Sample records for layers uncoated acrylic

  1. Uncoated microcantilevers as chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device are provided for chemical sensing using cantilevers that do not use chemically deposited, chemically specific layers. This novel device utilizes the adsorption-induced variation in the surfaces states on a cantilever. The methodology involves exciting charge carriers into or out of the surface states with photons having increasing discrete levels of energy. The excitation energy is provided as discrete levels of photon energy by scanning the wavelength of an exciting source that is illuminating the cantilever surface. When the charge carriers are excited into or out of the surface states, the cantilever bending changes due to changes in surface stress. The amount of cantilever bending with respect to an identical cantilever as a function of excitation energy is used to determine the energy levels associated with adsorbates.

  2. Chemically grafted polymeric filters for chemical sensors: Hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid) films incorporating {Beta}-cyclodextrin receptors and amine-functionalized filter layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dermody, D.L.; Peez, R.F.; Bergbreiter, D.E.; Crooks, R.M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report a new molecular-filter approach for enhancing the selectivity of chemical sensors. Specifically, they describe electrochemical sensors prepared from Au electrodes coated with {beta}-cyclodextrin-functionalized, hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid)(PAA) films capped with a chemically grafted, ultrathin polyamine layer. The hyperbranched PAA film is a highly functionalized framework for covalently binding the {beta}-cyclodextrin molecular receptors. The thin, grafted polyamine overlayer acts as a pH-sensitive molecular filter that selectively passes suitably charged analytes. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers or poly-D-lysine is used as 10--15-nm-thick filter layers. The results show that at low pH, when the polyamines are fully protonated, positively charged redox probe molecules, such as benzyl viologen (BV), do not permeate the filter layer. However, at high pH, when the filter layer is uncharged, BV penetrates the filter layer and is reduced at the electrode. The opposite pH dependence is observed for negatively charged redox molecules such as anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS). Both BV and AQS specifically interact with the {beta}-cyclodextrin receptors underlying the polyamine filter layers.

  3. acrylates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acrylic Engineering Websites Summary: as an admixture Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, University at Buffalo, State University of New York,...

  4. acrylic acid polymers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acrylate Polymers on the Release Profile of Ambroxol Hydrochloride Controlled Release Pellets CiteSeer Summary: ABSTRACT: The effects of Ammonio Methacrylate copolymer dispersion...

  5. acrylic polymers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acrylate Polymers on the Release Profile of Ambroxol Hydrochloride Controlled Release Pellets CiteSeer Summary: ABSTRACT: The effects of Ammonio Methacrylate copolymer dispersion...

  6. acrylic plastic waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acrylate Polymers on the Release Profile of Ambroxol Hydrochloride Controlled Release Pellets CiteSeer Summary: ABSTRACT: The effects of Ammonio Methacrylate copolymer dispersion...

  7. acrylic bone cement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acrylic Engineering Websites Summary: as an admixture Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, University at Buffalo, State University of New York,...

  8. acrylic resins: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acrylic Engineering Websites Summary: as an admixture Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, University at Buffalo, State University of New York,...

  9. acrylic bone cements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acrylic Engineering Websites Summary: as an admixture Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, University at Buffalo, State University of New York,...

  10. Durability of Acrylic: Stress and Response Characterization of Materials for Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Durability of Acrylic: Stress and Response Characterization of Materials for Photovoltaics Myles P of materials for enhanced photovoltaic (PV) performance, it is critical to have quantitative knowledge of acrylic PMMA are reported. Keywords-Acrylic, Degradation, Photovoltaics, Photodegradation I. INTRODUCTION

  11. Methods for the synthesis of deuterated acrylate salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Hong, Kunlun

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for synthesizing a deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1), the method comprising: (i) deuterating a propiolate compound of Formula (2) to a methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in the presence of a base and D.sub.2O: and (ii) reductively deuterating the methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in a reaction solvent in the presence of deuterium gas and a palladium-containing catalyst to afford the deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1). The resulting deuterated acrylate compounds, derivatives thereof, and polymers derived therefrom are also described.

