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  1. LCI Newsletter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Welcome to the U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Newsletter. This newsletter covers news and updates about the database and is published quarterly. Learn more about the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI)...

  2. USGS-Land Cover Institute (LCI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USGS currently houses the institute at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The LCI will address land cover topics from...

  3. NREL-LCI Database Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and compare analysis results that are based on similar data collection and analysis methods. NREL-LCI Database Project Screenshot This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  4. The applicability of non-local LCI data for LCA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osses de Eicker, Margarita; Hischier, Roland; Lehmann, Martin; Zah, Rainer; Hurni, Hans

    2010-04-15

    This study evaluated how applicable European Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data are to assessing the environmental impacts of the life cycle of Brazilian triple superphosphate (TSP). The LCI data used for the comparison were local Brazilian LCI data, European LCI data in its original version from the ecoinvent database and a modified version of the European LCI data, which had been adapted to better account for the Brazilian situation. We compared the three established datasets at the level of the inventory as well as for their environmental impacts, i.e. at the level of Life Cycle Environmental Assessment (LCIA). The analysis showed that the European LCIs (both the original and the modified ones) considered a broader spectrum of background processes and environmental flows (inputs and outputs). Nevertheless, TSP production had in all three cases similar values for the consumption of the main raw materials. The LCIA results obtained for the datasets showed important differences as well. Therefore we concluded that the European data in general lead to much higher environmental impacts than the Brazilian data. The differences between the LCIA results obtained with the Brazilian and the European data can be basically explained by the methodological differences underlying the data. The small differences at the LCI level for selected inputs and outputs between the Brazilian and the European LCIs from ecoinvent indicate that the latter can be regarded as applicable for characterizing the Brazilian TSP.

  5. ventyxReprint.indd

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    worldPower 2010 1 T he utility world has changed drastically in the last 10 years. New technologies like Smart Meters and fully functional Smart Grid concepts have made large inroads into the utility space and no one should want to be left behind. Utilities also face additional pressures from regulatory bodies who are continuing to encourage carbon reduction and greater customer flexibility. Utilities need to balance these new requirements with the financial obligations of providing reliable

  6. NREL/Ventyx Utility Rates: What is included? | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    costs? Thanks Submitted by Vbugnion on 27 February, 2013 - 16:25 1 answer Points: 1 Hi Vbugnion, Just to clarify, you're not asking about the OpenEI utility rates, but rather...

  7. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    have rebounded during the final two weeks of January, according to data from BENTEK Energy LLC (Bentek). Production declines took place in this region during the middle of...

  8. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    winter season is less than half of the percentage through February 20 of the previous winter season, according to calculations with estimates from BENTEK Energy, LLC (Bentek)....

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    the week. Total consumption exceeded that of last week, led by strong growth in power burn across most of the country. According to estimates from BENTEK Energy LLC (Bentek),...

  10. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    from BENTEK Energy, LLC (Bentek). This early incident represented the first wide-spread test of freeze protection systems for this year's heating season. Total U.S. gross...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    by Bentek, as imports rose by 5.7 percent, up to 1.7 Bcf on Wednesday. Northeast power burn rose to almost 8.5 Bcf on Wednesday (compared to 7.3 Bcf on Monday), and Bentek data...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    by Bentek, as imports rose by 5.7 percent, up to 1.7 Bcf on Wednesday. Northeast power burn rose to almost 8.5 Bcf on Wednesday (compared to 7.3 Bcf on Monday), and Bentek data...

  13. Microsoft Word - figure_03.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil and Gas Reserves"; PointLogic Energy; Ventyx; and the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement, and predecessor agencies. IN OH TN WV VA KY MD PA NY VT NH MA CT ME...

  14. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of 6.5% over the report week. Consumption of natural gas for power generation (power burn) decreased 16.3% from the previous week, according to Bentek Energy Services data. The...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this week led to decreases in consumption of natural gas for power generation. Power burn fell almost 4 percent week over week, according to data from Bentek Energy Services,...

  16. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the 2.5 percent drop in power sector consumption below last week's daily average. Power burn fell most significantly in the Southwest and Texas. Bentek estimates that the average...

