Sample records for lead acid agm

  1. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  2. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar (Lenoir City, TN); An, Ke (Knoxville, TX); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Contescu, Cristian I. (Knoxville, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Beth L. (Clinton, TN)

    2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  3. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  4. acid mmaiii leads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The performance of lead-acid batteries for energy storage in photovoltaicdieselbattery hybrid systems strongly depends on several...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the lead acid batteries are processed and recycled legally under a regularly audited New Mexico hazardous waste management permit, Pollution Prevention (P2) was prompted to...

  6. AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a 2010 Civic hybrid electric vehicle with an advanced experimental ultra-lead acid battery, an...

  7. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

    1987-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland (Wading River, NY); Chendrayan, Krishnachetty (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, IN); Quinby, Helen L. (Cambridge, MD)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

  9. Operational experiences in lead-acid batteries for photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brench, B. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MIT Lincoln Laboratory has designed photovoltaic systems which use different kinds of lead-acid batteries, including units normally used for starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) and for motive power. The experiences gained from four of these battery subsystems during field operation, particularly battery type versus system load, versus performance characteristics, and versus expected lifetime, are compared and analyzed.

  10. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weintraub, Alvin (Schenectady, NY); MacCormack, Robert S. (Glenville, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  11. Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,SaveWhiskeyEnergyAd-VentaAddison is aAdenaAdrian isLead Acid

  12. acid biosynthesis leads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: bioavailability of aluminum triggered by in- dustrialization and acid rain 20. The presence of organic acidsThe Metabolism of Aluminum Citrate and...

  13. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.

    1986-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of solubilizing lead, in the form of lead oxide, found in industrial wastes, before these wastes are dumped into the environment. The lead is solubilized by dissolving the lead oxide in the wastes through contact with an anaerobic bacterial culture containing the bacterium ATCC No. 53464. The solubilized lead can then be removed from the wastes by chemical separation. It could also be removed by extending the contact period with the bacterial culture. As the culture grows, the solubilized lead is removed from the wastes by bioaccumulation by the microorganism or by immobilization by a polymer-like material produced by the microorganism. At this point, the lead is then removed from the wastes when the waste material is separated from the bacterial culture. If desired, the bacterial culture could be digested at this point to yield relatively pure lead for further industrial use.

  14. Short communication Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    -charged and over-discharged; similarly, reliable SOH estimates enhance preventive maintenance and life cycle cost situations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Lead-acid batteries provide low-costShort communication Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic data

  15. Analysis of lead-acid battery deep-cycle accelerated testing data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, J.E.; Thomas, R.E.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battelle conducted a detailed analysis of the deep cycle, accelerated test data (at a nominal 70 C) obtained by Exide in the three-year, Phase I program to develop advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling. Cycle life results for 60 lead-acid cells in three fractional factorial experiments were analyzed to develop quantitative relationships for real-time cycles to failure as a function of cell design variables. Important factors affecting cycle life were depth of discharge with respect to plate active material and acid within the plate stack, acid specific gravity, separator system design, and additives in the active material.

  16. Lead acid battery pulse discharge investigation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowgiallo, E

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of high current pulses caused by electric vehicle silicon-controlled rectifier and transistor chopper controllers on battery energy, lifetime, and microstructure were studied. Test equipment and results are described. It was found that the energy of improved golf cart-type batteries deteriorated under pulsed conditions by about 10% with respect to dc conditions for pulses between 16 and 333 Hz - no difference was noted above 333 Hz. Frequencies and duty cycles characteristic of electric vehicle controllers produce ampere-hour capacities similar in magnitude to dc discharges of the same average currents. The amount of positive plate corrosion under pulsed conditions was about twice that ot the unpulsed. Unusually large lead sulfate crystals were found in isolated colonies in pulsed plates, whereas a battery that had been discharged each cycle at an equivalent steady state did not show these large crystals. 5 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)

  17. Method of making a sealed lead-acid battery with a gel electrolyte and sealed lead-acid storage battery made according to this method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chreitzberg, A.M.; Chiacchio, F.J.

    1987-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described of making a sealed lead-acid storage battery having a plurality of electrodes and a gel electrolyte consisting substantially of sulfuric acid and a gelling agent, comprising the steps of: (a) activating a dry unformed battery by filling the battery with sulfuric acid, (b) maintaining the battery on open circuit or a period of time sufficient to chemically bond sulphuric acid as sulfate to the electrodes and lower the specific gravity of the acid to the desired gelling value, (c) dumping the free acid from the battery, (d) adding a solution of gelling agent and sulfuric acid to fill the battery to the normal formation level, (e) formation charging the battery by applying a constant charge current of 5-16 A/100 Ah for an input of 200-300 Ah/lb. positive active material whereby gelling of the electrolyte is effected, (f) when formation is complete, removing excess liquid, if any, to top of electrodes, and (g) sealing the battery with a pressure relief valve.

  18. A two-dimensional mathematical model of a porous lead dioxide electrode in a lead-acid cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimpault-Darcy, Eric Christophe

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    (ir? irs) MODEL DEVELOPMENT 9 11 12 13 14 14 15 15 16 17 V. A. Divergence oi' Current B. Porosity Balance C. Electrode Kinetics D. Ohm's Lave in Solution E. Electrolyte Material Balance NUMERICAL SOLUTION TECHNIQUE 18 19 20 22 24... of the active species within the porous electrodes using a macroscopic approach, and apply a Butler-Volmer type polarization equation. Simonsson (9) and Micka and Rousar (10-13) concentrate their efforts on the porous electrodes of the lead-acid battery...

  19. The Implementation of a FirstOrder Logic AGM Belief Revision System Simon Dixon and Wayne Wobcke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, Simon

    The Implementation of a First­Order Logic AGM Belief Revision System Simon Dixon and Wayne Wobcke­mail: simon@cs.su.oz.au, wobcke@cs.su.oz.au Abstract Belief revision is increasingly being seen as central belief revision system. The system is based on classical first­ order logic, and for any finitely

  20. Program to analyze the failure mode of lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuckerbrod, D.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical characteristics of large lead-acid cells from nuclear power plants were studied. The overall goal was to develop nondestructive tests to predict cell failure using this easily obtained information. Cell capacitance, internal resistance, reaction resistance for hydrogen evolution and cell capacity were measured on a lead-calcium cell in good condition. A high float voltage and low internal resistance were found to correlate with good cell capacity in cells selected from a set of six lead-antimony cells in poor condition.

  1. A Mathematical Model of the Lead-Acid Battery to Address the Effect of Corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    A Mathematical Model of the Lead-Acid Battery to Address the Effect of Corrosion Vijayasekaran for the corrosion process that occurs at the interface between the active material and grid material of the positive plate. Three different modeling approaches are used to incorporate the effect of corrosion in the first

  2. ENERGY MODELING OF A LEAD-ACID BATTERY WITHIN HYBRID WIND / PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ENERGY MODELING OF A LEAD-ACID BATTERY WITHIN HYBRID WIND / PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS O. GERGAUD, G Abstract: Within the scope of full-scale energy modeling of a hybrid wind / photovoltaic system coupled-power hybrid wind/photovoltaic production system (20 ASE modules for a 2- kW polycrystalline silicon peak

  3. Quadratic voltage profiles in lead acid cells during slow, steady processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haaser, Robert Anthony

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is standard lore that the voltage profile varies linearly in space within the electrolyte of a lead acid cell under slow, steady discharge. However, this hypothesis has never been put to the test. A recent theory predicts a uniform, non...

  4. Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    metal hydride and lithium ion batteries. The use of these batteries is increasing as a green, nickel metal hydride and lithium ion batteries. Please contact EHS if you need an accumulation containerRecycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid

  5. Lead

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't Happen to HighJosephNOx Traps forLM2LarryLaws andtopic Lead

  6. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

    2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a literature review to assess the acidity characteristics of the older mineral oil and newer polyolester (POE) refrigeration systems as well as to evaluate acid measuring techniques used in other non-aqueous systems which may be applicable for refrigeration systems. Failure in the older chlorofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CFC/HCFC) / mineral oil systems was primarily due to thermal degradation of the refrigerant which resulted in the formation of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These are strong mineral acids, which can, over time, severely corrode the system metals and lead to the formation of copper plating on iron surfaces. The oil lubricants used in the older systems were relatively stable and were not prone to hydrolytic degradation due to the low solubility of water in oil. The refrigerants in the newer hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)/POE systems are much more thermally stable than the older CFC/HCFC refrigerants and mineral acid formation is negligible. However, acidity is produced in the new systems by hydrolytic decomposition of the POE lubricants with water to produce the parent organic acids and alcohols used to prepare the POE. The individual acids can therefore vary but they are generally C5 to C9 carboxylic acids. Organic acids are much weaker and far less corrosive to metals than the mineral acids from the older systems but they can, over long time periods, react with metals to form carboxylic metal salts. The salts tend to accumulate in narrow areas such as capillary tubes, particularly if residual hydrocarbon processing chemicals are present in the system, which can lead to plugging. The rate of acid production from POEs varies on a number of factors including chemical structure, moisture levels, temperature, acid concentration and metals. The hydrolysis rate of reaction can be reduced by using driers to reduce the free water concentration and by using scavenging chemicals which react with the system acids. Total acid number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

  7. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  8. Laboratory evaluation and analysis of advanced lead-acid load-leveling batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.F.; Mulcahey, T.P.; Christianson, C.C.; Marr, J.J.; Smaga, J.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted an extensive evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed by the Exide Corporation for load-leveling applications. This paper presents the results of performance and accelerated life tests conducted on these batteries over a five-year period. This paper describes the operational reliability and maintenance requirements for this technology, and also includes analyses of the batteries' thermal characteristics, arsine/stibine emission rates, and cell degradation modes as determined from post-test examinations.

  9. Testing and evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load-leveling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.F.; Corp, D.O.; Hayes, E.R.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing and evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed by Exide for utility load-leveling applications have been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory's National Battery Test Laboratory since April 1982. These batteries (36-kWh and 18-kWh modules) have a projected life of greater than 4000 deep discharge cycles. This paper describes results obtained to date from the test program. Parametric test results and general performance observations for these batteries are reported.

  10. Testing and evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load-leveling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.F.; Corp, D.O.; Hayes, E.R.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing and evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed by Exide for utility load-leveling applications have been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory's National Battery Test Laboratory since April 1982. These batteries (36-kWh and 18-kWh modules) have a projected life of greater than 4000 deep discharge cycles. This paper describes results obtained to date from the test program. Parametric test results and general performance observations for these batteries are reported.

  11. Performance of advanced lead-acid batteries for load-leveling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.F.; Gay, E.C.; Hornstra, G.F.; Yao, N.P.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing and evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed by Exide for load-leveling applications have been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory's National Battery Test Laboratory since April 1982. These batteries (36-kWh and 18-kWh modules) have a projected life of greater than 4000 deep-discharge cycles. This paper presents the results of performance and life tests obtained to date. Battery capacities and efficiencies are shown as a function of discharge rate. The status of ongoing accelerated life-cycle tests being conducted at 50/sup 0/C and 60/sup 0/C are presented.

  12. Evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed for load-leveling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.F.; Mulcahey, T.P.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted an extensive evaluation of an advanced lead-acid battery developed by Exide Corporation for load-leveling applications. This paper presents the results of tests and analyses conducted on three 3100-Ah batteries over a five-year period. The Exide batteries demonstrated their high reliability and long life by completing over 2300 deep discharge cycles under accelerated life testing conditions at 50/sup 0/C, the equivalent of over 6400 cycles or 25 years of operation for the electric utility application. This paper also describes the thermal characteristics and operational reliability of this battery technology.

  13. Performance of advanced lead-acid batteries for load-leveling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.F.; Gay, E.C.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing and evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed by Exide for load-leveling applications have been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory's National Battery Test Laboratory since April 1982. These batteries (36-kWh and 18-kWh modules) have a projected life of greater than 4000 deep-discharge cycles. This paper presents the results of performance and life tests obtained to date. Battery capacities and efficiencies are shown as a function of discharge rate. The status of ongoing accelerated life-cycle tests being conducted at 50/sup 0/C and 60/sup 0/C are presented.

  14. Optical State-of-Change Monitor for Lead-Acid Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1998-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cdl or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  15. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, D.E.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research programs on lead-acid batteries are reported that cover active materials utilization, active material integrity, and some technical support projects. Processing problems were encountered and corrected. Components and materials, a lead-plastic composite grid, cell designs, and deliverables are described. Cell testing is discussed, as well as battery subsystems, including fuel gage, thermal management, and electrolyte circulation. (LEW)

  16. Analysis of lead-acid battery accelerated testing data. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, J.E.; Thomas, R.E.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battelle conducted an independent review and analysis of the accelerated test procedures and test data obtained by Exide in the 3-year Phase I program to develop advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling. Of special importance is the extensive data obtained in deep-discharge cycling tests on 60 cells at elevated temperatures over a 2-1/2 year period. The principal uncertainty in estimating cell life relates to projecting cycle life data at elevated temperature to the lower operating temperatures. The accelerated positive-grid corrosion test involving continuous overcharge at 50/sup 0/C provided some indication of the degree of grid corrosion that might be tolerable before failure. The accelerated positive-material shedding test was not examined in any detail. Recommendations are made for additional studies.

  17. Testing, data analysis and engineering services on lead-acid load leveling batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholette, W.P.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As of December 31, 1983 eight 35-plate, advanced lead-acid, load-leveling cells have completed 1360 test cycles, two cycles per day. Discharging to a depth of 80% of the 5-h rated capacity (3100 Ah), their temperature remains at 39/sup 0/C +- 5/sup 0/. Capacity and energy output, measured by periodic 100%, depth-of-discharge, capacity-measuring cycles, has reached peak values for all cells. Also, deep-cycle accelerated tests at 70/sup 0/C +- 5/sup 0/ were completed on the 10 longest-lived 17-plate cells; cycle life to 80% initial 5-h rated energy output ranged from 1174 to 1468 actual cycles (equivalent to 5940 to 7455 cycles at 25/sup 0/C).

  18. Lead-acid load-leveling battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.F.; Mulcahey, T.P.; Christianson, C.C.; Marr, J.J.; Smaga, J.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has conducted an extensive evaluation of an advanced lead-acid battery development for load-leveling applications. The battery technology was developed by the Exide Corporation under a DOE-sponsored cost-shared R and D contract with ANL during 1979-1982. The objective of that program was to increase battery life from 2000 to 4000 deep discharge cycles while maintaining or reducing initial battery cost. Full-size, 3100-Ah cells were fabricated by Exide and assembled into one 6-cell and two 3-cell batteries. These 36-kWh and 18-kWh batteries were delivered to ANL in April 1982 for testing and evaluation. Southern California Edison is currently installing a 10-MW, 40-MWh load-leveling facility comprised of batteries based on this design.

  19. Research, development, and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced lead-acid storage battery has been developed to the preprototype cell and module design stage. Accelerated tests on full-size plates in 3, 5, and 17-plate cell sizes predict a cycle life goal of 4000 cycles at 80% depth-of-discharge can be achieved at 25/sup 0/C on a 2 cycle per day regime. One 6-cell 36 kwh and two 3-cell 18 kwh modules of cells in series were assembled and delivered to the ANL/NBTL for utility application and accelerated cycling tests. Each module is equipped with a low cost tray, automatic watering system, and air-lift pumps for increased acid circulation in each cell. Positive grid corrosion was measured in 5-plate cells at 50 to 55/sup 0/C during 166 kAh continuous overcharge to qualify a grid alloy. Up to 60% weight loss was observed on one test alloy. With the qualified alloy catastrophic positive grid corrosion will not limit cell cycle life. An accelerated shallow cycle regime at room ambient tested 60 cell designs for the active material shedding failure mode. An anti-shedding active material additive was found to reduce positive active material shedding significantly and extend the cycle life of both the positive and the negative plate. An accelerated 2-deep cycle per day test regime at 70/sup 0/C with 80% DoD and 24% overcharge selected 10 of 60 cell designs with a predicted cycle life greater than 5000 equivalent 25/sup 0/C cycles. Equations relating cell design to deep cycle life were developed from the factorial tests on the 60 cells. Eight 35-plate preprototype cells are cycling at EXIDE to prove the room ambient cycle life predicted by the accelerated test at 70/sup 0/C. Cell, module and battery prices are projected, based on the 6 kwh preprototype cell design.

  20. Measurement of stibine and arsine generation from the Exide 3100-Ah lead-acid module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, J.J.; Smaga, J.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stibine and arsine evolution from lead-acid cells in a 36-kWh Exide load-leveling module was measured as this module approached 1900 cycles of operation. A specially prepared gas-collection apparatus enabled us to determine the maximum and average rates for evolution of both toxic hydrides. Hydride generation began once the cell voltage exceeded 2.4 V. The maximum rate for arsine occurred just above 2.5 V and consistently preceded the peak rate for stibine for each sampled cell. When adjusted for size effects, the degree of stibine and arsine evolution was greater than found in a continuous overcharge study conducted by Exide. The average rates of hydride generation were found to be 175 ..mu..g/min for stibine and 12.6 ..mu..g/min for arsine. The former rate proved to be the critical value in determining safe ventilation requirements for cell off-gases. The minimum airflow requirement was calculated to be 340 L/min per cell. Projections for a hypothetical 1-MWh Exide battery without an abatement system indicated that the normal ventilation capacity in the Battery Energy Storage Test facility provides nearly five times the airflow needed for safe hydride removal.

  1. Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort (INEEL); J. Argueta; M. Wehrey (Southern California Edison); D. Karner; L. Tyree (Electric Transportation Applications)

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - acids lead salts Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ammonium...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced lead-acid batteries Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Virginia Tech Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 60 Aisle Marking Requirements permanent workplace aisles should have appropriate Summary: , lead...

  4. Epidemiological-environemental study of lead acid battery workers. III. Chronic effects of sulfuric acid on the respiratory system and teeth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hancock, J.; Meckstroth, R.L.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of long-term exposure to sulfuric acid mist on the teeth and respiratory system were studied in 248 workers in five plants manufacturing lead acid batteries. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and wheezing as determined by questionnaire were not associated with estimates of cumulative acid exposure. There was only one case of irregular opacities seen on the chest radiographs. There was no statistically significant association of reduced FEV/sub 1/ peak flow, FEF/sub 50/, and FEF/sub 75/ with acid exposure although the higher exposed group had lower mean values. FVC in the high exposure group showed a statistically significant reductioon compared to the low exposure group but there was no significant association when exposure was analyzed as a continuous variable. The ratio of observed to expected prevalence of teeth etching and erosion was about four times greater in the high acid-exposure group. The earliest case of etching occured after 4 months exposure to an estimated average exposure of 0.23 mg/m/sup 3/ sulfuric acid.

  5. Method of preparing a battery paste containing fibrous polyfluoroethylene for use in the plates of a lead-acid storage battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duddy, J.C.; Malaspina, F.P.; Martini, W.J.

    1982-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a battery paste for a lead-acid storage battery comprising: (A) mixing a water dispersion of polyfluoroethylene with lead material, (B) adding an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid to the lead material-dispersion mix and mixing to form a paste having fibrillation developed therein, (C) controlling the amount of fibrillation developed in the paste, and (D) controlling the paste density for use in a battery plate. The method provides an improved paste which permits substantial reduction in plate weights and density and loss of active material in the grid structure due to plate shedding over a conventional lead-acid paste. The saving in active material ranges from 10 to 30% over a conventional lead-acid paste without reduction in battery performance.

  6. Abbreviated epitaxial growth mode (AGM) method for reducing cost and improving quality of LEDs and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tansu, Nelson; Chan, Helen M; Vinci, Richard P; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Biser, Jeffrey

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on planar sapphire. The use of abbreviated growth mode also leads to significant reduction in cost of the epitaxy. The growths and characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano-patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated at least a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown on conventional GaN templates.

  7. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  8. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  9. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in the graph.

  10. ELLIPSOMETRY OF SURFACE LAYERS ON LEAD AND LITHIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard Dudley

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface Layers on Lead and Lithium By Richard Dudley Peterssulfuric acid and and lithium to water, Acid concentrationsbeen observed in the reaction of lithium with water vapor. i

  11. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has also been added directly to traditional VRLA batteries as an admixture in both the positive and negative plates, the latter of which has been found to result in similar improvements to battery performance under high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. It is this latter construction, where carbon is added directly to the negative active material (NAM) that is the specific incarnation being evaluated through this program. Thus, the carbon-modified (or Pb-C) battery (termed the 'Advanced' VRLA battery by East Penn Manufacturing) is a traditional VRLA battery where an additional component has been added to the negative electrode during production of the negative plate. The addition of select carbon materials to the NAM of VRLA batteries has been demonstrated to increase cycle life by an order of magnitude or more under (HRPSoC) operation. Additionally, battery capacity increases on cycling and, in fact, exceeds the performance of the batteries when new.

  12. AGM Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 SouthWater Rights,Information OfOpen EnergyEnergyAGE UFMG

  13. Electrochemical behavior of lead telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilova, M.G.; Sveshnikova, L.L.; Repinskii, S.M.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrochemical behavior of lead telluride was studied in acidic, neutral, and alkaline solutions. It was shown that in the case of anodic polarization in 1 M NaOH the PbTe surface composition is nearly stoichiometric. During cathodic polarization in 1 M NaOH and during anodic polarization in 1 M HCl the surface layer is lead-rich. In the case of anodic polarization in 1 M HCl the surface is tellurium-rich. Cathodic polarization in 1 M NaCl leads to tellurium depletion of the surface layer. Reaction equations describing the electrochemical processes at the PbTe electrode are reported.

  14. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than todays lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  15. Drinking Water Problems: Lead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

  16. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  17. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  18. Fate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    problems. E#11;ects of Acid Rain 1. Vegetation: SO 2 is toxic to plants #15; Leaves damaged below pH 3 rain { Athens and Rome cathedrals and statues: pollution leads to acid rain #15; SteelFate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized NH 3 (g

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery Recycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0EnergySandia InvolvesDOE-BERPressure,Fernando Garzon JointDue

  20. Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Anderson, Iver

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide.

  1. Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Iver

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide.

  2. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lussiez, G.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially of planned decommissioning operations. Thus lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for contaminated lead is removing the superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium under pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a scaled-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling.

  3. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially because of planned decommissioning operations. This lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for decontaminating lead is removing the thin superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium trader pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a sealed-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor grating and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of contaminated lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling.

  4. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially because of planned decommissioning operations. This lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for decontaminating lead is removing the thin superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium trader pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a sealed-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor grating and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of contaminated lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling.