  12. Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation, USA ABSTRACT In order to optimize and extend the life of photovoltaics (PV) modules, scientific photovoltaics. The statisti- cally significant relationships were investigated using lifetime and degradation

  13. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat [Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  14. Enhancement of Barrier Properties Using Ultrathin Hybrid Passivation Layer for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Sung Woo

    acrylate layer and MS-31 (MgO : SiO2 ¼ 3 : 1 wt %) layer was adopted in organic light emitting diode (OLED the penetrations of oxygen and moisture. [DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.45.5970] KEYWORDS: organic light emitting diode (OLED. Introduction As a next generation display, the organic light emitting diode (OLED) has to great performances

  15. Permeation of acrylate compounds through four commercially available gloves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horn, David Samuel

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of these gloves was best for use with all four chemicals. The results indicate that of the gloves tested there was no one glove that was best for use with all four chemicals. However, it was shown that screening gloves by comparing their polarity... to that of the test chemical might aid in determining which gloves should be tested for a certain chemical or group of chemicals. This was demonstrated by greater permeation rates for the polar acrylate chemicals passing through the very polar polyvinyl chloride...

  16. Degradation of Back-Surface Acrylic Mirrors for Low Concentration and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    : Mirror Augmentation, Acrylic Mirror, Degradation, Scattering, Photovoltaics, Stress and Response 1Degradation of Back-Surface Acrylic Mirrors for Low Concentration and Mirror-Augmented Photovoltaics Myles P Murray1 , Laura S. Bruckman1 , Devin Gordon1 , Samuel Richardson1 , Greg Reinbolt2 , Mark

  17. UV Degradation of the Optical Properties of Acrylic for Neutrino and Dark Matter Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryce Littlejohn; K. M. Heeger; T. Wise; E. Gettrust; M. Lyman

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    UV-transmitting (UVT) acrylic is a commonly used light-propagating material in neutrino and dark matter detectors as it has low intrinsic radioactivity and exhibits low absorption in the detectors' light producing regions, from 350 nm to 500 nm. Degradation of optical transmittance in this region lowers light yields in the detector, which can affect energy reconstruction, resolution, and experimental sensitivities. We examine transmittance loss as a result of short- and long-term UV exposure for a variety of UVT acrylic samples from a number of acrylic manufacturers. Significant degradation peaking at 343 nm was observed in some UVT acrylics with as little as three hours of direct sunlight, while others exhibited softer degradation peaking at 310 nm over many days of exposure to sunlight. Based on their measured degradation results, safe time limits for indoor and outdoor UV exposure of UVT acrylic are formulated.

  18. Palladium Nanoparticles by Electrospinning from Poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid)-PdCl2 Solutions. Relations between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    Palladium Nanoparticles by Electrospinning from Poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid)-PdCl2 Solutions mainly depends on the amount of acrylic acid functional groups and PdCl2 concentration in the spinning solution. Increasing acrylic acid concentration on polymer chains leads to larger Pd nanoparticles

  19. Polymers with hydro-responsive topography identified using high throughput AFM of an acrylate microarray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hook, Andrew L.

    Atomic force microscopy has been applied to an acrylate polymer microarray to achieve a full topographic characterisation. This process discovered a small number of hydro-responsive materials created from monomers with ...

  20. Durability of Materials in a Stress-Response Framework: Acrylic Materials for Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Durability of Materials in a Stress-Response Framework: Acrylic Materials for Photovoltaic Systems materials for enhanced photovoltaic (PV) performance, it is critical to have quantitative knowledge developed for solar radiation durability studies of solar and environmentally exposed photovoltaic materials

  1. The measurement of delayed fluorescence in an acrylic based scintillation detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Chi-Ho

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University, Seoul, Korea Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert C. Webb The measurement of delayed fluorescence in an acrylic based scintillation detector using cosmic ray muons has been performed. This apparatus measures both pulse height and time... based upon CCD (charge coupled device) and waveform digitizer. This apparatus allows us to study prompt as well as slowly developing pulses from the detector consisting of a block of acrylic based scintillator coupled directly to a photomultiplier...

  2. Long-Term Testing and Properties of Acrylic for the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krohn, M; Heeger, K M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment has recently measured the neutrino mixing parameter sin22{\\theta}13 by observing electron antineutrino disappearance over kilometer-scale baselines using six antineutrino detectors at near and far distances from reactor cores at the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Liquid scintillator contained in transparent target vessels is used to detect electron antineutrinos via the inverse beta-decay reaction. The Daya Bay experiment will operate for about five years yielding a precision measurement of sin22{\\theta}13. We report on long-term studies of poly(methyl methacrylate) known as acrylic, which is the primary material used in the fabrication of the target vessels for the experiment's antineutrino detectors. In these studies, acrylic samples are subjected to gaseous and liquid environmental conditions similar to those experienced during construction, transport, and operation of the Daya Bay acrylic target vessels and detectors. Mechanical and optical stability of the ac...

  3. Chemical Fixation of CO{sub 2} to Acrylates Using Low-Valent Molybdenum Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernskoetter, Wesley

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetic, mechanistic, and reactivity experiments to access the viability and possible reaction design of coupling of carbon dioxide and ethylene at a zerovalent molybdenum for the production of acrylates are described. A general model of the reaction mechanism has been outlined, including assessment of the rate limiting step in the reaction. Kinetic and computational data have valuated the influence of a range of tridentate ligand platforms on the rate of coupling. An in situ reduction and acrylate formation activity screen protocol has also been developed to aid in the technology development of this process. Portions of descriptions of the research products presented here have also been adapted with permission from journal publications.

  4. Long-Term Testing and Properties of Acrylic for the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Krohn; B. R. Littlejohn; K. M. Heeger

    2012-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment has recently measured the neutrino mixing parameter sin22{\\theta}13 by observing electron antineutrino disappearance over kilometer-scale baselines using six antineutrino detectors at near and far distances from reactor cores at the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Liquid scintillator contained in transparent target vessels is used to detect electron antineutrinos via the inverse beta-decay reaction. The Daya Bay experiment will operate for about five years yielding a precision measurement of sin22{\\theta}13. We report on long-term studies of poly(methyl methacrylate) known as acrylic, which is the primary material used in the fabrication of the target vessels for the experiment's antineutrino detectors. In these studies, acrylic samples are subjected to gaseous and liquid environmental conditions similar to those experienced during construction, transport, and operation of the Daya Bay acrylic target vessels and detectors. Mechanical and optical stability of the acrylic as well as its interaction with detector liquids is reported.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF BACK SURFACE ACRYLIC SOLAR MIRRORS TO ASSURE 25 YEAR LIFETIME PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF BACK SURFACE ACRYLIC SOLAR MIRRORS TO ASSURE 25 YEAR LIFETIME of this work. Explicit thanks to Mark A. Schuetz, Kara Shell and Dave Hollingshead for their diligence 1 Lifetime and Degradation Science: Applicability to Renewable energy 1 Lifetime and Degradation

  6. Solar Radiation Durability Framework Applied To Acrylic Solar Myles P. Murraya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Solar Radiation Durability Framework Applied To Acrylic Solar Mirrors Myles P. Murraya , Devin) when compared with traditional flat panel PV technologies. In MAPV systems electrical output per unit browning, and very rapid power degradation. Due in part to this failure, module manufactures may not honor

  7. Improved oxidation resistance of organic/inorganic composite atomic layer deposition coated cellulose nanocrystal aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Sean W.; Matthews, David J.; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1148 Kelley Engineering Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Buesch, Christian; Simonsen, John [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels are coated with thin conformal layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using atomic layer deposition to form hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites. Electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} penetrated more than 1500??m into the aerogel for extended precursor pulse and exposure/purge times. The measured profile of coated fiber radius versus depth from the aerogel surface agrees well with simulations of precursor penetration depth in modeled aerogel structures. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CNC aerogel nanocomposites do not show significant thermal degradation below 295?°C as compared with 175?°C for uncoated CNC aerogels, an improvement of over 100?°C.

  8. Abstract Poly(acrylic acid) + zinc diacetate hybrid com-posites have been prepared by precipitation from aqueous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    · Polymer-based composites · Poly(acrylic acid) · Zinc acetate · Polymer electric conductivity · Dynamic for polymer-based materials (PBMs). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that thermal de- composition begins under nitrogen. In contrast to typical PBMs, there is evidence of ionic conduction in some

  9. New oil modified acrylic polymer for pH sensitive drug release: Experimental results and statistical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Panja; A. K. Chattopadhyay

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We report results of an experimental study, complemented by detailed statistical analysis of the experimental data, on the development of a more effective control method of drug delivery using a pH sensitive acrylic polymer. New copolymers based on acrylic acid and fatty acid are constructed from dodecyl castor oil and a tercopolymer based on methyl methacrylate, acrylic acid and acryl amide were prepared using this new approach. Water swelling characteristics of fatty acid, acrylic acid copolymer and tercopolymer respectively in acid and alkali solutions have been studied by a step-change method. The antibiotic drug cephalosporin and paracetamol have also been incorporated into the polymer blend through dissolution with the release of the antibiotic drug being evaluated in bacterial stain media and buffer solution. Our results show that the rate of release of paracetamol getss affected by the pH factor and also by the nature of polymer blend. Our experimental data have later been statistically analyzed to quantify the precise nature of polymer decay rates on the pH density of the relevant polymer solvents. The time evolution of the polymer decay rates indicate a marked transition from a linear to a strictly non-linear regime depending on the whether the chosen sample is a general copolymer (linear) or a tercopolymer (non-linear). Non-linear data extrapolation techniques have been used to make probabilistic predictions about the variation in weight percentages of retained polymers at all future times, thereby quantifying the degree of efficacy of the new method of drug delivery.

  10. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SUBSTITUTED POLY(STYRENE)-b-POLY(ACRYLIC ACID) BLOCK COPOLYMER MICELLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickel, Deanna L [ORNL; Pickel, Joseph M [ORNL; Devenyi, Jozsef [ORNL; Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Block copolymer micelle synthesis and characterization has been extensively studied. In particular, most studies have focused on the properties of the hydrophilic corona due to the micelle corona structure s impact on the biodistribution and biocompatibility. Unfortunately, less attention has been given to the effect of the core block on the micelle stability, morphology, and the rate of diffusion of small molecules from the core. This investigation is focused on the synthesis of block copolymers composed of meta-substituted styrenes and acrylic acid by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Micelles with cores composed of substituted styrenes having Tgs ranging from -30 to 100 oC have been prepared and the size and shape of these micelles were characterized by Static and Dynamic Light Scattering and TEM. In addition, the critical micelle concentration and rate of diffusion of small molecules from the core were determined by fluorimetry using pyrene as the probe.

  11. Carbon nanotubes and carbon onions for modification of styrene-acrylate copolymer based nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Ivanova, Tatjana; Bitenieks, Juris [Institute of Polymer Materials, Riga Technical University, Azenes street 14/24, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia); Kuzhir, Polina; Maksimenko, Sergey [Institute of Nuclear Problems, Belarus State University, Bobruiskaya str. 11, 220030, Minsk (Belarus); Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Moseenkov, Sergey [Boreskov Institute of Catalyst Siberian branch of RAS, pr. Lavrentieva 5, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Styrene acrylate polymer (SAC) nanocomposites with various carbon nanofillers (multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs and onion like carbon OLC) are manufactured by means of latex based routes. Concentration of the carbon nanofillers is changed in a broad interval starting from 0.01 up to 10 wt. %. Elastic, dielectric and electromagnetic properties of SAC nanocomposites are investigated. Elastic modulus, electrical conductivity and electromagnetic radiation absorption of the investigated SAC nanocomposites increase along with rising nanofiller content. The effect of the addition of anisometric MWCNTs on the elastic properties of the composite is higher than in the case of the addition of OLC. Higher electrical conductivity of the OLC containing nanocomposites is explained with the fact that reasonable agglomeration of the nanofiller can promote the development of electrically conductive network. Efficiency of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation depends on the development of conductive network within the SAC matrix.

  12. Layer-by-Layer Nanocoatings with Flame Retardant and Oxygen Barrier Properties: Moving Toward Renewable Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laufer, Galina 1985-

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    to cotton fabric, all coated fabrics retained their weave structure after being exposed to a vertical flame test, while uncoated cotton was completely destroyed. Micro combustion calorimetry confirmed that coated fabrics exhibited a reduced peak heat release...

  13. Layer-by-Layer Nanocoatings with Flame Retardant and Oxygen Barrier Properties: Moving Toward Renewable Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laufer, Galina 1985-

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    to cotton fabric, all coated fabrics retained their weave structure after being exposed to a vertical flame test, while uncoated cotton was completely destroyed. Micro combustion calorimetry confirmed that coated fabrics exhibited a reduced peak heat release...

  14. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Toltec two-axis tracking solar collector with 3M acrylic polyester film reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Toltec solar collector, with acrylic film reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  15. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Yang; Piper, Daniela M.; Gu, Meng; Travis, Jonathan J.; George, Steven M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Genc, Arda; Pullan, Lee; Liu, Jun; Mao, Scott X.; Zhang, Jiguang; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface modification of silicon nanoparticle via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism as how this thin layer of coating function is not known, which is even complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in-situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation, and therefore low coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD coated particles show extremely fast, thorough and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li+/e- conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer and therefore mitigates side reaction and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the coulombic efficiency and preserve capacity and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrated that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance as the coating layer itself.

  16. Characterization of the plastic substrates, the reflective layers, the adhesives, and the grooves of today's archival-grade recordable DVDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Guilin; Rivera, Felipe; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Davis, Robert C.; Vanfleet, Richard; Lunt, Barry M.; Shutthanandan, V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plastic substrates, reflective layers, dyes, and adhesives of four archival-grade DVDs and one standard-grade recordable DVD were analyzed to determine their chemical compositions and/or physical dimensions. Chemical analyses by ATR-FTIR, ToF-SIMS, XPS, EDX/STEM, and RBS show that all these DVDs use very similar polycarbonate plastic substrates and acrylate-based adhesives, but different reflective layers and dye write layers. In addition, physical measurements by AFM show differences in the DVD groove depth, width, and other dimensions. These chemical and physical analyses may help explain variations in DVD lifetimes and facilitate development of the next generation of archival-grade DVDs.

  17. Photonic layered media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

  18. Mechanical and Transport Properties of the Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(acrylic acid) Double Network Hydrogel from Molecular Dynamic Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    . 1. Introduction A hydrogel is a three-dimensionally cross-linked hydrophilic polymer network. In this situation, the formation of interpenetrating but independently cross-linked double network (DN) hydrogelsMechanical and Transport Properties of the Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(acrylic acid) Double Network

  19. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  20. Layered Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Layered Cathode Materials presented by Michael Thackeray Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne Annual Merit Review DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Washington, D.C....

  1. ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  2. Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Xingzhe

    1 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization DecompositionDecomposition Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-2 CONTENTSCONTENTS Introduction (Marta;2 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-3 Layering as Optimization Decomposition Introduction By Marta

  3. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  4. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  5. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrell, James J. (Livingston Manor, NY); Donohoe, Anthony J. (Ovid, NY)

    1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  6. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, Kenneth L. (Dublin, CA); Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA); Thompson, Samuel L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  7. Layered Spinach Salad Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    cucumbers 2 tomatoes 1/2 cup low-fat mayonnaise 1/2 cup parmesan cheese, grated 1/4 cup milk 1 1/2 teaspoons size pieces, layer on bottom of a large bowl. 2. Rinse mushrooms off under cool water and use a soft half. Layer on top of vegetables. 6. To make salad dressing, add mayonnaise, cheese, milk, dill weed

  8. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  9. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  10. Layer-by-layer assembly in confined geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRocher, Jonathan P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental nature of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in confined geometries was investigated for a number of different chemical systems. The first part of this thesis concerns the modification of microfluidic and ...

  11. Ion transport and structure of layer-by-layer assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutkenhaus, Jodie Lee

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) films of various architectures were examined as potential solid state electrolytes for electrochemical systems (e.g. batteries and fuel cells). The relationship between materials properties and ion ...

  12. Thermal Transitions in Layer-By-Layer Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Choonghyun

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal transitions in layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies were investigated under dry and hydrated conditions. In the dry state, the effects of film thickness and the film deposition method on the glass transition temperature (Tg) were studied...

  13. Engineering electroresponsive layer-by-layer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Daniel J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroresponsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer films and polymer nanocomposite films were investigated as model systems for electrically triggered drug delivery applications and "mechanomutable" surface coating applications. ...

  14. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  15. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  16. A futuristic approach towards interface layer modifications for improved efficiency in inverted organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, J. P., E-mail: jai-ti2002@yahoo.com, E-mail: tiwarijp@mail.nplindia.org; Ali, Farman; Sharma, Abhishek; Chand, Suresh [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division (Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group), CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy (NISE), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Pillai, Sriraj; Parakh, Sonal [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division (Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group), CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy (NISE), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Physics, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Inverted polymer Solar Cells of the classical poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl-C{sub 61}butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 61}BM) blend on indium tin oxide substrates were fabricated, which shows improved device performance, by using a facile solution–processed ZnO-polyelectrolytes [poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), Poly (acrylic acid sodium salt) (PAS), poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS), and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)] nanocomposite as a cathode interface layer compared to devices using pristine ZnO as cathode buffer layer in ambient conditions. The devices with different combinations of polyelectrolyte with ZnO show different improvements in the device efficiency. The combinations of ZnO with PVP and PDADMAC show highest amount of improvements in the efficiency by a factor of ?17–19. The improvement of the efficiency may be due to various phenomena, such as the passivation of ZnO surface as well as bulk traps, work function modification, improved energy level alignment, improved electronic coupling of the inorganic/organic interface, improved light harvesting, and decrease of surface as well as bulk charge recombination in the device. The introduction of polyelectrolyte into ZnO inhibits the aggregation of ZnO nanoparticles yielding the large area ZnO nanoclusters; and hence, forming the uniform film of ZnO resulting in the modifications of morphology as well as electronic structure of ZnO-polyelectrolyte nano-composite favouring better electronic coupling between cathode and active layer and hence enhancing the current and, consequently, the efficiency. This simple low temperature ZnO-polyelectrolyte nanocomposite based protocol proposed for cathode interface layer modification may be very much useful for roll to roll industrial manufacturing of organic solar cells.

  17. Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjellström, Hedvig

    Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2 Single Layer

  18. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  19. Influence of thermal history on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-acrylate composites cured by electron beam and thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vautard, Frederic [ORNL] [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL] [ORNL; Poland, Laura E [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanical properties of an acrylate resin and its carbon fiber composite, as well as the adhesion strength between them, were characterized in the case of thermal and electron beam curing. The thermal history during the cure was also recorded. It was shown that the properties of the matrix were similar but that the thermal history during the curing had a direct influence on the type of interactions that were generated at the interface, leading to different level of adhesion strength and level of performance for the associated composites. In the case of a thermal cure, the thermal profile allowed the generation of covalent bonding at the interface, leading to a high level of adhesion strength, which was not the case for electron beam curing. The thermal history during the cure appeared to be a determining parameter for the level of performance of composites cured by electron beam.

  20. Network layer Connectionless datagram forwarding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (passed down by transport layer) into datagrams Destination host delivers segments up to transport layer by the cold war " If there exists a path, routers will put it in the routing table automatically Forwarding in the original order Physical Link Network Transport Application Physical Link Network Transport Application

  1. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  2. METEOROLOGY 130 Boundary Layer Meteorology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Craig

    4) Turbulence Kinetic Energy · TKE budget and terms · Stability concepts · Richardson number 5) Measuring the Boundary Layer · Balloons · Radars · Sodars · Towers (micrometeorology) · Measuring Turbulence Time Series Analysis 8) Similarity Theory and Turbulence Closure 9) Surface Energy Budgets 10) Special

  3. THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER A. Petrosyan,1 B. Galperin,2 S. E. Larsen,3 S. R. Lewis,4 A [Haberle et al., 1993a; Larsen et al., 2002; Hinson et al., 2008]. At night, convection is inhibited

  4. General Comparison of Power Loss in Single-Layer and Multi-Layer Windings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    General Comparison of Power Loss in Single-Layer and Multi-Layer Windings M. E. Dale C. R. Sullivan the IEEE. #12;General Comparison of Power Loss in Single-Layer and Multi-Layer Windings Magdalena E. Dale

  5. Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjellström, Hedvig

    Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks #12;Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2

  6. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  7. The limited growth of vegetated shear layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghisalberti, M.

    In contrast to free shear layers, which grow continuously downstream, shear layers generated by submerged vegetation grow only to a finite thickness. Because these shear layers are characterized by coherent vortex structures ...

  8. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  9. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  10. The Announcement Layer: Beacon Coordination for the Sensornet Stack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunkels, Adam

    consumption. #12;MAC / Link layers ... ... Multiple, uncoordinated beacons Collect Trickle Deluge Collect Trickle Deluge Coordinated beacons Announcement layer MAC / Link layers Fig. 1. The announcement layer

  11. Layered architecture for quantum computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Cody Jones; Rodney Van Meter; Austin G. Fowler; Peter L. McMahon; Jungsang Kim; Thaddeus D. Ladd; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

    2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a layered quantum computer architecture, which is a systematic framework for tackling the individual challenges of developing a quantum computer while constructing a cohesive device design. We discuss many of the prominent techniques for implementing circuit-model quantum computing and introduce several new methods, with an emphasis on employing surface code quantum error correction. In doing so, we propose a new quantum computer architecture based on optical control of quantum dots. The timescales of physical hardware operations and logical, error-corrected quantum gates differ by several orders of magnitude. By dividing functionality into layers, we can design and analyze subsystems independently, demonstrating the value of our layered architectural approach. Using this concrete hardware platform, we provide resource analysis for executing fault-tolerant quantum algorithms for integer factoring and quantum simulation, finding that the quantum dot architecture we study could solve such problems on the timescale of days.

  12. Layered Manufacturing Sara McMains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMains, Sara

    ­ Sintering (vector) ­ 3D Printing (raster) #12;Stereolithography (SLA) · First commercial layered

  13. A novel hohlraum with ultrathin depleted-uranium-nitride coating layer for low hard x-ray emission and high radiation temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Liang; Xing, Peifeng; Li, Sanwei; Yi, Taimin; Kuang, Longyu; Li, Zhichao; Li, Renguo; Wu, Zheqing; Jing, Longfei; Zhang, Wenhai; Zhan, Xiayu; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Bobi; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Jie; Huo, Wenyi; Lan, Ke

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-thin layer of uranium nitrides (UN) has been coated on the inner surface of the depleted uranium hohlraum (DUH), which has been proved by our experiment can prevent the oxidization of Uranium (U) effectively. Comparative experiments between the novel depleted uranium hohlraum and pure golden (Au) hohlraum are implemented on Shenguang III prototype laser facility. Under the laser intensity of 6*10^14 W/cm2, we observe that, the hard x-ray (> 1.8 keV) fraction of this uranium hohlraum decreases by 61% and the peak intensity of total x-ray flux (0.1 keV ~ 5 keV) increases by 5%. Two dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code LARED are exploited to interpret the above observations. Our result for the first time indicates the advantage of the UN-coated DUH in generating the uniform x-ray field with a quasi Planckian spectrum and thus has important implications in optimizing the ignition hohlraum design.

  14. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  15. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  16. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  17. Interface dynamics for layered structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takao Ohta; David Jasnow

    1997-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate dynamics of large scale and slow deformations of layered structures. Starting from the respective model equations for a non-conserved system, a conserved system and a binary fluid, we derive the interface equations which are a coupled set of equations for deformations of the boundaries of each domain. A further reduction of the degrees of freedom is possible for a non-conserved system such that internal motion of each domain is adiabatically eliminated. The resulting equation of motion contains only the displacement of the center of gravity of domains, which is equivalent to the phase variable of a periodic structure. Thus our formulation automatically includes the phase dynamics of layered structures. In a conserved system and a binary fluid, however, the internal motion of domains turns out to be a slow variable in the long wavelength limit because of concentration conservation. Therefore a reduced description only involving the phase variable is not generally justified.

  18. Electronic transport in atomically thin layered materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baugher, Britton William Herbert

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronic transport in atomically thin layered materials has been a burgeoning field of study since the discovery of isolated single layer graphene in 2004. Graphene, a semi-metal, has a unique gapless Dirac-like band ...

  19. Physical layer model design for wireless networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Yi

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    the relationship between wireless protocol design and physical layer models, it is necessary to first comprehend the network architecture, which groups the communication functions into related and manageable layers. The journal model is IEEE Transactions... data to the network format and vice versa. It is intended to provide independence from different represen- tations of application layer data. The session layer deals with sessions and connections between applications. It manages conversations between...

  20. Layer-by-Layer Characterization of a Model Biofuel Cell Anode by (in Situ) Vibrational Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brolo, Alexandre G.

    Layer-by-Layer Characterization of a Model Biofuel Cell Anode by (in Situ) Vibrational Spectroscopy during the construction of a model biofuel cell anode. The model anode was a layered structure formedDH to the CB layer confirmed successful enzyme immobilization. 1. Introduction Biofuel cells use microorganisms

  1. Overcoming the Boundary Layer Turbulence at Dome C: Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics versus Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashley, Michael C. B.

    Overcoming the Boundary Layer Turbulence at Dome C: Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics versus Tower T the boundary layer: mounting a telescope on a tower that physically puts it above the turbulent layer such a goal, two solutions can be proposed. The most intuitive one is to place a telescope on a tower

  2. Dense, layered membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roark, Shane E.; MacKay, Richard; Mundschau, Michael V.

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides hydrogen-permeable membranes for separation of hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases. The membranes are multi-layer having a central hydrogen-permeable layer with one or more catalyst layers, barrier layers, and/or protective layers. The invention also relates to membrane reactors employing the hydrogen-permeable membranes of the invention and to methods for separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gas using the membranes and reactors. The reactors of this invention can be combined with additional reactor systems for direct use of the separated hydrogen.