  17. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    was about 17 percent higher than November of the previous year. Bentek's reported power burn on Wednesday increased to 7.5 Bcf. Last November, power burn in the region averaged 4.5...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    reverse direction and fall to 3.91 per MMBtu yesterday. Natural gas demand for power burn increased across the country during the report week. According to data from BENTEK...

  19. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (Bentek), the West's imports from Canada fell by almost 11 percent on the week. Power burn in the region increased on the week by about 10 percent. Both supply and consumption...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    reverse direction and fall to 3.91 per MMBtu yesterday. Natural gas demand for power burn increased across the country during the report week. According to data from BENTEK...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    over the week were offset by declines in gas consumed for electricity generation. Power burn fell by 2.9 percent over the week according to estimates from BENTEK Energy Services,...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    this week led to decreases in consumption of natural gas for power generation. Power burn fell almost 4 percent week over week, according to data from Bentek Energy Services,...

  3. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Demand in the Northeast approached 25 billion cubic feet (Bcf) on December 18, before dropping back to 18.7 Bcf on the last day of the report week, according to data from BENTEK...

  4. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    a 1.1 Bcfd increase over the average for this period from 2008 to 2012, according to data from Bentek Energy Services. States in the Northeast and Southeast accounted for almost...

  5. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    per day and would use close to 100 MMcfd of natural gas each, according to Bentek Energy estimates. While most of the proposed methanol plants are on the Gulf Coast, two...

  6. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for several methanol plants in the southeastern United States. In a recent report, Bentek Energy estimated that most of the proposed methanol plants will each consume between 0.1...

  7. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    week. According to Bentek data, dry gas production declined 0.6% during the week, as maintenance in several regions curtailed some production for the past several days. Despite the...

  8. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd), a 1.3 percent increase over average production during winter 2011-12, according to data from Bentek Energy LLC. Much of the recent increase in...

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    United States rose to a record average of 90.6 billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd) this winter, according to data from Bentek Energy. Cold weather drove total consumption up by...

  10. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    48 contiguous states averaged 41 degrees Fahrenheit, 7% colder than the same period last winter, according to data from Bentek Energy. Average power burn through March 18 rose by...

  11. Hurricane Earl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Historical/Selected Significant Energy Disruptions > Hurricane Earl Hurricane Earl Released: September 3, 2010 2:00 p.m. EDT Map Sources: Infrastructure-Energy Information Administration (GasTran System), Ventyx (Energy Velocity); Hurricane path with 67% likelihood cone-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Uncheck or check an item to hide or show it in the map. Electric Power Plants (>=100 MW) Coal Hydroelectric Natural Gas Nuclear Petroleum Wood Wind Other Electricity

  12. ABB Response to Smart Grid RFI. November 1, 2010 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Response to Smart Grid RFI. November 1, 2010 ABB Response to Smart Grid RFI. November 1, 2010 Thank you for the opportunity to provide information to the Department of Energy Federal Register Doc. 2010-23251 filed September 16, 2010. With our recent acquisition of Ventyx, ABB is one of the few companies in the smart grid space that can approach the entire smart grid value chain, from distributed generation at the residential level to distribution automation and real-time conditioned based

  13. Microsoft Word - DOE RFI.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ms. Patricia Hoffman Assistant Secretary United States Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 8H033 Washington, DC 20585 RE: Smart Grid RFI Dear Assistant Secretary Hoffman, Thank you for the opportunity to provide information to the Department of Energy Federal Register Doc. 2010-23251 filed September 16, 2010. With our recent acquisition of Ventyx, ABB is one of the few companies in the smart grid space that can approach the entire smart grid value chain, from distributed

  14. Slide 1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Moderator: Charlie Whitmore Porter Bennett, BENTEK Energy James Sorenson, University of North Dakota John Steelman, Natural Resources Defense Council 2011 EIA Energy Conference: The Future of Domestic Onshore Oil and Gas Washington DC | April 27, 2011 www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Independent

  15. EIA - Energy Conferences & Presentations.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 EIA Conference 2009 Session 2: What's Ahead for Natural Gas Markets? Listen to Session: Audio of Session 1 from 2009 EIA Conference Full Session Transcript PDF Icon pdf Moderator: Steve Harvey (EIA) Speakers: Brian Jeffries (Wyoming Pipeline Authority) James Simpson (BENTEK Energy, LLC) Rick Smead (Navigant Consulting) John Strom (Haddington Ventures, LLC) Christine Tezak Note: Concurrent sessions used a variety of presentation and round table discussion formats. All available presentations

  16. O S T I

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Office of Naval Research (ONR), ARDEC, AMSMC-PBE, NSWC, Holston Defense Corporation, LANL, and DOE. 2 LA-UR-95-XXXX 0 Product Figure 1 Systems Analysis Methodology For LCI ...