  5. BNL Citric Acid Technology: Pilot Scale Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRANCIS, A J; DODGE,; J, C; GILLOW, J B; FORRESTER, K E

    1999-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to remove toxic metals such as lead and cadmium from incinerator ash using the Citric Acid Process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this process toxic metals in bottom ash from the incineration of municipal solid waste were first extracted with citric acid followed by biodegradation of the citric acid-metal extract by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens for metals recovery. The ash contained the following metals: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Ti, and Zn. Optimization of the Citric Acid Process parameters which included citric acid molarity, contact time, the impact of mixing aggressiveness during extraction and pretreatment showed lead and cadmium removal from incinerator ash of >90%. Seeding the treated ash with P. fluorescens resulted in the removal of residual citric acid and biostabilization of any leachable lead, thus allowing it to pass EPA?s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Biodegradation of the citric acid extract removed >99% of the lead from the extract as well as other metals such as Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ti, and Zn. Speciation of the bioprecipitated lead by Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure at the National Synchrotron Light Source showed that the lead is predominantly associated with the phosphate and carboxyl functional groups in a stable form. Citric acid was completely recovered (>99%) from the extract by sulfide precipitation technique and the extraction efficiency of recovered citric acid is similar to that of the fresh citric acid. Recycling of the citric acid should result in considerable savings in the overall treatment cost. We have shown the potential application of this technology to remove and recover the metal contaminants from incinerator ash as well as from other heavy metal bearing wastes (i.e., electric arc furnace dust from steel industry) or soils. Information developed from this project is being applied to demonstrate the remediation of lead paint contaminated soils on Long Island.

  6. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid storage batteries Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electric power applications Summary: expensive. Pneumatic storage technology's main advantages over the lead-acid batteries are (a) unlimited... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  8. LEADING ADULT SQUAWFISH (Ptychocheilus oregonensis)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Federal, State or cooperating agencies and in processed form for economy and to avoid delay in publicationLEADING ADULT SQUAWFISH (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) WITHIN AN ELECTRIC FIELD Marine Biological, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner LEADING ADULT SQUAWFISH ( PTYCHOCHEILUS OREGONENSIS ) WITHIN AN ELECTRIC

  9. Lead reduction in ambient air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.; Kiehn, O.A.; Wilburn, D.R.; Bowyer, R.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bureau of Mines evaluated the emission control methods, including the capital investments and operating cost, necessary for further reducing lead levels in ambient air at the Glover, Herculaneum, and Buick smelter-refineries in Missouri and the East Helena, MT, smelter. This report presents theoretically achievable lead emission reductions and estimated capital and operating costs.

  10. Lead contamination in street soils of Nairobi City and Mombasa Island, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onyari, J.M.; Wandiga, S.O.; Njenga, G.K.; Nyatebe, J.O. (Univ. of Nairobi (Kenya))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of modern industrialization and, in particular, the motor vehicle has witnessed dramatic increases in lead usage both as a component of lead-acid storage battery and from 1923 as organic lead alkyl anti-knock additive in petroleum. Several workers have established a correlation between increasing lead concentration in roadside soils and vehicular traffic density. Although researchers studied the heavy metal content in Lake Victoria sediments, no urban roadside soils were investigated. Since lead is used as a petrol additive in Kenya, it is necessary to document the extent and magnitude of lead contamination of roadside soils in inland and coastal urban environments and evaluate its environmental implications.

  11. Geochemical study of lead in soils from West Dallas, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, N.M.; Carter, J.L. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States). Programs in Geosciences)

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil samples from West Dallas near the RSR smelter were collected and tested to see the content, source, and mobility of lead. 30 cm and 90 cm long cores were cut into 1 cm long pieces and each piece analyzed separately. The results showed that 90%--95% of the lead is readily extractable in cold dilute nitric acid. The lateral distribution of lead in West Dallas indicates an exponential-like decrease with distance from the RSR smelter. Concentrations greater than 500 ppm occur in soils below 10 cm within 1,000 feet of the smelter. In the vicinity of the smelter (300 feet radius), soil cores with total lead content as high as 18,000 ppm in the top 15 cm were obtained. At a distance of 2,400 feet of the smelter the lead in the soil amounts to 400 ppm and drops to 270 ppm at 4,000 feet. The total lead content with depth, correlates with previous clean-up and civil activities in the area: (1) where the soil is original, the lead concentration decreases exponentially with depth; (2) where the soil was cleaned up, the top 10 cm are devoid of lead but are underlain by soil whose lead content varies in response to distance from the smelter; (3) where the top soil had been disturbed (removed, replaced, mixed, etc.) as a result of civil works, the lead content is relatively lower than 1 (above). The underlying insitu soils exhibit similar lead concentration as those in 2 (above).

  12. NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    t-t AL- 1. + T fi r,y* t ,.- . NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO Ofll i iy Ci)wp HEALTH AND SAFETY DIVISION - ANALYTICAL DEPT. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET U-G b ;33y jl:tL G c-w &3(y I...

  13. LEAD PAINT DISCLOSURE Housing built before 1978 may contain lead-based paint. Lead from paint, paint chips, and dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    Your Family from Lead In Your Home. All Wesleyan housing was built before 1978 with the exceptionLEAD PAINT DISCLOSURE Housing built before 1978 may contain lead-based paint. Lead from paint, paint chips, and dust can pose health hazards if not taken care of properly. Lead exposure is especially

  14. The LHC Lead Injector Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beuret, A; Blas, A; Burkhardt, H; Carli, Christian; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Hill, C E; Jowett, John M; Kahle, K; Kchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Mahner, E; Manglunki, Django; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Schindl, Karlheinz; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Tranquille, G; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, T

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sizeable part of the LHC physics programme foresees lead-lead collisions with a design luminosity of 1027 cm-2 s-1. This will be achieved after an upgrade of the ion injector chain comprising Linac3, LEIR, PS and SPS machines [1,2]. Each LHC ring will be filled in 10 min by almost 600 bunches, each of 7107 lead ions. Central to the scheme is the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) [3,4], which transforms long pulses from Linac3 into high-brilliance bunches by means of multi-turn injection, electron cooling and accumulation. Major limitations along the chain, including space charge, intrabeam scattering, vacuum issues and emittance preservation are highlighted. The conversion from LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) to LEIR involves new magnets and power converters, high-current electron cooling, broadband RF cavities, and a UHV vacuum system with getter (NEG) coatings to achieve a few 10-12 mbar. Major hardware changes in Linac3 and the PS are also covered. An early ion scheme with fewer bunches (but each at nominal...

  15. Where Is Lead Found? Paint in many homes built before 1978 may contain lead.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    in lead crystal or lead-glazed pottery may contain lead. Where Is Lead Most Likely to Be a Hazard on toys and furniture -- especially if antique or imported -- may contain lead. · Food or liquids stored

  16. Lead isotopes in sediments of the Loire River (France): natural versus anthropogenic origin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lead isotopes in sediments of the Loire River (France): natural versus anthropogenic origin Philippe Négrel Emmanuelle Petelet-Giraud BRGM, Orléans, France Sediments along the Loire River (central France) were investigated by means of lead isotopes determined on the labile sediment fraction, or acid

  17. Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 from radium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, Robert W. (Kensington, MD); Friedman, Arnold M. (Park Forest, IL); Hines, John (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

  18. Nick Wright Named Advanced Technologies Group Lead

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nick Wright Named Advanced Technologies Group Lead Nick Wright Named Advanced Technologies Group Lead February 4, 2013 Nick Nick Wright has been named head of the National Energy...

  19. NERSC seeks Computational Systems Group Lead

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    seeks Computational Systems Group Lead NERSC seeks Computational Systems Group Lead January 6, 2011 by Katie Antypas Note: This position is now closed. The Computational Systems...

  20. Distributed Generation Lead-by-Example Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    State governments can lead by example by promoting renewable energy programs and policies. Efforts to lead by example include using renewable energy resources (including alternative fuel for...

  1. Multi-lead heat sink

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again.

  2. Multi-lead heat sink

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roose, L.D.

    1982-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again.

  3. Multi-lead heat sink

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roose, L.D.

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again. 4 figs.

  4. Impact of Fe (III) on the Performance of Viscoelastic Surfactant-Based Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Yi

    2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscoelastic surfactant (VES)-based acid systems have been used successfully in matrix and acid fracturing treatments. However, the existence of Fe (III) as a contaminant in such systems may lead to many problems, due to interactions between VES...

  5. Lead Safety Awareness This Bulletin provides information on the safe handling of lead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . CONTROLLING THE HAZARDS: LEAD STORAGE · Use inventory tracking to facilitate proper lead storage and to keep lead inventories to a minimum. · Store lead in containers or covered in specially designed areas. · Routinely monitor lead inventories to check for lead dust contamination. GENERAL GOOD WORK PRACTICES · When

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid-induced neuronal death Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and frequently leads to widespread neuronal death (1). The mechanisms of self- sustaining SE... kainic acid-induced seizure activity (10) and ischemic injury (11) in rat...

  7. Children and lead: new findings and concerns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin-Fu, J.S.

    1982-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An editorial dealing with lead in the environment and its health risks to children is presented. Young children are particularly vulnerable to lead exposure. Through hand-to-mouth activities, such as thumb sucking, nail biting, or eating with dirty hands, lead in house dust and garden soil readily enters their bodies. Children with pica are exposed to more lead because they eat such items as paint chips, broken plaster, and dirt. Moreover, intestinal lead absorption is greater in children than in adults. The author recommends a concerted effort to reduce undue lead absorption in children. (JMT)

  8. Australia and New Zealand Coordinating Lead Authors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    11 Australia and New Zealand Coordinating Lead Authors: Kevin Hennessy (Australia), Blair Fitzharris (New Zealand) Lead Authors: Bryson C. Bates (Australia), Nick Harvey (Australia), Mark Howden (Australia), Lesley Hughes (Australia), Jim Salinger (New Zealand), Richard Warrick (New Zealand

  9. Reproductive toxicity of low-level lead exposure in men

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telisman, Spomenka [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, P.O. Box 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: telisman@imi.hr; Colak, Bozo [University Clinic for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases 'Vuk Vrhovac', Zagreb (Croatia); Pizent, Alica; Jurasovic, Jasna [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, P.O. Box 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Cvitkovic, Petar [University Clinic for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases 'Vuk Vrhovac', Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Parameters of semen quality, seminal plasma indicators of secretory function of the prostate and seminal vesicles, sex hormones in serum, and biomarkers of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and selenium body burden were measured in 240 Croatian men 19-52 years of age. The subjects had no occupational exposure to metals and no known other reasons suspected of influencing male reproductive function or metal metabolism. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, blood cadmium, and serum copper, zinc, and selenium by multiple regression, significant (P<0.05) associations of blood lead (BPb), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) with reproductive parameters indicated a lead-related increase in immature sperm concentration, in percentages of pathologic sperm, wide sperm, round sperm, and short sperm, in serum levels of testosterone and estradiol, and a decrease in seminal plasma zinc and in serum prolactin. These reproductive effects were observed at low-level lead exposure (BPb median 49 {mu}g/L, range 11-149 {mu}g/L in the 240 subjects) common for general populations worldwide. The observed significant synergistic effect of BPb and blood cadmium on increasing serum testosterone, and additive effect of a decrease in serum selenium on increasing serum testosterone, may have implications on the initiation and development of prostate cancer because testosterone augments the progress of prostate cancer in its early stages.

  10. Energy Policy 29 (2001) 11331143 Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline in Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Valerie

    Energy Policy 29 (2001) 1133­1143 Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline cost of lead additives and of gasoline, and the falling cost of ethanol and sugarcane, have created sugarcane is produced in Africa to replace all the lead used in African gasoline; this would require Africa

  11. Procurement Standards Lead-by-Example Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    State and local governments can lead by example by promoting energy efficiency programs and policies for public facilities, equipment, and government operations.

  12. Energy Efficiency Lead-by-Example Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    State and local governments can lead by example by promoting energy efficiency programs and policies for public facilities, equipment, and government operations.

  13. Lead by Example with Smart Energy Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lead by Example with Smart Energy Management brochure describes FEMP's services, namely financing and acquisition support, technical assistance and policy, and outreach and coordination.

  14. Imnaha Subbasin Inventory Subbasin Lead Entity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imnaha Subbasin Inventory May 2004 Written by Ecovista Subbasin Lead Entity: Nez Perce Tribe.......................................................................... 15 List of Tables TABLE 1. ACRONYMS USED IN THE IMNAHA SUBBASIN INVENTORY

  15. Access of Cellulase to Cellulose and Lignin for Poplar Solids Produced by Leading Pretreatment Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Access of Cellulase to Cellulose and Lignin for Poplar Solids Produced by Leading Pretreatment and adsorption of b-glucosidase for lignin left after enzymatic digestion of the solids from these pretreatments effectiveness was determined. Furthermore, Avicel hydrolysis inhibition by enzymatic and acid lignin of poplar

  16. LEAD COMMISSIONER REPORT RENEWABLE POWER IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Public Interest Energy Research Program, Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, Renewable Energy1502011002LCFREV1 #12;CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2011 INTEGRATED ENERGY POLICY REPORT LEAD COMMISSIONER of the 2011 Integrated Energy Policy Report Lead Commissioner. It does not necessarily represent the views

  17. LEAD Academy *Leadership in Educational Administration Academy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    LEAD Academy *Leadership in Educational Administration Academy Educational Administration for overnight accommodations if desired A time intensive component of the academy will occur on the UNO campus of practitioners will serve to facilitate the LEAD Academy, developing mentor/mentee networks that will continue

  18. EPA Lead Safety for Renovation, Repair and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    than 20 f lead-based paint is dis- e exterior. Window replace- onsidered minor mainte- air. If you're of thousands of dollars in fines and put yourself and your company at risk of po- tential lawsuits. 2. ProtectEPA Lead Safety for Renovation, Repair and Painting (RRP) Course Certified Renovators Class

  19. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figs.

  20. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R. (Mountain View, CA); Cowan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  1. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  2. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  4. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. Corrosion by liquid lead and lead-bismuth: experimental results review and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid metal technologies for liquid lead and lead-bismuth alloy are under wide investigation and development for advanced nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation systems. Material corrosion is one of the main issues studied a lot recently in the development of the liquid metal technology. This study reviews corrosion by liquid lead and lead bismuth, including the corrosion mechanisms, corrosion inhibitor and the formation of the protective oxide layer. The available experimental data are analyzed by using a corrosion model in which the oxidation and scale removal are coupled. Based on the model, long-term behaviors of steels in liquid lead and lead-bismuth are predictable. This report provides information for the selection of structural materials for typical nuclear reactor coolant systems when selecting liquid lead or lead bismuth as heat transfer media.

  6. Sustainability Peer Educator Group Lead Positions Position: Sustainability Peer Educators Group Lead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonstra, Rudy

    Sustainability Peer Educator Group Lead Positions Position: Sustainability Peer Educators Group times) Term of position: September 2013 ­ April 2014 Position Summary: Working with the Sustainability Project Coordinator, the Sustainability Peer Educator Group Leads will be responsible

  7. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  8. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neu, M.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pK{sub a}s and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 5.94, log{beta}{sub 120} = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 9.34, log{beta}{sub l20} = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is log{beta}{sub 110} = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of {sup 242}Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  9. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE ACIDS CONTAINING PHOSPHOROUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    12.1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE for ACIDS CONTAINING PHOSPHOROUS Location(s): ___________________________________________________ Chemical(s): Hypophosphorous acid, methylphosphonic acid, phosphonic acid, phosphoric acid, phosphorous

  10. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  11. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  12. Imnaha Subbasin Management Plan Subbasin Lead Entity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imnaha Subbasin Management Plan May 2004 Written by Ecovista Subbasin Lead Entity: Nez Perce Tribe....................................................................................... 6 1.2.4 Ecovista Website Information.......................................................................... 59 4.3 Terrestrial Data and Information Gaps

  13. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  14. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  15. Information from leading neutrons at HERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Khoze; A. D. Martin; M. G. Ryskin

    2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In principle, leading neutrons produced in photoproduction and deep-inelastic scattering at HERA have the potential to determine the pion structure function, the neutron absorptive cross section and the form of the pion flux. To explore this potential we compare theoretical predictions for the x_L and p_t spectra of leading neutrons, and the Q^2 dependence of the cross section, with the existing ZEUS data.

  16. Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spent Nuclear Fuel. Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - agm stromal cells Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Appendix: Histopathology Code Histopathology Summary: stromal polyp ess endometrial stromal sarcoma exa exocrine adenoma exp exophytic papilloma fab...

  18. Name: mw. prof. dr. A.G.M. Schilder Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico-Facial Surgery for PhD thesis "Long-term effects of otitis media with effusion for PhD thesis "Long-term effects of otitis media with effusion in children" (1994) Honorary Member on resistance and integron prevalence in the intestinal flora: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled

  19. Microsoft Word - AGM Peer Review Agenda 6.6.14.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOE Tribal Leader HOWARD GRUENSPECHTSecuringAudits Hilton

  20. Synthesis of the entire standard lead electrocardiogram by transformation from a subset of the standard leads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallhonrat, Juan Braulio

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in dimensionless form. An individual element r&& in the correlation matrix R will be the correlation coefficient th th between the i and ] variables. The principal components are the eigenvectors of the correlation matrix and the corresponding eigen- values...) and using the other lead as an exploring lead. Another classification is based on the location of the lead, that is, direct, semi-direct, or indirect. A direct lead is placed on the heart, an indirect lead is placed at a body surface location distant from...

  1. Development and test evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries for load-leveling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, N.P.; Miller, J.F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Exide load-leveling modules have operated reliably to date in all testing at the NBTL, with stable performance exceeding design goals. Much important information on operation and maintenance requirements has been accumulated in over 3 1/2 years of testing to date. It is concluded that these batteries can perform load-leveling applications for electric utilities or utility customers.

  2. Performance characteristics of an electric-vehicle lead-acid battery pack at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, P.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data are presented for discharge testing of an 18-Exide IV electric car battery pack over initial electrolyte temperature variations between 27 and 55/sup 0/C. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions and then compared to detailed electric vehicle simulation models. Results showed that battery discharge capacity increased with temperature for constant current discharges, and that battery energy capacity increased with temperature for constant power discharges. Dynamometer test of the GE Electric Test Vehicle showed an increase in range of 25% for the highest electrolyte temperature.

  3. Ris-R-1515(EN) Lifetime Modelling of Lead Acid Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Profile 18 3.2 Wind and PV test profiles for lifetime assessment 19 3.2.1 Renewable energy system profiles-01 Sponsorship: Cover : Pages: 82 Tables: 10 References: 18 Abstract: The performance and lifetime of energy storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries

  4. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  5. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial phase of work comprises three factorial experiments to evaluate a variety of component combinations. Goals to be met by these batteries include the following: capacity at 3 h discharge, 20 to 30 kWh; specific energy, 40 Wh/kg; specific power, 1000 W/kg for 15 s; cycle life, 800 cycles to 80% depth; price, $50/kWh. The status of the factorial experiments is reviewed. The second phase of work, design of an advanced battery, has the following goals: 30 to 40 kWh; 60 Wh/kg; 150 W/kg for 15 s; 1000 cycles to 80% depth; $40/kWh. It is not yet possible to say whether these goals can be met. Numerous approaches are under study to increase the utilization of battery chemicals. A battery design with no live electrical connection above the battery is being developed. 52 figures, 52 tables. (RWR)

  6. Competitive sorption of cadmium and lead in acid soils of central Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, S.; Garrido, F.; Campbell, C.G.; Garcia-Gonzolez, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The bioavailability and ultimate fate of heavy metals in the environment are controlled by chemical sorption. To assess competitive sorption of Pb and Cd, batch equilibrium experiments (generating sorption isotherms) and kinetics sorption studies were performed using single and binary metal solutions in surface samples of four soils from central Spain. For comparisons between soils, as well as, single and binary metal solutions, soil chemical processes were characterized using the Langmuir equation, ionic strength, and an empirical power function for kinetic sorption. In addition, soil pH and clay mineralogy were used to explain observed sorption processes. Sorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equation and the sorption kinetics were well described by an empirical power function within the reaction times in this study. Soils with higher pH and clay content (characterized by having smectite) had the greatest sorption capacity as estimated by the maximum sorption parameter (Q) of the Langmuir equation. All soils exhibited greater sorption capacity for Pb than Cd and the presence of both metals reduced the tendency for either to be sorbed although Cd sorption was affected to a greater extent than that of Pb. The Langmuir binding strength parameter (k) was always greater for Pb than for Cd. However, these k values tended to increase as a result of the simultaneous presence of both metals, that may indicate competition for sorption sites promoting the retention of both metals on more specific sorption sites. The kinetic experiments showed that Pb sorption is initially faster than Cd sorption from both single and binary solutions although the simultaneous presence of both metals affected the sorption of Cd at short times while only a minor effect was observed on Pb. The estimated exponents of the kinetic function were in all cases smaller for Pb than for Cd, likely due to diffusion processes into micropores or interlayer space of the clay minerals which occurs more readily for Cd than Pb. Finally, the overall sorption processes of Pb and Cd in the smectitic soil with the highest sorption capacity of the studied soils are slower than in the rest of the soils with a clay mineralogy dominated by kaolinite and illite, exhibiting these soils similar sorption rates. These results demonstrate a significant interaction between Pb and Cd sorption when both metals are present that depends on important soil properties such as the clay mineralogy.

  7. DOE-SPEC-3019-96; Valve-Regulated Type Lead-Acid Storage Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana. DOCUMENTSofDATE M a y 9, 2005 REPLY TO530-98viii4-97NE-STD-1004-928-96

  8. DOE-HDBK-1084-95; Primer on Lead-Acid Storage Batteries

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Deliciouscritical_materials_workshop_presentations.pdf MoreProgramofContractto Host016/1-93 JANUARY16,

  9. DOE-SPEC-3018-96; Flooded-Type Lead-Acid Storage Batteries

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Deliciouscritical_materials_workshop_presentations.pdf MoreProgramofContracttoAugustSPEC-3018-96 August 1996 DOE

  10. Fact Sheet: Carbon-Enhanced Lead-Acid Batteries (October 2012)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFYOxide

  11. Fact Sheet: Carbon-Enhanced Lead-Acid Batteries (October 2012) | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA5 &ofDepartment of Energy On November 5, 2008, the|2013) |of

  12. AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of Energy 601 High26-OPAM63-OPAMGuidanceAVTA …Ford FusionTesting

  13. A Study of Lead-Acid Battery Efficiency Near Top-of-Charge

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite JC-118794 PREPRINTWillisHormetic0123RD MIAMIAA

  14. Thermoforming plastic in lead shield construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrahams, M.E.; Chow, C.H.; Loyd, M.D. (Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston (USA))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation treatments using low energy X-rays or electrons frequently require a final field defining shield to be placed on the patient's skin. A custom made lead cut-out is used to provide a close fit to a particular patient's surface contours. We have developed a procedure which utilizes POLYFORM thermoplastic to obtain a negative mold of the patient instead of the traditional plaster bandage or dental impression gel. The Polyform is softened in warm water, molded carefully over the patient's surface, and is removed when set or hardened, usually within five minutes. Then lead sheet cut-outs can be formed within this negative. For shielding cut-outs requiring thicker lead sheet, a positive is made from dental stone using this Polyform negative. We have found this procedure to be neat, fast and comfortable for both patient and the dosimetrist.

