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1

How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Priming the Pump in the Fight against Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis The Ties that Bind Metals to Proteins A Novel Nanobio Catalyst for Biofuels Multiple Crystal Cavities for Unlimited X-ray Energy Resolution and Coherence Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress OCTOBER 10, 2012 Bookmark and Share Lead-free SAC305 solder joints are often a single crystal upon solidification. Thermal strain in the corner joint of a WLCSP package was measured in situ by the peak shift in diffraction patterns during a thermal cycle: Unstrained (420) plane spacing in the unit cell (black) varies with

2

Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder  

SciTech Connect

Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide.

Anderson, Iver

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Lead-Free Solders: Focus on Fundamentals, Reliability, and Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although lead-free solders have been adopted by much of the commercial electronics industry, the implementation of lead-free processes still faces some challenges. The performance of lead-free solder joints in hi...

Babak Arfaei

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lead-free Solder Lead-free Solder Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder May 24, 2012 - 10:45am Addthis Iver Anderson, senior metallurgist at Ames Laboratory, explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs "Many creative solutions to problems in one field can be borrowed from another field..." Dr. Iver Anderson, Ames National Lab senior metallurgist Dr. Iver Anderson, Ames National Laboratory materials scientist, developed

5

Development of lead-free solders for hybrid microcircuits  

SciTech Connect

Extensive work has been conducted by industry to develop lead-free solders for electronics applications. The driving force behind this effort is pressure to ban or tax the use of lead-bearing solders. There has been further interest to reduce the use of hazardous chemical cleaners. Lead-free soldering and low-residue, ``no clean`` assembly processing are being considered as solutions to these environmental issues. Most of the work has been directed toward commercial and military printed wiring board (PWB) technology, although similar problems confront the hybrid microcircuit (HMC) industry, where the development of lead-free HMC solders is generally lagging. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for designing a variety of critical, high reliability hybrid components for radars. Sandia has consequently initiated a project, as part of its Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing program, to develop low-residue, lead-free soldering for HMCs. This paper discusses the progress of that work.

Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Frear, D.R.; Robinson, D.G.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Hybrid microcircuit board assembly with lead-free solders  

SciTech Connect

An assessment was made of the manufacturability of hybrid microcircuit test vehicles assembled using three Pb-free solder compositions 96.5Sn--3.5Ag (wt.%), 91.84Sn--3.33Ag--4.83Bi, and 86.85Sn--3.15Ag--5.0Bi--5.0Au. The test vehicle substrate was 96% alumina; the thick film conductor composition was 76Au--21Pt--3Pd. Excellent registration between the LCCC or chip capacitor packages and the thick film solder pads was observed. Reduced wetting of bare (Au-coated) LCCC castellations was eliminated by hot solder dipping the I/Os prior to assembly of the circuit card. The Pb-free solders were slightly more susceptible to void formation, but not to a degree that would significantly impact joint functionality. Microstructural damage, while noted in the Sn-Pb solder joints, was not observed in the Pb-free interconnects.

Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

7

Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240C for 45s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu6Sn5 from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping of flux with appropriate metallic nanoparticles can be successfully used to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers at the solder/substrate interface which is expected to lead to better reliability of electronic devices.

G.K. Sujan; A.S.M.A. Haseeb; A.B.M. Afifi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Suppressing tin whisker growth in lead-free solders and platings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of irradiation Sn containing Pb-free solder to mitigate whisker formation and growth thereon is provided. The use of gamma radiation such as cobalt-60 has been applied to a substrate of Sn on copper has been found to change the morphology of the crystalline whisker growth to a more truncated hillock pattern. The change in morphology greatly reduces the tendency of whiskers to contribute to electrical short-circuits being used as a Pb-free solder system on a copper substrate.

Hoffman, Elizabeth N; Lam, Poh-Sang

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

9

Interfacial reactions of Sn-3.5% Ag and Sn-3.5% Ag-0.5% Cu solder with electroless Ni/Au metallization during multiple reflow cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The increasing industry awareness of lead-free activities has prompted original ... equipment manufacturers and suppliers to investigate lead-free solder systems in detail. The reliability of lead-free solders ha...

Ahmed Sharif; Y. C. Chan

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Reactive Spreading of a Lead-Free Solder on Alumina  

SciTech Connect

The wetting of Sn3Ag-based alloys on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied using the sessile-drop configuration. Small additions of Ti decrease the contact angle of Sn3Ag alloys on alumina from 115 to 23 degrees. Adsorption of Ti-species at the solid-liquid interface prior to reaction is the driving force for the observed decrease in contact angle, and the spreading kinetics is controlled by the kinetics of Ti dissolution into the molten alloy. The addition of Ti increases the transport rates at the solid-liquid interface, resulting in the formation of triple-line ridges that pin the liquid front and promote a wide variability in the final contact angles.

Gremillard, L.; Saiz, E.; Radmilovic, V.R.; Tomsia, A.P.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components: Tin Whisker Growth METALS This project degraded by the switch to lead- free technology. In particular, the state of compressive stress and the localized creep response (whisker growth) of tin-based lead-free electrodeposits are being measured

12

Hybrid Input?Output Approach to Metal Production and Its Application to the Introduction of Lead-Free Solders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graduate School of Economics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050, Japan, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 980-8579, Japan, and Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan ... household electrical appliances(except air conditioners) ... For a given EoL product, its recovery is easier when it is concentrated in a few public sectors than when it is scattered over a large number of private households. ...

Shinichiro Nakamura; Shinsuke Murakami; Kenichi Nakajima; Tetsuya Nagasaka

2008-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

13

Lead-free precussion primer mixes based on metastable interstitial composite (MIC) technology  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lead-free percussion primer composition and a percussion cup containing e composition. The lead-free percussion primer composition is comprised of a mixture of about 45 wt % aluminum powder having an outer coating of aluminum oxide and molybdenum trioxide powder or a mixture of about 50 wt % aluminum powder having an outer coating of aluminum oxide and polytetrafluoroethylene powder. The aluminum powder, molybdenum trioxide powder and polytetrafluoroethylene powder has a particle size of 0.1 .mu.m or less, more preferably a particle size of from about 200-500 angstroms.

Dixon, George P. (Alexandria, VA); Martin, Joe A. (Espanola, NM); Thompson, Don (Ridgecrest, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Nano-soldering to single atomic layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

Girit, Caglar O. (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, CA)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

15

Cosmic ray modulation studies with Lead-free Gulmarg neutron monitor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A lead-free neutron monitor operating at High Altitude Research Laboratory (HARL), Gulmarg optimized for detecting 2.45 MeV neutron bursts produced during the atmospheric lightning discharges is also concurrently used for studying background neutron component present in the atmosphere. These background neutrons are produced due to the interaction of primary cosmic rays with the atmospheric constituents. In order to study and extract the information about the yield of the neutron production during transient atmospheric lightning discharges, the system is continuously operated to monitor and record the cosmic ray produced background secondary neutrons in the atmosphere. The data analysis of the background neutrons recorded by Lead-Free Gulmarg Neutron Monitor (LFGNM) has convincingly established that the modulation effects due to solar activity phenomena compare very well with those monitored by the worldwide IGY or NM64 type neutron monitors which have optimum energy response relatively towards the higher energy regime of the cosmic rays. The data has revealed various types of modulation phenomena like diurnal variation, Forbush decrease etc. during its entire operational period. However, a new kind of a periodic/seasonal variation pattern is also revealed in the data from September 2007 to September 2012, which is seen to be significantly consistent with the data recorded by Emilio Segre observatory, Israel (ESOI) Neutron Monitor. Interestingly, both these neutron monitors have comparable latitude and altitude. However, the same type of consistency is not observed in the data recorded by the other conventional neutron monitors operating across the globe.

M. A. Darzi; P. M. Ishtiaq; T. A. Mir; S. Mufti; G. N. Shah

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

16

Feature selection for automatic solder joint inspection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FEATURE SELECTION FOR AUTOMATIC SOLDER JOINT INSPECTION A Thesis CHENG-CHENG LEE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AiVM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering FEATURE SELECTION FOR AUTOMATIC SOLDER JOINT INSPECTION A Thesis by CHENG-CHENG LEE Approved as to style and content by: Morris Driels (Chairman of Committee) Norman Gris ld (Member) i(?? Oren Xlasor'i (kfembef...

Lee, Cheng-Cheng

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

17

Application of the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to the lead-free equipment selection decision  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After 1 July 2006, a major challenge that the manufacturing industry has to confront now is the effect of the lead-free equipment system selection process on companies' capital expenditure decision. With capital investment, the criteria may be financial (e.g. expected cash flows) and non-financial (e.g. product quality). We use a systems approach with the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method as the decision support system to help decision makers making better choices both in relation to tangible criteria and intangible criteria. Fuzzy set theory will be utilised to provide an effective way of dealing with the uncertainty of human subjective interpretation of tangible and intangible criteria.

Yu-Cheng Tang; Thomas W. Lin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Performance testing of lead free primers: blast waves, velocity variations, and environmental testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results are presented for lead free primers based on diazodinitrophenol (DDNP)compared with tests on lead styphnate based primers. First, barrel friction measurements in 5.56 mm NATO are presented. Second, shot to shot variations in blast waves are presented as determined by detonating primers in a 7.62x51mm rifle chamber with a firing pin, but without any powder or bullet loaded and measuring the blast wave at the muzzle with a high speed pressure transducer. Third, variations in primer blast waves, muzzle velocities, and ignition delay are presented after environmental conditioning (150 days) for two lead based and two DDNP based primers under cold and dry (-25 deg C,0% relative humidity), ambient (20 deg C, 50% relative humidity), and hot & humid (50 deg C, 100% relative humidity) conditions in 5.56 mm NATO. Taken together, these results indicate that DDNP based primers are not sufficiently reliable for service use.

Courtney, Elya; Summer, Peter David; Courtney, Michael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Review: Computational intelligence in mass soldering of electronics - A survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mass soldering of electronic components is one of the key processes in electronics production, because it affects directly the functionality of the final product. Mass soldering, like other processes of manufacturing electronics, is constantly facing ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Computational intelligence, Electronics, Soldering

Mika Liukkonen; Elina Havia; Yrj Hiltunen

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints  

SciTech Connect

Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.

Song, Ho Geon

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Outsmarting Flu Viruses | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Priming the Pump in the Fight against Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis The Ties that Bind Metals to Proteins A Novel Nanobio Catalyst for Biofuels Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Outsmarting Flu Viruses OCTOBER 9, 2012 Bookmark and Share Surface representation of influenza hemagglutinin (white) with the newly identified sites of vulnerability colored red. Each site is unique and targeted by a different antibody. CR8033 (blue) binds to the head of HA, CR8071 (green) just below the head, while CR9114 (yellow) binds the stem. The stem binding CR9114, with its cross-neutralizing ability for influenza

22

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted soldering effects Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a detrimental effect on the strength of the solder joint. Internal strains within... to surface tension and wetting effects, thus causing strains as the solder solidifies....

23

High temperature solder alloys for underhood applications: Final report  

SciTech Connect

In this continued study, the microstructural evolution and peel strength as a function of thermal aging were evaluated for four Sn-Ag solders deposited on double layered Ag-Pt metallization. Additionally, activation energies for intermetallic growth over the temperature range of 134 to 190{degrees}C were obtained through thickness measurements of the Ag-Sn intermetallic that formed at the solder-metallization interface. It was found that Bi-containing solders yielded higher activation energies for the intermetallic growth, leading to thicker intermetallic layers at 175 and 190{degrees}C for times of 542 and 20.5 hrs, respectively, than the solders free of Bi. Complete reaction of the solder with the metallization occurred and lower peel strengths were measured on the Bi-containing solders. In all solder systems, a Ag-Sn intermetallic thickness of greater than {approximately}7 {mu}m contributed to lower peel strength values. The Ag-Sn binary eutectic composition and the Ag-Sn-Cu ternary eutectic composition solders yielded lower activation energies for intermetallic formation, less microstructural change with time, and higher peel strengths; these solder systems were resilient to the effects of temperatures up to 175{degrees}C. Accelerated isothermal aging studies provide useful criteria for recommendation of materials systems. The Sn-Ag and Sn-Ag-Cu eutectic compositions should be considered for future service life and reliability studies based upon their performance in this study.

Kern, J.A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Drewien, C.A.; Yost, F.G.; Sackinger, S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weiser, M.W. [Johnson-Mathey Electronics Corp., Spokane, WA (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties of solder  

SciTech Connect

Solder joints in microelectronics devices consist of low-melting solder compositions that wet and join metal contacts and are, ordinarily, used at high homologous temperatures in the as-solidified condition. Differences in solidification rate and substrate interactions have the consequence that even solder joints of similar compositions exhibit a wide range of microstructures. The variation in microstructure causes a variation in properties; in particular, the high-temperature creep properties that govern much of the mechanical behavior of the solder may differ significantly from joint to joint. The present paper reviews the varieties of microstructure that are found in common solder joints, and describes some of the ways in which microstructural changes affect mechanical properties and joint reliability.

Morris, J.W. Jr.; Reynolds, H.L.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Mechanical confinement for improved energy storage density in BNT-BT-KNN lead-free ceramic capacitors  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of modern power electronics, embedded circuits and non-conventional energy harvesting, the need for high performance capacitors is bound to become indispensible. The current state-of-art employs ferroelectric ceramics and linear dielectrics for solid state capacitance. However, lead-free ferroelectric ceramics propose to offer significant improvement in the field of electrical energy storage owing to their high discharge efficiency and energy storage density. In this regards, the authors have investigated the effects of compressive stress as a means of improving the energy storage density of lead-free ferroelectric ceramics. The energy storage density of 0.91(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.07BaTiO{sub 3}-0.02(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ferroelectric bulk ceramic was analyzed as a function of varying levels of compressive stress and operational temperature .It was observed that a peak energy density of 387 mJ.cm{sup -3} was obtained at 100 MPa applied stress (25{sup o}C). While a maximum energy density of 568 mJ.cm{sup -3} was obtained for the same stress at 80{sup o}C. These values are indicative of a significant, 25% and 84%, improvement in the value of stored energy compared to an unloaded material. Additionally, material's discharge efficiency has also been discussed as a function of operational parameters. The observed phenomenon has been explained on the basis of field induced structural transition and competitive domain switching theory.

Chauhan, Aditya; Patel, Satyanarayan; Vaish, Rahul, E-mail: rahul@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, 175 001 (India)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

27

Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

1987-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

28

Development of a new Pb-free solder: Sn-Ag-Cu  

SciTech Connect

With the ever increasing awareness of the toxicity of Pb, significant pressure has been put on the electronics industry to get the Pb out of solder. This work pertains to the development and characterization of an alloy which is Pb-free, yet retains the proven positive qualities of current Sn-Pb solders while enhancing the shortcomings of Sn-Pb solder. The solder studied is the Sn-4.7Ag-1.7Cu wt% alloy. By utilizing a variety of experimental techniques the alloy was characterized. The alloy has a melting temperature of 217{degrees}C and exhibits eutectic melting behavior. The solder was examined by subjecting to different annealing schedules and examining the microstructural stability. The effect of cooling rate on the microstructure of the solder was also examined. Overall, this solder alloy shows great promise as a viable alternative to Pb-bearing solders and, as such, an application for a patent has been filed.

Miller, C.M.

1995-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

29

E-Print Network 3.0 - au-sn solder joints Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

that which is already included in your... joint and you should remove the solder (with a pump, or a solder wick) and redo it. - Take care... joints, bridges across adjacent tracks...

30

Corrosion Issues in Solder Joint Design and Service  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion is an important consideration in the design of a solder joint. It must be addressed with respect to the service environment or, as in the case of soldered conduit, as the nature of the medium being transported within piping or tubing. Galvanic-assisted corrosion is of particular concern, given the fact that solder joints are comprised of different metals or alloy compositions that are in contact with one-another. The (thermodynamic) potential for corrosion to take place in a particular environment requires the availability of the galvanic series for those conditions and which includes the metals or alloys in question. However, the corrosion kinetics, which actually determine the rate of material loss under the specified service conditions, are only available through laboratory evaluations or field data that are found in the existing literature or must be obtained by in-house testing.

VIANCO,PAUL T.

1999-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

31

The impact of process parameters on gold elimination from soldered connector assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Minimizing the likelihood of solder joint embrittlement in connectors is realized by reducing or eliminating retained Au plating and/or Au-Sn intermetallic compound formation from the assemblies. Gold removal is performed most effectively by using a double wicking process. When only a single wicking procedure can be used, a higher soldering temperature improves the process of Au removal from the connector surfaces and to a nominal extent, removal of Au-contaminated solder from the joint. A longer soldering time did not appear to offer any appreciable improvement toward removing the Au-contaminated solder from the joint. Because the wicking procedure was a manual process, it was operator dependent.

VIANCO,PAUL T.; KILGO,ALICE C.

2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fundamentals of wetting and spreading with emphasis on soldering  

SciTech Connect

Soldering is often referred to as a mature technology whose fundamentals were established long ago. Yet a multitude of soldering problems persist, not the least of which are related to the wetting and spreading of solder. The Buff-Goodrich approach to thermodynamics of capillarity is utilized in a review of basic wetting principles. These thermodynamics allow a very compact formulation of capillary phenomena which is used to calculate various meniscus shapes and wetting forces. These shapes and forces lend themselves to experimental techniques, such as the sessile drop and the Wilhelmy plate, for measuring useful surface and interfacial energies. The familiar equations of Young, Wilhelmy, and Neumann are all derived with this approach. The force-energy duality of surface energy is discussed and the force method is developed and used to derive the Herring relations for anisotropic surfaces. The importance of contact angle hysteresis which results from surface roughness and chemical inhomogeneity is presented and Young's equation is modified to reflect these ever present effects. Finally, an analysis of wetting with simultaneous metallurigical reaction is given and used to discuss solder wetting phenomena. 60 refs., 13 figs.

Yost, F.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Flat-to-Flat Solder Seal Andrey Elagin1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surfaces are coated with 200nm of NiCr (80:20%) and 200nm of Cu If long time in air before sealing ­ clean1 Flat-to-Flat Solder Seal Andrey Elagin1 , Henry Frisch1 , Mary Heintz1 , Richard Northrop1 A complete LAPPD glass tile except for an aluminum photo-cathode top seal by compression on a viton o

34

Effect of Heat Treatment Conditions on Properties of Lead-Free Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} Ferroelectric Glass Ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Nowadays, lead-free ferroelectric materials have attracted much interest among materials scientists as a result of environmental concern. The bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}) phase, one of the lead-free ferroelectric crystals, is of particular interest as its composition already contains good glass former (GeO{sub 2}) and can be prepared by an alternative glass ceramic route. In this work, the conventional melt-quenching method was used to produce the parent glass with composition of 60 mol% BiO{sub 1.5}:20 mol% GeO{sub 2}:20 mol% BO{sub 1.5}. The as-received glass pieces were subjected to the heat treatment schedule at various crystallization temperatures and dwell-times. The glass and glass ceramics samples were then investigated by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and their dielectric properties were also measured. The XRD and Raman spectroscopy showed that the crystallinity of the prepared glass ceramics depended very much on crystallization temperature and dwell-time. The larger dielectric constant and lower dielectric loss were obtained as crystallinity of the glass ceramics enhanced. The highest dielectric constant (epsilon{sub r}) was found at 77 with a low dielectric loss of about 0.005.

Kantha, P.; Pengpat, K.; Rujijanagul, G.; Tunkasiri, T.; Eitssayeam, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Intatha, U. [School of Science, Mae Fha Luang University, Chiang Rai, 57100 (Thailand); Sirisoonthorn, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

35

Modeling and implementation of solder-activated joints for single actuator, centimeter-scale robotic mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explains when, and why, solder-based phase change materials (PCMs) are best-suited as a means to modify a robotic mechanism's kinematic and elastomechanic behavior. The preceding refers to mechanisms that possess ...

Telleria, Maria J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Microstructurally based thermomechanical fatigue lifetime model of solder joints for electronic applications  

SciTech Connect

We present a new methodology for predicting the fatigue life of solder joints for electronics applications. This approach involves integration of experimental and computational techniques. The first stage involves correlating the manufacturing and processing parameters with the starting microstructure of the solder joint. The second stage involves a series of experiments that characterize the evolution of the microstructure during thermal cycling. The third stage consists of a computer modeling and simulation effort that utilizes the starting microstructure and experimental data to produce a reliability prediction of the solder joint. This approach is an improvement over current methodologies because it incorporates the microstructure and properties of the solder directly into the model and allows these properties to evolve as the microstructure changes during fatigue.

Frear, D.R.; Rashid, M.M.; Burchett, S.N.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force  

SciTech Connect

The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burress, R.V. [SEHO (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Description of a solder pulse generator for the single step formation of ball grid arrays  

SciTech Connect

The traditional geometry for surface mount devices is the peripheral array where the leads are on the edges of the device. As the technology drives towards high input/output (I/O) count (increasing number of leads) and smaller packages with finer pitch (less distance between peripheral leads), limitations on peripheral surface mount devices arise. The leads on these fine pitch devices are fragile and can be easily bent. It becomes increasingly difficult to deliver solder past to leads spaced as little as 0.012 inch apart. Too much solder mass can result in bridging between leads while too little solder can contribute to the loss of mechanical and electrical continuity. A solution is to shift the leads from the periphery of the device to the area under the device. This scheme is called areal array packaging and is exemplified by the ball grid array (BGA) package. A system has been designed and constructed to deposit an entire array of several hundred uniform solder droplets onto a printed circuit board in a fraction of a second. The solder droplets wet to the interconnect lands on a pc board and forms a basis for later application of a BGA device. The system consists of a piezoelectric solder pulse unit, heater controls, an inert gas chamber and an analog power supply/pulse unit.

Schmale, D.T.; Frear, D.R.; Yost, F.G.; Essien, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials and Process Sciences Center

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

The development of the physical fundamentals of contact soldering as a factor for reducing the number of defects in electronic devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automated control systems employ electronic components that are connected with a printed circuit board (PCB) by soldered joints. At elevated temperatures and with high vibration levels, soldering defects may o...

V. N. Shtennikov; B. T. Budai

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

MHD wave generators with a screw flow-through channel for automated soldering of the printed-circuit assemblies of radioelectronic apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The basic characteristics of MHDW for soldering with a continuous wave of solder are presented. A similar presentation of characteristics describe soldering with two jets of solder. A diagram of an MHDW with a screw flow-through channel for creating a single continuous wave of solder is illustrated, and consists of a vat with the melted metal. The vat's bottom is constructed in the form of a circular cylinder placed in the hollow of a three-phase rotating-magnetic-field inductor. The main designs of MHD wave generators have proved to be very efficient for mass and large series production.

Gel'fgat, Y.M.; Simsons, Y.A.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Sensitivity of Solder Joint Fatigue to Sources of Variation in Advanced Vehicular Power Electronics Cooling  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates a methodology for taking variation into account in thermal and fatigue analyses of the die attach for an inverter of an electric traction drive vehicle. This method can be used to understand how variation and mission profile affect parameters of interest in a design. Three parameters are varied to represent manufacturing, material, and loading variation: solder joint voiding, aluminum nitride substrate thermal conductivity, and heat generation at the integrated gate bipolar transistor. The influence of these parameters on temperature and solder fatigue life is presented. The heat generation loading variation shows the largest influence on the results for the assumptions used in this problem setup.

Vlahinos, A.; O'Keefe, M.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Assessment of Solder Interconnect Integrity in Dismantled Electronic Components from N57 and B61 Tube-Type Radars  

SciTech Connect

Aging analyses were performed on solder joints from two radar units: (1) a laboratory, N57 tube-type radar unit and (2) a field-returned, B61-0, tube-type radar unit. The cumulative temperature environments experienced by the units during aging were calculated from the intermetallic compound layer thickness and the mean Pb-rich phase particle size metrics for solder joints in the units, assuming an aging time of 35 years for both radars. Baseline aging metrics were obtained from a laboratory test vehicle assembled at AS/FM and T; the aging kinetics of both metrics were calculated from isothermal aging experiments. The N57 radar unit interconnect board solder joints exhibited very little aging. The eyelet solder joints did show cracking that most likely occurred at the time of assembly. The eyelet, SA1126 connector solder joints, showed some delamination between the Cu pad and underlying laminate. The B61 field-returned radar solder joints showed a nominal degree of aging. Cracking of the eyelet solder joints was observed. The Pb-rich phase particle measurements indicated additional aging of the interconnects as a result of residual stresses. Cracking of the terminal pole connector, pin-to-pin solder joint was observed; but it was not believed to jeopardize the electrical functionality of the interconnect. Extending the stockpile lifetime of the B61 tube-type radar by an additional 20 years would not be impacted by the reliability of the solder joints with respect to further growth of the intermetallic compound layer. Additional coarsening of the Pb-rich phase will increase the joints' sensitivity to thermomechanical fatigue.

Rejent, J.A.; Vianco, P.T.; Woodrum, R.A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Soldering with solid state and diode lasers: Energy coupling, temperature rise, process window  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The increasing number of electrical contacts in automobiles in combination with more complex and miniaturized components leads to higher requirements for the joining technologies. In that context laser soldering represents an interesting alternative to conventional techniques. So far solid state lasers[Nd:yttriumaluminumgarnet(YAG)] and CO 2 lasers have been successfully applied in industrial production. Recently the development of high power diode lasers has offered a new laser source for soldering with technological advantages. Absorptivity of laser radiation on metals generally increases with shorter wavelength and consequently diode lasers may lead to a higher process efficiency compared to Nd:YAG lasers. The absorptivity of copper alloys with different surface conditions has been measured at 808 nm (diode) and 1064 nm (Nd:YAG). When heating up the solder joint the intensity distribution of the different laser spots becomes important too. This effect is demonstrated by means of process modeling and temperature measurements for a typical joint geometry. For the case of soldering strip-to-strip joints the effects of the different energy absorption on the process are pointed out.

M. Brandner; G. Seibold; C. Chang; F. Dausinger; H. Hgel

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

RNA Folding: A Little Cooperation Goes a Long Way | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Phase in Cellular Communication A New Phase in Cellular Communication Engineering Thin-Film Oxide Interfaces Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit Outsmarting Flu Viruses How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed RNA Folding: A Little Cooperation Goes a Long Way NOVEMBER 19, 2012 Bookmark and Share Shown here is the energy landscape for folding of a ribozyme, and how cooperation between tertiary interactions at different parts of the structure (red dots) help the RNA reach its unique native structure and avoid non-native intermediates. The nucleic acid RNA is an essential part of the critical process by which

45

Engineering Thin-Film Oxide Interfaces | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit Outsmarting Flu Viruses How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Priming the Pump in the Fight against Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Engineering Thin-Film Oxide Interfaces NOVEMBER 12, 2012 Bookmark and Share LAO thin films on STO substrates are depicted in the top schematics (LAO indicated by blue spheres, STO by green spheres). The top left-hand panel demonstrates a chemically broad interface resulting from conventional growth in a low pressure oxygen environment. In contrast, the top

46

Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Outsmarting Flu Viruses Outsmarting Flu Viruses How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Priming the Pump in the Fight against Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis The Ties that Bind Metals to Proteins Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit NOVEMBER 9, 2012 Bookmark and Share Illustration of a 4-unit-cell film of NdNiO3 (white) confined by LaAlO3 (blue) at the boundaries to make a quantum well structure. Our computers carry out their functions on several semiconducting devices layered together in the very smallest of spaces, known as quantum wells,

47

A New Phase in Cellular Communication | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Thin-Film Oxide Interfaces Engineering Thin-Film Oxide Interfaces Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum Limit Outsmarting Flu Viruses How Lead-Free Solder (Mis)Behaves under Stress Dynamics of Polymer Chains Atop Different Materials Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A New Phase in Cellular Communication NOVEMBER 15, 2012 Bookmark and Share Interactions between N-WASP, phospho-Nephrin and Nck produce large polymers (top panel) that phase separate to produce liquid droplets suspended in aqueous solution (bottom panel). In many physical processes, substances undergo phase transitions, where they are transformed from one state (solid, liquid, or gas) to another.

48

Spreading of Sn-Ag solders on FeNi alloys  

SciTech Connect

The spreading of Sn-3Ag-xBi solders on Fe-42Ni has been studied using a drop transfer setup. Initial spreading velocities as fast as {approx}0.5 m/s have been recorded. The results are consistent with a liquid front moving on a metastable, flat, unreacted substrate and can be described by using a modified molecular-kinetic model for which the rate controlling step is the movement of one atom from the liquid to the surface of the solid substrate. Although the phase diagram predicts the formation of two Fe-Sn intermetallics at the solder/substrate interface in samples heated at temperatures lower than 513 C, after spreading at 250 C only a thin FeSn reaction layer could be observed. Two interfacial layers (FeSn and FeSn2) were found after spreading at 450 C.

Saiz, Eduardo; Hwang, C-W.; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2003-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

49

Determination of crystallographic orientation of lead-free piezoelectric (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Crystallographic structure of sol-gel-processed lead-free (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN) epitaxial films on [100]-cut SrTiO{sub 3} single-crystalline substrates was investigated for a deeper understanding of its piezoelectric response. Lattice parameter measurement by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the orthorhombic KNN films on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces are [010] oriented (b-axis-oriented) rather than commonly identified c-axis orientation. Based on the crystallographic orientation and corresponding ferroelectric domain structure investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy, the superior piezoelectric property along b-axis of epitaxial KNN films than other orientations can be explained.

Yu, Qi; Zhu, Fang-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Qian; Wang, Ke; Li, Jing-Feng, E-mail: jingfeng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China)] [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

50

Study of indium and solder bumps for the BTeV Pixel Detector  

SciTech Connect

The pixel detector proposed for the BTeV experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron will use bump-bonding technology based on either Indium or Pb/Sn solder to connect the front-end readout chips to the silicon pixel sensors. We have studied the strength of the bumps by visual inspection of the bumps bonding silicon sensor modules to dummy chips made out of glass. The studies were done before and after thermal cycles, exposed to intense irradiation, and with the assemblies glued to a graphite substrate. We have also carried out studies on effects of temperature changes on both types of bump bonds by observing the responses of single-chip pixel detectors to an Sr{sup 90} source. We report the results from these studies and our plan to measure the effect of cryogenic temperatures on the bumps.

Simon W Kwan et al.

2003-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

51

Contributions Of Stress And Oxidation On The Formation Of Whiskers In Pb-Free Solders  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research activities of WP-1754. The study focusses on the environmental factors influencing formation of lead free whiskers on electrodeposited tin coatings over copper (or copper containing) substrates. Much of the initial results are summarized in an interim report. From the initial results, two main areas were chosen to be the focus of additional research: the demonstration of effects of elastic stress state in the nucleation of whiskers and the confirmation of the effect of oxygen/nitrogen ratio in the formation of whiskers. Different levels of elastic stress were induced with the incorporation of a custom designed fixture that loaded the substrates in a four-point bending configuration and were maintained in an environmental chamber under conditions deemed favorable for whisker growth. The results show that induced elastic stress slightly increased the concentration of nucleation sites of whiskers. The effects of oxygen content were studied by aging substrates in gas vials of varying absolute pressure and different oxygen/nitrogen ratios. The concentration of whiskers were measured and appear to be sensitive to absolute pressure but are not sensitive to oxygen content (as previously observed).

Duncan, A. J.; Hoffman, E. N.

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

52

Process for reducing series resistance of solar-cell metal-contact systems with a soldering-flux etchant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a process for substantially reducing the series resistance of a solar cell having a thick film metal contact assembly thereon while simultaneously removing oxide coatings from the surface of the assembly prior to applying solder therewith. The process includes applying a flux to the contact assembly and heating the cell for a period of time sufficient to substantially remove the series resistance associated with the assembly by etching the assembly with the flux while simultaneously removing metal oxides from said surface of said assembly.

Coyle, R.T.; Barrett, J.M.

1982-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

53

Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer  

SciTech Connect

Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

Covey, Debra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

andersoi | The Ames Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

joining problems including lead-free solders, braze alloys, resistance welding, and ceramic composite bonding Honors & Awards: Iowa State University Intellectual Property Award,...

55

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 Indium is a key material in lead-free solder...

56

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended...

57

Getting the Lead Out  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Discarded electronics no longer pose an environmental hazard from lead solder thanks to a lead-free alternative developed at the Ames Laboratory.

Gibson, Kerry

2011-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

58

The atomic structure of lead-free Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} by using neutron total scattering analysis  

SciTech Connect

We conducted neutron total scattering measurements on lead-free Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-0.5(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} (BZT-0.5BCT) ceramic at 300 K and 150 K, and studied both long-range and local structures near the morphotropic phase boundary. Despite the long-range phase transition from tetragonal to rhombohedral structures, we found that local atomic structure of BZT-0.5BCT barely changes between 300 K and 150 K. To incorporate both long-range and local structures in a consistent way, we performed reverse Monte Carlo modeling. In BZT-0.5BCT, we found that the Ca substitution on Ba sites causes little impact on the local displacement of Ti ion but enhances octahedral tilting of ZrO{sub 6}, resulting in nonuniform lattice distortion.

Jeong, I.-K. [Department of Physics Education and Research Center for Dielectrics and Advanced Matter Physics, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, J. S. [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

59

An analysis of lead-free (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.915}-(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.05}Ba{sub 0.02}Sr{sub 0.015}TiO{sub 3} ceramic for efficient refrigeration and thermal energy harvesting  

SciTech Connect

This article demonstrates the colossal energy harvesting capability of a lead-free (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.915}-(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.05}Ba{sub 0.02}Sr{sub 0.015}TiO{sub 3} ceramic using the Olsen cycle. The maximum harvestable energy density estimated for this system is found to be 1523?J/L (1523?kJ/m{sup 3}) where the results are presented for extreme ambient conditions of 20160?C and electric fields of 0.14 MV/m. This estimated energy density is 1.7 times higher than the maximum reported to date for the lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (thin film) system. Moreover, this study introduces a generalized and effective solid state refrigeration cycle in contrast to the ferroelectric Ericson refrigeration cycle. The cycle is based on a temperature induced polarization change on application of an unipolar electric field to ferroelectric ceramics.

Vats, Gaurav; Vaish, Rahul, E-mail: rahul@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175 001 (India); Bowen, Chris R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Materials Research Centre, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

60

Long ranged structural modulation in the pre-morphotropic phase boundary cubic-like state of the lead-free piezoelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

The nature of the pre-morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) cubic-like state in the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1?x)Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-(x)BaTiO{sub 3} at x???0.06 has been examined in detail by electric field and temperature dependent neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, dielectric and ferroelectric characterization. The superlattice reflections in the neutron diffraction patterns cannot be explained with the tetragonal P4bm and the rhombohedral (R3c) phase coexistence model. The cubic like state is rather a result of long ranged modulated complex octahedral tilt. This modulated structure exhibits anomalously large dielectric dispersion. The modulated structure transforms to a MPB state on poling. The field-stabilized MPB state is destroyed and the modulated structure is restored on heating the poled specimen above the Vogel-Fulcher freezing temperature. The results show the predominant role of competing octahedral tilts in determining the nature of structural and polar states in Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-based ferroelectrics.

Garg, Rohini; Narayana Rao, Badari; Ranjan, Rajeev, E-mail: rajeev@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Senyshyn, Anatoliy [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitt Mnchen, Lichtenbergestrasse 1, D-85747 Garching b. Mnchen (Germany)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

An analysis of the pull strength behaviors of fine-pitch, flip chip solder interconnections using a Au-Pt-Pd thick film conductor on Low-Temperature, Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) substrates.  

SciTech Connect

The assembly of the BDYE detector requires the attachment of sixteen silicon (Si) processor dice (eight on the top side; eight on the bottom side) onto a low-temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate using 63Sn-37Pb (wt.%, Sn-Pb) in a double-reflow soldering process (nitrogen). There are 132 solder joints per die. The bond pads were gold-platinum-palladium (71Au-26Pt-3Pd, wt.%) thick film layers fired onto the LTCC in a post-process sequence. The pull strength and failure modes provided the quality metrics for the Sn-Pb solder joints. Pull strengths were measured in both the as-fabricated condition and after exposure to thermal cycling (-55/125 C; 15 min hold times; 20 cycles). Extremely low pull strengths--referred to as the low pull strength phenomenon--were observed intermittently throughout the product build, resulting in added program costs, schedule delays, and a long-term reliability concern for the detector. There was no statistically significant correlation between the low pull strength phenomenon and (1) the LTCC 'sub-floor' lot; (2) grit blasting the LTCC surfaces prior to the post-process steps; (3) the post-process parameters; (4) the conductor pad height (thickness); (5) the dice soldering assembly sequence; or (5) the dice pull test sequence. Formation of an intermetallic compound (IMC)/LTCC interface caused by thick film consumption during either the soldering process or by solid-state IMC formation was not directly responsible for the low-strength phenomenon. Metallographic cross sections of solder joints from dice that exhibited the low pull strength behavior, revealed the presence of a reaction layer resulting from an interaction between Sn from the molten Sn-Pb and the glassy phase at the TKN/LTCC interface. The thick film porosity did not contribute, explicitly, to the occurrence of reaction layer. Rather, the process of printing the very thin conductor pads was too sensitive to minor thixotropic changes to ink, which resulted in inconsistent proportions of metal and glassy phase particles present during the subsequent firing process. The consequences were subtle, intermittent changes to the thick film microstructure that gave rise to the reaction layer and, thus, the low pull strength phenomenon. A mitigation strategy would be the use of physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques to create thin film bond pads; this is multi-chip module, deposited (MCM-D) technology.

Uribe, Fernando R.; Kilgo, Alice C.; Grazier, John Mark; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Zender, Gary L.; Hlava, Paul Frank; Rejent, Jerome Andrew

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Suppression of tin whisker formation on fine pitch connectors by surface roughening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the electronics industry, lead-free solder processes such as the terminal plating of electronic components, fine pitch connectors, and flexible printed circuits (FPCs) are invariably hampered by the serious pr...

Makoto Takeuchi; Kouichi Kamiyama; Katsuaki Suganuma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Process for producing gasoline of high octane number, in particular lead-free gasoline  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing gasoline of high octane number from C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ olefinic cuts, such as those obtained by fractional distillation of a C/sub 3/ / C/sub 4/ catalytic cracking cut. It includes the steps of: (A) oligomerizing propylene of the C/sub 3/ cut to obtain a first gasoline fraction, (B) reacting the isobutene of the C/sub 4/ cut with methanol to produce methyl tert.-butyl ether which is separated from the unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons to form a second gasoline fraction, (C) alkylating said unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons with isobutane in the presence of an alkylation catalyst such as hydrofluoric acid, to form a third gasoline fraction, and (D) admixing, at least partially, said first, second and third gasoline fractions, so as to obtain gasoline of high octane number.

Chauvin, Y.; Gaillard, J.; Hellin, M.; Torck, B.; Vu, Q.D.

1981-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

64

Investigation of Gold Nanoparticle Inks for Low-Temperature Lead-Free Packaging Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of Gold Nanoparticle Inks for Low-Temperaturee-mail: tim_b@eecs.berkeley.edu Gold nanoparticle inks wereInvestigation of Gold Nanoparticle Inks for Low-Temperature

Bakhishev, Teymur; Subramanian, Vivek

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

01 - 27310 of 28,904 results. 01 - 27310 of 28,904 results. Article SunShot Shoots for the Moon with First Grand Challenge Event We invite you to join us for The SunShot Initiative Grand Challenge: Summit and Technology Forum, where we will discuss our progress in driving down the cost of solar technologies, June 13-14, in Denver, Colorado. http://energy.gov/articles/sunshot-shoots-moon-first-grand-challenge-event Article Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder Iver Anderson, Ames National Laboratory materials scientist, discusses the impact of a lead-free solder he invented 15 years ago, the road to commercialization and the lab resources that made it possible. http://energy.gov/articles/lab-breakthrough-lead-free-solder Download EA-1913: Mitigation Action Plan Springfield Sockeye Hatchery Project, Springfield, Bingham County, Idaho

66

MASTER OF SCIENCE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Lead Free Solder IMPROVED AEROTHERMODYNAMIC INSTRUMENTATION OF AN ALLISON T63-A-700 GAS TURBINE ENGINE for the gas generator turbine and exhaust state points were evaluated and average values were calculated. The gas generator turbine inlet and exhaust temperature profiles have been measured and show

67

Dealing With Disaster: Surviving Misbehaved Kernel Extensions Margo I. Seltzer, Yasuhiro Endo, Christopher Small, Keith A. Smith  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Christopher Small, Keith A. Smith Harvard University Abstract Today's extensible operating systems allow

Brown, Angela Demke

68

After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab January 20, 2012 - 11:32am Addthis Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide and has generated more than $39 million in licensing income. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? As of the end of June 2011, lead-free solder generated $38.9 million

69

AWS breaks new ground with soldering specification.  

SciTech Connect

Joining technologies continue to advance with new materials, process innovations, and inspection techniques. An increasing number of high-valued, high-reliability applications -- from boilers and ship hulls to rocket motors and medical devices -- have required the development of industry standards and specifications in order to ensure that the best design and manufacturing practices are being used to produce safe, durable products and assemblies. Standards writing has always had an important role at the American Welding Society (AWS). The AWS standards and specifications cover such topics as filler materials, joining processes, inspection techniques, and qualification methods that are used in welding and brazing technologies. These AWS standards and specifications, all of which are approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), have also provided the basis for many similar documents used in Europe and in Pacific Rim countries.

Vianco, Paul Thomas

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Recent News from the National Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

24, 2012 24, 2012 Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder Iver Anderson, Ames National Laboratory materials scientist, discusses the impact of a lead-free solder he invented 15 years ago, the road to commercialization and the lab resources that made it possible. May 24, 2012 After pitching their business plan to panels of judges at the regional semifinal and final, six teams advanced to the national competition for a chance at the cash grand prize. | Energy Department file graphic. America's Best Student Start-Up Companies Pitch for Your Vote Voting opened on May 24 for voters to review company summaries online, view their 3-minute video pitches, and then 'like' the companies they think will most positively impact America's energy future. May 23, 2012 Unlocking the Power of Energy Data

71

Energy Blog | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4, 2012 4, 2012 Application Engineer Eric Biedermann of Vibrant supervises an automated nondestructive testing system. | Photo courtesy of Sandia National Lab. New Mexico Scientists Help Local Businesses Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories are teaming up with small businesses in New Mexico to provide technical assistance free of charge. May 24, 2012 Lab Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder Iver Anderson, Ames National Laboratory materials scientist, discusses the impact of a lead-free solder he invented 15 years ago, the road to commercialization and the lab resources that made it possible. May 24, 2012 After pitching their business plan to panels of judges at the regional semifinal and final, six teams advanced to the national competition for a chance at the cash grand prize. | Energy Department file graphic.

72

Environ.Sci.Technol.1982,76. 23-30 !5V9 of the gasolineused was lead free; in 1980,the un-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.;Frank,E.R.;Sheesley,D.C. Enuiron.Sci.Technol.1969.5. 453. (6) Stern,A.C."Air Pollution,Air QualityManagement",3rd Ed.;AcademicPress:NewYork,1977;Vot.V. p 521. (7) Zimdahl,R. L.;Skogerboe,R. K. Enuiron.Sci.Technol. 1977,11,1202. (8) Klein,H. D

Short, Daniel

73

E-Print Network 3.0 - arbuscular mycorrhizal roots Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

www.sciencenews.orgviewgenericid333224titlePlantsandfungirecognizegeneroustradingpartners Summary: a misbehaving helper. In the arbuscular mycorrhizal system though,...

74

Structure and electrical properties of Li-doped BaTiO3CaTiO3BaZrO3 lead-free ceramics prepared by citrate method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract 1wt% Li-doped 0.75BaTiO30.15CaTiO30.1BaZrO3 (BCZT) ceramics were prepared by the citrate method. XRD measurement showed that pure perovskite BCZT precursor powders are obtained calcined at 600700C, which exhibit rather homogeneous microstructure morphology with nm-scale grain size. The sintered BCZT ceramics exhibit pure perovskite structure with composition locating at rhombohedral side around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Oxide doping and citrate method exert great influences on microstructure and electrical properties of the Li-doped BCZT ceramics. All the synthesized ceramics exhibit excellent dielectric and ferroelectric properties. The Li-doped BCZT ceramics calcined at 700C and sintered at 1500C exhibit the best dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. The high piezoelectric response of the synthesized Li-doped BCZT ceramics is considered as relating to the MPB effect, Li-doping and wet chemical synthesis method.

Xing Liu; Min Zhu; Zhihui Chen; Bijun Fang; Jianning Ding; Xiangyong Zhao; Haiqing Xu; Haosu Luo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with composition of (0.97?x)Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-0.03NaNbO3-xBaTiO3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Compositions in (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 based ternary system, (0.97 ? x) (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-0.03NaNbO3-xBaTiO3 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06, 0.08) are synthesized using conventional solid state reaction method. In...

Yugong Wu; Huili Zhang; Yue Zhang; Jinyi Ma; Daohua Xie

76

E-Print Network 3.0 - allogeneic split-skin grafting Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

With Disaster: Surviving Misbehaved Kernel Extensions Margo I. Seltzer, Yasuhiro Endo, Christopher Small, Keith A. Smith Summary: of application extensions, or grafts, into the...

77

Comparison of Accelerated Testing with Modeling to Predict Lifetime of CPV Solder Layers (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) cell assemblies can fail due to thermomechanical fatigue in the die-attach layer. In this presentation, we show the latest results from our computational model of thermomechanical fatigue. The model is used to estimate the relative lifetime of cell assemblies exposed to various temperature histories consistent with service and with accelerated testing. We also present early results from thermal cycling experiments designed to help validate the computational model.

Silverman, T. J.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

79

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

80

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Materials and the Development of Civilization and Science  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...point produced by alloying, useful in soldering; diffusion in solids; and vari-ous...they exploit. An even more ingenious soldering operation was the granulation tech-nique...goldsmiths (Fig. 6). The invisible soldering into place of the spherical granules...

Cyril Stanley Smith

1965-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

82

TCP Behavior on Transatlantic Lambdas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent research in the area of high speed TCP has revealed that the protocol can misbehave in cases of high bandwidth long delay networks. Here we present work that clearly demonstrates this behavior of TCP fl...

Wim Sjouw; Antony Antony; Johan Blom; Cees de Laat; Jason Lee

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Holm_USRCAMS_talk.ppt  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

the aging and reliability of solder joints the aging and reliability of solder joints Elizabeth Holm, Michael Neilsen, and Paul Vianco Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185 USA * Typical circuit boards contain thousands of solder joints. * Solder joints function at a high homologous temperature under thermomechanical fatigue conditions. ⇒Solder joints fail. surface mount connectors through hole How big is the problem? * Studies indicate that at least 48% of electronics failures are likely due to solder joint failure. * Solder joints must remain reliable beyond their initial design lifetimes Military and commercial aircraft Satellites Nuclear and conventional weapons ⇒ Solder joints are a design problem: Design for reliability beyond commercial product lifetimes. ⇒ Solder joints are a stewardship problem:

84

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced development model Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office of Biorenewables Programs Collection: Renewable Energy 66 Kompetenzzentrum fr Automobil-und Industrieelektronik Summary: Interconnect technology: Diffusion soldering...

85

Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Community Awareness Pilot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Community Awareness Pilot #12;1 THE GOOD NEWS- Exposure solder, and brass faucets). A

86

A computer music instrumentarium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 6. COMPUTERS: To Solder or Not toMusic Models : A Computer Music Instrumentarium . . . . .Interactive Computer Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Oliver La Rosa, Jaime Eduardo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

PS Tech Spaces: Electro-Mechanical Assembly Only  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

soldering should be performed in delineated areas to avoid cross contamination and spent solder should be collected and recycled. Solder areas should be cleaned periodically (lead wipes area available in the stock room). When using knives/razor blades: · Be aware of hand positioning · Use safety knife when possible

Ohta, Shigemi

88

Latest revised date: October 26, 2011 Page 1 of 5 Prepared by: Department of Health & Safety E-003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Printed Copies of this Document are Uncontrolled LeadBasedPaints,Lead Solder,andHeavyMetals #12;Latest into this category. LEAD SOLDER, PIPING, SHEETING, ETC. Lead is used extensively throughout the University primarily in building construction as pipe joint solder, flashing, shielding, etc. The inhalation of lead dust or fumes

deYoung, Brad

89

Knowledge based process planning system for electronic assembly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In both cases the connection is made permanent by soldering the leads. The two methods require different component geometries, assembly machines and soldering methods. Of these, surface mount method is a relatively new technology and is becoming... of solder paste or adhesives, cleaning processes, material handling, inspection and testing Operations [11, 12, 13]. Assembly Operations are concerned with the delivery of components to a specified location on the board. Assembly Operations can...

Sabapathy, Arvindh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

90

Frstudie fr automatisering av manuell ldning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This degree project has been carried out in cooperation with Enertech AB in Ljungby and is pilot study to automating all current manual soldering. (more)

Schentz, Kristian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

For Immediate Release --Friday, May 10, 2013 Discovery Day brings science to life for Canada-Wide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the Human Body Alberta Water and Environmental Science Building Interactive Tour - Soldering and Circuit Boards Water Watch ­ Monitoring Pollution in Our Water

Seldin, Jonathan P.

92

Heroes and Villains  

SciTech Connect

Why we sometimes need scientists to misbehave publicly Unlike most professional fields, science doesnt have a formalized authority structure, and we scientists dont need a license to ply our trade. Instead, science is a field that depends almost completely on the honor and integrity of its individuals. The communitys reaction to instances of misbehavior serves to reinforce this social compact, helping to keep everyone in line, so to speak.

Wiley, H. S.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

This is an author-deposited version published in : http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID : 8792  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Raynaud, Lidwine Silver oxalate-based solders: New materials for high thermal conductivity microjoining oxalate-based solders: New materials for high thermal conductivity microjoining K. Kiryukhina,a,b,c,d H low pressure (thermal conductivity close to 100 W m?1 K?1 , making silver

Mailhes, Corinne

94

This is an author-deposited version published in : http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID : 8792  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Raynaud, Lidwine Silver oxalate-based solders: New materials for high thermal conductivity microjoining processed at 300 °C and very low pressure (thermal conductivity close to 100 W m?1 K?1 : 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2012.12.018 #12;Silver oxalate-based solders: New materials for high thermal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

Soft Microfluidic Assemblies of Sensors, Circuits, and Radios for the Skin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...monitoring in neonatal care, and assessing cognitive state and awareness. The device in this case (1.9 2.9 cm 2 ) includes 31 component chips and a complex...Movie S1 Video of the self-alignment of chips during the soldering/bonding process. Under controlled heating, the solder...

Sheng Xu; Yihui Zhang; Lin Jia; Kyle E. Mathewson; Kyung-In Jang; Jeonghyun Kim; Haoran Fu; Xian Huang; Pranav Chava; Renhan Wang; Sanat Bhole; Lizhe Wang; Yoon Joo Na; Yue Guan; Matthew Flavin; Zheshen Han; Yonggang Huang; John A. Rogers

2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

96

Latest revised date: October 26, 2011 Page 1 of 5 Prepared by: Department of Health & Safety S-016  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.0 PREAMBLE 1.0 While hot work usually involving brazing, oxyacetylene cutting, grinding, soldering equipment including brazing, oxyacetylene cutting, soldering, grinding, torch applied roofing and welding designed maintenance areas. 3.0 To promote awareness of conditions and situations which can lead

deYoung, Brad

97

BeamLine Operations and Safety Awareness (BLOSA) Checklist Beamline X8A All users must be instructed in operating the beamline safely. Leave checkbox blank if not applicable. Training valid 2 years. Visitors use Visitor/Escort forms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BeamLine Operations and Safety Awareness (BLOSA) Checklist Beamline X8A All users must procedure for removal of solder wasteSolder B CLOSE OUT Secure the beamline and disable shutter/beam before for this beamline:I understand the instructions given to me on beamline operations and safety awareness. Date UAdm

Ohta, Shigemi

98

BeamLine Operations and Safety Awareness (BLOSA) Checklist Beamline X20A All users must be instructed in operating the beamline safely. Leave checkbox blank if not applicable. Training valid 2 years. Visitors use Visitor/Escort forms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BeamLine Operations and Safety Awareness (BLOSA) Checklist Beamline X20A All users must A Review procedure and location for temporary SAA (for soldering or other wastes)SAA - Solder B CLOSE OUT to me on beamline operations and safety awareness. Date UAdmTrainer's Signature J. Jordan-Sweet C

Ohta, Shigemi

99

BeamLine Operations and Safety Awareness (BLOSA) Checklist Beamline X20C All users must be instructed in operating the beamline safely. Leave checkbox blank if not applicable. Training valid 2 years. Visitors use Visitor/Escort forms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BeamLine Operations and Safety Awareness (BLOSA) Checklist Beamline X20C All users must containerDisposal - Sharps A Review procedure and location for temporary SAA (for soldering or other wastes)SAA - Solder B CLOSE OUT Secure the beamline and disable shutter/beam before you leaveDisabling Beam A Review

Ohta, Shigemi

100

Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia-Developed Alloy Has Potential...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

contain lead. Read the Sandia news release. Tagged with: downhole electronics * Geothermal Energy * gold-silver-germanium alloy * High Temperature Electronics * lead-free alloy *...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone. 6 figs.

Vianco, P.T.; Fisher, R.W.; Hosking, F.M.; Zanner, F.J.

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

102

Towards Energy and Resource Efficient Manufacturing: A Processes and Systems Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Processes and Equip- ment. 9th Global Conference on Sustainablein Cutting Processes. 9th Global Conference on Sustainableand Sustainable Energy Reviews [171] Saiganesh S, Sekulic DP (2010) Balancing Material and Exergy Flows for a PCB Soldering process:

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Women @ Energy: Nathalie Bouet | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the fridge to a cave, a garden, and my bedroom; I had pet snails, ants, turtles, and fish; I played "little chemist" with household products; and I played with solder and was...

104

Department of Bioengineering Spring 2011 Development of a Low Cost EEG for at home applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as it is useful for some therapies to connect brainwave frequency with the user's state of awareness. A proof on a solderless breadboard model of the device. A prototype was fabricated by soldering electrical components

Demirel, Melik C.

105

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X7B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shoes Soldering Y N Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces High temperature Y Y Warning signs Training High pressure Y Y Warning signs Training Cutting/razor blades Be aware of hand

Ohta, Shigemi

106

Basic Chemical Safety and Laboratory Survival Skills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

talk about safety in your lab Hopefully this presentation will help you to be: More aware of lab with safety glasses Safety Glasses are required in all areas where soldering or machining occurs. Safety

Gallivan, Martha A.

107

18 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION, VOL. 53, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2010 An Electrical Engineering Summer Academy for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

car, soldering, a field trip, and discussion about ethics. Students worked in two- and four) camps for K-12 teachers and students. The objective of the program is to make students aware

Manikas, Theodore

108

Demystifying 3D ICs: The pros and cons of going vertical An increasing number of integrated solutions involve the stacking of chips to reduce  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

between chips in a stack, making true 3D ICs a reality. Designers of integrated circuits need to be aware. Micro-bump technology involves the use of solder or gold bumps on the surface of the die to make

Davis, Rhett

109

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X22B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

glasses, nitrile gloves Soldering Y Y Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces High temperature Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when possible Consider using cut resistant gloves

Ohta, Shigemi

110

Nemo: A High-fidelity Noninvasive Power Meter System for Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

installed on exist- ing mote platforms without physical wiring or soldering. We have implemented a prototype the significant research efforts in energy- aware approaches at various network layers (MAC/routing/ application

111

From Genetic Sequencing to Biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Medical Imaging Microbial Diversity Magnetic Solders Back on the Track Ferrofluids Eye on Design Carbon will agree that the stories between these pages will help heighten awareness of Ivy Engineering! #12;Yale

Haller, Gary L.

112

i s s u e 3 . 1 o c t o b e r 1 9 9 7 p a g e 1 Life Sciences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, spec- trum analyzers, as well as soldering, machine and wood shop expe- rience. Although Laule put her and celebrating achievement In the News UBC'S RESEARCH AWARENESS CAMPAIGN "THINK ABOUT IT" WAS LAUNCHED

Karczmarek, Joanna

113

UniSAConnect Enriching education opportunities for secondary schools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Awareness Program is designed to give secondary students (years 10-12) the opportunity to explore career activity board assembled and soldered together by students. Once assembled, the activity board becomes

Mayer, Wolfgang

114

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X18A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser registration, warning signs Soldering Y N Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces High OpCo if damaged Cutting/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when possible

Ohta, Shigemi

115

INVITEDCOMMENTARY One of the most  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

smoothly with tra- ditional, non ad hoc-aware internetworks and perform functions such as auto, not trusted, or should not be relied on in times of emergency. A few examples include: military solders

Ramanathan, Ram

116

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X17B2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/3a laser Y Y Laser registration, warning signs Soldering Y N Use a designated area, periodically is being moved Training Cutting/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when

Ohta, Shigemi

117

Brookhaven National Laboratory -Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline U4B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

guidance/checklist from PRM 5.1.0 Soldering Y Y Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces High Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when possible Consider using cut resistant gloves

Ohta, Shigemi

118

Interfacial Design for Joining Technologies: An Historical Perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper gives an historic perspective of the concept of Interfacial Design in joined (e.g. soldered, brazed, diffusion bonded) assemblies. During the course of history, the awareness grew that the interface ...

J. Janczak-Rusch; G. Kaptay

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X24C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cryogens (pockets, cuffs) Cryogen or heavy gloves Enclosed shoes Soldering Y N Use a designated area Training Cutting/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when possible Consider

Ohta, Shigemi

120

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X18B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, warning signs Soldering Y N Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces High temperature Y Y/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when possible Consider using cut resistant

Ohta, Shigemi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Environmental Health and Safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

evolves fumes from welding, cutting or soldering. If the work is done outdoors, we require that measures, the requester needs to be aware of building opening locations such as air intakes, operable windows, doors, etc

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

122

DESIGN METHODS 1177 INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE -DESIGN 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Awareness on environmental performances of packaging-technology is a key issue for microelectronic industry-free solders paste, [Ekvael 2005] contributed to demonstrate hal-00737163,version1-1Oct2012 Author manuscript

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Combs, Needles, Haystacks: Balancing Push and Pull for Discovery in Large-Scale Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

network might be deployed for enhancing soldiers' battle field situation awareness when visibility is low dissemination strategy is efficient when there are many solders in the network constantly in need of the infor

124

Brookhaven National Laboratory National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis Beamline X23A2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cotton liners · Enclosed shoes · Use tongs or tools whenever possible Soldering Y N · Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces Working at heights Y N · Be aware of body posture, training

Ohta, Shigemi

125

Department of Physics Building 510A P.O. Box 5000  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

management is an on-going effort. Contamination from lead soldering ­ P. Williams asked if there were more about ESSH should be addressed at Tier 1 meetings so that the Lab can be aware of the situation and make

Homes, Christopher C.

126

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X19A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Be aware of body posture, Ask for help in moving or lifting Soldering Y N Use a designated area fixed, or HEPA filtered exhaust Cutting/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife

Ohta, Shigemi

127

OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCES DEMONSTRATION OF POLYMER-CERAMIC EMBEDDED CAPACITORS FOR MMIC APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coefficient and the thermal conductivity between the ceramic dielectric, the terminations, the solderOPERATIONAL PERFORMANCES DEMONSTRATION OF POLYMER- CERAMIC EMBEDDED CAPACITORS FOR MMIC candidates for dielectric materials applied for embedded passives are polymer- ceramic nanocomposites

Boyer, Edmond

128

SAND2012-0743  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Figure 14. The voltage drop over the solder connection with a 5-amp bus current. Horizontal lines show the threshold where arcing will begin to occur in air for different gap...

129

Low-temperature hermetic sealing of optical fiber components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for manufacturing low-temperature hermetically sealed optical fi components is provided. The method comprises the steps of: inserting an optical fiber into a housing, the optical fiber having a glass core, a glass cladding and a protective buffer layer disposed around the core and cladding; heating the housing to a predetermined temperature, the predetermined temperature being below a melting point for the protective buffer layer and above a melting point of a solder; placing the solder in communication with the heated housing to allow the solder to form an eutectic and thereby fill a gap between the interior of the housing and the optical fiber; and cooling the housing to allow the solder to form a hermetic compression seal between the housing and the optical fiber.

Kramer, Daniel P. (Centerville, OH)

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

130

Identification of time-dependent interfacial mechanical properties of adhesive by hybrid/inverse method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dissimilar as well as similar mate- rials including metals, plastics, elastomers, glass, ceramics and wood, screwing, welding and soldering are (1) relative uniform stress distribution; (2) ability to bond

Qin, Qinghua

131

E-Print Network 3.0 - application au common Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Italy, 26-28 April 2006 AU-SN FLIP-CHIP SOLDER BUMP FOR MICROELECTRONIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC... APPLICATIONS Jeong-Won Yoon, Hyun-Suk Chun, Ja-Myeong Koo and Seung-Boo Jung...

132

E-Print Network 3.0 - application au complexe Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Italy, 26-28 April 2006 AU-SN FLIP-CHIP SOLDER BUMP FOR MICROELECTRONIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC... APPLICATIONS Jeong-Won Yoon, Hyun-Suk Chun, Ja-Myeong Koo and Seung-Boo Jung...

133

Urinary Lead Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk in a Population-Based Case-Control Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...modern-day human exposure as a result of past and continuing use in automobiles and aviation fuels and in a myriad of common uses (e.g., batteries, paints, solders, glazes, plastics). Arguably, the degree of environmental lead contamination...