  17. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Woods to the Refinery CORRIM Life Cycle Analyses of Woody Feedstocks Dr. Steve Kelley Dr. Elaine Oneil President, CORRIM Executive Director, CORRIM Professor North Carolina State Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials A non-profit corporation formed by 17 research institutions to conduct cradle to grave environmental studies of wood products * Seventeen years of LCI/LCA work on durable wood products * Biofuel LCI/LCA research support from: * Eight institutions/cooperators

  18. QER - Comment of America's Natural Gas Alliance 2 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Monday, August 18, 2014 2:52 PM To: QERcomments CC: Richards, John Subject: ANGA Submission on New England QER Meetings Attachment: ANGA Comments re- New England QER Meeting .pdf; Bentek_Analysis_NE_Market_Opportunities_12_17_2013_Final.pdf Good morning - Please find attached ANGA's comments on the New England public meeting during the Quadrennial Energy Review earlier this year. Please do not hesitate to reach out if you have any questions. Thank you Sarah Sarah Venuto Director, Federal Affairs

  19. Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheehan, John; Camobreco, Vince; Duffield, James; Graboski, Michael; Graboski, Michael; Shapouri, Housein

    1998-05-01

    This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI is a comprehensive quantification of all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  20. Toward Semi-automated Assessment of Target Volume Delineation in Radiotherapy Trials: The SCOPE 1 Pretrial Test Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gwynne, Sarah; Spezi, Emiliano; Wills, Lucy; Nixon, Lisette; Hurt, Chris; Joseph, George; Evans, Mererid; Griffiths, Gareth; Crosby, Tom; Staffurth, John

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate different conformity indices (CIs) for use in the analysis of outlining consistency within the pretrial quality assurance (Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance [RTTQA]) program of a multicenter chemoradiation trial of esophageal cancer and to make recommendations for their use in future trials. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Research Institute SCOPE 1 trial is an ongoing Cancer Research UK-funded phase II/III randomized controlled trial of chemoradiation with capecitabine and cisplatin with or without cetuximab for esophageal cancer. The pretrial RTTQA program included a detailed radiotherapy protocol, an educational package, and a single mid-esophageal tumor test case that were sent to each investigator to outline. Investigator gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were received from 50 investigators in 34 UK centers, and CERR (Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research) was used to perform an assessment of each investigator GTV against a predefined gold-standard GTV using different CIs. A new metric, the local conformity index (l-CI), that can localize areas of maximal discordance was developed. Results: The median Jaccard conformity index (JCI) was 0.69 (interquartile range, 0.62-0.70), with 14 of 50 investigators (28%) achieving a JCI of 0.7 or greater. The median geographical miss index was 0.09 (interquartile range, 0.06-0.16), and the mean discordance index was 0.27 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.30). The l-CI was highest in the middle section of the volume, where the tumor was bulky and more easily definable, and identified 4 slices where fewer than 20% of investigators achieved an l-CI of 0.7 or greater. Conclusions: The available CIs analyze different aspects of a gold standard-observer variation, with JCI being the most useful as a single metric. Additional information is provided by the l-CI and can focus the efforts of the RTTQA team in these areas, possibly leading to semi-automated outlining assessment.

  1. Life Cycle Inventory Database | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Past Projects » Life Cycle Inventory Database Life Cycle Inventory Database The U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database serves as a central repository for information about the total energy and resource impacts of developing and using various commercial building materials, components, and assemblies. The database helps manufacturers, building designers, and developers select energy-efficient and environmentally friendly materials, products, and processes for their projects based on the

  2. NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. Life-Cycle Inventory Database Buildings Research Photo of a green field with an ocean in the background. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database NREL and its partners created the U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database to help life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners answer questions about environmental impact. This database provides individual gate-to-gate, cradle-to-gate and cradle-to-grave accounting of the energy and material flows into and out of the environment that are associated with

  3. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has developed a fundamental approach. The emphasis was place on individual unit processes as an organizing framework to understand the life cycle of manufactured products. The rearrangement of unit processes provides an efficient and versatile means of understanding improved manufactured products such as wind generators. The taxonomy and structure of unit process lci were developed in this project. A series of ten unit process lci were developed to sample the major segments of the manufacturing unit process taxonomy. Technical and economic effectiveness has been a focus of the project research in Task three. The use of repeatable modules for the organization of information on environmental improvement has a long term impact. The information developed can be used and reused in a variety of manufacturing plants and for a range of wind generator sizes and designs. Such a modular approach will lower the cost of life cycle analysis, that is often asked questions of carbon footprint, environmental impact, and sustainability. The use of a website for dissemination, linked to NREL, adds to the economic benefit as more users have access to the lci information. Benefit to the public has been achieved by a well-attended WSU conference, as well as presentations for the Kansas Wind Energy Commission. Attendees represented public interests, land owners, wind farm developers, those interested in green jobs, and industry. Another benefit to the public is the start of information flow from manufacturers that can inform individuals about products.

  4. Using non-local databases for the environmental assessment of industrial activities: The case of Latin America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osses de Eicker, Margarita; Hischier, Roland; Hurni, Hans; Zah, Rainer

    2010-04-15

    Nine non-local databases were evaluated with respect to their suitability for the environmental assessment of industrial activities in Latin America. Three assessment methods were considered, namely Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and air emission inventories. The analysis focused on data availability in the databases and the applicability of their international data to Latin American industry. The study showed that the European EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the U.S. EPA AP-42 database are the most suitable ones for air emission inventories, whereas the LCI database Ecoinvent is the most suitable one for LCA and EIA. Due to the data coverage in the databases, air emission inventories are easier to develop than LCA or EIA, which require more comprehensive information. One strategy to overcome the limitations of non-local databases for Latin American industry is the combination of validated data from international databases with newly developed local datasets.

  5. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HEALTH AhD SAFETY DlVlSlDN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HEALTH AhD SAFETY DlVlSlDN I -. . Industrial Hygiene or Medical Dept. 1956 I. H.# 984 Sample Nos. l2 Date Collected- o/2g by&- Route to J" Location SSi4.X CUiTn! CXJitP. Type of Sample&-dust Analyzed for F Alpha x Remarks P~UXC~JGIi.' ON. 14lCI11~ U Beta - IIoll0Wi.n~ slucs - NO, Ra Oil PH Be Th Sample No. 7573p Hour Sample Description 1355 CZ Orxxator sets slul: into place, closes shield over machine S starts &ill. oil coolant flows through hollow drill ____

  6. Updated Life-Cycle Assessment of Aluminum Production and Semi-fabrication for the GREET Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Qiang; Kelly, Jarod C.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-09-01

    This report serves as an update for the life-cycle analysis (LCA) of aluminum production based on the most recent data representing the state-of-the-art of the industry in North America. The 2013 Aluminum Association (AA) LCA report on the environmental footprint of semifinished aluminum products in North America provides the basis for the update (The Aluminum Association, 2013). The scope of this study covers primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, as well as aluminum semi-fabrication processes including hot rolling, cold rolling, extrusion and shape casting. This report focuses on energy consumptions, material inputs and criteria air pollutant emissions for each process from the cradle-to-gate of aluminum, which starts from bauxite extraction, and ends with manufacturing of semi-fabricated aluminum products. The life-cycle inventory (LCI) tables compiled are to be incorporated into the vehicle cycle model of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model for the release of its 2015 version.

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    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  9. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially MWW_NF) better treatment alternatives from the environmental sustainability perspective since they exhibited minimal contribution to environmental damage from emissions.

  10. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punkkinen, Henna; Merta, Elina; Teerioja, Nea; Moliis, Katja; Kuvaja, Eveliina

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare the environmental sustainability of two MSW collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate pneumatic and door-to-door collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The greenhouse gas emissions of pneumatic collection are around three times higher. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System components are decisive but assumptions on electricity use are also important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic collection could provide other benefits over door-to-door system. - Abstract: Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive.