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Osses de Eicker, Margarita; Hischier, Roland; Lehmann, Martin; Zah, Rainer; Hurni, Hans
This study evaluated how applicable European Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data are to assessing the environmental impacts of the life cycle of Brazilian triple superphosphate (TSP). The LCI data used for the comparison were local Brazilian LCI data, European LCI data in its original version from the ecoinvent database and a modified version of the European LCI data, which had been adapted to better account for the Brazilian situation. We compared the three established datasets at the level of the inventory as well as for their environmental impacts, i.e. at the level of Life Cycle Environmental Assessment (LCIA). The analysis showed that the European LCIs (both the original and the modified ones) considered a broader spectrum of background processes and environmental flows (inputs and outputs). Nevertheless, TSP production had in all three cases similar values for the consumption of the main raw materials. The LCIA results obtained for the datasets showed important differences as well. Therefore we concluded that the European data in general lead to much higher environmental impacts than the Brazilian data. The differences between the LCIA results obtained with the Brazilian and the European data can be basically explained by the methodological differences underlying the data. The small differences at the LCI level for selected inputs and outputs between the Brazilian and the European LCIs from ecoinvent indicate that the latter can be regarded as applicable for characterizing the Brazilian TSP.
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation,MeregNIFE BateriasInternational Wind Resource Maps JumpLCI
) provides a holistic evaluation meth- odology and a consistent framework for making better- informed- ingful results. The U.S. LCI Database (www.nrel.gov/ lci) was initiated in 2003 to fulfill the need, product purchases, process performance, and educa- tion systems. The use of LCA for product and service
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowingFuelWeatherizeeEnergyMonumentWestSUMMARY REPORT ONworldPower
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wind Source: EIA, Ventyx, AWEA, IREC, Berkeley Lab Figure 2.Renewable Energy Council (IREC) and Berkeley Lab. Data on
enables PRB coal use Source: Ventyx 10 What we haul: BNSF Ethanol Destination Franchise Unit Train Destinations Existing Watson, CA Birmingham, AL East Coast - via Chicago Texas...
2). Source: EIA, Ventyx, AWEA, IREC, SEIA/GTM, Berkeley LabRenewable Energy Council (IREC) and SEIA/GTM (Solar Energy
wind Source: EIA, Ventyx, AWEA, IREC, SEIA/GTM, Berkeley LabRenewable Energy Council (IREC) and SEIA/GTM (Solar Energy
Differences Between the Reduplicative Babbling of French- and English-learning Infants* D. H. Whalen, Andrea G babbling to language has been the focus of much recent research (e.g., Thevenin, Eilers, Oller, & Lavoie, 1985; Vihman, Ferguson & Elbert 1986; Vihman, Macken, Miller, Simons & Miller, 1985). This wide range
FERC GE GW G&T HTS ICE IOU IPP IREC IRS ISO ITC kW kWh LADWPwind Source: EIA, Ventyx, AWEA, IREC, Berkeley Lab Figure 2.Renewable Energy Council (IREC) and Berkeley Lab. Data on
This research, a collaboration between MIT and ABB/Ventyx, is focused on the development of a mobile interface for field workers in power repair settings and field service delivery. A Human Systems Engineering (HSE) approach ...
Oil and Gas Reserves"; PointLogic Energy; Ventyx; and the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement, and predecessor agencies. IN OH TN WV VA KY MD PA NY VT NH MA CT ME...
Spring 2014 LC Optics and Photonics: CPHY-64495/74495 Lecture times: T,Th,F 11:00 12:15 Room: LCI 107C also LCI 108 (teaching lab) Text: class notes Guenther, Modern Optics (recommended) Electronic Resources: http://mpalffy.lci.kent.edu/optics Instructor: Peter Palffy-Muhoray LCM Rm. 201C 672-2604 mpalffy
Overview and Methodology, Ecoinvent Report No. 1, SwissCompressed Air Supply, Ecoinvent report nr. 23, Swiss Centreexisting LCI databases The Ecoinvent database, as supplied
Linke, Barbara; Dornfeld, David; Huang, Yu-Chu
Precision Manufacturing, LCA, Machining, SustainabilityNOMENCLATURE API = CMOS = GWP = LCA = LCI = Mfg = MRR = RoHSLife Cycle Assessment (LCA). The following sections will
Linke, Barbara; Huang, Yu-Chu; Dornfeld, David
Life Cycle Assessment, LCA, Green manufacturing, Leveraging,= Global warming potential LCA = Life Cycle Assessment LCI =Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The following sections will
FTR: Fischer-Tropsch reactor LCA: life cycle analysis LCI:software. Life cycle analyses (LCA) using a modified GREETfor the process. Keywords: LCA, Fischer-Tropsch, avation
Idaho, University of
1 Abstract--In this paper, we report on work that applies a form of artificial intelligence (AI-centered intelligence (LCI), an approach to artificial intelligence (AI) that involves the dual use of the languages) to autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) operations. Called "language-centered intelligence" (LCI), this form
Spring 2012 LC Optics and Photonics: CPHY-64495/74495 Lecture times: M, W, F 9:55 10:50 Room: Cunningham Hall 00011 also LCI 108 (teaching lab) Text: class notes Guenther, Modern Optics (recommended) Electronic Resources: http://mpalffy.lci.kent.edu/optics Instructor: Peter Palffy-Muhoray LCM Rm. 201C 672
Scown, Corinne Donahue
Change x ISO LCA LCFS LCI LP LPG MED MRO MSF MTBE MWD MWDOCparticularly for diesel fuels, LPG and naphtha, but noDiesel Kerosene Gasoline LPG Other Products Mass Output (kg/
and Transparent LCI Data. Int J LCA 10(1), 1-2. FrischknechtLIME has been completed. Int J LCA 8(5), Jaques, R. (2001).Assessment Method. Int J LCA 8 (6), 324-330. Available at
10. Wang, H. , 2008. “LCI/LCA Management in China: summaryof life-cycle assessment (LCA) to understand the embodiedThis paper reviews recent LCA studies in the cement industry
Angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry (a/LCI) is used to obtain quantitative, depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements. We compare the average diameter and texture of cell nuclei in rat esophagus epithelial ...
Liquid Crystal Optics and Photonics CPHY 74495 Assignment 2. P. Pal¤y-Muhoray Feb. 6, 2015 Due: Feb 13, 2015 1. Read pages 25 - 37 of the text (Guenther, Modern Optics). 2. Read Ch 2., Review of Electricity and Magnetism (http://mpal¤y.lci.kent.edu/optics) 3. Red light with wavelength = 632:8nm
Knapp, Gwendowlyn Sue
proteins: OxyR and CynR. The contribution of the residues to oligomerization was characterized using lcI repressor fusions. In OxyR, seven residues were identified as hot spots. Moreover, these hot spots are not especially conserved. The interaction surface...
on the results of this review is as follows: 1. MATERIALS EMBODIED ENERGY The energy that must be commited at the unit process level. This resulting database is the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) providing a detailed are then used to provide the client results of the analysis and opportunities for improvement. A review
Liquid Crystal Optics and Photonics CPHY 74495 Assignment 2. P. Pal¤y-Muhoray Jan. 24, 2014 Due: Feb 4, 2014 1. Read pages 25 - 37 of the text (Guenther, Modern Optics). 2. Read Ch 2., Review of Electricity and Magnetism (http://mpal¤y.lci.kent.edu/optics) 3. Red light with wavelength = 632:8nm
San Angelo Metropolitan Planning Organization
2-5 Projected Population for Tom Green County and the San Angelo MTP Planning Area ....................................................................................................................................................... 25 Table 2-6... Table 6-3 Estimated Costs for all LCI-related Improvements ...................................................... 84 Table 10-1 Financial Plan Roadway by Category ...................................................................... 118 Table 10-2...
Munankami, Manish 1972-
Integrated Project Delivery LCI Lean Construction Institute LPS Last Planner TM System P2SL Project Production Systems Laboratory PPC Percent Planned Complete PPC Project Partnering Contract ROI Return on Investment TC Target Costing TVD Target Value... among similar projects; he found that the projects were chaotic but still claimed to be completed within budget and on time. However, an analysis of Percent Planned Complete (PPC) showed that the average PPC was only 62%, and the main reason...
Rybkowski, Zofia K.; Abdelhamid, Tariq; Forbes, Lincoln
IGLC-21, July 2013 | Fortaleza, Brazil parlance: the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC) in 1993 and the Lean Construction Institute (LCI) in 1997 (Sayer and Anderson 2012). Lean manufacturing has inspired Lean Construction (LC... stream_source_info RYBKOWSKI_ABDELHAMID_FORBES_On the back of a cocktail napkin_exploration_graphic definition_lean construction.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 26429 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name RYBKOWSKI...
Gwynne, Sarah; Spezi, Emiliano; Wills, Lucy; Nixon, Lisette; Hurt, Chris; Joseph, George; Evans, Mererid; Griffiths, Gareth; Crosby, Tom; Staffurth, John
Purpose: To evaluate different conformity indices (CIs) for use in the analysis of outlining consistency within the pretrial quality assurance (Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance [RTTQA]) program of a multicenter chemoradiation trial of esophageal cancer and to make recommendations for their use in future trials. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Research Institute SCOPE 1 trial is an ongoing Cancer Research UK-funded phase II/III randomized controlled trial of chemoradiation with capecitabine and cisplatin with or without cetuximab for esophageal cancer. The pretrial RTTQA program included a detailed radiotherapy protocol, an educational package, and a single mid-esophageal tumor test case that were sent to each investigator to outline. Investigator gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were received from 50 investigators in 34 UK centers, and CERR (Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research) was used to perform an assessment of each investigator GTV against a predefined gold-standard GTV using different CIs. A new metric, the local conformity index (l-CI), that can localize areas of maximal discordance was developed. Results: The median Jaccard conformity index (JCI) was 0.69 (interquartile range, 0.62-0.70), with 14 of 50 investigators (28%) achieving a JCI of 0.7 or greater. The median geographical miss index was 0.09 (interquartile range, 0.06-0.16), and the mean discordance index was 0.27 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.30). The l-CI was highest in the middle section of the volume, where the tumor was bulky and more easily definable, and identified 4 slices where fewer than 20% of investigators achieved an l-CI of 0.7 or greater. Conclusions: The available CIs analyze different aspects of a gold standard-observer variation, with JCI being the most useful as a single metric. Additional information is provided by the l-CI and can focus the efforts of the RTTQA team in these areas, possibly leading to semi-automated outlining assessment.
de Campos, Luis M.
Departamento de Ciencias de la ComputacioÂ´ n e I.A., E.T.S.I. InformaÂ´tica, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Juan M. FernaÂ´ ndez-Luna Departamento de InformaÂ´tica, Escuela. Huete Departamento de Ciencias de la ComputacioÂ´ n e I.A., E.T.S.I. InformaÂ´tica, Universidad de Granada
Janet M Twomey, PhD
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has developed a fundamental approach. The emphasis was place on individual unit processes as an organizing framework to understand the life cycle of manufactured products. The rearrangement of unit processes provides an efficient and versatile means of understanding improved manufactured products such as wind generators. The taxonomy and structure of unit process lci were developed in this project. A series of ten unit process lci were developed to sample the major segments of the manufacturing unit process taxonomy. Technical and economic effectiveness has been a focus of the project research in Task three. The use of repeatable modules for the organization of information on environmental improvement has a long term impact. The information developed can be used and reused in a variety of manufacturing plants and for a range of wind generator sizes and designs. Such a modular approach will lower the cost of life cycle analysis, that is often asked questions of carbon footprint, environmental impact, and sustainability. The use of a website for dissemination, linked to NREL, adds to the economic benefit as more users have access to the lci information. Benefit to the public has been achieved by a well-attended WSU conference, as well as presentations for the Kansas Wind Energy Commission. Attendees represented public interests, land owners, wind farm developers, those interested in green jobs, and industry. Another benefit to the public is the start of information flow from manufacturers that can inform individuals about products.
Curtis, Geo. W.; Carson, J. W.
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Rico Ballester, Marcial
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Osses de Eicker, Margarita; Hischier, Roland; Hurni, Hans; Zah, Rainer
Nine non-local databases were evaluated with respect to their suitability for the environmental assessment of industrial activities in Latin America. Three assessment methods were considered, namely Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and air emission inventories. The analysis focused on data availability in the databases and the applicability of their international data to Latin American industry. The study showed that the European EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the U.S. EPA AP-42 database are the most suitable ones for air emission inventories, whereas the LCI database Ecoinvent is the most suitable one for LCA and EIA. Due to the data coverage in the databases, air emission inventories are easier to develop than LCA or EIA, which require more comprehensive information. One strategy to overcome the limitations of non-local databases for Latin American industry is the combination of validated data from international databases with newly developed local datasets.
Truppi, Lawrence Ernest
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Dai, Qiang; Kelly, Jarod C.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad
This report serves as an update for the life-cycle analysis (LCA) of aluminum production based on the most recent data representing the state-of-the-art of the industry in North America. The 2013 Aluminum Association (AA) LCA report on the environmental footprint of semifinished aluminum products in North America provides the basis for the update (The Aluminum Association, 2013). The scope of this study covers primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, as well as aluminum semi-fabrication processes including hot rolling, cold rolling, extrusion and shape casting. This report focuses on energy consumptions, material inputs and criteria air pollutant emissions for each process from the cradle-to-gate of aluminum, which starts from bauxite extraction, and ends with manufacturing of semi-fabricated aluminum products. The life-cycle inventory (LCI) tables compiled are to be incorporated into the vehicle cycle model of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model for the release of its 2015 version.
Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim
Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.
David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis
Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially