control (APC) lasing mode with the constant optical power of 5 mW/facet at 50 and 70 /sup 0/C. The activation energy is 0.5 eV obtained from the results of the LED mode operation at 4 kA/cm/sup 2/. The parameter to evaluate the degradation is the current at which the optical power at 25 /sup 0/C is 5 mW/facet. This parameter includes the deterioration of the external differencial efficiency. It is shown that the increasing rates of this parameter are almost the same at the same temperature between the LED mode operation at 4 kA/cm/sup 2/ and 6 kA/cm/sup 2/. The increasing rate is almost the same when samples are operated in the APC lasing mode. Twenty-three samples operated at 70 /sup 0/C maintain the optical power of 5 mW/facet set initially over 5000 h. The averaged increasing rate of that parameter in these samples is 7.1 x 10/sup -6//h. The activation energy of 0.5 eV is almost the same as that of GaAlAs DH LED's which is 0.56 eV. It is presumed that point defects which disperse homogeneously cause the degradation of laser diodes and this degradation mode seemed to be the same as LED owing to the improvements against the facet degradation and the contact degradation.

Imai, H.; Hori, K.; Takusagawa, M.; Wakita, K.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Harsh environments electronics : downhole applications.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development and operational sustainment of renewable (geothermal) and non-renewable (fossil fuel) energy resources will be accompanied by increasingly higher costs factors: exploration and site preparation, operational maintenance and repair. Increased government oversight in the wake of the Gulf oil spill will only add to the cost burden. It is important to understand that downhole conditions are not just about elevated temperatures. It is often construed that military electronics are exposed to the upper limit in terms of extreme service environments. Probably the harshest of all service conditions for electronics and electrical equipment are those in oil, gas, and geothermal wells. From the technology perspective, advanced materials, sensors, and microelectronics devices are benefificial to the exploration and sustainment of energy resources, especially in terms of lower costs. Besides the need for the science that creates these breakthroughs - there is also a need for sustained engineering development and testing. Downhole oil, gas, and geothermal well applications can have a wide range of environments and reliability requirements: Temperature, Pressure, Vibration, Corrosion, and Service duration. All too frequently, these conditions are not well-defifined because the application is labeled as 'high temperature'. This ambiguity is problematic when the investigation turns to new approaches for electronic packaging solutions. The objective is to develop harsh environment, electronic packaging that meets customer requirements of cost, performance, and reliability. There are a number of challenges: (1) Materials sets - solder alloys, substrate materials; (2) Manufacturing process - low to middle volumes, low defect counts, new equipment technologies; and (3) Reliability testing - requirements documents, test methods and modeling, relevant standards documents. The cost to develop and sustain renewable and non-renewable energy resources will continue to escalate within the industry. Downhole electronics can provide a very cost-effective approach for well exploration and sustainment (data logging). However, the harsh environments are a 'game-changer' in terms defining materials, assembly processes and the long-term reliability of downhole electronic systems. The system-level approach will enable the integration of each of these contributors - materials, processes, and reliability - in order to deliver cost-effective electronics that meet customer requirements.

Vianco, Paul Thomas

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems  

SciTech Connect

The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached to the satellite such as solar panels, radiators, antenna and.telescopes (for communications or sensors). Finally, the packages make thermal contact to the surface of the silicon heat pipe through soft thermal pads. Electronic components can be placed on both sides of the flexible circuit interconnect. Silicon heat pipes have a number of advantages over heat pipe constructed from other materials. Silicon heat pipes offer the ability to put the heat pipe structure beneath the active components of a processed silicon wafer. This would be one way of efficiently cooling the heat generated by wafer scale integrated systems. Using this technique, all the functions of a satellite could be reduced to a few silicon wafers. The integration of the heat pipe and the electronics would further reduce the size and weight of the satellite.

Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

418

Multi-physics investigation on the failure mechanism and short-time scale wave motion in flip-chip configuration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The demands for higher clock speeds and larger current magnitude in high-performance flip-chip electronic packaging configurations of small footprint have inevitably raised the concern over rapid thermal transients and large thermal spatial gradients that could severely compromise package performance. Coupled electrical-thermal-mechanical multi-physics were explored to evaluate the concern and to establish the knowledge base necessary for improving flip-chip reliability. It was found that within the first few hundred nanoseconds upon power-on, there were fast attenuating, dispersive shock waves of extremely high frequency propagating in the package. The notions of high cycle fatigue, power density and joint time-frequency analysis were employed to characterize the waves and the various failure modes associated with the moving of these short-lived dynamical disturbances in bulk materials and along interfaces. A qualitative measure for failure was also developed which enables the extent of damages inflicted by short-time wave propagation to be calculated in the probability sense. Failure modes identified in this study are all in agreement with what have been observed in industry. This suggests that micron cracks or interfacial flaws initiated at the short-time scale would be further propagated by the CTE-induced thermal stresses at the long-time scale and result in eventual electrical disruptions. Although epoxy-based underfills with fillers were shown to be effective in alleviating thermal stresses and improving solder joint fatigue performance in thermal cycling tests of long-time scale, underfill material viscoelasticity was found to be insignificant in attenuating short-time scale wave propagation. On the other hand, the inclusion of Cu interconnecting layers in flip-chips was shown to perform significantly better than Al layers in suppressing short-time scale effects. These results imply that, if improved flip-chip reliability is to be achieved, all packaging constituent materials need to be formulated to have well-defined short-time scale and long-time scale properties. In addition, the results also suggest that the composition and layout of all packaging components be optimized to achieve discouraging or suppressing short-time scale dynamic effects. In summary, results reported herein and numerical procedures developed for the research would not just render higher packaging manufacturing yield, but also bring out significant impact on packaging development, packaging material formulation and micro-circuit layout design.

Oh, Yoonchan

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

The use of management science techniques to improve decision making in poultry processing facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The growth of the poultry industry into a major meat producing agribusiness has caused poultry processing facilities to evolve into major complexes that rely increasingly on machinery to process mass numbers of chicken carcasses. This results in a less flexible environment in which production decisions are made. A software system has been developed to meet these challenges. Parts Pro utilizes its model builder (MB) component to gather statistical and genetic information about the poultry flock to develop a mathematical model representing the constraints of the facility, as well as the request of the decision maker. This information is delivered to the second component, the model solder (MS) which is responsible for solving the mathematical model. Three experiments were conducted to determine if PartsPro was capable of representing a poultry processing facility. In Experiment 1 , genetic information from four different strains of broilers (A,B,C,D), was used in combination with the incrementally increased profits of white and dark meat final products to determine the effects of prices and strain cross on final product. A composite-base control trial was run using a composite average of the strain cross data and base final product prices. Strain cross A combined with 20% increases in white meat final products offered the highest profit of any combinations. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine if the system was capable of accommodating user made production decisions. Final profits and final product mixes were compared to a composite-base run that was the average genetic yields of all strain crosses, and base prices of final products. The system altered cut-up means to accommodate the production of requested products. Final trial profits were less than the composite-base trial. Experiment 3 was conducted to determine the system's sensitivity to price changes of unproduced products. A nearly 60% increase in price of the unproduced product caused the system to alter final product mix. Total profit of the newly altered product mix was less than the composite-base trial. This research demonstrates that management science techniques can be applied successfully to aid decision making in a poultry processing facility.

Conrad, Kenneth Allen

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

High-Temperature High-Power Packaging Techniques for HEV Traction Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A key issue associated with the wider adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV) and plug in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) is the implementation of the power electronic systems that are required in these products. One of the primary industry goals is the reduction in the price of these vehicles relative to the cost of traditional gasoline powered vehicles. Today these systems, such as the Prius, utilize one coolant loop for the engine at approximately 100 C coolant temperatures, and a second coolant loop for the inverter at 65 C. One way in which significant cost reduction of these systems could be achieved is through the use of a single coolant loop for both the power electronics as well as the internal combustion engine (ICE). This change in coolant temperature significantly increases the junction temperatures of the devices and creates a number of challenges for both device fabrication and the assembly of these devices into inverters and converters for HEV and PHEV applications. Traditional power modules and the state-of-the-art inverters in the current HEV products, are based on chip and wire assembly and direct bond copper (DBC) on ceramic substrates. While a shift to silicon carbide (SiC) devices from silicon (Si) devices would allow the higher operating temperatures required for a single coolant loop, it also creates a number of challenges for the assembly of these devices into power inverters. While this traditional packaging technology can be extended to higher temperatures, the key issues are the substrate material and conductor stability, die bonding material, wire bonds, and bond metallurgy reliability as well as encapsulation materials that are stable at high operating temperatures. The larger temperature differential during power cycling, which would be created by higher coolant temperatures, places tremendous stress on traditional aluminum wire bonds that are used to interconnect power devices. Selection of the bond metallurgy and wire bond geometry can play a key role in mitigating this stress. An alternative solution would be to eliminate the wire bonds completely through a fundamentally different method of forming a reliable top side interconnect. Similarly, the solders used in most power modules exhibit too low of a liquidus to be viable solutions for maximum junction temperatures of 200 C. Commonly used encapsulation materials, such as silicone gels, also suffer from an inability to operate at 200 C for extended periods of time. Possible solutions to these problems exist in most cases but require changes to the traditional manufacturing process used in these modules. In addition, a number of emerging technologies such as Si nitride, flip-chip assembly methods, and the elimination of base-plates would allow reliable module development for operation of HEV and PHEV inverters at elevated junction temperatures.

Elshabini, Aicha [University of Idaho; Barlow, Fred D. [University of Idaho

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z