  15. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  16. EMSL - Nuclei acid structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet...

  17. Nuclei acid structure | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet...

  18. Leading Edge Bacterial Genomics and Pathogen Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekalanos, John

    Leading Edge Review Bacterial Genomics and Pathogen Evolution David M. Raskin,1 Rekha Seshadri,2 Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2 The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive.02.002 The availability of hundreds of bacterial genome sequences has altered the study of bacte- rial pathogenesis

  19. Mechanisms leading to electrically isolated cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanisms leading to electrically isolated cell parts and power loss under mechanical loads F cracks are omnipresent #12;Power loss by cell cracks Humidity freeze cycle 0 50 100 150 200 Powerloss, isolated cell area Crack mode: #12;Power loss after mechanical load Some solar cells with mode A cracks

  20. Analyzing lead information from SAR images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Dyne, M. M.; Tsatsoulis, Costas; Fetterer, F.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    means of gathering important information about the sea ice cover and its climatic influence, This paper describes: 1) a method for extracting and analyzing leads from ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images classified by ice type and 2) the results...

  1. Inadvertent Climate Modification Due to Anthropogenic Lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cziczo, Daniel J.; Stetzer, Olaf; Worringen, Annette; Ebert, Martin; Weinbruch, Stephan; Kamphus, M.; Gallavardin, S. J.; Curtius, J.; Borrmann, S.; Froyd, Karl D.; Mertes, S.; Mohler, Ottmar; Lohmann, U.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between atmospheric particulate matter and the formation of clouds is among the most uncertain aspects of our current understanding of climate change1. One specific question that remains unanswered is how anthropogenic particulate emissions are affecting the nucleation of ice crystals. Satellites show ice clouds cover more than a third of the globe2 and models suggest that ice nucleation initiates the majority of terrestrial precipitation3. It is therefore not possible to adequately understand either climate change or the global water cycle without understanding ice nucleation. Here we show that lead-containing particles are among the most efficient ice nucleating substances commonly found in the atmosphere. Field observations were conducted with mass spectrometry and electron microscopy at two remote stations on different continents, far removed from local emissions. Laboratory studies within two cloud chambers using controlled experimental conditions support the field data. Because the dominate sources of particulate lead are anthropogenic emissions such as aviation fuel, power generation, smelting, and the re-suspension of residue from tetra-ethyl leaded gasoline4, it is likely that cloud formation and precipitation have been affected when compared to pre-industrial times. A global climate model comparing pre-industrial and anthropogenically perturbed conditions shows that lead-containing particles may be increasing the outgoing longwave radiation by 0.2 to 0.8 W m-2, thereby offsetting a portion of the warming attributed to greenhouse gases1.

  2. The Commonwealth's Leading College of Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    and Ocean Engineering....................540-231-6611 Biological Systems EngineeringThe Commonwealth's Leading College of Engineering is at Virginia Tech Faculty ExpErtisE GuidE 2012-2014 Virginia Tech engineering students won the international EcoCAR Challenge, a 3-year design competition

  3. Felix Wrsten ETH Zurich enjoys a leading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo, Degiorgi

    Felix Würsten ETH Zurich enjoys a leading position in the quantum sciences. The Executive Board now research in this area. "ETH Zurich has secured it- self a good starting position and now wishes to use physics will become the tool of the engineer." Fundamental development Together with the ETH Zurich Foun

  4. Quality Support G. Q. Kirk, Lead (4)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Quality Systems and Services Division February 11, 2011 Operations Analysis E. L. Griffis L. R. Brown, Secy. Systems Engineering Y. S. Kwon, Manager HFIR Maintenance D. H. AbercQuality Support G. Q. Kirk, Lead (4) R. L. Bullock (4) A. C. Hendricks (4) G. H. Henkel (4) D. L

  5. Controlling acid rain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

  6. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  7. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arulmozhi, K. T., E-mail: arulsheelphy@gmail.com [Physics Wing (DDE), Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India); Mythili, N. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)] [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  8. Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs widely in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, J. Barry

    Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs of metallic lead in the soil (4) Drinking water ­ water as it leaves the treatment plant has no lead plumbing components Your exposure to lead in drinking water is at the faucet, but the lead can come from

  9. Towards modeling gadolinium-lead-borate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rada, S., E-mail: Simona.Rada@phys.utcluj.ro [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ristoiu, T. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rada, M. [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Coroiu, I. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Maties, V. [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Culea, E. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared spectra of gadolinium-lead-borate glasses of the xGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(100 - x)[3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO] system, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35 and 50 mol.%, have been recorded to explore the role of content of gadolinium ions behaving as glass modifier. The FTIR spectroscopy data for the xGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(1 - x)[3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO] glasses show the structural role of lead ions as a network-formers and of the gadolinium ions network modifiers. Adding of the rare earth ion up to 35 mol.% into the glass matrix, the IR bands characteristic to the studied glasses become sharper and more pronounced. Structural changes, as recognized by analyzing band shapes of IR spectra, revealed that Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} causes a change from the continuous borate network to the continuous lead-borate network interconnected through Pb-O-B and B-O-B bridges and the transformation of some tetrahedral [BO{sub 4}] units into trigonal [BO{sub 3}] units. Then, gadolinium ions have affinity towards [BO{sub 3}] structural units which contain non-bridging oxygens necessary for the charge compensation because the more electronegative [BO{sub 3}] structural units were implied in the formation of B-O-Gd bonds and the transformation of glass network into a glass ceramic. We propose a possible structural model of building blocks for the formation of continuous random 3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO network glass used by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations show that lead atoms occupy three different sites in the proposed model. The first is coordinated with six oxygen atoms forming distorted octahedral geometries. The second lead atom has an octahedral oxygen environment and the five longer Pb-O bonds are considered as participating in the metal coordination scheme. The third lead atom has ionic character. In agreement with the results offered by the experimental FTIR data, the theoretical IR data confirm that our proposed structure is highly possible.

  10. CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Leading Index Hits Bump in the Road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    the seasonally adjusted data reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Nevada Coincident Employment IndexCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Leading Index Hits Bump in the Road The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using an index

  11. CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Coincident Index Rises, Leading Index Pauses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    the seasonally adjusted data reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Nevada Coincident Employment IndexCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Coincident Index Rises, Leading Index Pauses The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using

  12. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications. 4 figs.

  13. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Bergum, John W. (Concord, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated.

  14. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, C.D.; Bergum, J.W.

    1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated. 3 figs.

  15. River Sediment Analysis by Slurry Sampling FAAS: Determination of Copper, Zinc and Lead Flvia L. Alves, Solange Cadore, Wilson F. Jardim and Marco A. Z. Arruda*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jardim, Wilson de Figueiredo

    Article River Sediment Analysis by Slurry Sampling FAAS: Determination of Copper, Zinc and Lead sediment analysis was developed. Using this procedure, copper, zinc and lead were determined. The influence of the nitric acid concentration on the slurry preparation, as well as the sediment particle size

  16. Preliminary synchrotron analysis of lead in hair from a lead smelter worker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.R.; Kempson, I.M.; Naftel, S.J.; Skinner, W.M. (Case Western); (U. South Australia)

    2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence has been used to study the distribution of lead in a hair sample collected from a lead smelter worker. A mathematical model was used to imitate the transverse scan signal based on the analysis volume and concentration profiles. The results suggest that the Pb originates both from ingestion and environmental exposure, however direct deposition from the environment is the more important source of hair lead. The model could apply equally to any other analysis involving a thin cylindrical sample.

  17. XRD, lead equivalent and UV-VIS properties study of Ce and Pr lead silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alias, Nor Hayati, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Abdullah, Wan Shafie Wan, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Isa, Norriza Mohd, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Isa, Muhammad Jamal Md, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Abdullah, Nuhaslinda Ee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Muhammad, Azali [Malaysian Society for Non-Destructive Testing (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, Cerium (Ce) and Praseodymium (Pr) containing lead silicate glasses were produced with 2 different molar ratios low (0.2 wt%) and high (0.4wt%). These types of glasses can satisfy the characteristics required for radiation shielding glasses and minimize the lead composition in glass. The radiation shielding properties of the synthesized glasses is explained in the form of lead equivalent study. The XRD diffraction and UV-VIS analysis were performed to observe the structural changes of the synthesis glasses at 1.5 Gy gamma radiation exposures.

  18. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  19. Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Protect Your Family 1. Test your home for lead. · If you live in a home built before 1978, have your home are most at risk. If you are pregnant, lead can harm your baby. Lead can cause learning and behavior on their hands and toys. FACT A lead test is the only way to know if your child has lead poisoning. Most

  20. Lead Screening for NH Soils: Minimizing Health Risks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    family. On your soil test report, if the lead screening levels are elevated, you will receive in populated areas include the use of lead paint around homes (pre- 1970s), the use of lead-arsenate for pest does a "lead screening" test that indicates whether or not lead could pose a health risk for your

  1. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    FATTY ACID CARCASS MAPPING A Thesis by STACEY NICOLE TURK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2008... Major Subject: Animal Science FATTY ACID CARCASS MAPPING A Thesis by STACEY NICOLE TURK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  2. The utilization of tricarboxylic acid cycle acids and the uptake of succinic acid by Neurospora crassa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilliland, Patti Lynn

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    THE UTILIZATION OF TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE ACIDS AND THE UPTAKE OF SUCCINIC ACID BY NEUROSPORA CRASSA A Thesis by PATTI LYNN GILLILAND Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1978 Ma) or Subject: Microbiology THE UTILIZATION OF TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE ACIDS AND THE UPTAKE OF SUCCINIC ACID BY NEUROSPORA CRASSA A Thesis by PATTI LYNN GILLILAND Approved as to style and content by...

  3. Asian anthropogenic lead contamination in the North Pacific Ocean as evidenced by stable lead isotopic compositions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zurbrick, Cheryl Marie

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and North Central Pacific Ocean. Deep Sea Res. Part II Top.Lead Within the Northwest Pacific Ocean Evidenced by Leadventilation flux of the Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 106(

  4. Properties of lead-lithium solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Darnell, A.; Blink, J.A.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-lithium solutions are of interest to liquid metal wall ICF reactor designers because Pb may be present to some extent in both heavy ion beam and laser-driven ICF targets; therefore, Pb will be present as an impurity in a flowing lithium wall. In addition, Pb-Li solutions containing approx. 80 a/o Pb are a strong candidate for a heavy ion beam driven HYLIFE converter and a viable alternative to a pure Li wall for a laser driven converter. The properties of Pb-Li solutions including the effect of hydrogen impurities are reviewed, and the reactor design implications are discussed.

  5. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R. C.; Imel, G. R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  6. Thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured lead telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Takuma [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shiomi, Junichiro, E-mail: shiomi@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of lead telluride with embedded nanoinclusions was studied using Monte Carlo simulations with intrinsic phonon transport properties obtained from first-principles-based lattice dynamics. The nanoinclusion/matrix interfaces were set to completely reflect phonons to model the maximum interface-phonon-scattering scenario. The simulations with the geometrical cross section and volume fraction of the nanoinclusions matched to those of the experiment show that the experiment has already reached the theoretical limit of thermal conductivity. The frequency-dependent analysis further identifies that the thermal conductivity reduction is dominantly attributed to scattering of low frequency phonons and demonstrates mutual adaptability of nanostructuring and local disordering.

  7. Non-lead hollow point bullet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Norman L. (Knoxville, TN); Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-lead hollow point bullet of the instant invention comprises a mixed construction slug further comprising, a monolithic metal insert having a tapered (preferred conical) hollow point tip and a tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion, and an unsintered powdered metal composite core in tandem alignment with the insert. The core has a hollow tapered (preferred conical) cavity tip portion coupled with the tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion on the insert. An open tip jacket envelops at least a portion of the insert and the core. The jacket is swaged at the open tip.

  8. Leading Edge Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey, Washington:Lakeville, MN)Lauderhill,5. ItLea Hill, Washington:Leading

  9. Richard Gerber! NERSC! User Services Group Lead

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource Program September 2010 BRichardGroup Lead Debugging and

  10. Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid (HF characterized by weight loss, brittle bones, anemia, and general ill health. Safe use If possible, avoid working to exposures. #12;Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Programs Office

  11. Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 based on radium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hines, J.J.; Atcher, R.W.; Friedman, A.M.

    1985-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

  12. Anthropogenic Lead Emissions in the Ocean: The Evolving Global Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong-Mi

    We review the current distribution of lead and lead isotopes in the ocean with regard to the evolving pattern of human emissions during the past decades and centuries.

  13. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus - Case Study, 2013 Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus - Case Study, 2013 Thermal...

  14. Scheibe named lead scientist for EMSL computing | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lead scientist for EMSL computing He will oversee Multiscale Modeling and High Performance Computing Tim Scheibe EMSL has selected Tim Scheibe as lead scientist for Multiscale...

  15. Research Led by Sandia Reveals Leading-Edge Erosion Significantly...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Research Led by Sandia Reveals Leading-Edge Erosion Significantly Reduces Wind Turbine Performance Research Led by Sandia Reveals Leading-Edge Erosion Significantly Reduces Wind...

  16. University of Maryland Wins Architecture Prize, Pulls Into Lead...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Maryland Wins Architecture Prize, Pulls Into Lead in 2011 Solar Decathlon University of Maryland Wins Architecture Prize, Pulls Into Lead in 2011 Solar Decathlon September 28, 2011...

  17. Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic Heavy Metals: The Next Generation of Personal Exposure Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic Heavy...

  18. Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate. Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate. Abstract: Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning,...

  19. New Superconducting Magnet Will Lead to Next Generation of Wind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Superconducting Magnet Will Lead to Next Generation of Wind Turbine Generators New Superconducting Magnet Will Lead to Next Generation of Wind Turbine Generators September 12,...

  20. Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a Petrochemical Plant Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a...

  1. Theoretical Population Biology 54, 257 269 (1998) Acidic Deposition, Plant Pests, and the Fate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gatto, Marino

    with power plants, smelters or factories. More recent research developments have evidenced the existenceTheoretical Population Biology 54, 257 269 (1998) Acidic Deposition, Plant Pests, and the Fate the abundance of predators is not too small. Numerical simulation shows that increasing acidic load can lead

  2. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  3. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Research Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Gavron, Victor; Danon, Yaron; Weltz, Adam; Harris, Jason; Stewart, T.

    2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometry (LSDS) project has been evaluating the feasibility of using LSDS techniques to assay fissile isotopes in used nuclear fuel assemblies. The approach has the potential to provide considerable improvement in the assay of fissile isotopic masses in fuel assemblies compared to other non-destructive techniques in a direct and independent manner. The LSDS collaborations suggests that the next step to in empirically testing the feasibility is to conduct measurements on fresh fuel assemblies to understand investigate self-attenuation and fresh mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel rodlets so we may betterto understand extraction of masses for 235U and 239Pu. While progressing toward these goals, the collaboration also strongly suggests the continued development of enabling technology such as detector development and algorithm development, thatwhich could provide significant performance benefits.

  4. Synthesis and regeneration of lead (IV) acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, T.J.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Moore, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead acetate [Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4}] was easily synthesized from a warm solution of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HO{sub 2}CMe and O(OCMe){sub 2} following literature preparations when the appropriate measures to minimize water contamination were followed. Furthermore, Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} which has been decomposed (evidenced by the appearance of a purple color due to oxidation) can be regenerated using a similar preparatory route. Introduction of Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} from the two routes outlined above into the IMO process for production of PZT thin films gave films with comparable ferroelectric properties to commercially available Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} precursors. However, the freshly synthesized material yields PZT films with better properties compared to the recycled material.

  5. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  6. EFFECTS OF NITRIC ACID ON CRITICALITY SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, B.

    2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    As nitric acid molarity is increased, there are two competing phenomena affecting the reactivity of the system. First, there is interaction between each of the 10 wells in the basket-like insert. As the molarity of the nitric acid solution is increased (it moves from 100% water to 100% HNO{sub 3}), the hydrogen atom density decreases by about 80%. However, it remains a relatively efficient moderator. The moderating ratio of nitric acid is about 90% that of water. As the media between the wells is changed from 100% water to 100% nitric acid, the density of the media increases by 50%. A higher density typically leads to a better reflector. However, when the macroscopic scattering cross sections are considered, nitric acid is a much worse reflector than water. The effectiveness of nitric acid as a reflector is about 40% that of water. Since the media between the wells become a worse reflector and still remains an effective moderator, interaction between the wells increases. This phenomenon will cause reactivity to increase as nitric acid molarity increases. The seond phenomenon is due to the moderating ratio changing in the high concentration fissile-nitric acid solution in the 10 wells. Since the wells contain relatively small volumes of high concentration solutions, a small decrease in moderating power has a large effect on reactivity. This is due to the fact that neutrons are more likely to escape the high concentration fissile solution before causing another fission event. The result of this phenomenon is that as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases. Recent studies have shown that the second phenomenon is indeed the dominating force in determining reactivity changes in relation to nitric acid molarity changes. When considering the system as a whole, as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases.

  7. Comparison of leading and next-to-leading logarithmic electroweak corrections to Higgs production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabio Siringo

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Using soft-collinear effective theory, the leading-log radiative electroweak corrections are written in a closed and analytical form for the hadronic cross section of Higgs production through vector boson fusion, qq->qqH, one of the most promising channels for studying the Higgs boson at the LHC. The simple leading-log resummation is compared with a full next-to-leading-log calculation, and its accuracy is found to be of order 1% up to 10 TeV, i.e. better than the accuracy of PDFs. Corrections are found to be larger than predicted by one-loop fixed order approximations at LHC energies. The method provides a simple way of incorporating the electroweak corrections in software packages, improving the accuracy of simulations.

  8. Comparison of leading and next-to-leading logarithmic electroweak corrections to Higgs production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siringo, Fabio

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using soft-collinear effective theory, the leading-log radiative electroweak corrections are written in a closed and analytical form for the hadronic cross section of Higgs production through vector boson fusion, qq->qqH, one of the most promising channels for studying the Higgs boson at the LHC. The simple leading-log resummation is compared with a full next-to-leading-log calculation, and its accuracy is found to be of order 1% up to 10 TeV, i.e. comparable with the accuracy of PDFs. Corrections are found to be larger than predicted by one-loop fixed order approximations at LHC energies. The method provides a simple way of incorporating the electroweak corrections in software packages, improving the accuracy of simulations.

  9. The greenhouse effect and acid rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traeger, R.K.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons is increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Increased concentrations of these trace gases could lead to global warming, increased acid rain and increased UV radiation on the earth's surface; however, the actual impacts are still uncertain and are also the subject of great debate. Application of clean'' energy sources such as geothermal are obviously desirable for decreasing these effects and improving our overall general environment. This paper briefly summarizes the global environment concerns, providing a backdrop for the following papers which describe the geothermal role in future environmental considerations. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Development and application of a real time lead-in-air analyzer in controlling lead exposure at a primary lead smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, W.J.; Dekker, D.L.; Greenwood-Smith, R.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assist in locating and quantifying fugitive emissions in a primary lead smelter, a real time lead-in-air analyzer has been developed. Dust is collected on paper tape filters and the lead analyzed by X-ray fluorescence. The unit has been used successfully to assist in the implementation of an engineering control monitoring program.

  11. Law Update Cover 2,3 No More Spreading Lead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutyra, Lucy R.

    to customers by contractors, of the "Protect Your Family from Lead in Your Home" pamphlet, be- fore beginning because the lead tastes sweet, you need to readjust your thinking. Lead poisoning occurs across allINSIDE Law Update Cover 2,3 No More Spreading Lead Tip of the Month Page 4 Rental Unit Condition

  12. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator Aug 2013 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator Aug 2013 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  13. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2013 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), Calif

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2013 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  14. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2010 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2010 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  15. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Califo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  16. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  17. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Califo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  18. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  19. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2014 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2014 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  20. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Cal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  1. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Cal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  2. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator February 2014 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), Calif

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator February 2014 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  3. Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2014 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), Califor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2014 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

  4. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  5. Lead(ii) Detection An Exceptionally Selective Lead(ii)-Regulatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Chuan

    -spore- forming bacillus that flourishes in millimolar concentrations of toxic heavy metals.[12] It is the only that responds to lead(ii) ions with a high selectivity over other heavy metal ions. This has not been achieved developed for the detection of other small molecules, but with limited success for heavy metal ions

  6. Cool horizons lead to information loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borun D. Chowdhury

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two evidences for information loss during black hole evaporation: (i) a pure state evolves to a mixed state and (ii) the map from the initial state to final state is non-invertible. Any proposed resolution of the information paradox must address both these issues. The firewall argument focuses only on the first and this leads to order one deviations from the Unruh vacuum for maximally entangled black holes. The nature of the argument does not extend to black holes in pure states. It was shown by Avery, Puhm and the author that requiring the initial state to final state map to be invertible mandates structure at the horizon even for pure states. The proof works if black holes can be formed in generic states and in this paper we show that this is indeed the case. We also demonstrate how models proposed by Susskind, Papadodimas et al. and Maldacena et al. end up making the initial to final state map non-invertible and thus make the horizon "cool" at the cost of unitarity.

  7. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  8. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)] [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia)] [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Troms, N-9037 Troms (Norway)] [Department of Community Medicine, University of Troms, N-9037 Troms (Norway)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 g/L; Pb soil <3.0 g/g; Pb dust 16.5 g/g; Pb blood 3.67 g/L; Pb urine 0.55; g/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 g/g; Hg dust <1.0 g/g; Hg blood 0.46 g/L; Hg urine <0.40 g/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 g/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 g/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 g/g (range <0.27.06 g/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

  9. Evaluation of lead/carbon devices for utility applications : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walmet, Paula S. (MeadWestvaco Corporation,North Charleston, SC)

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a three-phase project that evaluated lead-based energy storage technologies for utility-scale applications and developed carbon materials to improve the performance of lead-based energy storage technologies. In Phase I, lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were compared to other technologies that used the same or similar materials. At the end of Phase I (in 2005) it was found that lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were not yet fully developed and optimized (cost/performance) to be a viable option for utility-scale applications. It was, however, determined that adding carbon to the negative electrode of a standard lead-acid battery showed promise for performance improvements that could be beneficial for use in utility-scale applications. In Phase II various carbon types were developed and evaluated in lead-acid batteries. Overall it was found that mesoporous activated carbon at low loadings and graphite at high loadings gave the best cycle performance in shallow PSoC cycling. Phase III studied cost/performance benefits for a specific utility application (frequency regulation) and the full details of this analysis are included as an appendix to this report.

  10. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  11. Acidizing of Sandstone Reservoirs Using HF and Organic Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Fei

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Mud acid, which is composed of HCl and HF, is commonly used to remove the formation damage in sandstone reservoirs. However, many problems are associated with HCl, especially at high temperatures. Formic-HF acids have served as an alternative...

  12. acid docosahexaenoic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 38 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  13. acid aspartic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 20 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  14. acid caffeic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 11 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  15. acid succinic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulated the laser heating of the succinic acid (this data is still simulation is that infrared heating generates about 10-15 more succinic acid molecules bound to the analyte...

  16. acid benzoic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 24 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  17. acid propanoic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 9 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  18. acid oleic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 31 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  19. Macroencapsulation of lead and steel SWARF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zirker, L.; Thiesen, T.; Tyson, D.; Beitel, G.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The treatability study to macroencapsulate radioactively contaminated lead and steel swarf (cuttings and/or chips)and chunks, a low level mixed waste, from the dismantlement of excess surplus uranium fuel handling and transfer casks was successful. Macroencapsulation is the land disposal restriction treatment standard for this waste form per 40 CFR 268.42 Table 3. An epoxy-based thermoset system was employed due to cracking failures of other types of thermoset systems. Bench scale tests were performed with a two-part epoxy (resin and hardener) using cast iron chips as a surrogate waste media. A two stage encapsulation process was employed in treating the swarf. Two liters of epoxy were added to a 2.8{ell} (3 qt) container of swarf under 51K Pa vacuum (-15-inch of Hg) during the first stage of the process. In this stage each individual particle or chip was wetted by epoxy and allowed to harden into an initial monolith. The second stage encapsulated the initial monolith with a secondary layer of epoxy forming a larger final monolith. By evacuating the air from the swarf and epoxy during the initial monolith encapsulation, a higher density (higher swarf to epoxy ratio) was achieved. Tensile and compressive strength tests were performed on samples and without any media (cast iron chips). The coupons were prepared from a series of monoliths featuring various mixtures ratios and vacuum levels. The tensile strength of epoxy without chips averaged 41M Pa (6000 psi) and 1.4M Pa (2000 psi) with cast iron chips. Compression strengths averaged 140M Pa (20,000 psi) without chips and 66.2M Pa (9600 psi) with cast iron chips.

  20. Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasongko, Hari

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe...

  1. Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many open-hole acid treatments are being conducted by pumping acid through jetting ports placed at the end of coiled tubing or drill pipe. The filter-cake on the bore-hole is broken by the jet; the acid-soluble material is dissolved, creating...

  2. On the nature and origin of acidic species in petroleum. 1. Detailed acid type distribution in a California crude oil.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomczyk, N. A.; Winans, R. E.; Shinn, J. H.; Robinson, R. C.; Chemistry; Chevron Research and Technology Co.

    2001-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Acidity in crude oils has long been a problem for refining. Knowledge of the detailed chemical composition of the acids responsible for corrosion can facilitate identification of problem crude oils and potentially lead to improved processing options for corrosive oils. A highly aerobically biodegraded crude from the San Joaquin Valley, which has a long history of causing corrosion problems during refining, was the subject of this study. The oil was first extracted with base, then acidified and extracted with petroleum ether. A portion of the resulting acid fraction was methylated. The unmethylated extract was analyzed by FTIR, NMR, and the methylated sample was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Over 96% of the ions observed in HRMS have been assigned reliable formulas. Considerably greater functionality is seen in this sample than would be presumed from the 'naphthenic acid' title typically assigned to these species. Although over 60% of the compounds contained two or more oxygens, compounds containing only oxygen heteroatoms accounted for less than 10% of the acidic compounds identified. Approximately one-half of the species contained nitrogen and about one-fourth contained sulfur. It is believed that microbial degradation is a major source of these acidic components. It was also observed that acid species with higher degrees of heteroatom substitution generally also had a higher degree of saturation than those species having less heteroatoms, possibly due to impeded migration of highly substituted, less-saturated species.

  3. QCD analysis and effective temperature of direct photons in lead-lead collisions at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Klasen; C. Klein-Bsing; F. Knig; J. P. Wessels

    2014-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a systematic theoretical analysis of the ALICE measurement of low-$p_T$ direct-photon production in central lead-lead collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV. Using next-to-leading order of perturbative QCD, we compute the relative contributions to prompt-photon production from different initial and final states and the theoretical uncertainties coming from independent variations of the renormalisation and factorisation scales, the nuclear parton densities and the fragmentation functions. Based on different fits to the unsubtracted and prompt-photon subtracted ALICE data, we consistently find an exponential, possibly thermal, photon spectrum from the quark-gluon plasma (or hot medium) with slope $T=304\\pm 58$ MeV and $309\\pm64$ MeV at $p_T\\in[0.8;2.2]$ GeV and $p_T\\in[1.5;3.5]$ GeV as well as a power-law ($p_T^{-4}$) behavior for $p_T>4$ GeV as predicted by QCD hard scattering.

  4. Recent results on electroweak probes in lead-lead and proton-lead collisions from the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, William; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photons and weak bosons do not interact strongly with the dense and hot medium formed in nuclear collisions, and thus they should be sensitive to the nuclear modification of parton distribution functions (nPDFs). In particular, proton-lead collisions provide an excellent opportunity to test nPDFs in a less dense environment than lead-lead. The ATLAS detector, optimized for searching new physics in proton-proton collisions, is especially well equipped to measure photons, Z and W bosons in the high occupancy environment produced in heavy ion collisions. Using the full data samples of 2.76 TeV lead-lead and 5.02 TeV proton-lead collisions we will present recent results on the prompt photon, Z and W boson yields as a function of centrality, transverse momentum and rapidity, from the ATLAS experiment. The binary collision scaling of the yields will be discussed in detail.

  5. Investigating acid rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A report is given of an address by Kathleen Bennett, Assistant Administrator of Air, Noise and Radiation, Environmental Protection Agency which was presented to the US Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works. Bennet explained that in view of the many unknowns about acid rain, and the possible substantial cost burden of additional controls, EPA is proceeding with its program to investigate this environmental malady over a 10-year period. The three major areas of the research program are (1) transport, transformation, and deposition processes, (2) effects of acid deposition, and (3) assessments and policy studies. Other issues discussed were global transboundary air pollution and Senate amendments addressing long-range transport. (JMT)

  6. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  7. Solar Decathlon Team Leading the Way Toward Sustainable Living...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Leading the Way Toward Sustainable Living, Even in the Wake of Disasters Solar Decathlon Team Leading the Way Toward Sustainable Living, Even in the Wake of Disasters August 18,...

  8. COWBOYS OR COMMANDERS: DOES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY LEAD TO DECENTRALIZATION?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COWBOYS OR COMMANDERS: DOES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY LEAD TO DECENTRALIZATION? George M. Wyner Thomas) predicted that information technology would lead to the elimination of middle managers and to greater (Eds.), International Conference on Information Systems, Cleveland, International Conference

  9. HYDROFLUORIC ACID Safety Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    or fluorocarbon plastic, lead, or platinum. Place storage bottles in polyethylene secondary containment trays to an absorbent and place in a plastic container for disposal. Wash the spill site with a sodium bicarbonate-up materials. Spill clean-up materials must be placed in a plastic container. #12;Spills 3M's Universal

  10. Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components: Tin Whisker Growth METALS This project degraded by the switch to lead- free technology. In particular, the state of compressive stress and the localized creep response (whisker growth) of tin-based lead-free electrodeposits are being measured

  11. FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT: TP Straatsma, Initiative Lead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT: TP Straatsma, Initiative Lead 509-375-2802 tps@pnl.gov www.pnl.gov e Development of Exascale Algorithms for Molecular Modeling Lead investigator: Dr. Karol Kowalski Researchers Optimizations for Extreme Scale Systems Lead investigator: Dr. Daniel Chavarria Exascale systems will provide

  12. THE LEAD AND COPPER RULE Anne Sandvig, HDR-EES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, J. Barry

    THE LEAD AND COPPER RULE Anne Sandvig, HDR-EES 2008 Historical Background The 1986 Safe Drinking districts and was not mandated. In 1991, the USEPA finalized the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) in response components and by August 1998 manufacturers were required to comply. The Lead and Copper Rule #12;The USEPA

  13. Technical Note Ultrasound Probe with Integrated ECG Lead: Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen

    Technical Note Ultrasound Probe with Integrated ECG Lead: Feasibility Study ARCHANA RAMIREDDY 27708 stephen.w.smith@duke.edu We integrated electrocardiogram (ECG) leads onto the face of a cardiac of devices needed to col- lect cardiac information. Since the ECG leads were not placed on their standard

  14. Lead contamination around a kindergarten near a battery recycling plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung-Der Wang; Chang-Sheng Jang; Yaw-Huei Hwang; Zueng-Sang Chen [National Taiwan Univ. (China)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead poisoning has been noticed for more than a thousand years. Increased lead absorption and/or impaired neurobehavioral function among children who lived nearby lead smelters were reported in many different countries. In November of 1987, a worker from a lead battery recycling smelter suffered from anemia and bilateral weakness of his extremities. He was diagnosed as lead poisoning at the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). A subsequent epidemiological survey of the workers from this recycling smelter showed that 31 out of 64 who came for a medical examination suffered from lead poisoning. Since there was a kindergarten next to the factory, we performed this study to determine whether there was an increased lead absorption among children of the exposed kindergarten and its association with the extent of air and soil pollution in the surrounding area. 12 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Cytotoxicity of lead on oligodendroglia, astroglia, and meningeal fibroblasts in culture: effects on viability and glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jo-Nan

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acid incorporation by meningeal fibroblasts. 10. GPDH activity of mixed glial cultures . 36 (units/culture dish). 37 11 ~ GPDH activity of mixed glial cultures (units/mg protein). 37 12. GPDH activity of oligodendroglial cultures (units.../culture dish) . . 39 13. GPDH activity of oligodendroglial cultures (units/mg protein). ~ . 39 INTRODUCTION Lead (Pb) poisoning is one of the earliest occu- pational diseases to be identified. In the United States, potential health hazards are created...

  16. acid acetic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of asphaltene deposition that occurs during acid treatments of oil reservoirs. Asphaltenes are present to some degree in most hydrocarbons. Due to the molecular weight of the...

  17. Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton results from a hydrogen bond switch between the flavin and its surrounding amino acids that preconfigures a rearrangement of the hydrogen bond network around the flavin takes place leading to a 10-15 nm red shift

  18. On the initial phenomena occurring in lead/lead collisions at relativistic energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Ythier; G. Mouze

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A new study of the initial phenomena occurring in the fireball should confirm the predicted creation of a new state of nuclear matter having a lifetime of 0.17 yoctosecond and releasing an energy of 3.87 GeV. The energy-time uncertainty relation might be connected with an up to now unsuspected momentum-position uncertainty relation holding in a three-dimensional time. This new point of view leads to the interpretation of the charge of a particle as being a rotational motion in time, to a new interpretation of inertia, and to a new interpretation of the color of a particle. The transverse momentum observed in the study of the fireball might be the signature of this motion in time of the charge.

  19. Field analysis of arsenic and lead in soils at a former smelter facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallis, C.M.; Walker, M.T.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field X-ray fluorescence (XRF) chemical analyses were performed to efficiently and cost-effectively evaluate arsenic and lead concentrations in soils as part of CERCLA-driven remedial investigations at a former lead smelter. Sample preparation and analysis protocols, including extensive quality control (QC) requirements, were developed for the field XRF method that were accepted by the US Environmental Protection Agency and other regulatory agencies. Over 800 soil samples from approximately 150 borings and test pits were analyzed using the field XRF technique during a three-week period. Measured arsenic and lead concentrations ranged over several orders of magnitude. Costs for using the field XRF technique were about 60 to 70% of the costs for traditional wet chemistry (acid digestion and spectrophotometric analysis) methods, which were also used to analyze selected samples for verification. Split samples analyzed during and immediately after the field investigation showed a good correlation between soil concentrations obtained using field XRF methods and concentrations obtained using laboratory analysis (both XRF and wet chemistry). Correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) for split samples compared using linear regression ranged from 0.832 to 0.995. Split-sample comparisons were generally better at lower soil concentrations (<10,000 ppm arsenic, <15,000 ppm lead). Duplicate, blank, and control standard results for the field XRF method were within limits typically achieved by laboratory-based systems. Preparation study results suggested that increased levels of soil-sample preparation may not significantly improve data comparability. Overall, results indicated that the field XRF technique is a dependable method for screening-level investigations in which solids are differentiated based on order-of-magnitude differences in arsenic and (or) lead concentrations. The field XRF method allowed rapid turnaround of analytical results while achieving data quality and comparability goals acceptable for a CERCLA remedial investigation.

  20. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  1. Time-integrated blood lead concentration is a valid surrogate for estimating the cumulative lead dose assessed by tibial lead measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roels, H.; Konings, J.; Lauwerys, R. [Medical School of the Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others] [Medical School of the Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentration of lead in tibia (Pb-T) was measured in vivo by a {sup 109}Cd K-shell X-ray fluorescence technique in 123 workers from a primary lead smelter (age: mean, 45 years; range, 30-61; duration of employment: mean, 20 years; range, 7-45). Their cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) was also calculated on the basis of the blood lead (Pb-B) records available from the company`s medical files. Geometric mean for Pb-T was 49 {mu}g Pb/g bone mineral (range, 15-167). The company`s health surveillance programs, implemented since 1945, resulted in Pb-B values which rarely exceeded 70 {mu}g Pb/dl whole blood. Pb-B at the time of Pb-T measurement averaged 31 {mu}g Pb/dl (range, 6-62) and the geometric mean for CBLI amounted to 803 {mu}g Pb/dl x year (range, 220-2130). Despite various assumptions and uncertainties inherent in the assessment of the cumulative lead dose through Pb-T measurement or CBLI calculation, the relation between both variables in the present lead smelter population is very strong (r{sub pearson}= 0.80, P <0.0001; age explained at the most 9.5% of the variance). The slope of the regression equation of log Pb-T vs log CBLI showed that a doubling of CBLI also corresponds to a doubling of Pb-t. It may be concluded that a sound calculation of CBLI represents a valid surrogate for estimating the life time integrated dose of lead as assessed by the measurement of cortical bone lead (e.g., in tibia). 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Sec. Herrington Leads Delegation in Response to Chernobyl Accident...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Herrington leads U.S. delegation to Special Session of the International Atomic Energy Agency General Conference in Vienna, Austria, to discuss measures to strengthen...

  3. West Africa Emerges as Leading Region in Africa for Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    West Africa Emerges as Leading Region in Africa for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Home > Groups > Clean and Renewable Energy Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(107) Contributor...

  4. United States Department Of The Navy Geothermal Exploration Leading...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Navy Geothermal Exploration Leading To Shallow And Intermediate-Deep Drilling At Hawthorne Ammunition Depot, Hawthorne, Nv Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd...

  5. Researchers hope better catalysts lead to better ways of converting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers hope better catalysts lead to better ways of converting biomass to fuel By Jared Sagoff * August 7, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - Scientists and entrepreneurs...

  6. adult mice leads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tell parents Internet -While adults worry about unknowns, teens bond and learn social and lead- Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Kid online? Relax,...

  7. anterior resection leading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ear, High grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, Temporal bone resection unknown authors 59 LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary:...

  8. aureus pneumonia leading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    words, phrases, or symbols indicated by the clue. When you think you Sherriff, Mark S. 92 LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary:...

  9. adrenal medulla leads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inga Voges; Friedrich Pahlke; Christoph Dodt; Peter Dominiak; Olaf Jhren 2006-01-01 67 LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary:...

  10. The Global Anthropogenic Lead Experiment Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    , coal combustion, incineration, cement manufacture). · Leaded gasoline utilization creates fine activities (smelting, coal burning, etc.) · Incineration -------------------------- · "Tin" can solder seams

  11. A leading index of drilling activity: Update and improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buell, R.S.; Maurer, R.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A five-component composite leading index of United States rotary rig drilling activity is updated. The index is presented for 1949 through April 1986 and is shown to consistently lead turning points in drilling activity. Seven new leading indices based on some new components are also presented. A forecast of drilling activity is made for the remainder of 1986 based on the leading index and the current economic condition of the petroleum industry. The methods used to prepare time series and construct indices are reviewed.

  12. Automated portable analyzer for lead(II) based on sequential...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flow technique which required minimal volume of samples and reagents and allowed the automation of the analyzer operation. The portable analyzer was evaluated for lead (Pb)...

  13. Energy Data Management Lead-by-Example Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    State and local governments can lead by example by promoting energy efficiency programs and policies for public facilities, equipment, and government operations.

  14. NERSC Leads Next-Generation Code Optimization Effort

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leads Next-Generation Code Optimization Effort NERSC Launches Next-Generation Code Optimization Effort NERSC, Intel, Cray team up to prepare users for transition to exascale...

  15. Paul Langan to lead ORNL's Neutron Sciences Directorate | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science activities, which include two leading DOE Office of Science user facilities for neutron scattering analysis: The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope...

  16. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  17. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no measurable anode weight loss during this time period. Quantitative chemical analysis of the anode surface showed that the lead content after testing remained at its initial level. No lead dissolution or transfer from the anode to the product occurred.A key benefit of the titanium-lead anode design is that cobalt additions to copper electrolyte should be eliminated. Cobalt is added to the electrolyte to help stabilize the lead oxide surface of conventional lead anodes. The presence of the titanium intimately mixed with the lead should eliminate the need for cobalt stabilization of the lead surface. The anode should last twice as long as the conventional lead anode. Energy savings should be achieved due to minimizing and stabilizing the anode-cathode distance in the electrowinning cells. The anode is easily substitutable into existing tankhouses without a rectifier change.The copper electrowinning test data indicate that the titanium-lead anode is a good candidate for further testing as a possible replacement for a conventional lead anode. A key consideration is the cost. Titanium costs have increased. One of the ways to get the anode cost down is manufacturing the anodes with fewer cylinders. Additional prototypes having different number of cylinders were constructed for a long-term commercial testing in a circuit without cobalt. The objective of the testing is to evaluate the need for cobalt, investigate the effect of decreasing the number of cylinders on the anode performance, and to optimize further the anode design in order to meet the operating requirements, minimize the voltage, maximize the life of the anode, and to balance this against a reasonable cost for the anode. It is anticipated that after testing of the additional prototypes, a whole cell commercial test will be conducted to complete evaluation of the titanium-lead anode costs/benefits.

  18. On the Degeneracy of the Full AGM-Theory of Theory-Revision Author(s): Neil Tennant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennant, Neil

    (inL) is {p G L | K h Lp}.We write [K,J]for [K U /] and writeK,AforKU{A}. Definition 2. K \\-J thatJ permits recovery ofK via A just incase fA\\-K. Definition 3. A theory inL isa logically closed set of sentences inL, i.e.. a setK of sentences inL such thatK = [K]\\ equivalently. such thatfor everysentence (p

  19. Know Stroke Stroke is the third leading cause of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    #12;Know Stroke Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States and a leading cause of serious, long-term disability in adults. About 600,000 new strokes are reported in the U.S. each year. The good news is that treatments are available that can greatly reduce the damage caused by a stroke

  20. Biosorption of Lead and Nickel by Biomass of Marine Algae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Biosorption of Lead and Nickel by Biomass of Marine Algae Z.R. Holan and B. Volesky" Department 22, 1993 Screening tests of different marine algae biomass types revealed a high passive biosorptive uptake of lead up to 270 mg Pb/g of biomass in some brown marine algae. Members of the order Fucales

  1. Following Germany's Lead: Using International Monetary Linkages to Estimate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Following Germany's Lead: Using International Monetary Linkages to Estimate the Effect of Monetary to countries with the weakest economic ties to Germany. We thank participants at the 2004 NBER Summer Workshop (2001). 2 Many European countries followed Germany's lead in setting their monetary policy during our

  2. A Study of Lead Ingot Cargoes from Ancient Mediterranean Shipwrecks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Heather Gail

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead is often relegated to a footnote or sidebar in the study of ancient metals. However, the hundreds of lead ingots discovered in underwater sites over the past half-century have attested to the widespread production and trade of this utilitarian...

  3. FINAL LEAD COMMISSIONER REPORT 2012 INTEGRATED ENERGY POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FINAL LEAD COMMISSIONER REPORT 2012 INTEGRATED ENERGY POLICY REPORT UPDATE CALIFORNIA COMMISSION Carla J. Peterman Lead Commissioner, Integrated Energy Policy Report Robert P. Oglesby Executive was prepared under the 2012 Integrated Energy Policy Report proceeding, Docket #12-IEP-1A. The final report

  4. assassination bullet lead: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assassination bullet lead First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 August 2014 Lead isotopes and...

  5. Partially Extracted Defibrillator Coils and Pacing Leads Alter Defibrillation Thresholds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    effect on DFTs. Introduction: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death in the United States with 325,000 deaths per year. This translates to 1,000 deaths per day or 1 death every two minutes.1 USA Summary: Abandoned ICD coils and pacing leads provide a conductor substrate for electric field

  6. Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

    1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figures.

  7. Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R. (Mountain View, CA); Cowan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  8. Development of lead-free solders for hybrid microcircuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Frear, D.R.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive work has been conducted by industry to develop lead-free solders for electronics applications. The driving force behind this effort is pressure to ban or tax the use of lead-bearing solders. There has been further interest to reduce the use of hazardous chemical cleaners. Lead-free soldering and low-residue, ``no clean`` assembly processing are being considered as solutions to these environmental issues. Most of the work has been directed toward commercial and military printed wiring board (PWB) technology, although similar problems confront the hybrid microcircuit (HMC) industry, where the development of lead-free HMC solders is generally lagging. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for designing a variety of critical, high reliability hybrid components for radars. Sandia has consequently initiated a project, as part of its Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing program, to develop low-residue, lead-free soldering for HMCs. This paper discusses the progress of that work.

  9. Over Expression of the CMP-sialic Acid Transporter in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Leads to Increased Sialylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Niki S.C.

    Most glyco-engineering approaches used to improve quality of recombinant glycoproteins involve the manipulation of glycosyltransferase and/or glycosidase expression. We investigated whether the over expression of nucleotide ...

  10. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress of the design and development program is detailed. Results of drop tests, characteristics tests, and life cycle tests are presented and discussed. Results of tests of mechanical agitation of the electrolyte by air bubbling and an air lift pump are reported. Work on the electrode designs and electrolyte circulation systems is reported. (WHK)

  11. SUBMARINE LEAD-ACID BATTERY PERFORMANCE To appear in the (refereed) proceedings of the Mathematics-in-Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Mark

    -in-Industry Study Group, held at the University of South Australia, Adelaide, 3­7 Feb 2003. Mark McGuinness1 -- a detailed electrochemical kinetic model, a hydraulic analogue model, and a parametric model. The detailed electrochemical model is developed in one dimen- sion, resulting in coupled nonlinear convection-diffusion equa

  12. Effect of the {delta}-aminolevulinate dehydratase polymorphism on the accumulation of lead in bone and blood in lead smelter workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, D.E.B.; Chettle, D.R. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Wetmur, J.G.; Desnick, R.J. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)] [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Robin, J.P. [Noranda Inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [Noranda Inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Boulay, D.; Richard, N.S. [Brunswick Mining and Smelting Corp. Ltd., Belledune, New Brunswick (Canada). Occupational Health Services] [Brunswick Mining and Smelting Corp. Ltd., Belledune, New Brunswick (Canada). Occupational Health Services; Gordon, C.L.; Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences Corp., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine] [Hamilton Health Sciences Corp., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead inhibition of the zinc metalloenzyme {delta}-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD) is one of the most sensitive indicators of blood lead levels. Whole blood lead, serum lead, and ALAD genotype were determined for 381 lead smelter workers, including 70 workers expressing the ALAD allele, whose blood lead elevations were observed for more than 20 years of employment. The same employees demonstrated higher serum lead levels. Using a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) for each worker, based on individual blood lead histories, and in vivo X-ray fluorescence measurements of bone lead to estimate total lead body burden, the slopes of linear relations of bone lead to CBLI were greater for workers homoallelic for ALAD, indicating more efficient uptake of lead from blood into bone. This effect was most significant in calcaneus bone and for workers hired since 1977. Decreased transfer of blood lead into bone in individuals expressing the ALAD allele contrasted with increased blood lead.

  13. Pilot study dismantlement of 20 lead-lined shipping casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurmond, S.M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a pilot study conducted at the INEL to dismantle lead-lined casks and shielding devices, separate the radiologically contaminated and hazardous materials, and recycle resultant scrap lead. The facility areas where the work was performed, dismantlement methods, and process equipment are described. Issues and results associated with recycling the lead as a free-released scrap metal are presented and discussed. Data and results from the pilot study are summarized and presented. The study concluded that cask dismantlement at the INEL can be performed as a legitimate recycling activity for scrap lead. Ninety-one percent of the lead recovered passed free-release criteria. The value of the 50,375 lb of recovered lead is approximately $0.45/lb. Resultant waste streams can be satisfactorily treated and disposed. Only very low levels of bulk radiological contamination (47 picocuries/gram of 137 Cs and 3.2 picocuries/gram of {sup 6O}Co) were detected in the lead rejected for free release.

  14. Blood lead levels and remediation of an abandoned smelter site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidson, M. [New Mexico Dept. of Health, Santa Fe, NM (United States). Div. of Epidemiology, Evaluation, and Planning; Tollestrup, K. [Univ. of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Family and Community Medicine Dept.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elevated soil lead levels were documented in a New Mexico community, with levels up to 24,800 ppm in a smelter slag pile, 20 or more feet from residences. The New Mexico Department of Health offered blood lead screening to residents of three geographic areas before and after an emergency cleanup by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Blood lead levels prior to the cleanup ranged from undetectable (< 5 {mu}g/dl) to 29 {mu}g/dl; after the cleanup, they ranged from undetectable to 10 {mu}g/dl. Significant reductions in mean blood lead levels after the cleanup were found for all three geographic areas: from 6.67 {mu}g/dl to 4 {mu}dl (smelter area), from 4.12 {mu}g/dl to 2.5 {mu}g/dl (town area), and from 5.5 {mu}g/dl to 2.5 {mu}g/dl (northeast area). In both years, the mean blood lead levels of individuals who lived near the smelter area were significantly higher than the levels for those living in town for those participating in both years of the study. Mean blood lead levels were significantly higher for smelter area participants who had a household member working at a lead battery plant (19.4 {mu}g/dl) compared to those residents who did not (5.83 {mu}g/dl).

  15. Metabolism of Thioctic Acid in Algae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grisebach, Hans; Fuller, R.C.; Calvin, M.

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METABOLISM OF THlOCTlC ACID IN ALGAE TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY ThisMETABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. , C.METABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. C.

  16. Performance of the MFTF magnet cryogenic power leads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanSant, J.H.

    1983-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The cryogenic power lead system for the MFTF superconducting magnets has been acceptance tested and operated with the magnets. This system, which includes 5-m-long superconducting buses, 1.5-m-long vapor-cooled transition leads, external warm buses, and a cryostack, can conduct up to 6000 A (dc) and operate adiabatically for long periods. We present both design details and performance data; our MFTF version is an example of a reliable lead system for large superconducting magnets contained in a much larger vacuum vessel.

  17. Energy technology and emissions control for acid rain abatement in Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D.G.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After more than ten years of research, acid rain is a sufficiently serious problem in North America to warrant control action. The acid rain problem has become a threat to the Asian continent as well. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are already high and announces plans for increases in coal use by countries in the region imply a major increase in emissions in the future. This will inevitably lead to greater incidence of acid rain and probably significant environmental damage in some locations. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the issues relating to acid-rain-control technology in Asia and to suggest ways to include technology options in integrated simulation models of acid rain in Asia. 14 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs. (FL)

  18. Solvent extraction of inorganic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ysrael, Miguel Curie

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the solution by a sim?. le process that is economically =ttrsctlve is of con- sider. ble interest~ Dilute "olution; of hydrochloric, nitric and sul- furic acid d; occur in many processes either alone or toga- th: r . 'he use of li. , uid-li~uid extraction...~~ram for hexyl c~rbitol- water-nitric acid 17 ~ Distribution die, r m for hoxl'' ca:-bitol- watcr-sulfur'c acid Table 1. . 'xperimental d ta of amyl alcohol-water-!!Cl Pa, e 33 2. Experimental data of isoamyl alcohol-water- HC1 34 3 ~ Cxperimental data...

  19. Naphthenic acid corrosion literature survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babaian-Kibala, E. [Nalco/Exxon Energy Chemicals, Sugar Land, TX (United States); Nugent, M.J. [Tosco Refining Co., Linden, NJ (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naphthenic acid corrosion is a growing concern for refineries processing crudes containing high levels of naphthenic acid. Due to this concern initiatives in place to better understand the mechanism of corrosion for mitigating the corrosion. During the 1996 Fall Corrosion Group, organized existing literature relevant to the literature search. Committee Week, NACE International many refineries have and evaluate methods T-8 Refining Industry a task group, T-8-22, to perform a review and compilation of naphthenic acid corrosion. This paper provides a summary of the literature research.

  20. acetic acid solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  1. arachidonic acid activation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  2. acid inertness studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  3. acid activated montmorillonite: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  4. acid amide hydrolase: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been studied....

  5. acid chelation phototherapeutic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  6. acid phosphatase activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  7. acetic acid solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  8. acetic acid operational: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  9. acid phosphatase activities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  10. acid sphingomyelinase activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  11. acids decreases fibrinolysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  12. arachidonic acid activates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  13. acid decarboxylase activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  14. acid activates nrf2: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  15. acid processing activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  16. ascorbic acid enhances: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  17. acid cupric chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  18. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia) [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia) [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)] [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ?15 g/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 g/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.190.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI ?0.050.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.090.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.350.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.200.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=?0.003, 95% CI ?0.370.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: Children with elevated blood lead ?15 g/dL compared with a group with <10 g/dL. High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and soil, blood and paint. Regressions gave significance for isotopic measures of blood/dust and dust/soil.

  19. Hydrogenation at low temperatures does not always lead to saturation: the case of HNCO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, J A; Congiu, E; Dulieu, F; Bonnin, M; Bassas, A; Duvernay, F; Danger, G; Chiavassa, T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. It is generally agreed that hydrogenation reactions dominate chemistry on grain surfaces in cold, dense molecular cores, saturating the molecules present in ice mantles. Aims. We present a study of the low temperature reactivity of solid phase isocyanic acid (HNCO) with hydrogen atoms, with the aim of elucidating its reaction network. Methods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were employed to follow the evolution of pure HNCO ice during bombardment with H atoms. Both multilayer and monolayer regimes were investigated. Results. The hydrogenation of HNCO does not produce detectable amounts of formamide (NH2CHO) as the major product. Experiments using deuterium reveal that deuteration of solid HNCO occurs rapidly, probably via cyclic reaction paths regenerating HNCO. Chemical desorption during these reaction cycles leads to loss of HNCO from the surface. Conclusions. It is unlikely that significant quantities of NH2CHO form from HNCO. In dense regions, however, deuteration o...

  20. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric L. (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Stephen William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  1. Carbonic Acid Shows Promise in Geology, Biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Berkeley Lab Study Holds Implications for Geological and Biological Processes October 23,...

  2. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry. Abstract: The role of Fe(III)...

  3. Determinants of elevated blood lead during pregnancy in a population surrounding a lead smelter in Kosovo, Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graziano, J.H.; Factor-Litvak, P.; Murphy, M.J.; Zhao, Yuhua; Lolacono, N.J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Popovac, D.; Ahmedi, X.; Zvicer, Z.; Nenezic, D.U. (Univ of Pristina Medical School (Yugoslavia)); Shrout, P.; Kline, J.; Stein, Z. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA) New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York (USA)); Mehmeti, A.; Rajovic, B. (Medicinski Centar, Titova Mitrovica (Yugoslavia))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors are prospectively examining the relation between environmental lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in cohorts of women exposed to a wide range of air lead concentrations. Titova Mitrovica, Yugoslavia, is the site of a large lead smelter, refinery, and battery factory. At midpregnancy, 602 women in T. Mitrovica and 900 women in Pristina, a non-lead-exposed control town, were interviewed. Blood was obtained for blood lead (PbB), hemoglobin erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin measurements. Women were seen again at delivery, at which time maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were obtained. While many demographic and social characteristics were similar across the two towns, women in Pristina were more likely to report employment outside the home, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use during pregnancy. As expected, PbB levels were substantially higher in the smelter town. Within T. Mitrovica, distance between the home and the smelter was the most important predictor of PbB at mid-pregnancy and delivery. Husband's employment in the lead industry was associated with a significant increase in maternal PbB levels independent of place of residence. Overall, the placenta was a poor barrier to lead; the relationship between maternal PbB and umbilical cord PbB was linear across a wide range of PbB levels.

  4. Robert C. Seamans, Jr. Appointed to Lead Nuclear Weapons Program...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home About Us Our History NNSA Timeline Robert C. Seamans, Jr. Appointed to Lead ... Robert C. Seamans,...

  5. The impact of lead time on truckload transportation rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Erik R. (Erik Russell)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis was to analyze truckload shipment transactions in order to determine if rates are impacted by tender lead time, which is the amount of time between when a carrier is offered a load to when the ...

  6. Development of alternatives to lead-bearing solders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vianco, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soldering technology, using tin-lead alloys has had a significant role in the packaging of highly functional, low cost electronic devices. The elimination of lead from all manufactured products, whether through legislation or tax incentives, will impact the electronics community which uses lead-containing solders. In response to these proposed measures, the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences has established a multi-year program involving participants from industry, academia, and the national laboratories with the objective to identify potential replacements for lead-bearing solders. Selection of candidate alloys is based upon the analysis of materials properties, manufacturability, modeling codes for reliability prediction, as well as toxicological properties and resource availability, data developed in the program.

  7. antioxidant enzymes leading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boyd, R N; Reitzner, S D; Vogel, P 2003-01-01 360 AUV Commercialization - Who's Leading the Pack? CiteSeer Summary: Taking AUV technology from the drawing board and putting...

  8. Leading change management projects in international cross-cultural settings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repoux, Charles

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an increasingly complex world for Multinational Companies, it is difficult for managers to keep a firm grasp over the global projects they are tasked to implement. Many of them lead teams operating across country borders, ...

  9. Characterization of lead-recycling facility emissions at various workplaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    studies on lead smelter emissions deal with the environmental impact of outdoor particles, but only a few and then compared; namely Furnace and Refining PM respectively present in the smelter and at refinery workplaces

  10. Microfluidic devices and Block Copolymer Nanolithography Lead: D. Angelescu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudoin, Geneviève

    Microfluidic devices and Block Copolymer Nanolithography Lead: D. Angelescu Permanent members: B, X. Yuan One of our activities in microfluidics involves the design of a microfluidic system which measures pressure drops along microfluidic channels involving different types of constrictions using

  11. Leading Edge Spinning the Web of Cell Fate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corces, Victor G.

    Leading Edge Minireview Spinning the Web of Cell Fate Kevin Van Bortle1 and Victor G. Corces1,* 1 involved in spinning the web of cell fate. Chromatin at the Nuclear Lamina The nuclear lamina is a thin

  12. Experimental validation of lead cross sections for scale and MCNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moving spent nuclear fuel between facilities often requires the use of lead-shielded casks. Criticality safety that is based upon calculations requires experimental validation of the fuel matrix and lead cross section libraries. A series of critical experiments using a high-enriched uranium-aluminum fuel element with a variety of reflectors, including lead, has been identified. Twenty-one configurations were evaluated in this study. The fuel element was modelled for KENO V.a and MCNP 4a using various cross section sets. The experiments addressed in this report can be used to validate lead-reflected calculations. Factors influencing calculated k{sub eff} which require further study include diameters of styrofoam inserts and homogenization.

  13. Lead Groundwater Contamination of Groundwater in the Northeast ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The detailed description of the migration of pollutants is fundamental for the groundwater monitoring and it ... historical data with a, groundwater contamination sampling for water quality analyses ... can be toxic to living organisms. Lead can...

  14. The effects of part commonality on product development lead time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensson, Nicholas, 1965-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nortel Networks, a leading global supplier of telecommunications equipment, is engaged in an increasingly competitive global market place. Within this market, Nortel Networks is positioning itself as the leader of global ...

  15. antigen levels leading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Photodynamic Therapy of Tumors Can Lead to Development of Systemic Antigen-Specific Immune Response MIT - DSpace Summary: The...

  16. ancient greek lead: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: , as it may lead to the physical replication of the object by means of 3D printing 6. This has become clearqp: A Tool for Generating 3D Models of Ancient Greek...

  17. antileishmanial lead drug: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: AND ADDICTION (K12) Funding Opportunity Number: PAR-10-177. CFDA Number(s): 93.279. AgencyDepartment: National) leading to research independence in the...

  18. Direct printing of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bathurst, Stephen, 1980-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thus far, use of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) in MEMS has been limited due to the lack of process compatibility with existing MEMS manufacturing techniques. Direct printing of thin films eliminates the need for photolithographic ...

  19. Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

  20. Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This work addresses the problem of asphaltene deposition that occurs during acid treatments of oil reservoirs. Asphaltenes are present to some degree in most hydrocarbons. Due to the molecular weight of the components these asphaltenes are more...

  1. Controlling acid rain : policy issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

  2. Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

    2001-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

  3. MERCURY AND LEAD SAMPLING AT MINNESOTA POWER'S BOSWELL ENERGY CENTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the Minnesota Power, Inc., the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) sampled for lead at the stack (or duct directly leading to the stack) for three units at the Boswell Energy Center. All sampling was done in triplicate using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 12, with sampling procedures following EPA Methods 1 through 4. During the test program, lead sampling was done using EPA Method 12 in the duct at the outlet of the baghouse serving Unit 2 and the duct at the outlet of the wet particulate scrubber serving Unit 3. For Unit 4, lead sampling was done at the stack. The specific objective for the project was to determine the concentration of lead in the flue gas being emitted into the atmosphere from the Boswell Energy Center. The test program was performed during the period of May 8 through 11, 2000. This report presents the test data, sample calculations, and results, and a discussion of the lead sampling performed at the Boswell Energy Center. The detailed test data and test results, raw test data, process data, laboratory reports, and equipment calibration records are provided in Appendices A, B, and C.

  4. Factors controlling naphthenic acid corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turnbull, A. [National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom); Slavcheva, E. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Shone, B. [Ty Isa, Nr Mold (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study was conducted to elucidate the influence of chemical and physical parameters on corrosion of type 1018 carbon steel (CS, UNS G10180) and 5% Cr-0.5% Mo steel in oils containing naphthenic acids (NAs) for application to crude oil refinery systems. Effects of test duration, temperature, and acid concentration were assessed for a range of single acids of varying carbon numbers and for NA mixtures in mineral oil (MO) and in heavy vacuum gas oil (HGVO). In addition, a limited study of the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) addition to the acid-oil mixture was conducted. Use of the total acid number (TAN) as a measure of corrosiveness of a crude oil was discredited further. For the same TAN value, molecular size and structure of the acid were shown to have an important influence. Tests conducted in HGVO showed lower corrosion rates than in MO, suggesting inhibition caused by S species in the oil or the steric hindrance of naphtheno-aromatic acids. In oil containing the mixture of NAs, the corrosion rate of type 1018 CS was lower than that for 5% Cr-0.5% Mo steel. The 0.1% H{sub 2}S that passed through the acid-oil mixtures had an inhibiting effect on corrosion. Predicting corrosiveness of a crude oil from the measurement of TAN, distribution of NA composition, and S content and form was particularly challenging. The simple tests used were informative, but further work will be required to establish a standard test method that can provide an adequate ranking of crudes.

  5. The design of a functionally graded composite for service in high temperature lead and lead-bismuth cooled nuclear reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Michael Philip

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A material that resists lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) attack and retains its strength at 700C would be an enabling technology for LBE-cooled reactors. No single alloy currently exists that can economically meet the required ...

  6. The use of NTA and EDTA for lead phytoextraction from soil from a battery recycling site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freitas, Eriberto; Nascimento, Clistenes; Silva, Airon

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are lead mining, lead smelting and battery recycling.Areas near Pb recycling facilities may be enriched bysoil with lead. A battery recycling site is a location where

  7. Childhood lead poisoning from the smelter in Torreon, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soto-Jimenez, Martin F., E-mail: martin@ola.icmyl.unam.mx [Unidad Academica Mazatlan, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAM-ICMyL-UNAM), Apdo. Postal 811, Mazatlan 82040, Sinaloa (Mexico); Flegal, Arthur R. [WIGS, Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [WIGS, Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in blood samples of 34 children (ages 2-17 years) living within a 113 km{sup 2} area of a silver-zinc-lead smelter plant in Torreon, Mexico were compared to those of associated environmental samples (soil, aerosols, and outdoor and indoor dust) to identify the principal source(s) of environmental and human lead contamination in the area. Lead concentrations of soil and outdoor dust ranged 130-12,050 and 150-14,365 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Concentrations were greatest near the smelter, with the highest levels corresponding with the prevailing wind direction, and orders of magnitude above background concentrations of 7.3-33.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Atmospheric lead depositions in the city varied between 130 and 1350 {mu}g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, again with highest rates <1 km from the smelter. Blood lead (PbB) concentrations (11.0{+-}5.3 {mu}g dl{sup -1}) levels in the children ranged 5.0-25.8 {mu}g dl{sup -1}, which is 3-14 times higher than the current average (1.9 {mu}g dl{sup -1}) of children (ages 1-5 years) in the US. Lead isotopic ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of the urban dust and soil (1.200{+-}0.009, 2.467{+-}0.003), aerosols (1.200{+-}0.002, 2.466{+-}0.002), and PbB (1.199{+-}0.001, 2.468{+-}0.002) were indistinguishable from each other, as well as those of the lead ores processed at the smelter (1.199{+-}0.007, 2.473{+-}0.007). Consequently, an elevated PbB concentrations of the children in Torreon, as well as in their environment, are still dominated by industrial emissions from the smelter located within the city, in spite of new controls on atmospheric releases from the facility. - Highlights: {yields} Pb contents in environmental samples evidenced chronic Pb pollution in Torreon. {yields} Pb stable isotopes evidenced contemporary emissions from the Ag-Cod-Pb-Zn smelter. {yields} Pb urban dust and soil account for most of the childhood lead poisoning in Torreon.{yields} Levels of Pub in Torreon's children are 3-14 times higher than children in the US.{yields} Children Pub concentrations are primarily attributed to emissions from the smelter.

  8. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  9. Succinic acid production by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , succinic acid has been produced commercially by chemical processes. Recently, however, fermentative of bacteria produce succinic acid as a fermentation end product,4 7 few species can produce it as the major 10 Previous studies showed that A. succiniciproducens produces succinic acid and acetic acid

  10. -Amino acids, although less abundant than their -analogues, are also present in peptides and other natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A number of methods for synthesis and transformations leading to -amino acids in diastereomerically as key structural components has recently attracted attention in synthetic organic chemistry because Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a family of carbon, energy and/or reducing power storage polymers, which

  11. Primary lead smelter, Doe Run, Herculaneum, Missouri (kit)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Emission Standards Division (ESD) is investigating the primary lead smelting source category to identify and quantify organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from blast furnaces. The primary objective was to obtain data on the emissions of volatile and semi-volatile organic HAPs, aldehydes, and ketones from primary lead smelter blast furnaces. A secondary objective was to obtain data on the emissions of carbon monoxide. The data will be used by ESD to determine whether organic HAPs are emitted at levels that would justify regulation under the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) program. The Doe Run Company, which operates a primary lead smelter in Herculaneum, Missouri was selected by the ESD as the host facility for this project.

  12. Critical magnetic field of surface superconductivity in lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khlyustikov, I. N., E-mail: khly@kapitza.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kapitza Institute of Physical Problems (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The critical superconductivity field H{sub c3} is measured on lead single crystals. It is shown that the temperature dependence of H{sub c3}/H{sub c} in the vicinity of superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} is essentially nonlinear. Relative changes in the value of H{sub c3}/H{sub c} reach approximately 30%, which cannot be described by the Ginzburg-Landau theory. The experimental temperature dependences lead to the conclusion that the surface superconducting transition temperature noticeably exceeds the superconducting transition temperature in the bulk of the semiconductor. The differences in the critical temperatures and in the Ginzburg-Landau parameters for lead are estimated.

  13. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K; Joseph Murphy, J

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding that was induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species used in the construction of the packaging, followed by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. Fiberboard material, also used in the construction of the packaging induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV sealant, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water. In light of these corrosion mechanisms, the lead shielding was sheathed in a stainless steel liner to mitigate against corrosion.

  14. Dose estimates in a loss of lead shielding truck accident.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John (Alion Science & Technology Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiological transportation risk & consequence program, RADTRAN, has recently added an updated loss of lead shielding (LOS) model to it most recent version, RADTRAN 6.0. The LOS model was used to determine dose estimates to first-responders during a spent nuclear fuel transportation accident. Results varied according to the following: type of accident scenario, percent of lead slump, distance to shipment, and time spent in the area. This document presents a method of creating dose estimates for first-responders using RADTRAN with potential accident scenarios. This may be of particular interest in the event of high speed accidents or fires involving cask punctures.

  15. Comparison of leading parallel NAS file systems on commodity hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedges, R; Fitzgerald, K; Gary, M; Stearman, D M

    2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance computing has experienced tremendous gains in system performance over the past 20 years. Unfortunately other system capabilities, such as file I/O, have not grown commensurately. In this activity, we present the results of our tests of two leading file systems (GPFS and Lustre) on the same physical hardware. This hardware is the standard commodity storage solution in use at LLNL and, while much smaller in size, is intended to enable us to learn about differences between the two systems in terms of performance, ease of use and resilience. This work represents the first hardware consistent study of the two leading file systems that the authors are aware of.

  16. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI); Cahoon, Edgar B. (Lansing, MI); Shanklin, John (Upton, NY); Somerville, Christopher R. (Okemos, MI)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  17. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

    1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

  18. Childhood lead poisoning near abandoned lead mining and smelting areas: A case study of two affected households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moehr, A.D. (Jasper County Health Dept., Webb City, MO (United States)); Roberts, D.W.; Phillips, P.E.; Evans, R.G.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In October, 1990 the Missouri Dept. of Health entered a contract with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) to conduct an exposure study at the Jasper County, Missouri Superfund Site. The primary concern was exposure to elevated levels of lead and cadmium resulting from previous mining of lead and zinc in the area. Several individuals were found to have elevated lead levels and this article is a case study of two households where children with elevated levels resided. Due to the lowering of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standard for a level of concern in childhood lead poisoning from 25 [mu]g/dl to 10 [mu]g/dl, many environmental heath personnel may be requested to evaluate exposure routes and give advice regarding risk reduction to families who reside in areas not previously thought to be problematic. Accomplishing this risk reduction may require passage of local ordinances requiring lead abatement, additional training of field personnel, and cooperative work with other public and governmental entities.

  19. New syntheses of aminoalkylphosphonic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeBardeleben, John Frederick

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    NEW SYNTHESES OF AMINOALKYLPHOSPHON1C ACIDS A Thesis by John Frederick DeBardeleben, Jr. Su'bmitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 196$ Major Subject: Chemistry NEW SYNTHESES OF AMINOALKYLPHOSPHONIC ACIDS A Thesis BY John Frederick DeBardeleben, Jr. Approved as to style and content hy: (Chairman of Committee) iJ C wc+'. A-c-~-' & (Head of Department...

  20. PHYSICS DIVISION ESH BULLETIN 2004-02 1/15/04 LEAD SHIELDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an occupational hazard, lead dust carried home on clothing can pose a hazard to the worker's family. Lead-stops, weights for fans. · Wear gloves when handling lead. Wash your hands after handling lead. · Store lead indoors to protect from the weather and to limit oxidization. #12;· Avoid handling heavily oxidized lead

  1. The Ground State Energy of Heavy Atoms: the Leading Correction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Handrek; Heinz Siedentop

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For heavy atoms (large atomic number $Z$) described by no-pair operators in the Furry picture we find the ground state's leading energy correction. We compare the result with (semi-)empirical values and Schwinger's prediction showing more than qualitative agreement.

  2. EFFECTS OF MERCURY, CADMIUM, AND LEAD SALTS ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    buds, can cause acceler- ated regeneration, also leading to precocious molt. Heavy metals as pollutants metal pollution in industrial areas. Materials and Methods Fiddler crabs were collected in July crab, Uca pugilator. With its estuarine intertidal habitat, this crab is likely to be subject to heavy

  3. Enhanced surfaces lead to increased heat transfer and power density.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhanced surfaces lead to increased heat transfer and power density. Inverters are used in hybrid researchers are using the coating to improve heat transfer in automotive power electron- ics devices. Photo electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) to con- vert DC battery power into a form that can

  4. NASA Exploration and Innovation Lead to New Discoveries Five heavyweight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    NASA Exploration and Innovation Lead to New Discoveries Five heavyweight lifting-body designs 1960 1961 1962 19641963 1965 1966 1967 1968 19691959 Lifting Bodies 1962-1975 Gemini 1962 disposal. Weather Satellites 1960-Present NASA launched the first Television Infrared

  5. An Instability Leading to Failure of Polyethylene in Uniaxial Creep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Instability Leading to Failure of Polyethylene in Uniaxial Creep L. J. ZAPAS and J. M. CRISSMAN model, a point of instability is pre- dicted for the uniaxial creep of high density polyethylene. From dead load experiments it has been found that the instabil- ity occurs for linear -polyethylene

  6. Jefferson F. Allen Charitable Lead Annuity Graber Annuik Family Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napier, Terrence

    Jefferson F. Allen Charitable Lead Annuity Trust Graber Annuik Family Foundation Helene & Allen Apter Foundation The Jeffrey H. and Shari L. Aronson Family Foundation Dexter F. and Dorothy H. Baker Foundation The Baxter Family Foundation Bayview Fund of the Community Foundation of New Jersey Frederick H

  7. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Portable and integrated Lead: P. Poulichet.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudoin, Geneviève

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Portable and integrated Lead: P. Poulichet. Permanent members: L. Rousseau, A. Fakri. Associated researchers: C. Delabie, A. Exertier. Portable Nuclear Magnetic Resonance : our work in the field of nuclear magneto resonance is focused on the design and the realization

  8. Research and Innovation Leading the way to a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waikato, University of

    the secrets of the Sun's energy 38 9 25 #12;1 Social and Cultural Sustainability EDUCATION FOR AN INCLUSIVE Soil microbial diversity, composting and enrichment 17 SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES From energyResearch and Innovation Leading the way to a SUSTAINABLE FUTURE #12;Contents Message from the Vice

  9. RESEARCH Open Access Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    benefits of exposure abatement. Methods: Monetary benefits were assessed in terms of avoided national costs avoided costs were included. Costs of pollutant exposure control were partially estimated in regardRESEARCH Open Access Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit estimation and partial cost

  10. Invasive species are a leading cause of animal extinctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garca-Berthou, Emili

    Invasive species are a leading cause of animal extinctions Miguel Clavero and Emili Garci and extinctions of species is unproven. They analyzed the IUCN Red List database [2] and stated that only 6% of the taxa are threatened with extinction as a result of invasion by alien species and !2% (ten terrestrial

  11. 6. Fracture mechanics lead author: J, R. Rice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    6. Fracture mechanics lead author: J, R. Rice Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University. F. Shih, and the ASME/AMD Technical Committee on Fracture Mechanics, pro- vided by A. S. Argon, S. N, W. D. Stuart, and R. Thomson. 6.0 ABSTRACT Fracture mechanics is an active research field

  12. Systems Engineering Leading Indicators Guide, Version 2.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lean Advancement Initiative

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Systems Engineering Leading Indicators Guide editorial team is pleased to announce the release of Version 2.0. Version 2.0 supersedes Version 1.0, which was released in July 2007 and was the result of a project initiated ...

  13. Origin of Lead in Eight Central European Peat Bogs Determined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wieder, R. Kelman

    Research Origin of Lead in Eight Central European Peat Bogs Determined from Isotope Ratios was identified in 210Pb-dated profiles through eight peat bogs distributed over an area of 60 000 km2 with Germany, Austria, and Poland. Basal peat 14C-dated at 11 000 years BP had a relatively high 206Pb/207Pb

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF CURRENT LEADS COOLED BY NATURAL CONVECTION OF VAPOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    to HTS power systems where liquid nitrogen is continuously refrigerated by a cryocooler. The design and at the same time to employ a cryocooler for continuous operation. HTS transformers, HTS fault current limiters is constructed with non-metallic materials as in HTS transformers [2,3]. The leads in these cryostats are located

  15. Macroencapsulated and elemental lead mixed waste sites report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalia, A.; Jacobson, R.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to compile a list of the Macroencapsulated (MACRO) and Elemental Lead (EL) Mixed Wastes sites that will be treated and require disposal at the Nevada Test Site within the next five to ten years. The five sites selected were: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Rocky Flats Environmental Technology (RF), Golden, Colorado; and Savannah River (SRS), Charleston, South Carolina. A summary of total lead mixed waste forms at the five selected DOE sites is described in Table E-1. This table provides a summary of total waste and grand total of the current inventory and five-year projected generation of lead mixed waste for each site. This report provides conclusions and recommendations for further investigations. The major conclusions are: (1) the quantity of lead mixed current inventory waste is 500.1 m{sup 3} located at the INEL, and (2) the five sites contain several other waste types contaminated with mercury, organics, heavy metal solids, and mixed sludges.

  16. arrestor connector lead: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arrestor connector lead First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 and MC connectors could have a...

  17. acute lead encephalopathy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lead encephalopathy First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Influences of water chemistry on...

  18. azygos vein lead: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    azygos vein lead First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 AccuVein AV400 AccuVein AV400 Biology...

  19. acupuncture stimulations lead: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acupuncture stimulations lead First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Neural...

  20. Leading Edge Nuclear Biology: What's Been Most Surprising?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pikaard, Craig

    Leading Edge Voices Nuclear Biology: What's Been Most Surprising? Restricting Genomic Partners Job with inappropriate elements. So, a major question in the field of nuclear organization is how do cells ensure have demonstrated that thousands of regulatory regions undergo activation or decommissioning even

  1. Reason, Risk and Rights: Toxins and Pollutants Lead in paint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    contain many toxic chemicals...inhaled · combustion of chlorine products often leads to formation of HCl and dioxin, both of which are released into air and water · products leak, drip, break..e.g., light up chemicals · pesticides -- 500 active ingredients · 11,700 consumer products -- 1010 chemicals · electronics

  2. Start-Ups for Smarties Leading Sources of Frustration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Start-Ups for Smarties 24 Leading Sources of Frustration for the Academic Entrepreneur Starting the start-up a preferential licensing deal. Some academic entrepreneurs believe that their employers should give faculty start-ups better licensing terms than they would to an unaffiliated company. Actually

  3. DOE Leads National Research Program in Gas Hydrates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy today told Congress the agency is leading a nationwide program in search of naturally occurring natural gas hydrates - a potentially significant storehouse of methane--with far reaching implications for the environment and the nation's future energy supplies.

  4. Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Scott A.

    catalyst for organic synthesis". That is the starting sentence of this book by Yamamoto and Ishihara, which follows their earlier book "Lewis Acids in Organic Synthesis (2000)", and covers the new developments book that should be available in every well-equipped chemistry library. It will certainly be helpful

  5. HYDROFLUORIC ACID FIRST AID INSTRUCTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jalali. Bahram

    with large amounts of cool running water. Immediately washing off the acid is of primary importance. 2.Remove Immediately flush eyes for at least 15 minutes with copious cool flowing water. 2 If only one eye is affected by a glass of milk or milk of magnesia. 3 Call 911 for immediate medical assistance. REMEMBER, ALL PERSONNEL

  6. Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Matthew (Boston, MA); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Hause, Benjamin Matthew (Currie, MN); Van Hoek, Pim (Camarillo, CA); Dundon, Catherine Asleson (Minneapolis, MN)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid acetylsalicylic acid Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid methoxyacetic acid Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic alpha-amino acids Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid sorbic acid Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid dichloroacetic acid Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid n-glycolylneuraminic acid Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - acids organic acids Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the decomposition of organic material, is the primary source of acidity in unpolluted rainwater. NOTE: Parts per... A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson ATOC 3500 Thursday, April ......

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid propionic acid Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: acid propionic acid Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Biodegradation 9: 463473, 1998. 1998 Kluwer Academic...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid linoleic acid Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FAs (linolenic, linoleic) - - monounsaturated FAs (oleic acid) - olive, canola - hydrogenation... Biol 458 Lecture 6 & 7 Fatty Acids 1 A. Introduction to acyl lipids...

  16. Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs widely in our environment. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, J. Barry

    Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs of metallic lead in the soil (4) Drinking water ­ water as it leaves the treatment plant has no lead of connection. (In some cases, the water meter as well as the curb stop is outside the house.) Common metals

  17. Refined gluino and squark pole masses beyond leading order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen P. Martin

    2006-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical pole and running masses of squarks and gluinos have recently been related at two-loop order in a mass-independent renormalization scheme. I propose a general method for improvement of such formulas, and argue that better accuracy results. The improved version gives an imaginary part of the pole mass that agrees exactly with the direct calculation of the physical width at next-to-leading order. I also find the leading three-loop contributions to the gluino pole mass in the case that squarks are heavier, using effective field theory and renormalization group methods. The efficacy of these improvements for the gluino and squarks is illustrated with numerical examples. Some necessary three-loop results for gauge coupling and fermion mass beta functions and pole masses in theories with more than one type of fermion representation, which are not directly accessible from the published literature, are presented in an Appendix.

  18. Mutations in Global Regulators Lead to Metabolic Selection during Adaptation to Complex Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Kaiser, Brooke LD; Valovska, Marie-Thrse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order metabolic selection that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a one-step mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation.

  19. NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration, Continuum Magazine: Issue 4 (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuum Magazine showcases NREL's latest and most impactful clean energy innovations. This issue, 'NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration' explores the discipline of energy systems integration, in particular the role of the laboratory's new, one-of-a-kind Energy System Integration Facility. NREL scientists, engineers, and analysts deeply understand the fundamental science and technologies underpinning major energy producing and consuming systems, as well as the transmission infrastructure and communications and data networks required to integrate energy systems at all scales.

  20. Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

  1. Non-lead, environmentally safe projectiles and explosives containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

  2. Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, R.A.; McCoig, T.M.; Dooley, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent. 10 figs.

  3. Reactions of nitrogen heterocycle-organolithium intermediates with lead halides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Jerry Neal

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACTIONS OF NITROGEN HETEROCYCLE- ORGANOLITHIUM INTERMEDIATES WITH LEAD HALIDES A Thesis by JERRY HEAL KINNEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ot MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1970 Major Subject: Chemistry REACTIONS OF NITROGEN HETEROCYCLE- ORGANOLITHIUM INTERMEDIATES WITH LFAD HALIDES A Thesis JERRY NEAL KINNEY Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi ee) (Head of Department) (Member...

  4. Towards a characterization of fields leading to black hole hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayan Banerjee; Somasri Sen

    2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, it is shown that an asymptotically flat spherical black hole can have a nontrivial signature of any field for an exterior observer if the energy momentum tensor of the corresponding field is either tracefree or if the trace falls off at least as rapidly as inverse cube of the radial distance. In the absence of a general No Hair Theorem, this result can provide a characterization of the fields leading to black hole hair.

  5. (Lithium and lead-lithium corrosion and chemistry)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortorelli, P.F.

    1989-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentations on Mass Transport Processes in Li/Fe-12Cr-1MoVW Steel,'' A Lower Temperature Lithium Purification Process Incorporating Warm Trapping','' and Kinetic Analysis of Corrosion in Pb-17 at. % Li and Comparison to Pure Lithium'' were given by the traveler at the 1989 European Workshop on Lithium and Lead-Lithium Corrosion and Chemistry in Vienna, Austria. The European effort in lead-lithium appeared to be continuing unabated with a future focus on deposition and surface products reactions that can lead to corrosion control. The temperature gain realized from the use of ferritic/martensitic steels instead of austenitic steels in Pb-17 at. % Li appears to be 25--50{degrees}C. The traveler also visited the European Community's Joint Research Centre at Ispra to discuss Fe-Mn-Cr steels. He presented a seminar on Recent ORNL Results on the Development of Fe-Mn-Cr Steels,'' and toured the liquid metal laboratories. Our developmental Fe-Mn-Cr steels, which are compositionally tailored for shallow land burial, would not qualify as low activation'' materials per European standards. Because of both this and the poor sensitization resistance of these steels, our alloy development strategy for reduced activation materials should be critically reviewed.

  6. MOX Lead Assembly Fabrication at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geddes, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Spiker, D.L.; Poon, A.P.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) on the disposition of the nations weapon-usable surplus plutonium.This EIS is tiered from the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Material Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement issued in December 1996,and the associated Record of Decision issued on January, 1997. The EIS will examine reasonable alternatives and potential environmental impacts for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three types of facilities for plutonium disposition. The three types of facilities are: a pit disassembly and conversion facility, a facility to immobilize surplus plutonium in a glass or ceramic form for disposition, and a facility to fabricate plutonium oxide into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel.As an integral part of the surplus plutonium program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Fissile Material Disposition(MD) as the technical lead to organize and evaluate existing facilities in the DOE complex which may meet MD`s need for a domestic MOX fuel fabrication demonstration facility. The Lead Assembly (LA) facility is to produce 1 MT of usable test fuel per year for three years. The Savannah River Site (SRS) as the only operating plutonium processing site in the DOE complex, proposes two options to carry out the fabrication of MOX fuel lead test assemblies: an all Category I facility option and a combined Category I and non-Category I facilities option.

  7. Modeling of Acid Fracturing in Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Jawad, Murtada s

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The acid fracturing process is a thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and geochemical (THMG)-coupled phenomena in which the behavior of these variables are interrelated. To model the flow behavior of an acid into a fracture, mass and momentum balance...

  8. acidization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  9. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

  10. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  11. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  12. amino acid intake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    protein intake (PDI) and net portal appearance rate of amino acids by continuous infusion of para-aminohippuric acid via the mesenteric catheter. The amino-acid appearance...

  13. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and...

  14. acid synthase impacts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acid utilization and glucose oxidation. Glucose... Adhikari, Sean 2006-10-30 246 ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain...

  15. Performance optimization of solar cells based on colloidal lead sulfide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulfa, Maria, E-mail: mu.ulfa@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloidal semiconducting quantum dot nanocrystals (NCs) have attracted extensive interest as active building-block for low-cost solution-processed photovoltaic due to their size tunable absorption from the visible to near IR. Among various nanocrystal composition, lead sulfide (PbS), having a bulk bandgap of 0.41 eV, are particularly attractive for photovoltaic applications due to their excellent photosensitivity in the near IR. Starting from colloidal synthesis, in this project functional solar cells are fabricated and characterized based on the nearly monodispersed colloidal PbS nanocrystals that we synthesized. These NC-solar cells are fabricated under a depleted heterojunction device architecture containing a planar tipe II heretojunction formed by a layer of electron-transporting TiO{sub 2} and a layer of PbS NCs. Relevant structural, optical, and electrical characterizations are performed on NCs and their devices. To understand the operational mechanism of these NC-based solar cells, various material and device aspects are investigated in this work aiming for optimized photovoltaic performance. These aspects include the effect of: (1) NC dimensions (and thus their band gaps); (2) passivation of surface traps through post-synthesis treatments; (3) NC surface ligand-exchange; and (4) interfacial modifications at the heterojunction. The most optimized photovoltaic performance is found after combining the surface trap passivation strategy by halides, ligand-exchange by 3-mercaptopropionic acids, and interfacial TiCl4 treatment, leading to a peak open-circuit voltage of 0.53 V, a short-circuit current density of 14.03 mAcm{sup ?2}, and a power conversion efficiency of 3.25%.

  16. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  17. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80 lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002

  18. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deiters, Alexander (La Jolla, CA); Cropp, T. Ashton (Bethesda, MD); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Anderson, J. Christopher (San Francisco, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNAsyn-thetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  19. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  20. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  1. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  2. ARM - Lesson Plans: Acid Rain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAcid Rain Outreach Home Room News

  3. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  4. CHAPTER 13. ACID RAIN Acid rain was discovered in the 19th century by Robert Angus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    247 CHAPTER 13. ACID RAIN Acid rain was discovered in the 19th century by Robert Angus Smith, a pharmacist from Manchester (England), who measured high levels of acidity in rain falling over industrial decline of fish populations in the lakes of southern Norway and traced the problem to acid rain. Similar

  5. Rapid sonochemical preparation of shape-selective lead iodide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Baojun [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China); He, Qin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China); Fa, Wenjun; Li, Pinjiang; Zhang, Yange [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China); Zheng, Zhi, E-mail: zzheng@xcu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: SEM morphologies of various PbI2 products obtained with the iodine concentration of 6.7 g/L and irradiation time of 1 minute at the reaction temperatures of 35 C (a), 25 C (b), and 15 C (c). Highlights: ? PbI{sub 2} with various morphologies were rapidly formed at room temperature. ? We could well control the morphologies of PbI{sub 2} by changing reaction conditions. ? The PbI{sub 2} films could better resist rolling in a liquid media. -- Abstract: Lead iodide (PbI{sub 2}) films/crystals with various nano/micro morphologies (e.g., Nanoflake, block and microrod) were rapidly synthesized by taking advantage of a simple sonochemical method. The PbI{sub 2} crystals with uniform nanoflake structures could be fabricated directly on lead foils with the irradiation time as short as 36 s via interfacial reaction between lead foils and elemental iodine in ethanol at ambient temperature. It was found experimentally that the morphologies of the resulting thin films/crystals could be well controlled by the adjustment of several parameters including irradiation time, reaction solvents, iodine concentration, ultrasonic power, and reaction temperature. Most importantly, the resultant PbI{sub 2} films are stable enough to resist rolling under the drastic ultrasound irradiation in a liquid media. This method is believed to be the fastest way for in situ fabrication of morphology-controlled semiconductor films on various metal substrates for subsequent applications related to the other metal iodide or metal sulfide semiconductor films.

  6. Use of Chemical Inventory Accuracy Measurements as Leading Indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quigley, David; Freshwater, David; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Siegel, Dina; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Simmons, Fred

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical safety and lifecycle management (CSLM) is a process that involves managing chemicals and chemical information from the moment someone begins to order a chemical and lasts through final disposition(1). Central to CSLM is tracking data associated with chemicals which, for the purposes of this paper, is termed the chemical inventory. Examples of data that could be tracked include chemical identity, location, quantity, date procured, container type, and physical state. The reason why so much data is tracked is that the chemical inventory supports many functions. These functions include emergency management, which depends upon the data to more effectively plan for, and respond to, chemical accidents; environmental management that uses inventory information to aid in the generation of various federally-mandated and other regulatory reports; and chemical management that uses the information to increase the efficiency and safety with which chemicals are stored and utilized. All of the benefits of having an inventory are predicated upon having an inventory that is reasonably accurate. Because of the importance of ensuring one's chemical inventory is accurate, many have become concerned about measuring inventory accuracy. But beyond providing a measure of confidence in information gleaned from the inventory, does the inventory accuracy measurement provide any additional function? The answer is 'Yes'. It provides valuable information that can be used as a leading indicator to gauge the health of a chemical management system. In this paper, we will discuss: (1) what properties make leading indicators effective, (2) how chemical inventories can be used as a leading indicator, (3) how chemical inventory accuracy can be measured, what levels of accuracies should realistically be expected in a healthy system, and (4) what a subpar inventory accuracy measurement portends.

  7. USE OF CHEMICAL INVENTORY ACCURACY MEASUREMENTS AS LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuntamukkula, M.

    2011-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical safety and lifecycle management (CSLM) is a process that involves managing chemicals and chemical information from the moment someone begins to order a chemical and lasts through final disposition(1). Central to CSLM is tracking data associated with chemicals which, for the purposes of this paper, is termed the chemical inventory. Examples of data that could be tracked include chemical identity, location, quantity, date procured, container type, and physical state. The reason why so much data is tracked is that the chemical inventory supports many functions. These functions include emergency management, which depends upon the data to more effectively plan for, and respond to, chemical accidents; environmental management that uses inventory information to aid in the generation of various federally-mandated and other regulatory reports; and chemical management that uses the information to increase the efficiency and safety with which chemicals are stored and utilized. All of the benefits of having an inventory are predicated upon having an inventory that is reasonably accurate. Because of the importance of ensuring one's chemical inventory is accurate, many have become concerned about measuring inventory accuracy. But beyond providing a measure of confidence in information gleaned from the inventory, does the inventory accuracy measurement provide any additional function? The answer is 'Yes'. It provides valuable information that can be used as a leading indicator to gauge the health of a chemical management system. In this paper, we will discuss: what properties make leading indicators effective, how chemical inventories can be used as a leading indicator, how chemical inventory accuracy can be measured, what levels of accuracies should realistically be expected in a healthy system, and what a subpar inventory accuracy measurement portends.

  8. Radioiodinated fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruyan, M.K.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fatty acids are the preferred substrate for the normoxic heart. About sixty percent of the energy required by the myocardium is provided by fatty acid [beta]-oxidation. Many scientists have focused on the alterations in fatty acid metabolism in the ischemic heart for the development of radiolabelled fatty acids for functional imaging of the heart. Three main categories of compounds were synthesized: tetrazoles (1 and 2), glycidic and [alpha]-methylene acids (3-5), and analogs of oleic acid (6,7 and 7A). The tetrazole group has a similar pKa and size to that of a carboxyl group; however, such fatty acid analogs cannot undergo normal fatty acid metabolism. Glycidic and [alpha]-methylene analogs are potential irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism. Oleic acid analogs were investigated to assess the affect of stereochemical consequences on biodistribution. The key intermediates in the synthesis of the target compounds were [omega]-nitrophenyl alkylcarboxylic acids and alcohols, which were made using a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The Wittig reaction, which was used in the synthesis of tetrazole 1 and glycidic acid 3, gave low yields of the cross-coupled products. The remaining target compounds were synthesized by condensation of appropriate RCu (CN) ZnI and substituted benzyl bromides or by Pd[sup II] catalyzed cross-coupling of substituted arylhalides with suitable alkynes. The latter two reactions produced much higher yields of the desired products. All of the target compounds were radiolabeled with [sup 125]I by various Cu(I) catalyzed radioiodine exchange procedures and were then subjected to tissue biodistribution (TD) studies in rats. Except for the 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene-pentadecanoic acid (5), all of the fatty acid analogs failed to surpass clinically-used 15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in their ability to be taken up and retained by the rat myocardium.

  9. Report on First Activations with the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Mace, Emily K.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Stave, Sean; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    On Feb. 17 and 18 2011, six items were irradiated with neutrons using the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer. After irradiation, dose measurements and gamma-spectrometry measurements were completed on all of the samples. No contamination was found on the samples, and all but one provided no dose. Gamma-spectroscopy measurements qualitatively agreed with expectations based on the materials, with the exception of silver. We observed activation in the room in general, mostly due to 56Mn and 24Na. Most of the activation was short lived, with half-lives on the scale of hours, except for 198Au which has a half-life of 2.7 d.

  10. MTBE growth limited despite lead phasedown in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storck, W.

    1985-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This month's legislated reduction of the allowable amount of lead additives in gasoline will increase demand strongly for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an octane enhancer, but the economics of the refinery business and the likelihood of rapidly increasing high-octane gasoline imports probably will limit the size of the business in coming years. MTBE will be used to fill the octane gap now, but economics and imports of gasoline later on could hold down demand. The limited growth in sales of MTBE is discussed.

  11. Chemical deposition of thin films of lead selenide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skovlin, Dean Oliver

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    formed after a period of three minutes. When concentrated ammonium hydroxide wss added to such a reaction mixture, gross precipitation of lead selenide took place immediately. A thin and spotty mirror also formed on the glass wall of the test tube.... Attempts were made to obtain a more even and ccsnplete mirroring by varying the concentration of the ammonium hydroxide in the solution, but all such attempts met with little success. The addition of four drops of 3N assaonium hydroxide resulted in a...

  12. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.; Franco, S.C.S.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications. 6 figures.

  13. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Knoxville, TN); Franco, Sofia C. S. (Santafe de Bogota, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications.

  14. Hanford Leads the Way for Greener Classrooms | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES7.pdfFuel Celland Contractors | DepartmentHANFORDHaier:FriendsLeads the

  15. Lead-Free Solder Paste | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C H N I C A L TA L K <Lead-Free

  16. Lester to lead ORISE's scientific and technical peer review program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C HLester to lead ORISE's scientific

  17. Leading the Charge: Tribal Women in Power | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't Happen to HighJosephNOx Traps forLM2LarryLawsHaroldLeading the

  18. Women Engineers Lead Global Innovation in Bangalore | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun DengWISPWind Industry2WChinnSueBacaLead

  19. Leading the Nation in Clean Energy Deployment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10 DOEWashington,LM-04-XXXXLocated atPenroseDepartmentLeading

  20. Protocol, Site Leads - May 2011 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartment of Energy 0 DOEProtocol forSite Leads - May 2011

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: San Diego Leads in Promoting EVs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuelsPropane Tank OverfillSan Diego Leads in Promoting

  2. GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCED COOLED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smits, R.G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    11-14, 1981 GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCEDim mumii P mm GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCEDD. Henning, "Cryogenic Electrical Leads," Proceedings of the

  3. Maternal Blood Lead Levels and the Risk of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension. The "EDEN" Cohort Study.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Maternal Blood Lead Levels and the Risk of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension. The "EDEN" Cohort title: Lead and Gestational Hypertension Key words: cadmium; environmental health; epidemiology; gestation; hypertension; lead; manganese. Acknowledgments: We are indebted to the participating families

  4. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagel, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.recknagel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willsttter-Strae 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Radant, Hendrik [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willsttter-Strae 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Kohlmeyer, Regina [German Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Section III 1.6 Extended Producer Responsibility, Wrlitzer Platz 1, D-06844 Dessau-Rolau (Germany)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkalinemanganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinccarbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  5. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA)

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  6. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  7. acid bacteria isolates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acids are solids not liquids. They sublime under vacuum to compare the strengths of solid acids with liquid acids therefore led us to obtain a measure of acidity in dilute...

  8. acid bacteria isolated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acids are solids not liquids. They sublime under vacuum to compare the strengths of solid acids with liquid acids therefore led us to obtain a measure of acidity in dilute...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - anthropogenic lead distribution Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lead distribution Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Inverse estimates of anthropogenic CO2 uptake, transport, and storage by the ocean Summary: ., 2003. This leads to low...

  10. Leading without Followers: How Politics and Market Dynamics Trapped Innovations in Japan's Domestic Galapagos Telecommunications Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushida, Kenji E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan leading without followers in telecommunications by presenting the four technologyJapans domestic telecommunications market from global markets despite leading in particular technologies

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric lead fall-out Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of decades, adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere will lead... to an enhanced greenhouse effect by trapping additional heat in the lower atmosphere, leading to increases... and...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - antiferroelectric lead zirconate Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    understanding of the mechanisms for lead loss and causes for discordance in zircon... .2. Uranium-lead analyses of zircon core ... Source: Chamberlain, C. Page - Department of...

  13. Double stranded nucleic acid biochips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chernov, Boris; Golova, Julia

    2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a new method of constructing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays based on the use of pre-synthesized or natural DNA duplexes without a stem-loop structure. The complementary oligonucleotide chains are bonded together by a novel connector that includes a linker for immobilization on a matrix. A non-enzymatic method for synthesizing double-stranded nucleic acids with this novel connector enables the construction of inexpensive and robust dsDNA/dsRNA microarrays. DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions are investigated using the microarrays.

  14. A study of the reaction between metal ions and thiomalic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel, Clyde Ernest

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (II), chromium(III), chromium(VI)(dichromate ion), co'balt(II), copper(II), iron(II1), lead(II ), mercury- ( II), molybdenum(VI)(molybdate ion), nickel(II), silver(I ), and zinc(II). Of these, only copper gave a titration which was of analytical precision...(III), lead(II), manganese(II), mercury(II), molybdenum(VI) (molybdate ion), nickel(II), silver(I), tin(1V), and zinc(II). No reactions were observed between thiomalic acid and the ions: aluminum- (III), chromium(III), and thorium(IV). Under the conditions...

  15. Compatibility of lead-free solders with lead containing surface finishes as a reliability issue in electronic assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vianco, P.; Rejent, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Artaki, I.; Ray, U.; Finley, D.; Jackson, A. [AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced performance goals and environmental restrictions have heightened the consideration for use of alternative solders as replacements for the traditional tin-lead (Sn-Pb) eutectic and near-eutectic alloys. However, the implementation of non-Pb bearing surface finishes may lag behind solder alloy development. A study was performed which examined the effect(s) of Pb contamination on the performance of Sn-Ag-Bi and Sn-Ag-Cu-Sb lead-free solders by the controlled addition of 63Sn-37Pb solder at levels of 0.5 {minus} 8.0 wt.%. Thermal analysis and ring-in-plug shear strength studies were conducted on bulk solder properties. Circuit board prototype studies centered on the performance of 20I/O SOIC gull wing joints. Both alloys exhibited declines in their melting temperatures with greater Sn-Pb additions. The ring-in-plug shear strength of the Sn-Ag-Cu-Sb solder increased slightly with Sn-Pb levels while the Sn-Ag-Bi alloy experienced a strength loss. The mechanical behavior of the SOIC (Small Outline Integrated Circuit) Sn-Ag-Bi solder joints reproduced the strength levels were insensitive to 10,106 thermal cycles. The Sn-Ag-Cu-Sb solder showed a slight decrease in the gull wing joint strengths that was sensitive to the Pb content of the surface finish.

  16. Design of an Actinide-Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low-Cost Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Davis, Cliff Bybee; MIT folks

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) University Research Consortium (URC) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, material compatibility, plant engineering, and coolant activation. In the area of core neutronic design, the reactivity vs. burnup and discharge isotopics of both non-fertile and fertile fuels were evaluated. An innovative core for pure actinide burning that uses streaming, fertile-free fuel assemblies was studied in depth. This particular core exhibits excellent reactivity performance upon coolant voiding, even for voids that occur in the core center, and has a transuranic (TRU) destruction rate that is comparable to the proposed accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) facility. These studies suggest that a core can be designed to achieve a long life while maintaining safety and minimizing waste. In the area of material compatibility studies, an experimental apparatus for the investigation of the flow-assisted dissolution and precipitation (corrosion) of potential fuel cladding and structural materials has been designed and built at the INEEL. The INEEL forced-convection corrosion cell consists of a small heated vessel with a shroud and gas flow system. The corrosion cell is being used to test steel that is commercially available in the United States to temperatures above 650C. Progress in plant engineering was made for two reactor concepts, one utilizing an indirect cycle with heat exchangers and the other utilizing a direct-contact steam cycle. The evaluation of the indirect cycle designs has investigated the effects of various parameters to increase electric production at full power. For the direct-contact reactor, major issues related to the direct-contact heat transfer rate and entrainment and carryover of liquid lead-bismuth to the turbine have been identified and analyzed. An economic analysis approach was also developed to determine the cost of electricity production in the lead-bismuth reactor. The approach will be formulated into a model and applied to develop scientific cost estimates for the different reactor designs and thus aid in the selection of the most economic option. In the area of lead-bismuth coolant activation, the radiological hazard was evaluated with particular emphasis on the direct-contact reactor. In this system, the lack of a physical barrier between the primary and secondary coolant favors the release of the alpha-emitter Po?210 and its transport throughout the plant. Modeling undertaken on the basis of the scarce information available in the literature confirmed the importance of this issue, as well as the need for experimental work to reduce the uncertainties on the basic characteristics of volatile polonium chemical forms.

  17. Report on Second Activations with the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stave, Sean C.; Mace, Emily K.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary On August 18 and 19 2011, five items were irradiated with neutrons using the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS). After irradiation, dose measurements and gamma-spectrometry measurements were completed on all of the samples. No contamination was found on the samples, and all but one provided no dose. Gamma-spectroscopy measurements qualitatively agreed with expectations based on the materials. As during the first activation run, we observed activation in the room in general, mostly due to 56Mn and 24Na. Most of the activation of the samples was short lived, with half-lives on the scale of hours to days, except for 60Co which has a half-life of 5.3 y.

  18. Rapid Depresurizations: Can they lead to irreversible damage?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berest, Pierre; Brouard, Benot; Hvin, Grgoire

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid gas depressurization leads to gas cooling that is followed by slow gas warming when the cavern is kept idle. The decrease in the temperature of gas depends upon the relative withdrawal rate (in %/day), and cavern size and shape. Gas cooling may result in the onset of tensile stresses at cavern walls and roofs that may generate fractures or cracks. However, in most cases, the depth of penetration of these fractures is small, and they are perpendicular to the cavern wall. The distance between two parallel fractures becomes larger when fractures penetrate deeper into the rock mass, as some fractures stop growing. Fractures form a polygonal pattern. Salt slabs are created, with boundaries formed by the opened fractures. As long as the depth of penetration of the fracture remains small, these slabs remain strongly bonded to the rock mass, and it is believed that, in many cases, their weights are not large enough to allow them to break off the cavern wall.

  19. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation of lead-210 isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Haynam, Christopher A. (Pleasanton, CA); Johnson, Michael A. (Pleasanton, CA); Worden, Earl F. (Diablo, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotopically selective laser process and apparatus for removal of Pb-210 from natural lead that involves a one-photon near-resonant, two-photon resonant excitation of one or more Rydberg levels, followed by field ionization and then electrostatic extraction. The wavelength to the near-resonant intermediate state is counter propagated with respect to the second wavelength required to populate the final Rydberg state. This scheme takes advantage of the large first excited state cross section, and only modest laser fluences are required. The non-resonant process helps to avoid two problems: first, stimulated Raman Gain due to the nearby F=3/2 hyperfine component of Pb-207 and, second, direct absorption of the first transition process light by Pb-207.

  20. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation of lead-210 isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheibner, K.F.; Haynam, C.A.; Johnson, M.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotopically selective laser process and apparatus for removal of Pb-210 from natural lead that involves a one-photon near-resonant, two-photon resonant excitation of one or more Rydberg levels, followed by field ionization and then electrostatic extraction. The wavelength to the near-resonant intermediate state is counter propagated with respect to the second wavelength required to populate the final Rydberg state. This scheme takes advantage of the large first excited state cross section, and only modest laser fluences are required. The non-resonant process helps to avoid two problems: first, stimulated Raman Gain due to the nearby F=3/2 hyperfine component of Pb-207 and, second, direct absorption of the first transition process light by Pb-207. 5 figs.

  1. Non-global logarithms at finite Nc beyond leading order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khelifa-Kerfa, Kamel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analytically compute non-global logarithms at finite Nc fully up to 4 loops and partially at 5 loops, for the hemisphere mass distribution in e+e- to di-jets to leading logarithmic accuracy. Our method of calculation relies solely on integrating the eikonal squared-amplitudes for the emission of soft energy-ordered real-virtual gluons over the appropriate phase space. We show that the series of non-global logarithms in the said distribution exhibits a pattern of exponentiation thus confirming - by means of brute force - previous findings. In the large-Nc limit, our results coincide with those recently reported in literature. A comparison of our proposed exponential form with all-orders numerical solutions is performed and the phenomenological impact of the finite-Nc corrections is discussed.

  2. Optical properties and structure of beryllium lead silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhidkov, I. S., E-mail: i.s.zhidkov@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002, Russia and Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Str. 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A. [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Luminescence and optical properties and structural features of (BeO){sub x}(PbO?SiO{sub 2}){sub 1?x} glasses (x = 0 0.3) are investigated by means of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The regularities of the formation of the optical absorption edge and static disorder are studied. It is shown that the optical absorption and luminescence are determined by transitions between localized states of lead ions. The impact of beryllium oxide on optical and luminescence properties and electronic structure of bands tails is discussed. The presence of two different concentration ranges with various short-range order structure and band tails nature has been established.

  3. C-Myc Induced Compensated Cardiac Hypertrophy Increases Free Fatty Acid Utilization for the Citric Acid Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Aaron; Ledee, Dolena; Iwamoto, Kate; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc-induced shifts in substrate utilization signal and promote compensated hypertrophy. We used cardiac specific Myc-inducible C57/BL6 male mice between 4-6 months old that develop hypertrophy with tamoxifen (tam). Isolated working hearts and 13Carbon (13C )-NMR were used to measure function and fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids, acetoacetate, lactate, unlabeled glucose and insulin. Studies were performed at pre-hypertrophy (3-days tam, 3dMyc), established hypertrophy (7-days tam, 7dMyc) or vehicle control (cont). Non-transgenic siblings (NTG) received 7-days tam or vehicle to assess drug effect. Hypertrophy was confirmed by echocardiograms and heart weights. Western blots were performed on key metabolic enzymes. Hypertrophy occurred in 7dMyc only. Cardiac function did not differ between groups. Tam alone did not affect substrate contribution in NTG. Substrate utilization was not significantly altered in 3dMyc versus cont. The free fatty acid FC was significantly greater in 7dMyc vs cont with decreased unlabeled Fc, which is predominately exogenous glucose. Free fatty acid flux to the citric acid cycle increased while lactate flux was diminished in 7dMyc compared to cont. Total protein levels of a panel of key metabolic enzymes were unchanged; however total protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in 7dMyc. Substrate utilization changes did not precede hypertrophy; therefore they are not the primary signal for cardiac growth in this model. Free fatty acid utilization and oxidation increase at established hypertrophy. Understanding the mechanisms whereby this change maintained compensated function could provide useful information for developing metabolic therapies to treat heart failure. The molecular signaling for this metabolic change may occur through O-GlcNAcylation.

  4. Engineered ketol-acid reductoisomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase enable anaerobic 2-methylpropan-1-ol production at theoretical yield in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snow, Christopher

    -acid reductoisomerase Biofuels a b s t r a c t 2-methylpropan-1-ol (isobutanol) is a leading candidate biofuel a critical obstacle to next- generation biofuel commercialization. & 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Recent advances in biotechnology have made it possible to convert sugars into a wide

  5. Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Hangzhou 310027, PR China b Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 212 Sackett Building, Penn (AMD) is an important contributor to surface water pollution due to the release of acid and metals. Fe chemicals such as lead, copper, cadmium, and arsenic. AMD can be difficult and costly to treat. Treatment

  6. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

  7. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

    1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  8. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  9. Testing of organic acids in engine coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weir, T.W. [ARCO Chemical Co., Newtown Square, PA (United States)

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of 30 organic acids as inhibitors in engine coolants is reported. Tests include glassware corrosion of coupled and uncoupled metals. FORD galvanostatic and cyclic polarization electrochemistry for aluminum pitting, and reserve alkalinity (RA) measurements. Details of each test are discussed as well as some general conclusions. For example, benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In general, the organic acids provide little RA when titrated to a pH of 5.5, titration to a pH of 4.5 can result in precipitation of the acid. Trends with respect to acid chain length are reported also.

  10. Almost everyone knows that lead-based paint caused serious health problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as contaminat- ed food and drinking water. Imported foods in lead- soldered cans and foods served in lead. It accumulates in the body and can cause lead poisoning. Even at low concen- trations, when there are no outward poisoning may diminish if the source of exposure is removed, but some damage is permanent. Symptoms of lead

  11. Detecting acute myocardial infarction in the 12-lead ECG using Hermite expansions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet,

    Detecting acute myocardial infarction in the 12-lead ECG using Hermite expansions and neural-lead ECG, together with patient history and biochemical markers, are usually used at the emergency to rely on the 12-lead ECG together with patient history. The 12-lead ECG has the advantage of always

  12. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Dickson, T.J.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0 and 80 C in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  13. Organic Phosphoric Acid of the Soil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1911-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. +6CT /36 CHEMICAL SECTION, FEBRUARY, 191 1 I TECHNICAL BULLETIN Organic Phosphoric Acid of the Soil BY G. S. FRAPS, Chemist POSTOFFICE College Station, Brazos County, 'Texas. ,\\ustin... . ................................................ introduction 5 .............................. hmmonia-Soluble Phosphoric Acid 5 ................ Solubility of Phosphates in Ammonia 6 I Fixation of Phosphoric Acid from Ammonia .......... 7 Effect of Ratio of Soil to Solvent in Extraction of Phos- I I...

  14. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  15. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Dickson, Todd Jay (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0.degree. and 80.degree. C. in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  16. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production of citric acid by fermentation, recovery of theof Citric Acid from Aqueous Fermentation Solutions byof citric acid was 1.1.1 Lactic Acid Currently, fermentation

  17. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  18. Macro-ions collapse leading to hybrid bio-nanomaterials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor E.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I used supramolecular self-assembling cyanine and the polyamine spermine binding to Escherichia coli genomic DNA as a model for DNA collapse during high throughput screening. Polyamine binding to DNA converts the normally right handed B-DNA into left handed Z-DNA conformation. Polyamine binding to DNA was inhibited by the supramolecular self-assembling cyanine. Self-assembly of cyanine upon DNA scaffold was likewise competitively inhibited by spermine as signaled by fluorescence quench from DNA-cyanine ensemble. Sequence of DNA exposure to cyanine or spermine was critical in determining the magnitude of fluorescence quench. Methanol potentiated spermine inhibition by >10-fold. The IC{sub 50} for spermine inhibition was 0.35 {+-} 0.03 {micro}M and the association constant Ka was 2.86 x 10{sup -6}M. Reversibility of the DNA-polyamine interactions was evident from quench mitigation at higher concentrations of cyanine. System flexibility was demonstrated by similar spermine interactions with {lambda}DNA. The choices and rationale regarding the polyamine, the cyanine dye as well as the remarkable effects of methanol are discussed in detail. Cyanine might be a safer alternative to the mutagenic toxin ethidium bromide for investigating DNA-drug interactions. The combined actions of polyamines and alcohols mediate DNA collapse producing hybrid bio-nanomaterials with novel signaling properties that might be useful in biosensor applications. Finally, this work will be submitted to Analytical Sciences (Japan) for publication. This journal published our earlier, related work on cyanine supramolecular self-assembly upon a variety of nucleic acid scaffolds.

  19. Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ?32?MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

  20. Microchemical investigations of dust emitted by a lead smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobanska, S.; Ricq, N. [Ecole des Mines de Douai (France). Dept. Chimie et Environnement] [Ecole des Mines de Douai (France). Dept. Chimie et Environnement; [Univ. de Lille I, Villeneuve d`Ascq (France); Laboudigue, A.; Guillermo, R. [Ecole des Mines de Douai (France). Dept. Chimie et Environnement] [Ecole des Mines de Douai (France). Dept. Chimie et Environnement; Bremard, C.; Laureyns, J.; Merlin, J.C.; Wignacourt, J.P. [Univ. de Lille I, Villeneuve d`Ascq (France)] [Univ. de Lille I, Villeneuve d`Ascq (France)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dusts emitted by an important pyrometallurgical lead smelter have been sampled within the pipes of the grilling and furnace working units before and after the filtering systems, respectively. Particle size distribution, elementary analyses, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicate PbS, PbSO{sub 4}, PbSO{sub 4}{center_dot}PbO, Pb, ZnS small particles less than 5 {micro}m in size to contribute mainly to the current atmospheric pollution. Although at least 90% of dust are retained on the filters, the amounts of the respirable smaller particles are significantly larger in the current emission. The average chemical speciation was found to be analogous for the dust samples collected before and after the filters. The scanning electron microscopy associated with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and Raman microspectrometry established the morphology and chemical composition at the level of individual particles. A lot of minor compounds were found as small heterogeneous individual particles in the heterogeneous particles of grilling dust. Among the homogeneous particles of furnace dust, amorphous C, {beta}-PbO, PbO-PbCl{sub 2}, FeO, CdS, CdSO{sub 4} were often detected as homogeneous mixtures with the major compounds within the particles.

  1. Mutagenicity in the vicinity of a lead smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, W.R.; Thompson, W.A.; Drobney, V.K.; Yanders, A.F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mutagenicity of the environment in the vicinity of a lead smelter was examined for 3 years by studies of changes in the frequencies of male germinal mutations of the waxy-C system of Zea mays and somatic mutations of the stamen hair system of Tradescantia. A transect was run at 0.3, 1.7, 3.2, 7.4, and 11.4 km predominantly downwind from the smelter. The mutagenic responses vary between years, within a year, and with distance. Mutation frequencies are both directional and nondirectional with distance. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn measured in soil samples show directional changes with distance each of the 3 years, and joint monotonicity is observed in some cases between mutation frequency with distance and metal concentrations with distance. Of a total of ten experiments with both Zea mays and Tradescantia, eight show significantly higher mutation frequencies at one or more locations close to the smelter than at locations more distant or at other controls.

  2. Analysis of leaded and unleaded gasoline pricing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the cost price relation between the two fuels. The original scope of work identified three separate categories of effort: Gather and organize available data on the wholesale and retail prices of gasoline at a national level for the past 5 years. Using the data collected in Subtask 1, develop models of pricing practices that aid in explaining retail markups and price differentials for different types and grades of gasoline at different retail outlets in the current gasoline market. Using the data from Subtask 1 and the analysis framework from Subtask 2, analyze the likely range of future retail markups and price differentials for different grades of leaded and unleaded gasoline. The report is organized in a format that is different than suggested by the subtasks outlined above. The first section provides a characterization of the problem - data available to quantify cost and price of the fuels as well as issues that directly affect this relationship. The second section provides a discussion of issues likely to affect this relation in the future. The third section postulates a model that can be used to quantify the relation between fuels, octane levels, costs and prices.

  3. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid eicosapentaenoic acid Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sample search results for: acid eicosapentaenoic acid Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Fish or Fish Oil in the Diet and Heart Attacks MAURICE E. STANSBY Summary: . Further...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - acids eicosapentaenoic acid Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sample search results for: acids eicosapentaenoic acid Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Fish or Fish Oil in the Diet and Heart Attacks MAURICE E. STANSBY Summary: . Further...

  6. 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Poly (p-phenylene Sulfonic Acid)s with...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Poly (p-phenylene Sulfonic Acid)s with Frozen-in Free Volume for use in High Temperature Fuel Cells 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Poly (p-phenylene Sulfonic...

  7. 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Poly (p-phenylene Sulfonic Acid)s with...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Poly(p-phenylene Sulfonic Acid)s with Frozen-in Free Volume for use in High Temperature Fuel Cells Morton Litt and Peter Pintauro Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio...

  8. acid-dependent ribonucleic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 40 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

  9. Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson, R. A.

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

  10. Ballistic spin-dependent transport of Rashba rings with multi-leads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Guangyao [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Material and Technology and School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Liang Shidong, E-mail: stslsd@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Material and Technology and School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Highlights: > Transmission coefficients of each outgoing lead in multi-lead mesoscopic Rashba rings. > Spin polarizations of each outgoing lead in multi-lead mesoscopic Rashba rings. > Resonant and antiresonant conditions of spin polarization in multi-lead Rashba rings. > Symmetries of conductance and spin polarization of symmetric multi-lead Rashba rings. - Abstract: Using the Landauer-Buettiker formula with the transfer matrix technique, we develop a formalism of the ballistic spin-dependent electron transport in the multi-lead Rashba rings. We give analytic formulas of the total conductance G{sub j}, spin-{sigma} conductance g{sub j}{sup {sigma}} and spin polarization P{sub j} of each outgoing lead j, and their resonant and antiresonant conditions. Analytic studying with numerical investigating Rashba rings with several symmetric and asymmetric leads, we find that G{sub j}, g{sub j}{sup {sigma}} and P{sub j} oscillate with the incoming electron energy and the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) strength, and their antiresonances depend on the incoming electron energy, the SOI strength and the outgoing-lead angle with the incoming lead. For the symmetric-lead rings, G{sub j}, g{sub j}{sup {sigma}} and P{sub j} have some symmetries, G{sub j}=G{sub N-j},g{sub j}{sup {sigma}}=g{sub N-j}{sup -{sigma}}, and P{sub j} = -P{sub N-j} for symmetric leads, j and N - j, where the angles between the symmetric outgoing leads j and N - j and the incoming lead are {gamma}{sub N-j} = 2{pi} - {gamma}{sub j}. The spin polarization of the outgoing lead with {gamma}{sub j} = {pi} is exactly zero for even-N-symmetric-lead rings. These symmetries originate from the lead symmetry and time reversal invariance. For asymmetry-lead rings these symmetries vanish.

  11. Further Investigation of Fluoboric Acid in Sandstone Acidizing Using ^(11)B and ^(19)F NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pituckchon, Arpajit

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although fluoboric acid (HBF_(4)) has long been known as one of the low-damaging acid treatments for clayey sandstone formations, little is known of its chemistry which could explain the mixed results of fluoboric acid in actual field application. A...

  12. Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energys High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

  13. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer FY2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Gavron, Victor A.; Danon, Yaron; Weltz, Adam; Harris, Jason; Stewart, T.

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary The Lead Slowing Down Spectrometry (LSDS) project, funded by the Materials Protection And Control Technology campaign, has been evaluating the feasibility of using LSDS techniques to assay fissile isotopes in used nuclear fuel assemblies. The approach has the potential to provide considerable improvement in the assay of fissile isotopic masses in fuel assemblies compared to other non-destructive techniques in a direct and independent manner. This report is a high level summary of the progress completed in FY2013. This progress included: Fabrication of a 4He scintillator detector to detect fast neutrons in the LSDS operating environment. Testing of the detector will be conducted in FY2014. Design of a large area 232Th fission chamber. Analysis using the Los Alamos National Laboratory perturbation model estimated the required number of neutrons for an LSDS measurement to be 10 to the 16th source neutrons. Application of the algorithms developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to LSDS measurement data of various fissile samples conducted in 2012. The results concluded that the 235U could be measured to 2.7% and the 239Pu could be measured to 6.3%. Significant effort is yet needed to demonstrate the applicability of these algorithms for used-fuel assemblies, but the results reported here are encouraging in demonstrating that we are making progress toward that goal. Development and cost-analysis of a research plan for the next critical demonstration measurements. The plan suggests measurements on fresh fuel sub assemblies as a means to experimentally test self-attenuation and the use of fresh mixed-oxide fuel as a means to test simultaneous measurement of 235U and 239Pu.

  14. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  15. Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addresses the acid mist that is formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. An acid mist can be formed whenever the flue gas temperature approaches the prevailing acid dew point. This commonly occurs when the gas is subjected to rapid adiabatic cooling in a wet scrubber system for flue gas desulfurization. Acid mists can also sometimes result from unexpected temperature excursions caused by air inleakage, load cycling, and start-up operations. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attach glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. Therefore, this program has been structured around the use of a compact, wet ESP to control acid mist emissions. Progress to date is discussed. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addresses the acid mist that is formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. An acid mist can be formed whenever the flue gas temperature approaches the prevailing acid dew point. This commonly occurs when the gas is subjected to rapid adiabatic cooling in a wet scrubber system for flue gas desulfurization. Acid mists can also sometimes result from unexpected temperature excursions caused by air inleakage, load cycling, and start-up operations. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attack glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. Therefore, this program has been structured around the use of a compact, wet ESP to control acid mist emissions. 7 refs.

  17. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Lakewood, CO); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Golden, CO); Myers, Andrew William (Arvada, CO); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Boulder, CO); Elliott, Brian John (Superior, CO); Kreutzer, Cory (Brighton, CO); Wilson, Carolina (Arvada, CO); Meiser, Manfred (Aurora, CO)

    2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  18. Nitrates and Prussic Acid in Forages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2003-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    When nitrates and prussic acid accumulate in forage, the feed may not be safe for livestock consumption. Learn the symptoms of nitrate and prussic acid poisoning and which plants are most likely to pose a risk to livestock. Also learn sampling...

  19. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  20. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  1. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is .sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  2. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is .sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  3. Naphthenic acid corrosion by Venezuelan crudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkinson, B.E.; Penuela, L.E. [Lagoven, S.A., Judibana (Venezuela). Amuay Refinery

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venezuelan crudes can contain levels of naphthenic acids that cause corrosion in distillation units designed for sweet crudes. This naphthenic acid corrosion can be mitigated in several ways, the most common of which is selective alloying. This paper will provide information from field experience on how various refineries worldwide have upgraded materials to run Venezuelan crudes in a cost effective way.

  4. Naphthenic acid corrosion in crude distillation units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piehl, R.L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes corrosion experience in crude distillation units processing highly naphthenic California crude oils. Correlations have been developed relating corrosion rates to temperature and total acid number. There is a threshold acid number in the range of 1.5 to 2 mg KOH/g below which corrosion is minimal. High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide may raise this threshold value.

  5. Chronic renal failure with gout: a marker of chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craswell, P.W.; Price, J.; Boyle, P.D.; Heazlewood, V.J.; Baddeley, H.; Lloyd, H.M.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) lead mobilization and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) finger bone lead tests were done in 42 patients with chronic renal failure and without persisting lead intoxication. Nineteen of 23 patients with gout and 8 of 19 without gout had positive EDTA lead mobilization tests. Those patients with gout excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than those without gout. In the gout group 17 patients denied any childhood or industrial exposure to lead. They had a greater number of positive tests and excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than 14 patients with neither gout nor lead exposure. These results confirm that gout in the presence of chronic renal failure is a useful marker of chronic lead poisoning. Of 27 patients with positive lead mobilization tests, only 13 had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (sensitivity 48%). Three of 15 patients with negative lead mobilization tests had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (specificity 80%). Although the XRF finger bone lead test is a convenient noninvasive addition to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic renal failure and gout, its application is limited due to the lack of sensitivity of the method.

  6. Metabolic Flux Analysis for Succinic Acid Production by Recombinant Escherichia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; Samuelov et al., 1991). Escherichia coli produces several metabolic products by fermentation: acetic acid the final succinic acid concentration obtained was 9.5 g/L and the ratio of succinic acid to acetic acid being expended on the production of succinic acid by microbial fermentation using renewable feedstocks

  7. KNNNTK composite lead-free piezoelectric ceramic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuoka, T., E-mail: ta-matsuoka@mg.ngkntk.co.jp; Kozuka, H.; Kitamura, K.; Yamada, H.; Kurahashi, T.; Yamazaki, M.; Ohbayashi, K. [NGK SPARK PLUG Co., Ltd., 2808 Iwasaki, Komaki, Aichi 485-8510 (Japan)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A (K,Na)NbO{sub 3}-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramic was successfully densified. It exhibited an enhanced electromechanical coupling factor of k{sub p}?=?0.52, a piezoelectric constant d{sub 33}?=?252 pC/N, and a frequency constant N{sub p}?=?3170?Hz m because of the incorporation of an elaborate secondary phase composed primarily of KTiNbO{sub 5}. The ceramic's nominal composition was 0.92K{sub 0.42}Na{sub 0.44}Ca{sub 0.04}Li{sub 0.02}Nb{sub 0.85}O{sub 3}0.047K{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 0.85}Nb{sub 1.15}O{sub 5}0.023BaZrO{sub 3} 0.0017Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}0.002Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}0.005ZnO, abbreviated herein as KNNNTK composite. The KNNNTK ceramic exhibited a dense microstructure with few microvoids which significantly degraded its piezoelectric properties. Elemental maps recorded using transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEMEDS) revealed regions of high concentrations of Co and Zn inside the NTK phase. In addition, X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that a small portion of the NTK phase was converted into K{sub 2}(Ti,Nb,Co,Zn){sub 6}O{sub 13} or CoZnTiO{sub 4} by a possible reaction between Co and Zn solutes and the NTK phase during a programmed sintering schedule. TEM studies also clarified a distortion around the KNN/NTK interfaces. Such an NTK phase filled voids between KNN particles, resulting in an improved chemical stability of the KNN ceramic. The manufacturing process was subsequently scaled to 100?kg per batch for granulated ceramic powder using a spray-drying technique. The properties of the KNNNTK composite ceramic produced using the scaled-up method were confirmed to be identical to those of the ceramic prepared by conventional solid-state reaction sintering. Consequently, slight changes in the NTK phase composition and the distortion around the KNN/NTK interfaces affected the KNNNTK composite ceramic's piezoelectric characteristics.

  8. Effects of Relativity Lead to"Warp Speed" Computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, J.-L.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has discovered that a previously unnoticed consequence of Einstein's special theory of relativity can lead to speedup of computer calculations by orders of magnitude when applied to the computer modeling of a certain class of physical systems. This new finding offers the possibility of tackling some problems in a much shorter time and with far more precision than was possible before, as well as studying some configurations in every detail for the first time. The basis of Einstein's theory is the principle of relativity, which states that the laws of physics are the same for all observers, whether the 'observer' is a turtle 'racing' with a rabbit, or a beam of particles moving at near light speed. From the invariance of the laws of physics, one may be tempted to infer that the complexity of a system is independent of the motion of the observer, and consequently, a computer simulation will require the same number of mathematical operations, independently of the reference frame that is used for the calculation. Length contraction and time dilation are well known consequences of the special theory of relativity which lead to very counterintuitive effects. An alien observing human activity through a telescope in a spaceship traveling in the Vicinity of the earth near the speed of light would see everything flattened in the direction of propagation of its spaceship (for him, the earth would have the shape of a pancake), while all motions on earth would appear extremely slow, slowed almost to a standstill. Conversely, a space scientist observing the alien through a telescope based on earth would see a flattened alien almost to a standstill in a flattened spaceship. Meanwhile, an astronaut sitting in a spaceship moving at some lower velocity than the alien spaceship with regard to earth might see both the alien spaceship and the earth flattened in the same proportion and the motion unfolding in each of them at the same speed. Let us now assume that each protagonist (the alien, the space scientist and the astronaut) is to run a computer simulation describing the motion of all of them in a single calculation. In order to model a physical system on a computer, scientists often divide space and time into small chunks. Since the computer must calculated some things for each chunk, having a large system containing numerous small chunks translates to long calculations requiring many computational steps on supercomputers. Let us assume that each protagonist of our intergalactic story uses the space and time slicing as described and chooses to perform the calculation in its own frame of reference. For the alien and the space scientist, the slicing of space and time results in an exceedingly large number of chunks, due to the wide disparity of spatial and time scales needed to describe both their own environment and motion together with the other extremely flattened environment and slowed motion. Since the disparity of scales is reduced for the astronaut, who is traveling at an intermediate velocity, the number of computer operations needed to complete the calculation in his frame of reference will be significantly lower, possibly by many orders of magnitude. Analogously, the new discovery at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory shows that there exists a frame of reference minimizing the number of computational operations needed for studying the interaction of beams of particles or light (lasers) interacting at, or near, light speed with other particles or with surrounding structures. Speedups ranging from ten to a million times or more are predicted for the modeling of beams interacting with electron clouds, such as those in the upcoming Large Hadron Collider 'atom smasher' accelerator at CERN (Switzerland), and in free electron lasers and tabletop laser wakefield accelerators. The discovery has surprised many physicists and was received initially with much skepticism. It sounded too much like a 'free lunch'. Yet, the demonstration of a speedup of a stunning one thousand times in a te

  9. Surfactant Screening to Alter the Wettability and Aid in Acidizing Carbonate Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yadhalli Shivaprasad, Arun Kumar

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    , known as high temperature organic acids (HTO acids), have been found to be useful in acidizing subterranean formations at temperatures up to 400oF. Some of these acids are oxalic acid, malonic acid, pimelic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic... acid and their mixtures. In addition to creating wormholes in carbonate formations, HTO acids can remove carbonate scale at high temperatures and cause very low corrosion to the tubing and casing. 6 1.2 Role of Surfactants in Acidizing 1...

  10. Difunctional carboxylic acid anions in oilfield waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacGowan, D.B.; Surdam, R.C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent models of porosity enhancement during sandstone diagenesis have called upon the metal complexing ability of difunctional carboxylic acid anions in subsurface waters to explain aluminosilicate dissolution. Although carboxylic acid anions have been known to exist in oilfield waters since the turn of the century, until now the existence of significant concentrations of difunctional carboxylic acid anions has not been documented. Data from this study show that difunctional carboxylic acid anions can exist in concentrations up to 2640 ppm, and can account for nearly 100% of the organic acid anions in some oilfield waters. Formation water samples with exceptionally high concentrations of difunctional carboxylic acid anions are found in reservoirs which are at maximum levels of thermal exposure, and which are presently in the 80-100/sup 0/C thermal window. Plagioclase dissolution experiments performed with natural oilfield waters and artificial solutions indicate that waters with high difunctional acid anion concentrations are capable, by organo-metallic complexation, of being apparently oversaturated with respect to total aluminum concentrations compared to the inorganic solubility of kaolinite by several orders of magnitude. Dissolution experiments simulating a specific geologic environment (Stevens Sandstone, southern San Joaquin Basin, California; using natural oilfield waters and Stevens Sandstone core samples), produced plagioclase and calcite dissolution textures similar to those noted in well cores from the Stevens Sandstone, as well as raising total aluminum concentrations in these experimental solutions several orders of magnitude over the solubility of kaolinite.

  11. Students Lead the Way at the White House Science Fair | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Students Lead the Way at the White House Science Fair Students Lead the Way at the White House Science Fair October 18, 2010 - 6:55pm Addthis The President looks at a model solar...

  12. MODELLING THE OVERLAND TRANSPORT OF LEAD DEPOSITED FROM THE ATMOSPHERE IN THE ELBE CATCHMENT OVER FOUR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costa-Cabral, Mariza

    unknown. Despite decreasing atmospheric pollution, soil and freshwater systems still indicate high lead on minimizing atmospheric emissions, but also on minimizing soil erosion. Keywords: atmospheric pollution, direct atmospheric deposition, direct runoff, Elbe catchment, erosion, soil pollution, lead, long

  13. Experimental Study of Acid Fracture Conductivity of Austin Chalk Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nino Penaloza, Andrea

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acid fracture conductivity and the effect of key variables in the etching process during acid fracturing can be assessed at the laboratory scale. This is accomplished by using an experimental apparatus that simulates acid injection fluxes comparable...

  14. Experimental High Velocity Acid Jetting in Limestone Carbonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Christopher

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Acid jetting is a well stimulation technique that is used in carbonate reservoirs. It typically involves injecting acid down hole at high flow rates through small orifices which cause high velocities of acid to strike the borehole wall...

  15. acid-base imbalance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acid generates a material (PE-C02H Deutch, John 59 Acid-Based Synthesis of Monodisperse Rare-Earth-Doped Colloidal SiO2 Spheres Materials Science Websites Summary: Acid-Based...

  16. aqueous tartaric acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with limited success.2,3 During the last decade, attention to sulfuric acid anodizing and boric-sulfuric acid Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 255 Si isotope systematics of acidic...

  17. Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  18. A Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor for Deployment at Remote Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J .J.; Smith, M.A.; Mosseytsev, A.V.; Yang, W.S.; Wade, D.C.

    2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses a small secure transportable autonomous lead-cooled fast reactor for deployment at remote sites.

  19. Naphthenic acid corrosion in refinery settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babaian-Kibala, E. (Nalco Chemical Co., Sugar Land, TX (United States)); Craig, H.L. Jr. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)); Rusk, G.L. (Mobil Oil Co., Torrance, CA (United States)); Blanchard, K.V.; Rose, T.J.; Uehlein, B.L. (Nalco Chemical Co., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)); Quinter, R.C. (Sun Co., Newtown Square, PA (United States)); Summers, M.A. (Sun Co., Marcus Hook, PA (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naphthenic acid corrosion has been a problem in the refining industry for many years. Recently interest in this problem has grown because crudes that contain naphthenic acid are being recovered from areas which were not known to produce this type of crude, such as china, India, and Africa. New techniques for identifying naphthenic acid corrosion and chemical treatments for preventing this attack are presented. Refinery case studies include stream analysis, failure analysis, and inhibitor use. Laboratory tests to show the effect of hydrogen sulfide and phosphorus-based inhibitors are discussed.

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid rain compliance Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produces salt and water. 2. Acid rain... is rain that is slightly acidic due to pollution in the air. Acid rain greatly affects the ecosystems... is acid ... Source:...