Jane A. McElroy; Martin M. Shafer; Ronald E. Gangnon; Luis A. Crouch; and Polly A. Newcomb

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

NSTXU PROCEDURE: NSTXUPROC001 Revision 0 Reviewer Comment Form (Attachment 2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TF machining contract (S011001-G) B) Increase estimate for the TF flex joint based upon a change in the manufacturing technique (e.g fabricated soldered laminate TO wire EDM manufacture. $782K contingency drawdown

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

135

Fluorination of the cyanogen halides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

silver has a coordination number of 12 two, one might speculate that a coordination compound la formed with a silver fluoride on both ends of the cyanogen todlde molecule. This arrangement would satisfy one silver with a fluoride and a cyanide... copper caps which were sliver soldered ln place. Copper tubing entrance and exit tubes were silver soldered to the top of the pot. The pipe union formed a leak proof system which could be assembled with reactants, and disassembled after reaction...

Ward, Raymond Anthony

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Petroleum Refining Energy Use in Relation to Fuel Products Made  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years crude oils available to refiners have required more energy to refine and refiners have adjusted their processes to obtain better energy efficiency. In addition, the shift to lead-free gasoline has led to refining adjustments...

White, J. R.; Marshall, J. F.; Shoemaker, G. L.; Smith, R. B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

ANSER Center | Northwestern University | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

G. Kanatzidis, whose paper on lead-free solid-state organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells was published in Nature Photonics on May 4 2014. The paper has received...

138

Ceramic-polymer nanocomposites with increased dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss  

SciTech Connect

The use of lead free materials in device fabrication is very essential from environmental point of view. We have synthesized the lead free ferroelectric polymer nanocomposite films with increased dielectric properties. Lead free bismuth titanate has been used as active ceramic nanofillers having crystallite size 24nm and PVDF as the polymer matrix. Ferroelectric ?-phase of the polymer composite films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. Mapping data confirms the homogeneous dispersion of ceramic particles into the polymer matrix. Frequency dependent dielectric constant increases up to 43.4 at 100Hz, whereas dielectric loss decreases with 7 wt% bismuth titanate loading. This high dielectric constant lead free ferroelectric polymer films can be used for energy density applications.

Bhardwaj, Sumit, E-mail: sumit.bhardwaj4@gmail.com; Paul, Joginder, E-mail: sumit.bhardwaj4@gmail.com [Centre for Materials Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur -177 005 (India); Raina, K. K. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala -147 004 (India); Thakur, N. S. [Centre for Energy and Environment, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur -177005 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Materials Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur -177 005 (India); Beant College of Engineering and Technology, Gurdaspur -143521 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

139

Current Lead Design for the Accelerator Project for Upgrade of LHC  

SciTech Connect

The Accelerator Project for Upgrade of LHC (APUL) is a U.S. project participating in and contributing to CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade program. In collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermilab is developing sub-systems for an upgrade of the LHC final focus magnet systems. A concept of main and auxiliary helium flow was developed that allows the superconductor to remain cold while the lead body warms up to prevent upper section frosting. The auxiliary flow will subsequently cool the thermal shields of the feed box and the transmission line cryostats. A thermal analysis of the current lead central heat exchange section was performed using analytic and FEA techniques. A method of remote soldering was developed that allows the current leads to be field replaceable. The remote solder joint was designed to be made without flux or additional solder, and able to be remade up to ten full cycles. A method of upper section attachment was developed that allows high pressure sealing of the helium volume. Test fixtures for both remote soldering and upper section attachment for the 13 kA lead were produced. The cooling concept, thermal analyses, and test results from both remote soldering and upper section attachment fixtures are presented.

Brandt, Jeffrey S.; Cheban, Sergey; Feher, Sandor; Kaducak, Marc; Nobrega, Fred; Peterson, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Automated solar cell assembly teamed process research. Semiannual subcontract report, December 6, 1993--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This is the second Semiannual Technical Progress Report for the program titled `Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research` funded under National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract No. ZAG-3-11219-01. This report describes the work done on Phase II of the program in the period from December 6, 1993 to June 30, 1994. Spire`s objective in this program is to develop high throughput (5 MW/yr) automated processes for interconnecting thin (200 {mu}m) silicon solar cells. High yield will be achieved with these fragile cells through the development of low mechanical stress and low thermal stress processes. For example, a machine vision system is being developed for cell alignment without mechanically contacting the cell edges, while a new soldering process is being developed to solder metal interconnect ribbons simultaneously to a cells` front and back contacts, eliminating one of the two heating steps normally used for soldering each cell.

Nowlan, M. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

142

Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys and Coatings for Die inserts  

SciTech Connect

This project had two main objectives: (1) To design, fabricate and run a full size test for evaluating soldering and washout in die insert materials. This test utilizes the unique capabilities of the 350 Ton Squeeze Casting machine available in the Case Meal Casting Laboratory. Apply the test to evaluate resistance of die materials and coating, including heat resistant alloys to soldering and washout damage. (2) To evaluate materials and coatings, including heat resistant superalloys, for use as inserts in die casting of aluminum alloys.

David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Edward Courtright; Harold Adkins

2005-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability  

SciTech Connect

Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.

Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

A study of experimental techniques for analyzing threaded thick shell connections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Solder Tabs Bottom of Encapsulated Gage Assembly. One Gage Assembly Bonded in Pin of Drill Collar Strain Gage Instrumented Drill Collar Pin Dimensions Used in Sample Calculations. Test Setup for Strain Gage Make-Up Data Inside Surface Hoop Stress vs... the specimens was limited to an in- side diameter of two inches. the strain gazes were prewired before being attached to the fixture. After the lead wire was soldered to the gQ4 aa Figure 3. Inside of Fixture Used to Bond Strain Gages. Figure 4. Assembled...

Asbill, William Thomas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

145

Metallurgy, thermal stability, and failure mode of the commercial Bi-Te-based thermoelectric modules.  

SciTech Connect

Bi-Te-based thermoelectric (TE) alloys are excellent candidates for power generation modules. We are interested in reliable TE modules for long-term use at or below 200 C. It is known that the metallurgical characteristics of TE materials and of interconnect components affect the performance of TE modules. Thus, we have conducted an extensive scientific investigation of several commercial TE modules to determine whether they meet our technical requirements. Our main focus is on the metallurgy and thermal stability of (Bi,Sb){sup 2}(Te,Se){sup 3} TE compounds and of other materials used in TE modules in the temperature range between 25 C and 200 C. Our study confirms the material suite used in the construction of TE modules. The module consists of three major components: AlN cover plates; electrical interconnects; and the TE legs, P-doped (Bi{sub 8}Sb{sub 32})(Te{sub 60}) and N-doped (Bi{sub 37}Sb{sub 3})(Te{sub 56}Se{sub 4}). The interconnect assembly contains Sn (Sb {approx} 1wt%) solder, sandwiched between Cu conductor with Ni diffusion barriers on the outside. Potential failure modes of the TE modules in this temperature range were discovered and analyzed. The results show that the metallurgical characteristics of the alloys used in the P and N legs are stable up to 200 C. However, whole TE modules are thermally unstable at temperatures above 160 C, lower than the nominal melting point of the solder suggested by the manufacture. Two failure modes were observed when they were heated above 160 C: solder melting and flowing out of the interconnect assembly; and solder reacting with the TE leg, causing dimensional swelling of the TE legs. The reaction of the solder with the TE leg occurs as the lack of a nickel diffusion barrier on the side of the TE leg where the displaced solder and/or the preexisting solder beads is directly contact the TE material. This study concludes that the present TE modules are not suitable for long-term use at temperatures above 160 C due to the reactivity between the Sn-solder and the (Bi,Sb){sup 2}(Te,Se){sup 3} TE alloys. In order to deploy a reliable TE power generator for use at or below 200 C, alternate interconnect materials must be used and/or a modified module fabrication technique must be developed.

Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Morales, Alfredo Martin

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Areal array jetting device for ball grid arrays  

SciTech Connect

Package designs for microelectronics devices have moved from through-hole to surface mount technology in order to increase the printed wiring board real estate available by utilizing both sides of the board. The traditional geometry for surface mount devices is peripheral arrays where the leads are on the edges of the device. As the technology drives towards high input/output (I/O) count (increasing number of leads) and smaller packages with finer pitch (less distance between peripheral leads), limitations on peripheral surface mount devices arise. A solution to the peripheral surface mount issue is to shift the leads to the area under the device. This scheme is called areal array packaging and is exemplified by the ball grid array (BGA) package. In a BGA package, the leads are on the bottom surface of the package in the form of an array of solder balls. The current practice of joining BGA packages to printed wiring boards involves a hierarchy of solder alloy compositions. A high melting temperature ball is typically used for standoff. A promising alternative to current methods is the use of jetting technology to perform monolithic solder ball attachment. This paper describes an areal array jetter that was designed and built to simultaneously jet arrays of solder balls directly onto BGA substrates.

Frear, D.R.; Yost, F.G.; Schmale, D.T.; Essien, M.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

The 6th ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Joint Conference March 16-20, 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conductivity interface materials and thus reduce the thermal resistance of the lasers. Copper heat spreaders samples. A two-dimensional analytical model is developed to verify the thermal resistance experimental conductivity solder materials, which can limit the performance of the laser [7, 13]. NOMENCLATURE K thermal

148

Thermionic emission cooling in single barrier heterostructures Ali Shakouria)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is an indication of the relatively high thermal resistance of the ceramic package and the soldering layer used, they absorb thermal energy from the lattice and this will cool down the junction between two materials high-speed and wavelength division multiplexed fiber- optics communication systems. Heat generation

149

5/3/12 EATING AND DRINKING: (CHEMICAL CONTAINING LABS) 1/2www.phy.ornl.gov/divops/ESH/04-4.htm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or goggles, gloves, lab coats · Soldering ­ safety glasses · Using power tools ­ safety glasses/2www.phy.ornl.gov/divops/ESH/04-4.htm use area by either a 5foot distance or a 2foot high barrier

150

New Materials and Composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...design com-munities to establish better mutual realis-tic awareness of their respective capabili-ties and limitations. The...surface of a steel strip to provide good electrical contacts, soldering capability, and good mechanical strength. Further-more...

William B. Hillig

1976-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

151

Reduced-Order Dynamic Modeling and Stabilizing Control of a Micro-Helicopter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Warshawsky Soldier-portable UAVs enhance combat situational awareness by providing an over-the- horizon Raven, provide real-time over-the-horizon viewpoints that dramatically improve situational awareness grams. A single solder can carry and launch dozens of these micro-helicopters. However, existing

Shapiro, Benjamin

152

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X8A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concerns ­ awkward postures Y Y Be aware of body posture Take frequent breaks Soldering Y Y Use concerns ­ moving/lifting Y Y Be aware of body posture, Ask for help in moving or lifting Ergonomics a designated area, periodically clean surfaces Cutting/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety

Ohta, Shigemi

153

Book Reviews  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...psychoanalysis. This argu-ment is discussed with a full awareness that it is a matter of definition, yet one that carries a...applications, metallurgical applica-tions, coating of metals (soldering), and biological applications. A final chapter treats applications...

1956-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

154

ADC0808-N, ADC0809-N www.ti.com SNAS535G MAY 2004REVISED JULY 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W Conversion Time 100 s 1 Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty Dissipation at TA=25°C 875 mW Lead Temp. (Soldering, 10 seconds) Dual-In-Line Package (plastic) 260°C Molded

Glashausser, Charles

155

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X6B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

check gas lines Ergonomics concerns ­ moving/lifting Y Y Be aware of body posture, Ask for help in moving or lifting Ergonomics concerns ­ awkward postures Y Y Be aware of body posture Take frequent breaks Soldering Y Y Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces Beryllium use Y Y Handle articles

Ohta, Shigemi

156

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline U3C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gloves Enclosed shoes Ergonomics concerns ­ moving/lifting Y Y Be aware of body posture, Ask for help in moving or lifting Ergonomics concerns ­ awkward postures Y Y Be aware of body posture Take frequent breaks Soldering Y Y Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces Visible light Y Y Covers Warning

Ohta, Shigemi

157

E C E D G E R T O N C E N T E R The Edgerton Center specializes in experiential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

science and historically significant experiments. Designed to build awareness of the unexpected through physical science and historically significant experiments. Designed to build awareness of the unexpected- tronic devices. Using soldering techniques, each student builds the circuit board for a power sup- ply

Goldwasser, Shafi

158

BeamLine Operations and Safety Awareness (BLOSA) Checklist Beamline U3C All users must be instructed in operating the beamline safely. Leave checkbox blank if not applicable. Training valid 2 years. Visitors use Visitor/Escort forms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BeamLine Operations and Safety Awareness (BLOSA) Checklist Beamline U3C All users mustVent System A Avoid skin contact with soldering iron to prevent burns to the skinBurns B Use caution when and safety awareness. Date UAdmTrainer's Signature Bin Dong LU-BLOSA-U3C R = NSLS Content A = Applicable

Ohta, Shigemi

159

Burr Brown Products from Texas Instruments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12 Bit ADS5522 ADS5521 ADS5520 14 Bit ADS5542 ADS5541 ADS5500 1 Please be aware that an important/W, when used with 2 oz. copper trace and pad soldered directly to a JEDEC standard, four-layer, 3 in x 3

Berns, Hans-Gerd

160

Brookhaven National Laboratory -Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X14A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-out, turbo pump set- up, set-up displex Y Y Be aware of body posture, Ask for help in moving or lifting Soldering Y N Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces High temperature ­ furnace with beryllium OpCo if damaged Material Handling/Crane Y N Training Cutting/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand

Ohta, Shigemi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X27C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/lifting ­ detector has to be moved often (~ 40 lbs) Y Y Be aware of body posture, Ask for help in moving or lifting Ergonomics concerns ­ awkward postures ­ moving detector Y Y Be aware of body posture Take frequent breaks Soldering Y Y Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces High temperature ­ heat stage Y Y BLOSA

Ohta, Shigemi

162

Burr Brown Products from Texas Instruments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Amplifier age. · OPA660 Upgrade Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard-Mode Voltage Range ±VS Storage Temperature Range: D ­40°C to +125°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) +300°C

Lanterman, Aaron

163

.NET gadgeteer: a platform for custom devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

.NET Gadgeteer is a new platform conceived to make it easier to design and build custom electronic devices and systems for a range of ubiquitous and mobile computing scenarios. It consists of three main elements: solder-less modular electronic hardware; ...

Nicolas Villar; James Scott; Steve Hodges; Kerry Hammil; Colin Miller

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Education for Contemporary Society  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...growth; and, of course, it helps to awaken our intuitive awareness so that we are enabled to see more fully into the life of...rudiments of domestic labor, such as boot-mending, plumbing, soldering, painting and pa-per-hanging, gardening." The content...

Robert J. Havighurst

1964-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Flow visualization of molten alloys using real-time neutron radiography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to visualize the flow of molten alloys using real-time neutron radiography. Initial experiments were performed using solder (50% tin, 50% lead), with nickel tracer particles, heated in a furnace to its liquid state...

Bennett, Tami Norene

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

166

75th Diamond anniversary American Welding Society annual meeting  

SciTech Connect

Detailed summaries are given for 85 technical sessions papers, 16 brazing and soldering conference papers, 11 education program papers, 15 thermal spray symposium papres, 9 industrial technology sessions papers 2, invited lectures, and 8 posters presented at the 75th annual convention of the American Welding Society. Also included are the names and addresses of all authors, speakers, and presiding officers.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Development and evaluation of sealing technologies for photovoltaic panels  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a study to develop and evaluate low temperature glass sealing technologies for photovoltaic applications. This work was done as part of Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) No. SC95/01408. The sealing technologies evaluated included low melting temperature glass frits and solders. Because the glass frit joining required a material with a melting temperature that exceeded the allowable temperature for the active elements on the photovoltaic panels a localized heating scheme was required for sealing the perimeter of the glass panels. Thermal and stress modeling were conducted to identify the feasibility of this approach and to test strategies designed to minimize heating of the glass panel away from its perimeter. Hardware to locally heat the glass panels during glass frit joining was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. The same hardware could be used to seal the glass panels using the low temperature solders. Solder adhesion to the glass required metal coating of the glass. The adhesion strength of the solder was dependent on the surface finish of the glass. Strategies for improving the polyisobutylene (PIB) adhesive currently being used to seal the panels and the use of Parylene coatings as a protective sealant deposited on the photovoltaic elements were also investigated. Starting points for further work are included.

Glass, S.J.; Hosking, F.M.; Baca, P.M. [and others

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

A probe for investigating the effects of temperature, strain, and magnetic field on transport critical currents in superconducting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

magnetic fields. The strain is applied to the wire by soldering it to a thick coiled spring and twisting one end of the spring with respect to the other. Strain can be applied reversibly from 0.7% to 0 to test long straight samples can be constructed for use in split-coil magnets, but the maximum field

Hampshire, Damian

169

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

design, PCB layout and prototyping · Ensure testing and documentation of electonic circuits · Interact-on experience in electronic circuit design, PCB layout and circuit testing as well as soldering skills. The position · Develop essential electronic circuits for novel laser systems at DESY · Responsible for circuit

170

Digit switch evaluations and capillary IPA (isopropyl alcohol) study  

SciTech Connect

Capillary flow of isopropyl alcohol under the wire insulation of an eleven-wire cable dissolved trapped flux from the pretinning and soldering operations and caused it to deposit on the circuit board inside a digit switch. Conformal coatings were successful in sealing the wire insulation gap to prevent solvent flow. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Mizik, P.M.; Kibalo, E.F.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Thermo-mechanical simulations in double-sided heat transfer power assemblies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermo-mechanical simulations in double-sided heat transfer power assemblies. E. Woirgard; I. Favre In power assemblies, heat transfer due to the die self- heating is one of the most important point on time life assemblies. Heat has to be evacuated toward the base- plate not to weaken the solder joint under

Boyer, Edmond

172

154 Clocks, Atomic nnd Molccular connections. Chips can be attached to packages with win  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, beam leads, beam tape,or solder pads. At present, the minimum line width and line spacingsused. SemiconductorDevices. Physics and Technology.Wiley. D. A. Hodges and H. G. Jackson, Analysis and Design of a seriesofperiodicevents(such as swings of a pendulum, passages of the sun overhead, or oscillationsof an atom

173

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

described how direct diode lasers were applied in surface harden- ing, cladding and soldering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 Effects of Scanning Schemes on Laser Tube Bending Four laser-back-free and dieless technique, laser forming accomplishes the forming task by intensively and locally heating

Yao, Y. Lawrence

174

2009 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentrates. Lithic Resources Ltd. (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada), however, announced a new resource toward the prefeasibility stage (Lithic Resources Ltd., 2009). Indium metal was not produced, indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings, solders, and other indium products. Recycling A large portion of global

175

PHYSICS DIVISION ESH BULLETIN 2004-01 1/5/04 OFFICES, SAFETY GUIDELINES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to these lamps. Energy Star® labeled torchiere floor lamps use compact fluorescent bulbs that burn much cooler fluorescent bulb which give the same amount of light as a 200 watt halogen bulb. Incidental Soldering. Most torchiere floor lamps use halogen bulbs that burn at temperatures exceeding 1,200 degrees F, hot

176

Biomimetic self-assembly of a functional asymmetrical electronic device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomimetic self-assembly of a functional asymmetrical electronic device Mila Boncheva, David H--patterned with logic devices, wires, and solder dots--were connected in a linear string by using flexible wire. On self-assembly­3). Biological structures arise by con- strained self-assembly, and are usually three-dimensional (3D) (4). We

Prentiss, Mara

177

A capillary-jet instability method for measuring dynamic surface tension of liquid metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rapid physical and chemical processes affecting molten-metal...rapid physical and chemical processes affecting molten-metal...effectiveness of the jetting process. Tin-containing melts...McNallan and D. B. Wallace the commercialization of solder-jet technology...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

WAVELENGTH CONVERSION OVER A 50nm INPUT AND 21nm OUTPUT WAVELENGTH RANGE USING A MONOLITHICALLY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the device soldered on a gold plated copper mount and cooled to 17°C using a thermo-electric cooler. Light tuning range are shown in Figure 2a). A typical electrical extinction of the device for high MZI-SOA bias

Coldren, Larry A.

179

KV-tOOJHfe Metallurgy Department  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1. Fracture Testing 24 3.2. Fatigue Testing Using Offshore Load Spectrum .. 25 3.3. Brazing and Soldering 25 3 Research on Advanced Ceramic Materials 37 4.8. Developaent and Testing of Oxygen Sensors 38 FUEL ELEMENTS concentrated mainly on nuclear metallurgy to covering a number of different areas within ma- terials science

180

How To Order Our easy Build-A Switch concept allows you to mix and match options to create the switch you need. Below is a complete listing of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Series 8mm DIP Coded Rotary Switches Features/Benefits · Process sealed ­ withstands soldering Example: Switch Function CD08R 8 position, BCD CD08C 8 position, BCD complement CD10R 10 position, BCD CD10C 10 position, BCD complement CD16R 16 position, Hexadecimal CD16C 16 position, Hexadecimal

Berns, Hans-Gerd

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

High thermoelectric performance by resonant dopant indium in nanostructured SnTe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From an environmental perspective, lead-free SnTe would be preferable for solid-state waste heat recovery if its thermoelectric figure-of-merit could be brought close to that of the lead-containing chalcogenides. In this ...

Liao, Bolin

182

Explosive complexes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

183

Explosive complexes  

SciTech Connect

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

184

Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole %.iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

Cao, Hui (Middle Island, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY)

1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

185

Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

Cao, Hui (Middle Island, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY)

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

186

No Slide Title  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DoE Quarterly Review DoE Quarterly Review 08/13/08 Machine and Alternator Inspections 2 Status * Disassembly of C-Mod is complete - Inspection of feltmetal proceeding * Documenting condition of all 1920 feltmetal pads * Some feltmetal has been removed and finger joints have been prepared for soldering of new feltmetal * Induction heating procedures have been reviewed and the first soldering tests completed successfully - Inspection of coils, coaxes, heaters, cooling lines, etc, proceeding * Alternator Inspection began on 08/04/08 - Drive motor removed - Coupling between flywheel and alternator disengaged, alignment checked and recorded, and surfaces inspected and in good condition - Removal of rotor will begin this week 3 Machine Inspection * All feltmetal was replaced in 1998, a few pads

187

Environmental evaluation of Surface Mounted Devices (SMD)  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated the comparative reliability of solder interconnections used for Leadless Chip Carriers (LCCs), Meaded, and flat-pack hybrid microcircuits mounted on FR-4 glass epoxy printed wiring boards (PWBs). The board assemblies, with solder attached microcircuits, were repeatedly thermal cycled from - 65 to +125{degrees}C. We recognize that this temperature range far exceeds most testing of assemblies. The purposes of these tests were to evaluate worst-case conditions and to obtain comparative information. Identical PWB assemblies, using these three component types, were subjected to both thermal shock testing (1 cycle every 42 minutes) and temperature cycle testing (1 cycle every 3 hours). The double testing evaluated the differences in stress application and evaluated the potential of replacing slow transition, expensive temperature cycle testing (which has been an industry standard for years) with the much more rapid thermal shock testing.

Barr, V.C.; Andrade, A.D.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Study of bump bonding technology  

SciTech Connect

Pixel detectors proposed for the new generation of hadron collider experiments will use bump-bonding technology based on either indium or Pb/Sn solder to connect the front-end readout chips to the silicon pixel sensors. We have previously reported large-scale tests of the yield using both indium and Pb/Sn solder bump [1]. The conclusion is that both seem to be viable for pixel detectors. We have also carried out studies of various effects (e.g. storage over long period, effect of heating and cooling, and radiation) on both types of bump bonds using daisy-chained parts on a small scale [2], [3]. Overall, these tests showed little changes in the integrity of the bump connections. Nevertheless, questions still remain on the long-term reliability of the bumps due to thermal cycle effects, attachment to a substrate with a different coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and radiation.

Selcuk Cihangir et al.

2003-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

189

Development of the bus joint for the ITER Central Solenoid  

SciTech Connect

The terminations of the Central Solenoid (CS) modules are connected to the bus extensions by joints located outside the CS in the gap between the CS and Torodial Field (TF) assemblies. These joints have very strict space limitations. Low resistance is a common requirement for all ITER joints. In addition, the CS bus joints will experience and must be designed to withstand significant variation in the magnetic field of several tenths of a Tesla per second during initiation of plasma. The joint resistance is specified to be less than 4 nOhm. The joints also have to be soldered in the field and designed with the possibility to be installed and dismantled in order to allow cold testing in the cold test facility. We have developed coaxial joints that meet these requirements and have demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate and assemble them in the vertical configuration. We introduced a coupling cylinder with superconducting strands soldered to the surface of the cable that can be installed in the ITER assembly hall and at the Cold Test Facility. This cylinder serves as a transition area between the CS module and the bus extension. We made two racetrack samples and tested four bus joints in our Joint Test Apparatus. Resistance of the bus joints was measured by a decay method and by a microvoltmeter; the value of the current was measured by the Hall probes. This measurement method was verified in the previous tests. The resistance of the joints varied insignificantly from 1.5 to 2 nOhm. One of the challenges associated with a soldered joint is the inability to use corrosive chemicals that are difficult to clean. This paper describes our development work on cable preparation, chrome removal, compaction, soldering, and final assembly and presents the test results.

Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL] [ORNL; Irick, David Kim [ORNL] [ORNL; Kenney, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Low resistivity contact to iron-pnictide superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method of making a low resistivity electrical connection between an electrical conductor and an iron pnictide superconductor involves connecting the electrical conductor and superconductor using a tin or tin-based material therebetween, such as using a tin or tin-based solder. The superconductor can be based on doped AFe.sub.2As.sub.2, where A can be Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu or combinations thereof for purposes of illustration only.

Tanatar, Makariy; Prozorov, Ruslan; Ni, Ni; Bud'ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

191

An investigation into the mechanical response of Berea sandstone to the uniaxial-biaxial test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

collar. Shaded vertical line represents the solder bead laid to hold the strip of lead together. b) Appearance of lead collar if it were laid on a flat surface with layout of axial and circumferential gauges. 16 Completed assembly of strain gauged... variety of stress and strain states. Tests under conditions of uniaxial strain and other loading paths will lead to a better understanding of the bounds of deformation. Additionally, many authors (including This thesis follows the style of the Journal...

Denton, Meredith Yrette

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

192

Crystal oscillator (1.0) (1.0)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.6 #2 5.02.4 2.7Max.5.8Max. 10.5 Max. Recommended soldering patternExternal dimensions Specifications time Oscillation start up time Aging Shock resistance Max. supply voltage Operating voltage Storage S.R. SG-636PTF SG-636PTJ SG-636PH Specifications 41.0001 MHz to 70.0000 MHz 2.21675 MHz to 41

Berns, Hans-Gerd

193

Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants All Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling water rate could be used to proquce approximately 1000 additional bbl (159 m 3 ) Iday of lead-free. high-octane gasoline. The savings in plot area and new construction would more than offset the labor and materials invoived in excavating.... This rejected heat must be continuously removed at the same rate it is generated or the compressor will overheat and shut down. Reducing the operating temperature of the compressor will proportionately reduce the energy input requirements. In other words...

Burger, R.

194

QualityAssurance&Testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Testing and Testing Manufacturing Technologies The Manufacturing Science & Technology Center provides customers with manufacturing quality requirements, testing standards and specifica- tions for new product designs, including the implementation of these requirements into final product acceptance complete with documenta- tion. Technical support and procedures are fur- nished for Interagency Product Acceptance. Capabilities * Will inspect printed circuit (PC) boards, wire wrap boards, boxes, chassis, cables, racks, systems, etc. * Work from sketches or formal drawings * Review drawings and requirements * Visual inspections for layout, markings, solder joints, components, mechanical assembly, general workmanship, safety * Point-to-point continuity checks

195

Fuel Cell Systems for Portable, Backup, and UPS Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

U.S. Federal Agency Purchasing Managers Federal Agency Purchasing Managers Fuel Cell Systems for Portable, Backup and UPS Fuel Cell Systems for Portable, Backup and UPS Applications Applications Eric Simpkins, USFCC President Eric Simpkins, USFCC President Vice President, IdaTech, LLC Vice President, IdaTech, LLC Washington, DC Washington, DC April 26, 2007 April 26, 2007 Definitions Introduction What's Available & How Used Typical Operation & Maintenance Time: Order to Site Installation Pricing Summary 1 i l Megawatts l backup, cogeneration, trigeneration Material handling et. al. Micro & Man-Portable * Less Than 100 Watts * Consumer electronics, defense (solder power), speciality appl cations Portable, Backup, APU * 100 Watts to 15 Kilowatts * Battery rep

196

A comparison of alternative tillage practices and machinery management strategies in the Texas Rolling Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

piker Swop Disk Solder Rode?WT Sed Planter SMM Dfck S?k?r R?DIMCIIT Md Pl?liar Shredder Chisel/Deep Dfter Swap Disk Doth?r RodeMP?' Sed Planter Sww Dfek Sadder RIu?Md?' ~ ?I PI?Itsy CRIM f/DMP Shredder Chisel/swap arain Drill Chisel... investment for conventional till. The extra machinery used with conventional tillage are: (1) sweep cultivatorl (2) tandem disk; (3) rolling cultivatorl (4) rotary hoe; (5) deep chisel; and (6) a shredder. Reduced till/diking, on the other hand, uses a...

Maddox, Jim Dalton

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

197

Operational Amplifier General Description  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of soldering surface mount devices. ESD Tolerance (Note 8) 400V 400V 400V Electrical Characteristics (Note 5V Average Input Offset 15 µV/°C Voltage Drift Input Offset Voltage TA = 25°C, VS = ±20V ±10 ±15 ±15 m TAMAX 0.210 1.5 0.8 µA Input Resistance TA = 25°C, VS = ±20V 1.0 6.0 0.3 2.0 0.3 2.0 M TAMIN TA TAMAX

Wedeward, Kevin

198

Development of Safe Methods for Canning Blackeye Peas at Home.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

penetration tests. The tliermocouple wires were inserted in the jars by means of tlie flat type stuffing !,ox soldered to the lid. One jar ~\\~itll a tlrern~o- couple attached is on the table, another may be seen in the top layer in tlie canner... ........................ Not tested 1 Not tested Geiger 1924a Geiger 1924a Home canners in many parts of the United States, however, have not been as aware of this danger as have the commercial canners, nor have all of them been conscientious about using only those processing...

Crawford, Ellen G.; Sheppard, M. Patricia; Smith, Annie B.; Cover, Sylvia

1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

A Portable, Low-Cost, LED Fluorimeter for Middle School, High School, and Undergraduate Chemistry Labs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With a plethora of sensitive and selective techniques, modern analytical chemistry has significantly contributed to the public awareness of chemical problems and issues relating to quality-control systems in industrial production, in the pharmaceutical area, in the food industry, and in the environment. ... Appropriate precautions need to be taken when constructing the apparatus, especially with hot soldering irons and live circuits. ... anal., it will be necessary to use an array-type detector and to be aware that the time-integrated spectrum may contain contributions from numerous levels. ...

Benjamin T. Wigton; Balwant S. Chohan; Cole McDonald; Matt Johnson; Doug Schunk; Rod Kreuter; Dan Sykes

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Teachers as friendship facilitators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with Roxy practicing for club ceremonies. As the only girl in the club, Roxy receives more that her share of male attention. Sal stays close to Roxy ready to fetch a soldering iron, move a chair, or whatever else he can do to make it easier for Roxy, who... expressed awareness of the dangers of too much help. His major concern was the tendency of Danny's friends and classmates to help him too much and, thus, for Danny to overrely on them. He explained that often, when he asked Danny questions, other...

Turnbull, Ann P.; Pereira, Lourdes; Blue-Banning, Martha

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Phase 2 of the array automated assembly task for the low cost silicon solar array project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted on several fundamental aspects of electroless nickel/solder metallization for silicon solar cells. A process proposed by Motorola, which precedes the electroless nickel plating with several steps of palladium plating and heat treatment, was compared directly with single step electroless nickel plating. Work has directed toward answering specific questions concerning the effect of silicon surface oxide on nickel plating, effects of thermal stresses on the metallization, sintering of nickel plated on silicon, and effects of exposure to the plating solution on solar cell characteristics. The Motorola process was compared with simple electroless nickel plating in a series of parallel experiments. Results are presented. (WHK)

Petersen, R.C.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Magnetically attached sputter targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material is described. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly. 11 figures.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

GOMA 6.0 : a full-Newton finite element program for free and moving boundary problems with coupled fluid/solid momentum, energy, mass, and chemical species transport : user%3CU%2B2019%3Es guide.  

SciTech Connect

Goma 6.0 is a finite element program which excels in analyses of multiphysical processes, particularly those involving the major branches of mechanics (viz. fluid/solid mechanics, energy transport and chemical species transport). Goma is based on a full-Newton-coupled algorithm which allows for simultaneous solution of the governing principles, making the code ideally suited for problems involving closely coupled bulk mechanics and interfacial phenomena. Example applications include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, super-alloy processing, welding/soldering, electrochemical processes, and solid-network or solution film drying. This document serves as a user's guide and reference.

Schunk, Peter Randall; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Chen, Ken Shuang; Labreche, Duane A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Roach, Robert Allen; Hopkins, Polly L.; Notz, Patrick K.; Roberts, Scott Alan; Sackinger, Philip A.; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Baer, Thomas A.; Noble, David R.; Secor, Robert B. [3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN] [3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes  

SciTech Connect

The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Helium dilution refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 1875" OD exchanger Qu ID copper cap Fig. 6. Assembled view of 3He - He dilution refrigerator. 26 The joint thru the tubing wall and the joining of the two sizes of capillary were silver soldered (35/ silver content). A 0. 250" OD tube... the inert atmosphere inside the refrigerator. After removal from the nitrogen atmosphere the graphite support, was 'attached to the still and mixing chamber using Stycast 2850 GT with catalyst g9 ). The mass of the graphite 26 support 1s 11. 62 grams...

McKee, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

Microstructural development and mechanical behavior of eutectic bismuth-tin and eutectic indium-tin in response to high temperature deformation  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical behavior and microstructure of eutectic Bi-Sn and In-Sn solders were studied in parallel in order to better understand high temperature deformation of these alloys. Bi-Sn solder joints were made with Cu substrates, and In-Sn joints were made with either Cu or Ni substrates. The as-cast microstructure of Bi-Sn is complex regular, with the two eutectic phases interconnected in complicated patterns. The as-cast microstructure of In-Sn depends on the substrate. In-Sn on Cu has a non-uniform microstructure caused by diffusion of Cu into the solder during sample preparation, with regions of the Sn-rich {gamma} phase imbedded in a matrix of the In-rich {beta} phase. The microstructure of In-Sn on Ni is uniform and lamellar and the two phases are strongly coupled. The solders deform non-uniformly, with deformation concentrating in a band along the length of the sample for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu, though the deformation is more diffuse in In-Sn than in Bi-Sn. Deformation of In-Sn on Ni spreads throughout the width of the joint. The different deformation patterns affect the shape of the stress-strain curves. Stress-strain curves for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu exhibit sharp decays in the engineering stress after reaching a peak. Most of this stress decay is removed for In-Sn on Ni. The creep behavior of In-Sn also depends on the substrate, with the creep deformation controlled by the soft P phase of the eutectic for In-Sn on Cu and controlled by the harder {gamma} phase for In-Sn on Ni. When In-Sn on Ni samples are aged, the microstructure coarsens and changes to an array of {gamma} phase regions in a matrix of the {beta} phase, and the creep behavior changes to resemble that of In-Sn on Cu. The creep behavior of Bi-Sn changes with temperature. Two independent mechanisms operate at lower temperatures, but there is still some question as to whether one or both of these, or a third mechanism, operates at higher temperatures.

Goldstein, J.L.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Ultra-low-temperature cooling of two-dimensional electron gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new design has been used for cooling GaAs/AlxGa1?xAs sample to ultra-low-temperatures. The sample, with electrical contacts directly soldered to the sintered silver powder heat exchangers, was immersed in liquid 3He, which was cooled by a PrNI5 nuclear refrigerator. The data analysis shows that the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) was cooled to 4.0mK at the refrigerator base temperature Tb of 2.0mK. The design with heat exchanger cooling is applicable to any ultra-low-temperature transport measurements of 2DEG system.

J.S Xia; E.D Adams; V Shvarts; W Pan; H.L Stormer; D.C Tsui

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

209

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Die Materials for Critical Applications and Increased Production Rates  

SciTech Connect

Die materials for aluminum die-casting need to be resistant to heat checking, and have good resistance to washout and to soldering in a fast flow of molten aluminum. To resist heat checking, die materials should have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, high hot yield strength, good temper softening resistance, high creep strength, and adequate ductility. To resist the washout and soldering, die materials should have high hot hardness, good temper resistance, low solubility in molten aluminum and good oxidation resistance. It is difficult for one material to satisfy with all above requirements. In practice, H13 steel is the most popular material for aluminum die casting dies. While it is not an ideal choice, it is substantially less expensive to use than alternative materials. However, in very demanding applications, it is sometimes necessary to use alternative materials to ensure a reasonable die life. Copper-base, nickel-base alloys and superalloys, titanium-,molybdenum-, tungsten-base alloys, and to some extent yttrium and niobium alloys, have all been considered as potential materials for demanding die casting applications. Most of these alloys exhibit superior thermal fatigue resistance, but suffer from other shortcomings.

David Schwam; John Wallace; Sebastian Birceanu

2002-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

211

Electrical and thermal finite element modeling of arc faults in photovoltaic bypass diodes.  

SciTech Connect

Arc faults in photovoltaic (PV) modules have caused multiple rooftop fires. The arc generates a high-temperature plasma that ignites surrounding materials and subsequently spreads the fire to the building structure. While there are many possible locations in PV systems and PV modules where arcs could initiate, bypass diodes have been suspected of triggering arc faults in some modules. In order to understand the electrical and thermal phenomena associated with these events, a finite element model of a busbar and diode was created. Thermoelectrical simulations found Joule and internal diode heating from normal operation would not normally cause bypass diode or solder failures. However, if corrosion increased the contact resistance in the solder connection between the busbar and the diode leads, enough voltage potentially would be established to arc across micron-scale electrode gaps. Lastly, an analytical arc radiation model based on observed data was employed to predicted polymer ignition times. The model predicted polymer materials in the adjacent area of the diode and junction box ignite in less than 0.1 seconds.

Bower, Ward Isaac; Quintana, Michael A.; Johnson, Jay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Development of a Fluxless Flip Chip Bonding Process for Optical Military Electronics  

SciTech Connect

As military electronics tend to become lighter, smaller, thinner, and lower cost, the use of flip chip technology is becoming more common place to meet system requirements, yet survive environments. This paper explores the development of an optical flip chip application and details the selection/qualification of the substrate. The selected assembly consists of a procured 1x12 Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) die, having 80um diameter eutectic AuSn solder bumps at 250um pitch and flip chip bonded to a .006 thick 99.6% alumina substrate with .006 diameter thru holes and metallized with 500 WTi, under minimum 2.0-3.0?m (80-120?) thin film deposited Au. An 8 run, 3 factor, 2 level Full Factorial Design of Experiments (DOE) was completed on procured detector arrays and procured ceramic substrates using the Suss Microtec FC150. The optimum settings for the peak temperature, peak time and final die z-height were selected using the ANOVA results and interaction plots. Additional studies were completed to qualify in-house produced substrates. An epoxy glob-top encapsulant was selected to dissipate stress on the flip chip solder joints and to enhance thermal shock performance.

Girardi, Michael

2007-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

213

In-depth survey report: Control technology for small business: Evaluation of a flexible duct ventilation system for radiator repair, at A-1 Radiator, Reno, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

An engineering control evaluation was conducted at a radiator repair shop which operated at a very high level of production. The shop had the potential for high exposures to lead (7439921) because of the high volume of work, the number of radiator repair stations, and repairs to huge radiators for mining equipment. Local exhaust ventilation which utilized adjustable arm elephant trunk exhaust hoods had been installed 18 months prior to the visit. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system to control lead exposures during work operations. Time weighted average personal exposures for lead were at or below the OSHA permissible exposure level for ten of 15 mechanics during a high level of production. The elephant trunk ventilation system was capable of controlling lead fumes while shop doors were open, except at one tank in a corner. Work practices were found to be a source of excessive lead exposure. Emissions from a worker's own soldering and from soldering activity upwind of the worker were a major source of lead exposure. Collapse of flexible portions of ducts could reduce exhaust volume. Dampers also showed a tendency to close automatically.

Sheehy, J.W.; Cooper, T.C.; Hall, R.M.; Meier, R.M.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Effect of compressive and tensile strains on the critical current density of liquid-phase diffusion processed Nb{sub 3}Sn  

SciTech Connect

The influence of strain on the critical current density of liquid-phase diffusion processed Nb{sub 3}Sn foil has been examined. Eight different levels of plane stress were applied to the Nb{sub 3}Sn by using differential thermal contraction. This differential thermal contraction was achieved by soldering Nb{sub 3}Sn foil samples between two plates of eight different materials, and cooling the composite structures from the soldering temperature to the test temperature. Brass, copper, stainless steel, Hastelloy X, Inconel 600, nickel, niobium and tungsten plates were used. In addition, bending strains were applied to the Nb{sub 3}Sn foil using a non-symmetric bi-metal structure with a brass or niobium plate placed in a bending fixture. In a transverse field of 5T and at a test temperature of 4.2 K, a thermally applied axial strain of 0.4% increased the critical current by 60%. An axial tensile bending strain of the same magnitude resulted in a critical current increase of only about 9%. These results will be discussed and compared to observations in the literature for solid-phase diffusion processed Nb{sub 3}Sn.

Murray, M.L.; Benz, M.G.; Zabala, R.J.; Raber, T.R. [General Electric Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Export.gov - Home Welcome Message  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Colombianos Colombianos Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Colombia Local Time: Print | E-mail Page Colombia Colombia Home Upcoming Events Doing Business in Colombia Market Research on Colombia Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Business Service Providers Links Frequently Asked Questions U.S. - Colombia Free Trade Agreement Press Release Special OFAC Announcement Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room

216

Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Research at the ALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Research at the ALS Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Research at the ALS Print Friday, 09 November 2012 10:06 Lead-free components have been increasingly used in electronics manufacturing since the European Union passed its 2003 Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS), which banned the use of certain hazardous materials in electrical and electronic equipment. To ensure the long-term reliability of mission-critical equipment such as networking hardware, a significant amount of research and development must be undertaken by the industry to ensure lead-free (Pb-free) metallurgies are sufficiently reliable. One of the unique reliability issues associated with electroplated Pb-free lead finishes [typically pure tin (Sn) or high-Sn alloys] is the growth of "whiskers," which is the spontaneous growth of long filament-like grains on the leads, or "legs," of electronic components. If the growth of these whiskers is not controlled, shorting between the lead can occur and thus cause system failures.

217

Vacuum Glazing; A Thermally Insulating Window Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacuum Glazing; A Thermally Insulating Window Technology Vacuum Glazing; A Thermally Insulating Window Technology Speaker(s): Cenk Kocer Date: May 31, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Sunnie Lim The vacuum glazing consists of two panes of glass separated by a sub-millimetre vacuum gap. Under the action of atmospheric pressure the separation of the panes is maintained by an array of high strength spacers in the gap. The glass panes are hermetically sealed at the edge using a low melting point glass frit (solder glass). Since 1913 many have worked on a practical implementation of such a flat insulating glass structure, with success finally being reported in 1989 by Collins et al. at the University of Sydney. The purpose of this talk is to present a brief history of the vacuum glazing research at the University of Sydney, and outline in detail

218

CX-006931: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: Categorical Exclusion Determination 1: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006931: Categorical Exclusion Determination Printed Circuit Board Through-Hole Plating, Masking, and Legending Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 10/12/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, National Energy Technology Laboratory A MiniContac RS electrochemical plater is used to plate through-holes with copper between surface layers on electronic printed circuit boards. Additionally, a ProMask (solder mask) process and ProLegend (legend printing or silkscreening) are used to process the printed circuit boards. All equipment and chemical supplies are procured from LPKF Laser & Electronics. CX-006931.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-008648: Categorical Exclusion Determination

219

Micro and Man-Portable Fuel Cells  

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& USFCC Fuel Cells Meeting: & USFCC Fuel Cells Meeting: US DOE & USFCC Fuel Cells Meeting: Matching Federal Government Energy Needs Matching Federal Government Energy Needs with Energy Efficient Fuel Cells with Energy Efficient Fuel Cells Micro & Man Micro & Man - - Portable Fuel Cells Portable Fuel Cells Jerry Hallmark Jerry Hallmark Motorola Labs Motorola Labs - - President USFCC President USFCC Hotel Palomar Hotel Palomar Washington, DC Washington, DC April 26th, 2007 April 26th, 2007 US DOE & USFCC Fuel Cells Meeting 1 4/26/2007 U.S. Fuel Cell Council Micro & Man-Portable * Less Than 100 Watts * Consumer electronics, defense (solder power), speciality applications Portable, Backup, APU * 100 Watts to 10 Kilowatts * Battery replacement or charging, defense (platoon power), telecom backup,

220

Energy Blog | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3, 2012 3, 2012 Seasonal Tips I've often wished I lived in one of those fabulous places where it's 72 degrees and sunny year-round. But unfortunately, most of us don't. January 20, 2012 Increasing Energy Security There is a lot of discussion lately about domestic energy production and American energy security. For the Obama Administration, moving towards the goal of energy independence has been a clear priority since day one. January 20, 2012 After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab Fifteen years ago, a team led by Ames senior metallurgist Iver Anderson made a breakthrough in developing a tin-silver-copper alloy to replace the potentially dangerous lead-based solder. It is now the highest grossing patent from Ames Lab. January 20, 2012 Have You Ever Tried Composting?

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

GlassMelt&Sealing  

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Glass Melting and Sealing Glass Melting and Sealing Manufacturing Technologies The Manufacturing Science & Technology Center performs process development of glass and glass-ceramic-to-metal seals. Small batches of specialty glass can be melted from reagent grade oxide powders. Glass and glass-ceramic-to-metal seals are made in microprocessor controlled inert atmospheres and are checked for her- meticity after sealing. Sandia's extensive properties database of low melting solder glasses is used to aid in material and processing decisions when making glass-to-glass, ceramic-to-ceramic, and glass-to-ceramic seals. These seals are typically done in air at much lower tem- peratures than glass and glass-to-ceramic seals. Capabilities * Interface with designers and vendors to assure that the most appropriate materi-

222

Joining  

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Joining & Heat-treating Joining & Heat-treating Manufacturing Technologies The joining and heat-treating technologies in the Thin Film, Vacuum, & Packaging depart- ment include brazing, heat-treating, diffusion bonding and soldering. The technical staff pro- vides expertise in the filler metal selection, proper joint design, active filler metal brazing and the design of custom alignment fixtures. The department can join large complex parts or micro-mechanical devices of metal, ceramic and composite substrates. Capabilities * Conventional and active metal brazing of ceramics and cermets * Binder burnout and densification of cermets and ceramics in reducing or inert atmos- pheres * Hydrogen firing, inert gas, high vacuum or partial pressure heat treating * Oxide coating (Greening) of Stainless

223

CX-008648: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

48: Categorical Exclusion Determination 48: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008648: Categorical Exclusion Determination Printed Circuit Board Through-Hole Plating, Masking, and Legending Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/22/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office A MiniContac RS electrochemical plater is used to plate through-holes with copper between surface layers on electronic printed circuit boards . Additionally, a ProMask (solder mask) process and ProLegend (legend printing or silkscreening) are used to process the printed circuit boards. All equipment and chemical supplies are procured from LPKF Laser & Electronics. CX-008648.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-006931: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007668: Categorical Exclusion Determination

224

Gravitation and Duality Symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By generalizing the Hodge dual operator to the case of soldered bundles, and working in the context of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, an analysis of the duality symmetry in gravitation is performed. Although the basic conclusion is that, at least in the general case, gravitation is not dual symmetric, there is a particular theory in which this symmetry shows up. It is a self dual (or anti-self dual) teleparallel gravity in which, due to the fact that it does not contribute to the interaction of fermions with gravitation, the purely tensor part of torsion is assumed to vanish. The ensuing fermionic gravitational interaction is found to be chiral. Since duality is intimately related to renormalizability, this theory may eventually be more amenable to renormalization than teleparallel gravity or general relativity.

V. C. de Andrade; A. L. Barbosa; J. G. Pereira

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

225

Electrochemical Approaches to PV Busbar Application  

SciTech Connect

Busbars are an integral component of any thin-film photovoltaic module and must be easy and quick to apply by PV manufacturers, as well as provide long-term reliability in deployed modules. Potential reliability issues include loss of adhesion and delamination, chemical instability under current collection conditions (electromigration or corrosion), compatibility of material and application method with subsequent encapsulation steps. Several new and novel busbar materials and application methods have been explored, including adhering metal busbars with various one- and two-part conductive epoxies or conductive adhesive films, ultrasonic bonding of metal busbar strips, and bonding of busbar strips using low-temperature solders. The most promising approach to date has been the direct application of metal busbars via various electrochemical techniques, which offers a variety of distinct advantages.

Pankow, J. W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Low thermal resistance power module assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power module assembly with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate with passageways or openings for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface to an upper surface. A circuit substrate is provided and positioned on the spreader plate to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate includes a bonding layer configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening in the plate. The assembly includes power modules mounted on the circuit substrate on a surface opposite the bonding layer. The power modules are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

Hassani, Vahab (Denver, CO); Vlahinos, Andreas (Castle Rock, CO); Bharathan, Desikan (Arvada, CO)

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

227

Evaluation of a 6-wire thermocouple psychrometer for determination of in-situ water potentials  

SciTech Connect

A 6-wire, Peltier-type thermocouple psychrometer was designed and evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey for monitoring in-situ water potentials in dry-drilled boreholes in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The psychrometer consists of a wet-bulb, chromel-constantan, sensing junction and a separate dry-bulb, copper-constantan, reference junction. Two additional reference junctions are formed where the chromel and constantan wires of the wet-bulb sensing junction are soldered to separate, paired, copper, lead wires. In contrast, in the standard 3-wire thermocouple psychrometer, both the wet bulb and dry bulb share a common wire. The new design has resulted in a psychrometer that has an expanded range and greater reliability, sensitivity, and accuracy compared to the standard model.

Loskot, C.L.; Rousseau, J.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Kurzmack, M.A. [Foothill Engineering Consultants, Golden, CO (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Fan-fold shielded electrical leads  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figs.

Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

229

Novel EBSD preparation method for Cu/Sn microbumps using a focused ion beam  

SciTech Connect

We proposed a novel technique developed from focused ion beam (FIB) polishing for sample preparation of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement. A low-angle incident gallium ion beam with a high acceleration voltage of 30 kV was used to eliminate the surface roughness of cross-sectioned microbumps resulting from mechanical polishing. This work demonstrates the application of the FIB polishing technique to solders for a high-quality sample preparation for EBSD measurement after mechanical polishing. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel FIB technique of sample preparation is fast, effective and low-cost. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It can enhance the process precision to the specific area of the sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is convenient for analyzing the metallurgy of the microbump in 3DIC packaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EBSD image quality can be enhanced by just using a common FIB instrument.

Liu, Tao-Chi; Chen, Chih [National Chiao Tung University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [National Chiao Tung University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiu, Kuo-Jung [Integrated Service Technology Inc., No. 19, Pu-ding Rd., Hsinchu 30072, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Integrated Service Technology Inc., No. 19, Pu-ding Rd., Hsinchu 30072, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Han-Wen [National Chiao Tung University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [National Chiao Tung University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Jui-Chao, E-mail: jckuo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Probabilistic Mechanical Reliability Prediction of Thermoelectric Legs  

SciTech Connect

The probability of failure, Pf, for various square-arrayed thermoelectric device designs using bismuth telluride, lead telluride, or skutterudite thermoelectric materials were estimated. Only volume- or bulk-based Pf analysis was considered in this study. The effects of the choice of the thermoelectric material, the size of the leg array, the height of the thermoelectric legs, and the boundary conditions on the Pf of thermoelectric devices were investigated. Yielding of the solder contacts and mounting layer was taken into account. The modeling results showed that the use of longer legs, using skutterudites, allowing the thermoelectric device to freely deform while under a thermal gradient, and using smaller arrays promoted higher probabilities of survival.

Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry (Palos Hts., IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Materials Compatibility and Aging for Flux and Cleaner Combinations.  

SciTech Connect

A materials study of high reliability electronics cleaning is presented here. In Phase 1, mixed type substrates underwent a condensed contaminants application to view a worst- case scenario for unremoved flux with cleaning agent residue for parts in a silicone oil filled environment. In Phase 2, fluxes applied to copper coupons and to printed wiring boards underwent gentle cleaning then accelerated aging in air at 65% humidity and 30 O C. Both sets were aged for 4 weeks. Contaminants were no-clean (ORL0), water soluble (ORH1 liquid and ORH0 paste), and rosin (RMA; ROL0) fluxes. Defluxing agents were water, solvents, and engineered aqueous defluxers. In the first phase, coupons had flux applied and heated, then were placed in vials of oil with a small amount of cleaning agent and additional coupons. In the second phase, pairs of copper coupons and PWB were hand soldered by application of each flux, using tin-lead solder in a strip across the coupon or a set of test components on the PWB. One of each pair was cleaned in each cleaning agent, the first with a typical clean, and the second with a brief clean. Ionic contamination residue was measured before accelerated aging. After aging, substrates were removed and a visual record of coupon damage made, from which a subjective rank was applied for comparison between the various flux and defluxer combinations; more corrosion equated to higher rank. The ORH1 water soluble flux resulted in the highest ranking in both phases, the RMA flux the least. For the first phase, in which flux and defluxer remained on coupons, the aqueous defluxers led to worse corrosion. The vapor phase cleaning agents resulted in the highest ranking in the second phase, in which there was no physical cleaning. Further study of cleaning and rinsing parameters will be required.

Archuleta, Kim; Piatt, Rochelle

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Investigation into environmentally friendly alternative cleaning processes for hybrid microcircuits to replace vapor degreasing with 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Two cleaning processes, one aqueous and one nonaqueous, were investigated as potential replacements for the vapor degreasing process using 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) for hybrid microcircuit assemblies. The aqueous process was based upon saponification chemistry. A 10% solution of either Kester 5768 or Armakleen 2001, heated to 140 F, was sprayed on the hybrid at 450 psig and a flow rate of 5 gpm through a specially designed nozzle which created microdroplets. The nonaqueous process was based upon dissolution chemistry and used d-limonene as the solvent in an immersion and spray process. The d-limonene solvent was followed by an isopropyl alcohol spray rinse to remove the excess d-limonene. The aqueous microdroplet process was found to be successful only for solder reflow profiles that did not exceed 210 C. Furthermore, removal of component marking was a problem and the spray pressure had to be reduced to 130 psig to eliminate damage to capacitor end caps. The d-limonene cleaning was found to be successful for solder reflow temperature up to 250 C when using a four-step cleaning process. The four steps included refluxing the hybrid at 80 C, followed by soaking the hybrid in d-limonene which is heated to 80 C, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature d-limonene, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature IPA was developed to remove residual flux from the hybrid microcircuits. This process was the most robust and most closely matched the cleaning ability of TCA.

Adams, B.E.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Export.gov - Ireland Home  

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235

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Click here for services for Indian companies Click here for services for Indian companies Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > India Local Time: Print | E-mail Page India India Home Doing Business in India Market Research on India Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events India Aviation 2014 Trade Leads from India SelectUSA Business Service Providers Links Frequently Asked Questions U.S. Embassy In India Internship Program American Business Corners Share Your Success in India

236

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Magyar oldalak Magyar oldalak Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Hungary Local Time: Print | E-mail Page Hungary Hungary Home Doing Business in Hungary Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Trade Leads from Hungary Business Service Providers Links Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room Other European Markets Other Worldwide Markets   Welcome to the U.S. Commercial Service at Budapest!! The U.S. Commercial Service creates prosperity through global trade. Our

237

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Pour les importateurs français Pour les importateurs français Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > France Local Time: Print | E-mail Page France France Home Mission Doing Business in France Trade Events Services for U.S. Companies Corporate Promotion American Companies operating in France Business Service Providers Financing US Exports Internships Regional Consulates & APP's Share your Success in France Contact Us Useful Links FAQs

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y turistas uruguayos y turistas uruguayos Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Uruguay Local Time: Print | E-mail Page Uruguay Uruguay Home Doing Business in Uruguay Market Research on Uruguay Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Business Service Providers Links Frequently Asked Questions Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room Other American Markets Other Worldwide Markets Welcome to U.S. Commercial Service Uruguay!

239

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Malaysian Importers Malaysian Importers Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Malaysia Local Time: Print | E-mail Page Malaysia Malaysia Home Doing Business in Malaysia Services for U.S. Companies Business Service Providers Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room Other Worldwide Markets Welcome to U.S. Commercial Service Malaysia! U.S. Commercial Service Malaysia is your eyes and ears in the local marketplace. We promote the export of U.S. goods and services and protect

240

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Export.gov - Welcome  

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Slovensky Slovensky Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Slovakia Local Time: Print | E-mail Page Slovakia Slovakia Home Doing Business in Slovakia Market Research on Slovakia Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Trade Leads from Slovakia Links Frequently Asked Questions Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room Other European Markets Other Worldwide Markets Welcome to the U.S. Commercial Service in Slovakia

242

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chilenos chilenos Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Chile Local Time: Print | E-mail Page Chile Chile Home Doing Business in Chile Services for U.S. Companies Business Service Providers U.S. Gov. Business Resources Career Opportunities / Internships Links Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room Other American Markets Other Worldwide Markets Welcome to U.S. Commercial Service Chile! U.S. Commercial Service Chile is your eyes and ears in the local

243

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244

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246

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Export.gov - Australia Home  

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Australian Importers Australian Importers Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Australia Local time in Sydney and Melbourne: : Print | E-mail Page Australia Australia Home Doing Business in Australia Market Research on Australia Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Business Service Providers Links Internships Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room Other Worldwide Markets G'day and welcome! The U.S. Commercial Service, Australia helps U.S. companies do business in

254

Export.gov - Index_Page_Welcome_to_Pakistan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pakistani Importers Pakistani Importers Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Pakistan Local Time: Print | E-mail Page Pakistan Pakistan Home Doing Business in Pakistan Market Research on Pakistan Services for Pakistani Companies Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Useful Links Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room Other Worldwide Markets Welcome to the U.S. Commercial Service Pakistan kistan_banner The U.S. Commercial Service in Pakistan is responsible for U.S. export

255

The electronic properties and lattice dynamics of (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}: From cubic to tetragonal and rhombohedral phases  

SciTech Connect

The structural, electronic and dynamical properties of the cubic, tetragonal and rhombohedral phases of a lead-free ferroelectrics, (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} (NBT), have been studied with a density functional formalism. The direct band gap is determined to be 2?3?eV for three phases, suggesting them to be good optical material. The equilibrium structures were given, and the importance of Bi atom in the low-symmetry ferroelectric phases were investigated with the electron localization functions analysis. The vibration modes at the ? point were calculated to provide a basis for analyzing the Raman and IR spectra. Soft modes were found in both the cubic and the tetragonal phases, providing a clue in understanding the ferroelectric phase transition in NBT.

L, Hongfeng [Department of Applied Physics, College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Shanying [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Xiaosu, E-mail: xiaosuwang@cau.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

256

Proceedings of conference on fleet use of unique automotive fuels  

SciTech Connect

Papers and/or summaries of presentations which were given at the conference are included in this volume. The conference was concerned with alcohol and emergency fuels. Topics covered include: ethanol supply; Texaco lead-free gasohol distribution; the BETC fleet test program; the army fleet test program; tri-butyl alcohol and methanol in gasoline (blending, distribution, utilization); the DOE alcohol fuels utilization program; DOE engineering and reliability fleet test results; federal emergency energy policy; emergency transportation resource management; EPA emergency action; DOE transportation emergency fuels program; and emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Summaries of the 2 panel discussions are also included. Separate abstracts of 5 papers have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. There are 10 summaries in this document which have not been abstracted separately. (DMC)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to study the combined effects of die design, proper internal cooling and efficient die lubricants on die life. The project targeted improvements in die casting insert life by: Optomized Die Design for Reduced Surface Temperature: The life of die casting dies is significantly shorter when the die is exposed to elevated temperature for significant periods of time. Any die operated under conditions leading to surface temperature in excess of 1050oF undergoes structural changes that reduce its strength. Optimized die design can improve die life significantly. This improvement can be accomplished by means of cooling lines, baffles and bubblers in the die. A key objective of the project was to establish criteria for the minimal distance of the cooling lines from the surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. The Uddeholm Dievar steel evaluated in this program showed superior resistance to thermal fatigue resistance. Based on the experimental evidence, cooling lines could be placed as close as 0.5" from the surface. Die Life Extension by Optimized Die Lubrication: The life of die casting dies is affected by additions made to its surface with the proper lubricants. These lubricants will protect the surface from the considerable temperature peaks that occur when the molten melt enters the die. Dies will reach a significantly higher temperature without this lubricant being applied. The amount and type of the lubricant are critical variables in the die casting process. However, these lubricants must not corrode the die surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. Chem- Trend participated in the program with die lubricants and technical support. Experiments conducted with these lubricants demonstrated good protection of the substrate steel. Graphite and boron nitride used as benchmarks are capable of completely eliminating soldering and washout. However, because of cost and environmental considerations these materials are not widely used in industry. The best water-based die lubricants evaluated in this program were capable of providing similar protection from soldering and washout. In addition to improved part quality and higher production rates, improving die casting processes to preserve the life of the inserts will result in energy savings and a reduction in environmental wastes. Improving die life by means of optimized cooling line placement, baffles and bubblers in the die will allow for reduced die temperatures during processing, saving energy associated with production. The utilization of optimized die lubricants will also reduce heat requirements in addition to reducing waste associated with soldering and washout. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.1 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on commercial introduction in 2010, a market penetration of 70% by 2020 is 1.26 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.025 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

258

Lithium-Ion Battery Teacher Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lithium Ion Battery Teacher Workshop Lithium Ion Battery Teacher Workshop 2012 2 2 screw eyes 2 No. 14 rubber bands 2 alligator clips 1 plastic gear font 2 steel axles 4 nylon spacers 2 Pitsco GT-R Wheels 2 Pitsco GT-F Wheels 2 balsa wood sheets 1 No. 280 motor Also: Parts List 3 Tools Required 1. Soldering iron 2. Hobby knife or coping saw 3. Glue gun 4. Needlenose pliers 5. 2 C-clamps 6. Ruler 4 1. Using a No. 2 pencil, draw Line A down the center of a balsa sheet. Making the Chassis 5 2. Turn over the balsa sheet and draw Line B ¾ of an inch from one end of the sheet. Making the Chassis 6 3. Draw a 5/8" x ½" notch from 1" from the top of the sheet. Making the Chassis 7 4. Draw Line C 2 ½" from the other end of the same sheet of balsa. Making the Chassis 8 5. Using a sharp utility knife or a coping saw, cut

259

Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Autocatalytic silver-plating of aluminium radio frequency waveguides with autocatalytic nickel as the undercoat for space applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Autocatalytic plating, a technique used for evenly coating contoured items with deep cavities, such as microwave components, irrespective of shape and size of the item to be plated, was used in this work to coat a radio frequency waveguide. In this work, a process sequence was developed for autocatalytic silver plating on aluminum base material with autocatalytic nickel as the undercoat. The thickness of the deposited silver depends on variables like temperature, concentration of silver ions in the electrolyte, and the pH of the solution. The influence of these variables was studied under different process conditions. Silver-coated rectangular plates were subjected to various tests, including a bend test, a heat resistance test, a thermal cycling test, a thermo vacuum test, a solderability test, and a humidity resistance test. Autocatalytic silver-coated RF waveguide WR28 was tested for insertion loss and return loss. Autocatalytic silver-plated rectangular plates and waveguides were found to withstand a simulated space environment.

Sharad Shukla; N Gomathi; Rene George

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Review of Back Contact Silicon Solar Cells for Low-Cost Application  

SciTech Connect

Back contact solar cells hold significant promise for increased performance in photovoltaics for the near future. Two major advantages which these cells possess are a lack of grid shading loss and coplanar interconnection. Front contacted cells can have up to 10% shading loss when using screen printed metal grids. A front contact cell must also use solder connections which run from the front of one cell to the back of the next for series interconnection. This procedure is more difficult to automate than the case of co-planar contacts. The back contact cell design is not a recent concept. The earliest silicon solar cell developed by Bell Labs was a back contact device. There have been many design modifications to the basic concept over the years. To name a few, there is the Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) cell, the Stanford Point contact solar cell, the Emitter Wrap Through (EWT), and its many variations. A number of these design concepts have demonstrated high efficiency. The SunPower back contact solar cell holds the efficiency record for silicon concentrator cells. The challenge is to produce a high efficiency cell at low cost using high throughput techniques. This has yet to be achieved with a back contact cell design. The focus of this paper will be to review the relevant features of back contact cells and progress made toward the goal of a low cost version of this device.

Smith, David D.

1999-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

262

Investigation of proposed process sequence for the array automated assembly task. Phase I and II. Final report, October 1, 1977-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

A selected process sequence for the low cost fabrication of photovoltaic modules was defined during this contract. Each part of the process sequence was looked at regarding its contribution to the overall dollars per watt cost. During the course of the research done, some of the initially included processes were dropped due to technological deficiencies. The printed dielectric diffusion mask, codiffusion of the n+ and p+ regions, wraparound front contacts and retention of the diffusion oxide for use as an AR coating were all the processes that were removed for this reason. Other process steps were retained to achieve the desired overall cost and efficiency. Square wafers, a polymeric spin-on PX-10 diffusion source, a p+ back surface field and silver front contacts are all processes that have been recommended for use in this program. The printed silver solderable pad for making contact to the aluminum back was replaced by an ultrasonically applied tin-zinc pad. Also, the texturized front surface was dropped as inappropriate for the sheet silicon likely to be available in 1986. Progress has also been made on the process sequence for module fabrication. A shift from bonding with a conformal coating to laminating with ethylene vinyl acetate and a glass superstrate is recommended for further module fabrication. The finalized process sequence is described.

Mardesich, N.; Garcia, A.; Eskenas, K.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

AC Loss Measurements on a 2G YBCO Coil  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems (WES) to continue development of HTS power transformers. For compatibility with the existing power grid, a commercially viable HTS transformer will have to operate at high voltages in the range of 138 kV and above, and will have to withstand 550-kV impulse voltages as well. Second-generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors will be required for an economically-competitive design. In order to adequately size the refrigeration system for these transformers, the ac loss of these HTS coils must be characterized. Electrical AC loss measurements were conducted on a prototype high voltage (HV) coil with co-wound stainless steel at 60 Hz in a liquid nitrogen bath using a lock-in amplifier technique. The prototype HV coil consisted of 26 continuous (without splice) single pancake coils concentrically centered on a stainless steel former. For ac loss measurement purposes, voltage tap pairs were soldered across each set of two single pancake coils so that a total of 13 separate voltage measurements could be made across the entire length of the coil. AC loss measurements were taken as a function of ac excitation current. Results show that the loss is primarily concentrated at the ends of the coil where the operating fraction of critical current is the highest and show a distinct difference in current scaling of the losses between low current and high current regimes.

Rey, Christopher M [ORNL] [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Schwenterly, S W [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Ion chromatography in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards  

SciTech Connect

Ion chromatography (IC) has proven useful in analyzing chemical solutions used in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards. Unlike other chemical quantification techniques, IC provides results on ions not expected in the production solutions. Thus, solution contamination and break-down products can be monitored in every phase of the circuit board manufacturing. During the first phase, epoxy laminates experience an etchback, first in chromic acid, which can be analyzed for trace chloride and sulfate, then in ammonium bifluoride/HCl, which can be analyzed for fluoride and chloride. Following a wet-blasting to roughen up the surface, 20 microinches of copper are deposited using an electroless bath. Again, IC is applicable for monitoring formate, tartarate, and sulfate levels. Next, an acid copper bath is used to electroplate the through holes with 0.001 inches of ductile copper. This bath is analyzed for trace chloride. Photoimaging is then performed, and the organic solvents used can be assayed for trace ionic chloride. Finally, a fluoroboric acid-based tin-lead bath is used to deposit a solderable alloy. This bath is analyzed for fluoroborate, tin, and lead. In addition, mobile phase ion chromatography (MPIC) is used to monitor the nonionic organic brighteners in the baths. 11 refs., 7 figs.

Smith, R.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Ion chromatography in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards  

SciTech Connect

Ion chromatography (IC) has proven useful in analyzing chemical solutions used in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards. IC provides results on ions not expected in the production solutions. Thus solution contamination, and breakdown products can be monitored in every phase of the circuit board manufacturing. During the first phase, epoxy laminates experience an etchback, first in chromic acid, which can be analyzed for trace chloride and sulfate, then in ammonium bifluoride/HCl, which can be analyzed for fluoride and chloride. Following a wet blasting to roughen up the surface, 20 ..mu..in. of copper are deposited using an electroless bath. Again, IC is applicable for monitoring formate, tartarate, and sulfate levels. Next, an acid copper bath is used to electroplate the through holes with 0.001 in. of ductile copper. This bath is analyzed for trace chloride. Photoimaging is then performed, and the organic solvents used can be assayed for trace ionic chloride. Finally, a fluoroboric acid-based tin-lead bath is used to deposit a solderable alloy. This bath is analyzed for total fluoroborate, tin, and lead. In addition, mobile phase ion chromatography (MPIC) is used to monitor the nonionic organic brighteners in the baths. 11 refs., 3 figs.

Smith, R.E.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The R&D activity presented is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75 um or 150 um, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100 um thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4e15 neq/cm^2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation is discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond ...

Macchiolo, A; Ellenburg, M; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Terzo, S; Weigell, P

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Array automated assembly task for the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project, Phase 2. Sixth quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This program is concerned with nickel/solder metallization of silicon solar cells. Work in this second quarter of the program extension comprised portions of four experimental tasks. The task to study nickel plating on silicon oxide films has led to the finding that the plating solution dissolves oxide before depositing nickel. The electron microprobe study of nickel penetration of silicon has shown that sintering can be conducted for long times at 300/sup 0/C but that problems may arise above this temperature, even though there is no significant penetration of nickel into silicon below about 450/sup 0/C. Measurements on cells fabricated using plating times in the four to fourteen minute range indicate no degradation of cell properties as a result of contact with the plating solution in this time range, but do show evidence of poor contact quality if the nickel plate is either too thick or too thin. The task to assess the Motorola plating process is in its early stages, but it is evident that the process is a very complex and time consuming one.

Petersen, R.C.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Low cost impulse compatible wideband antenna  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An antenna apparatus and method for building the antenna is disclosed. Impulse signals travel through a feed point of the antenna with respect to a ground plane. A geometric fin structure is connected to the feed point, and through a termination resistance to the ground plane. A geometric ridge structure connected to the ground is positioned with respect to the fin in order to receive and radiate electromagnetic energy from the impulse signal at a predetermined impedance and over a predetermined set of frequencies. The fin and ridge can be either a wire or a planar surface. The fin and ridge may be disposed within a radiation cavity such as a horn. The radiation cavity is constructed of stamped and etched metal sheets bent and then soldered together. The fin and ridge are also formed from metal sheets or wires. The fin is attached to the feed point and then to the cavity through a termination resistance. The ridge is attached to the cavity and disposed with respect to the fin in order to achieve a particular set of antenna characteristics.

Rosenbury, Erwin T. (Livermore, CA); Burke, Gerald J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Tracy, CA); Stever, Robert D. (Lathrop, CA); Governo, George K. (Livermore, CA); Mullenhoff, Donald J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Metalworkers clean up their waste  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how using methods such as chemical precipitation, filtration, and ion exchange, metal parts manufacturers are reducing the pollutants in their wastewater so it can be reused or safely discharged. Metalworking manufacturer are recovering useful materials, lowering their disposal costs, and reducing pollution by treating their wastewater with methods such as chemical precipitation and ion exchange so that it can be reused or safely discharged. They are also reducing wastes by recycling metalworking coolants. The major wastewater treatment technologies identified by the Environmental Protection Agency are chemical precipitation, or adding flocculants to bind waste particles together; membrane ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, in which waste is trapped when the water passes through a membrane; and ion exchange, in which specially formulated resins capture dissolved metal salts. Other treatment techniques cited by Elwood Forsht, chief of the chemicals and metals branch at the EPA, include electrowinning, which uses electrolysis to concentrate metallic ions in wastewater, and coolant recycling, a method that removes metal particles by centrifugal force and kills bacteria by pasteurization. Many metalworking operations create wastewater, including drilling, welding, soldering, surface finishing, electroplating, acid treatment, anodizing, assembly, and machining. Companies use wastewater treatment technologies to recycle their wastewater or clean it so that it meets EPA standards and can be discharged into a municipal waste system, thus avoiding high disposal costs.

Valenti, M.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1996--31 December 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report describes Solarex`s accomplishments during this phase of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program. During this reporting period, Solarex researchers converted 79% of production casting stations to increase ingot size and operated them at equivalent yields and cell efficiencies; doubled the casting capacity at 20% the cost of buying new equipment to achieve the same capacity increase; operated the wire saws in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; purchased additional wire saws; developed and qualified a new wire-guide coating material that doubles the wire-guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; ran an Al paste back-surface-field process on 25% of all cells in manufacturing; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; substituted RTV adhesive for the 3M Very High Bond tape after several field problems with the tape; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; demonstrated the use of light soldering for solar cells; demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers; and presented three PVMaT-related papers at the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Explosion bonding of dissimilar materials for fabricating APS front end components: Analysis of metallurgical and mechanical properties and UHV applications  

SciTech Connect

The front end beamline section contains photon shutters and fixed masks. These components are made of OFHC copper and GlidCOP AL-15. Stainless steels (304 or 316) are also used for connecting photon shutters and fixed masks to other components that operate in the ultrahigh vacuum system. All these dissimilar materials need to be joined together. However, bonding these dissimilar materials is very difficult because of their different mechanical and thermal properties and incompatible metallurgical properties. Explosion bonding is a bonding method in which the controlled energy of a detonating explosive is used to create a metallurgical bond between two or more similar or dissimilar materials. No intermediate filler metal, for example, a brazing compound or soldering alloy, is needed to promote bonding, and no external heat need be applied. A study of the metallurgical and mechanical properties and YGV applications of GlidCop AL-15, OFHC copper, and 304 stainless steel explosion-bonded joints has been done. This report contains five parts: an ultrasonic examination of explosion-bonded joints and a standard setup; mechanical-property and thermal-cycle tests of GlidCop AL-15/304 stainless steel explosion-bonded joints; leak tests of a GlidCop AL-15/304 stainless steel explosion-bonded interfaces for UHV application; metallurgical examination of explosion-bonded interfaces and failure analysis, and discussion and conclusion.

Li, Yuheng; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.

1994-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Low thermal resistance power module assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power module assembly (400) with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate (410) with passageways or openings (414) for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface (411) to an upper surface (412). A circuit substrate (420) is provided and positioned on the spreader plate (410) to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate (420) includes a bonding layer (422) configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer (422) may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface (412) of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening (414) in the plate. The assembly includes power modules (430) mounted on the circuit substrate (420) on a surface opposite the bonding layer (422). The power modules (430) are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

Hassani, Vahab (Denver, CO); Vlahinos, Andreas (Castle Rock, CO); Bharathan, Desikan (Arvada, CO)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

273

Apparatus And Method Of Using Flexible Printed Circuit Board In Optical Transceiver Device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a flexible printed circuit board that is used in connection with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. In one embodiment, the flexible printed circuit board has flexible metal layers in between flexible insulating layers, and the circuit board comprises: (1) a main body region orientated in a first direction having at least one electrical or optoelectronic device; (2) a plurality of electrical contact pads integrated into the main body region, where the electrical contact pads function to connect the flexible printed circuit board to an external environment; (3) a buckle region extending from one end of the main body region; and (4) a head region extending from one end of the buckle region, and where the head region is orientated so that it is at an angle relative to the direction of the main body region. The electrical contact pads may be ball grid arrays, solder balls or land-grid arrays, and they function to connect the circuit board to an external environment. A driver or amplifier chip may be adapted to the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. In another embodiment, a heat spreader passes along a surface of the head region of the flexible printed circuit board, and a window is formed in the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. Optoelectronic devices are adapted to the head spreader in such a manner that they are accessible through the window in the flexible printed circuit board.

Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM); Peterson, Gary D. (Albuquerque, NM); Reysen, Bill H. (Lafayette, CO)

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Manufacturing and testing VLPC hybrids  

SciTech Connect

To insure that the manufacture of VLPC devices is a reliable, cost-effective technology, hybrid assembly procedures and testing methods suitable for large scale production have been developed. This technology has been developed under a contract from Fermilab as part of the D-Zero upgrade program. Each assembled hybrid consists of a VLPC chip mounted on an AlN substrate. The VLPC chip is provided with bonding pads (one connected to each pixel) which are wire bonded to gold traces on the substrate. The VLPC/AlN hybrids are mated in a vacuum sealer using solder preforms and a specially designed carbon boat. After mating, the VLPC pads are bonded to the substrate with an automatic wire bonder. Using this equipment we have achieved a thickness tolerance of {+-}0.0007 inches and a production rate of 100 parts per hour. After assembly the VLPCs are tested for optical response at an operating temperature of 7K. The parts are tested in a custom designed continuous-flow dewar with a capacity 15 hybrids, and one Lake Shore DT470-SD-11 calibrated temperature sensor mounted to an AlN substrate. Our facility includes five of these dewars with an ultimate test capacity of 75 parts per day. During the course of the Dzero program we have assembled more than 4,000 VLPC hybrids and have tested more than 2,500 with a high yield.

Adkins, L. R.; Ingram, C. M.; Anderson, E. J. [Guidance, Navigation and Sensors, Boeing (United States)

1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

275

Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

Kirpich, Aaron S. (Broomall, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

Kirpich, A.S.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

277

Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips is disclosed. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM. 12 figs.

Bernhardt, A.F.; Malba, V.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

279

Condensed Geometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A spin (dependent) system treatment of gravity is adopted akin to the Sen-Ashtekar treatment. Time is reinserted into the space ``fluid'' at the quantum Level. This time - the Lorentzian one- is shown to be a vorticity of a ``fluid particle'' of the space and the effect is integrated over all the fluid particles to incorporate time in quantum gravity. This spacetime is viewed as a fluid of future light cones called the SU(2) dipoles of causality here in the paper.The future light cone structure is soldered internally to the new variables derived in this paper to accomodate a background free physics of quantum strings. The emergence of spacetime is shown to be a first order phase transition and that of separation of gravity from the unified field to be a second order phase transition. For the former case the cosmic time is chosen as the order parameter and for the latter case the angular momentum is chosen as the order parameter. A quantum blackhole thus nucleates at transition temperature which is the Planck temperature, $\\tau_{pl}$. Then the SU(2) dipoles enable interpretation of this black hole as a gravity gauge SL(2,$\\mathbb{C}$) dual of the U(1) gauge ferromagnetic phase. The usual QFT interpretation of this effect is the existence of locally Lorentzian spacetimes.

Koustubh Kabe

2010-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

280

Microchannel heat sink assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lead-free solder misbehaves" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A Resistive Wideband Space Beam Splitter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the design, construction and measurements of the electromagnetic performance of a wideband space beam splitter. The beam splitter is designed to power divide the incident radiation into reflected and transmitted components for interferometer measurement of spectral features in the mean cosmic radio background. Analysis of a 2-element interferometer configuration with a vertical beam splitter between a pair of antennas leads to the requirement that the beam splitter be a resistive sheet with sheet resistance {\\eta}o /2, where {\\eta}o is the impedance of free space. The transmission and reflection properties of such a sheet is computed for normal and oblique incidences and for orthogonal polarizations of the incident electric field. We have constructed such an electromagnetic beam splitter as a square soldered grid of resistors of value 180 Ohms (approximately {\\eta}o /2) and a grid size of 0.1 m, and present measurements of the reflection and transmission coefficients over a wide frequency range bet...

Mahesh, Nivedita; Shankar, N Udaya; Raghunathan, Agaram

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Engine coolant technology, performance, and life for light-duty applications  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been interest by motor vehicle manufacturers in developing longer-lived automotive engine coolants with an emphasis on organic acid technology (OAT). Paradoxically, the lifetime of conventional technology remains largely undefined. Concerns arising from the depleting nature of silicate have led to modern conservative change recommendations of 30,000 to 50,000 miles ({approximately}48,279 to 80,464 km). In the present work, laboratory bench test, engine dynamometer and vehicle service data from traditional silicate, hybrid and nonsilicate coolants are compared and contrasted. A new electrochemical test is used to examine passivation kinetics on aluminum. It is shown that performance and lifetime are independent of chemistry and cannot be generalized. Examples include an American silicate coolant with excellent performance on high-heat-rejecting aluminum (80 W/cm{sup 2}). European and American silicate coolants with performance defined lifetimes in excess of 300,000 miles (482,790 km), and an OAT coolant with laboratory high lead solder protection. It is concluded that the primary benefit of OAT is to meet global specifications that include chemical limitations.

Turcotte, D.E.; Lockwood, F.E. [Valvoline Co., Lexington, KY (United States); Pfitzner, K.K.; Meszaros, L.L. [BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Listebarger, J.K. [Ashland Chemical, Dublin, OH (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Thermal and molecular investigation of laser tissue welding  

SciTech Connect

Despite the growing number of successful animal and human trials, the exact mechanisms of laser tissue welding remain unknown. Furthermore, the effects of laser heating on tissue on the molecular scale are not fully understood. To address these issues, a multi-front attack oil both extrinsic (solder/patch mediated) and intrinsic (laser only) tissue welding was launched using two-color infrared thermometry, computer modeling, weld strength assessment, biochemical assays, and vibrational spectroscopy. The coupling of experimentally measured surface temperatures with the predictive numerical simulations provided insight into the sub-surface dynamics of the laser tissue welding process. Quantification of the acute strength of the welds following the welding procedure enabled comparison among trials during an experiment, with previous experiments, and with other studies in the literature. The acute weld integrity also provided an indication of tile probability of long-term success. Molecular effects induced In the tissue by laser irradiation were investigated by measuring tile concentrations of specific collagen covalent crosslinks and characterizing the Fourier-Transform infrared (FTIR) spectra before and after the laser exposure.

Small, W., IV

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E November 8, 2013 - 10:22am Addthis Inspired by the design of jet engines, ARPA-E awardee FloDesign flipped wind turbine design on its head and developed a shrouded turbine -- essentially three blades surrounded by two different sized fiberglass frames. | Photo courtesy of Fast Company. Inspired by the design of jet engines, ARPA-E awardee FloDesign flipped wind turbine design on its head and developed a shrouded turbine -- essentially three blades surrounded by two different sized fiberglass frames. | Photo courtesy of Fast Company. Urban Electric Power is one of the spin-off companies created by ARPA-E awardees to take their technologies from the lab to the marketplace. The company is commercializing low-cost, lead-free zinc anode rechargeable batteries that are designed for a wide range of applications in the growing energy storage market. | Photo by Matty Greene, Energy Department.

285

Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ARPA-E ARPA-E Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About ARPA-E November 8, 2013 - 10:22am Addthis Inspired by the design of jet engines, ARPA-E awardee FloDesign flipped wind turbine design on its head and developed a shrouded turbine -- essentially three blades surrounded by two different sized fiberglass frames. | Photo courtesy of Fast Company. Inspired by the design of jet engines, ARPA-E awardee FloDesign flipped wind turbine design on its head and developed a shrouded turbine -- essentially three blades surrounded by two different sized fiberglass frames. | Photo courtesy of Fast Company. Urban Electric Power is one of the spin-off companies created by ARPA-E awardees to take their technologies from the lab to the marketplace. The company is commercializing low-cost, lead-free zinc anode rechargeable batteries that are designed for a wide range of applications in the growing energy storage market. | Photo by Matty Greene, Energy Department.

286

Investigation on transition behavior and electrical properties of (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Li{sub x}Nb{sub 0.84}Ta{sub 0.1}Sb{sub 0.06}O{sub 3} around polymorphic phase transition region  

SciTech Connect

(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Li{sub x}Nb{sub 0.84}Ta{sub 0.1}Sb{sub 0.06}O{sub 3} (KNLNTS) lead free ceramics with different Li concentration were fabricated by conventional solid-state reaction method. By increasing Li ions in KNLNTS, the grains grow up and the crystal structure changes from orthorhombic to tetragonal. When 0.03 ? x ? 0.05, the ceramics structure lays in PPT region. Polarization versus electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops at room temperature show good ferroelectric properties and the remnant polarization decreases by increasing Li content while coercive electric keeps almost unchanged. In PPT region, taking x = 0.04 as an example, the sample shows excellent dielectric properties: the dielectric constant is 1159 and loss tangent is 0.04, while the piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is 245 pC/N and kp is 0.44 at room temperature, it is promising for (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Li{sub x}Nb{sub 0.84}Ta{sub 0.1}Sb{sub 0.06}O{sub 3} with 4 at. % Li to substitute PZT.

Zhu, Chen; Wang, Wenchao; Shi, Honglin; Wang, Fangyu; Cao, Yongge [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, P R China (China) [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, P R China (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Huang, Jiquan; Wang, Chong [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Tang, Fei; Yuan, Xuanyi, E-mail: yuanxuanyi@ruc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, P R China (China)] [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, P R China (China); Liu, Yang [School of Chemistry and Environment Engineering, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan 512005 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Environment Engineering, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan 512005 (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping for Rapid Manufacturing of Dies with Protective Coatings and Improved Thermal Management  

SciTech Connect

In the high pressure die casting process, molten metal is introduced into a die cavity at high pressure and velocity, enabling castings of thin wall section and complex geometry to be obtained. Traditional die materials have been hot work die steels, commonly H13. Manufacture of the dies involves machining the desired geometry from monolithic blocks of annealed tool steel, heat treating to desired hardness and toughness, and final machining, grinding and polishing. The die is fabricated with internal water cooling passages created by drilling. These materials and fabrication methods have been used for many years, however, there are limitations. Tool steels have relatively low thermal conductivity, and as a result, it takes time to remove the heat from the tool steel via the drilled internal water cooling passages. Furthermore, the low thermal conductivity generates large thermal gradients at the die cavity surfaces, which ultimately leads to thermal fatigue cracking on the surfaces of the die steel. The high die surface temperatures also promote the metallurgical bonding of the aluminum casting alloy to the surface of the die steel (soldering). In terms of process efficiency, these tooling limitations reduce the number of die castings that can be made per unit time by increasing cycle time required for cooling, and increasing downtime and cost to replace tooling which has failed either by soldering or by thermal fatigue cracking (heat checking). The objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of designing, fabricating, and testing high pressure die casting tooling having properties equivalent to H13 on the surface in contact with molten casting alloy - for high temperature and high velocity molten metal erosion resistance but with the ability to conduct heat rapidly to interior water cooling passages. A layered bimetallic tool design was selected, and the design evaluated for thermal and mechanical performance via finite element analysis. H13 was retained as the exterior layer of the tooling, while commercially pure copper was chosen for the interior structure of the tooling. The tooling was fabricated by traditional machining of the copper substrate, and H13 powder was deposited on the copper via the Laser Engineered Net Shape (LENSTM) process. The H13 deposition layer was then final machined by traditional methods. Two tooling components were designed and fabricated; a thermal fatigue test specimen, and a core for a commercial aluminum high pressure die casting tool. The bimetallic thermal fatigue specimen demonstrated promising performance during testing, and the test results were used to improve the design and LENS TM deposition methods for subsequent manufacture of the commercial core. Results of the thermal finite element analysis for the thermal fatigue test specimen indicate that it has the ability to lose heat to the internal water cooling passages, and to external spray cooling, significantly faster than a monolithic H13 thermal fatigue sample. The commercial core is currently in the final stages of fabrication, and will be evaluated in an actual production environment at Shiloh Die casting. In this research, the feasibility of designing and fabricating copper/H13 bimetallic die casting tooling via LENS TM processing, for the purpose of improving die casting process efficiency, is demonstrated.

Brevick, Jerald R. [Ohio State University

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

288

Microsoft Project - BEPII6.mpp  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Predecessors Predecessors 1 Design 77 days Tue 9/30/03 Tue 1/27/04 4 Parts, Tooling Fab & Instl 198 days Mon 9/1/03 Wed 6/16/04 9 Magnet Fabrication 391 days Thu 2/19/04 Wed 9/7/05 10 Magnet #1 351 days Thu 2/19/04 Tue 7/12/05 11 Coil Assembly 241 days Thu 2/19/04 Thu 2/3/05 5FS-2 wks 12 SCQ Quad Coils 105 days Thu 2/19/04 Fri 7/16/04 13 insulate w/ kapton, hypot 1 day Thu 2/19/04 Thu 2/19/04 14 Mount/indicate tube 2 days Fri 2/20/04 Mon 2/23/04 13 15 install substrate 1 day Tue 2/24/04 Tue 2/24/04 14 16 wind layer 1 2 days Wed 2/25/04 Thu 2/26/04 15 17 install G-10 parts, leads 3 days Fri 2/27/04 Tue 3/2/04 16 18 install substrate 1 day Wed 3/3/04 Wed 3/3/04 17 19 wind layer 2 2 days Thu 3/4/04 Fri 3/5/04 18 20 solder outgoing lead 1 day Mon 3/8/04 Mon 3/8/04 19 21 install G-10 parts 3 days Tue 3/9/04 Thu 3/11/04 20 22 prepare for cure

289

Refrigerator and Solenoid Run Summary August/September 1999  

SciTech Connect

The helium refrigerator was cooled down and operated for the third time since its installation. D-Zero's 2 Tesla superconducting solenoid was cooled down and operated for its second time since its installation into the D-Zero detector. This engineering note summarizes the cryogenic aspects of the test run and performance measurements made. The main purpose of this run was to do field mapping of the solenoid with different combinations of field polarity on the Solenoid and CF iron magnets. This was accomplished. A second purpose was to test the lower field joint repair that was done in January 1999. This field joint had a measurable voltage drop across the soldered bus splice. The repair was an undoing of the joint, extensive cleaning of the bus, and then welding the splice. The repair was successful, no voltage drop was measured and the magnet behaved nicely. A parasitic purpose was to get some operating time on the refrigerator, measure the refrigeration performance, and measure the heat leak in the VLPC lines mounted on the detector platform. Refrigerator performance was spot checked, and was found to be 60 watts (10%) less than generic operating curves. At this level of performance, the operating margin for the full solenoid and VLPC system will be 75 watts (15%) which is somewhat uncomfortable from an operational stand point. The VLPC lines were operated and heat leak numbers of around 40 watts was measured for each pipe section including the supply u-tubes to the detector, the bayonet can, valve box on the platform and the piping back to the refrigerator valve box. Another purpose of the test run was to test the compatibility of other detector components with the new central magnetic field environment. I do not know the results of these tests.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

290

Development of a commercial photovoltaic concentrator module  

SciTech Connect

The ojective of this work was to develop the design and prototype of a commercial high-concentration photovoltaic (PV) module. The design is for a 282-sun point-focus concentrating module. Most of the components, subassemblies, and design features incorporate simplifications and ease of manufacturing. The Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) module is designed to incorporate high-efficiency, single-crystal silicon PV cells. The housing is made with aluminum laminated for voltage stand-off and simultaneously providing high thermal conductivity. The Fresnel lens injection molded by American Optical (AO) as singles. The cell assembly consists of a copper heat spreader, a photovoltaic cell soldered, a top and bottom contact, and a reflective secondary optical element (SOE). The cell assemblies passed all of the initial electrical characterization and high-potential tests. Under environmental cycling, the only bond that failed was the PV cell-to-heat spreader interface. The other components (top contact, bottom contact, SOE) passed all the environmental cycling tests. The cell assemblies were designed to be mounted onto the receiver section with a thermally conductive RTV. This geometry was subjected to environmental testing. There was no delamination of this bond nor was there electrical breakdown when the assemblies were subjected to the hi-pot test. A mock module was fabricated for environmental evaluation. This module was subjected to the humidity/freeze cycling to assess the performance of the lens mounting design. This module was also subjected to the rain test after the humidity/freeze cycling and checked for water leaks. The lens showed small displacement from its original position after the environmental cycling. One tablespoon of water did collect inside the module.

Saifee, S.T.; Hutchison, G. [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Dose calculation errors due to inaccurate representation of heterogeneity correction obtained from computerized tomography  

SciTech Connect

Computerized tomography (CT) is used routinely in evaluating radiation therapy isodose plans. With the introduction of 3D algorithms such as the voxel raytrace, which determines inhomogeneity corrections from actual CT Hounsfield numbers, caution must be used when evaluating isodose calculations. Artifacts from contrast media and dental work, radiopaque markers placed by the treatment planner, and changing bowel and rectal air patterns all have the potential to introduce error into the calculation due to inaccurate assessment of high or low density. Radiopaque makers such as x-spot BB's or solder wire are placed externally on the patient. Barium contrast media introduced at the time of simulation may be necessary to visualize specific anatomical structures on the CT images. While these localization and visualization tools may be necessary, it is important to understand the effects they may introduce in the planning process. Other problems encountered are patient specific and out of the control of the treatment planner. These include high- and low-density streaking caused by dental work, which produce computational errors due to overestimation, and small bowel and rectal air, the patterns of which change on a daily basis and may result in underestimation of structure density. It is important for each treatment planner to have an understanding of how this potentially tainted CT information may be applied in dose calculations and the possible effects they may have. At our institution, the voxel raytrace calculation is automatically forced any time couch angle is introduced. Errors in the calculation from the above mentioned situations may be introduced if a heterogeneity correction is applied. Examples of potential calculation errors and the magnitude of each will be discussed. The methods used to minimize these errors and the possible solutions will also be evaluated.

Williams, Greg; Tobler, Matthew; Gaffney, David; Moeller, John; Leavitt, Dennis

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

Method for the operation of internal combustion engines. [gasification reactor for reforming gasoline  

SciTech Connect

This is a method for the operation of internal combustion engines which is designed to decontaminate the exhaust gases. The method includes: feeding a gasification air stream into a gasification reactor; feeding fuel into the same gasification reactor; combining the fuel with the gasification air into a homogeneous fuel-air mixture in the gasification reactor; and converting the fuel-air mixture by partial combustion into a soot -free reformed gas. Then, the reformed gas is fed from the gasification reactor to a mixer where the reformed gas is mixed with combustion air and the reformed gas-air mixture is fed to the internal combustion engine for further combustion with the result that there is intensive decontamination of the exhaust gases which thereby reduces air pollution. The reformed gas temperature is adjusted low for maximum engine output, and is adjusted higher for lower engine temperatures in order to obtain a reformed gas which is richer in hydrogen and thereby produce exhaust gases which are lower in harmful substances. In reference to the exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine, this method achieves the highest possible degree of decontamination, not only of the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons , but also of the nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases. Using this method, the internal combustion engine can be operated not only with high-test, no-knock gasoline, but also with cheap, lead-free low octane, straight-run gasoline which is low in aromatics and olefins, which normally do not have no-knock properties, and the internal combustion engine can be operated with the lowest possible fuel consumption. The gasification reactor operates through chemical reaction in the presence of a catalyst. Optionally, this method may include a return of part of the reformed gas to the input of the gasification reactor.

Muhlberg, E.

1980-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

293

The effect of low Au concentrations on the properties of eutectic Sn/Pb  

SciTech Connect

This study was of the effects moderately low Au concentrations ({le} 10 wt%) have on the mechanical properties and microstructure of an eutectic Sn/Pb alloy. Vibration (60--90 Hz swept sine wave for 30 hours) and thermal cycling (0--110C for 1450 cycles) reliability tests were performed on fine pitch leaded chip carriers using eutectic Sn/Pb solder on PCBs (printed circuit boards) with 0, 5, 10, 20, and 50{mu}in nominal Au thicknesses. Testing was also performed on double shear creep specimens consisting of arrays of regular pitch joints. There was a dramatic increase in the number of joints containing voids with increasing Au concentration, an effect more pronounced in the creep joints than in the reliability joints. These voids tended to coalesce and grow during rework simulation of the reliability joints. AuSn{sub 4} intermetallics present in toe of 4.8 wt% (50 {mu}in) Au vibration joints rotated from initial vertical perpendicular to surface of PCB metallization, solidification positions to roughly horizontal (parallel to plating surface) orientations during rework simulation and during aging of the parts. The AuSn{sub 4} intermetallics in the toe of the 4.8 wt% (50{mu}in) Au reflowed joints also rotated after vibration testing. No joint failures were observed in either vibration tested or thermally cycled specimens. Cracks formed in some of the vibration tested specimen joints under the heel of the gull-wing lead at Pb-rich phases. Thermally cycled specimens showed eutectic microstructure and intermetallic coarsening without crack formation. Creep tests showed loss of the superplasticity in eutectic Sn/Pb alloys with even the lowest Au concentration tested of 0.2 wt% Au. Intermetallic rotation was not a factor in crack propagation, but void presence was. Cracks tended to form in joints containing voids before forming in void-free joints. Crack propagation followed Sn/Sn grain boundaries and Sn/Pb phase boundaries from Pb-rich phase to Pb-rich phase.

Kramer, P.A.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Conferences and courses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Future prospects 'Effective teaching and learning for the future: physics in schools and colleges' is the title of The Institute of Physics Education Group's annual conference planned for 25 - 27 March 1997 at the University of Leeds. Following on from the dynamic discussions of the 1995 and 1996 conferences, which dealt with the school - higher education interface, the 1997 meeting will focus on such questions as what content we should be presenting to physics students in schools and colleges, what effective teaching strategies we can employ and how we can support effective learning. To emphasize the interactive nature of the conference, and in particular the need to share experiences, the event will consist predominantly of working groups in sessions of around two hours' duration. Among the topics to be addressed by the groups will be the use of new technologies in teaching and learning, alternatives to practical work and approaches to maths for physics. Besides the working group sessions there will be a talk on the Management of Change by Ken Dobson (Honorary Editor of Physics Education) and an update on the Institute of Physics 16 - 19 curriculum review project by Bryan Chapman. Offers of contributions for the group and poster sessions were due by early October, but further details of the conference can be obtained from the Conference Department at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 4AA (fax: 0171 470 4900). IOP courses Among the autumn events being organized by the Institute of Physics Education Department are an INSET course at the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Cambridge on 29 - 30 November 1996 and the traditional Physics Update, also to be held in Cambridge on 13 - 15 December. A fourth Physics in Perspective course for college and sixth-form physics students is to be held on 26 - 28 January, with topics such as astrophysics, medical imaging and the physics of ice cream on the menu. Details of all these courses may be obtained from Leila Solomon of the Education Department, The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 4AA. Edinburgh festival 1997 marks the eighth year of the Edinburgh International Science Festival, which has grown to become the largest event of its type in the world. The dates are 22 March - 6 April, and besides the main programme there will be the customary events for schools in February and March incorporating four Olympiads (in Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Dundee), demonstration talks and hands-on exhibitions. Among subjects for coverage at the festival will be 'What scientists don't know', '100 years of home electronics', 'The truth behind the X-files' and 'Ancient science and technology'. As part of the programme of science communication throughout the year, there will be an in-service training course in hands-on science for all school teachers entitled 'Twilight science', and Madlab (an electronic gadget workshop) is available to schools and groups to open up the world of circuits and soldering in a unique way. In addition the touring exhibition 'Megafun with Computers' helps students explore the wonder of computers, and the inflatable planetarium Starlab can be hired to demonstrate the delights of the night sky. The address for full details is: Edinburgh International Science Festival, 149 Rose Street, Edinburgh EH2 4LS (fax: 0131 220 3987; e-mail: esf@scifest.demon.co.uk). Learning in cyberspace A two-day conference and exhibition supported by the European Commission is being held in Manchester on 25 - 26 November 1996 to focus on European content and initiatives in Cyberspace learning. Organizers are the European Briefing Unit of the University of Bradford and Toucan Europe. Among the meeting topics are telematics for education and training, superhighways for education, educational software and multimedia, technology in the classroom and new visions of lifelong learning. Further information may be obtained from Pat Grosse, European Briefing Unit, University of Bradford, Bradford, West Yorkshire BD7 1DP (fax: 01274 385820). Addendum A few additional d

295

GRAIN REFINEMENT OF PERMANENT MOLD CAST COPPER BASE ALLOYS  

SciTech Connect

Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys. Aluminum promoted b phase formation and modified the grain structure from dendritic to equiaxed. Lead or bismuth reduces the size of grains, but not change the morphology of the structure in Cu-Zn alloys. The grain size of the Cu-Zn-alloy can be reduced from 3000 mm to 300 mm after the addition of aluminum and lead. Similar effects were observed in EnviroBrass III after the addition of aluminum and bismuth. Boron refined the structure of yellow brasses in the presence of iron. At least 50 ppm of iron and 3 ppm of boron are necessary to cause grain refinement in these alloys. Precipitation of iron from the melt is identified as the cause of grain refinement. Boron initiates the precipitation of iron which could not be explained at this time. On the other hand zirconium causes some reduction in grain size in all four alloys investigated. The critical limit for the zirconium was found to be around 100 ppm below which not much refinement could be observed. The mechanism of grain refinement in the presence of zirconium could not be explained. Grain refinement by boron and iron can remain over a long period of time, at least for 72 hours of holding or after remelting few times. It is necessary to have the iron and boron contents above the critical limits mentioned earlier. On the other hand, refinement by zirconium is lost quite rapidly, some times within one hour of holding, mostly due to the loss of zirconium, most probably by oxidation, from the melt. In all the cases it is possible to revive the refinement by adding more of the appropriate refining element. Cooling curve analysis (thermal analysis) can be used successfully to predict the grain refinement in yellow brasses. The precipitation of iron in the liquid metal causes the metal to solidify without undercooling. Absence of this reaction, as indicated by the time-temperature (t-T) and its first derivative (dt/dT) curves, proved to be an indicator of refinement. The viability of the technique as an on-line quality control tool was proved in two foundries. The method can also correctly predict the onset of fading. Th

M. SADAYAPPAN, J.P. THOMSON, M.ELBOUJDAINI, G. PING GU, M. SAHOO

2004-04-29T23:59:59.000Z