  3. Combustion fronts in porous media with two layers Steve Schecter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schecter, Stephen

    Combustion fronts in porous media with two layers layer 1 layer 2 Steve Schecter North Carolina Subject: Propagation of a combustion front through a porous medium with two parallel layers having different properties. · Each layer admits a traveling combustion wave. · The layers are coupled by heat

  4. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  5. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  6. Manganese containing layer for magnetic recording media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambeth, David N. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lee, Li-Lien (Santa Clara, CA); Laughlin, David E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a magnetic recording media incorporating Mn-containing layers between a substrate and a magnetic layer to provide media having increased coercivity and lower noise. The Mn-containing layer can be incorporated in a rotating, translating or stationary recording media to operate in conjunction with magnetic transducing heads for recording and reading of magnetic data, as well as other applications. The magnetic recording medium of the invention preferably includes a Co or Co alloy film magnetic layer, and Mn-containing layer, preferably comprised of VMn, TiMn, MnZn, CrMnMo, CrMnW, CrMnV, and CrMnTi, and most preferably a CrMn alloy, disposed between the substrate and the magnetic layer to promote an epitaxial crystalline structure in the magnetic layer. The medium can further include seed layers, preferably polycrystalline MgO for longitudinal media, underlayers, and intermediate layers. Underlayers and intermediate layers are comprised of materials having either an A2 structure or a B2-ordered crystalline structure disposed between the seed layer and the magnetic layer. Materials having an A2 structure are preferably Cr or Cr alloys, such as CrV, CrMo, CrW and CrTi. Materials having a B2-ordered structure having a lattice constant that is substantially comparable to that of Cr, such as those preferably selected from the group consisting of NiAl, AILCo, FeAl, FeTi, CoFe, CoTi, CoHf, CoZr, NiTi, CuBe, CuZn, A-LMn, AlRe, AgMg, and Al.sub.2 FeMn.sub.2, and is most preferably FeAl or NiAl.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: atomic layer deposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    layer deposition Combining 'Tinkertoy' Materials with Solar Cells for Increased Photovoltaic Efficiency On December 4, 2014, in Energy, Materials Science, News, News & Events,...

  8. Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical report explores the Enhanced Densification of SCD Barrier Layers A samaria-doped ceria (SDC) barrier layer separates the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode from the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to prevent the formation of electrically resistive interfacial SrZrO{sub 3} layers that arise from the reaction of Sr from the LSCF with Zr from the YSZ. However, the sintering temperature of this SDC layer must be limited to {approx}1200 C to avoid extensive interdiffusion between SDC and YSZ to form a resistive CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution. Therefore, the conventional SDC layer is often porous and therefore not as impervious to Sr-diffusion as would be desired. In the pursuit of improved SOFC performance, efforts have been directed toward increasing the density of the SDC barrier layer without increasing the sintering temperature. The density of the SDC barrier layer can be greatly increased through small amounts of Cu-doping of the SDC powder together with increased solids loading and use of an appropriate binder system in the screen print ink. However, the resulting performance of cells with these barrier layers did not exhibit the expected increase in accordance with that achieved with the prototypical PLD SDC layer. It was determined by XRD that increased sinterability of the SDC also results in increased interdiffusivity between the SDC and YSZ, resulting in formation of a highly resistive solid solution.

  9. Electronic Transport in Few-layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Zeng

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Charge Neutral Bilayer Graphene Introduction In thisstudy on heterogeneous graphene devices in a differentto probe few layer graphene to determine their dependence on

  10. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ); Rand, Barry P. (Somers, NY)

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A photosensitive device includes a plurality of organic photoconductive materials disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode, including a first continuous layer of donor host material, a second continuous layer of acceptor host material, and at least one other organic photoconductive material disposed as a plurality of discontinuous islands between the first continuous layer and the second continuous layer. Each of these other photoconductive materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor host material and the acceptor host material. Preferably, each of the discontinuous islands consists essentially of a crystallite of the respective organic photoconductive material, and more preferably, the crystallites are nanocrystals.

  11. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto (University of New Mexico); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  12. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of a pH-Responsive and Electrochromic Thin Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Daniel J.

    This article summarizes an experiment on thin-film fabrication with layer-by-layer assembly that is appropriate for undergraduate laboratory courses. The purpose of this experiment is to teach students about self-assembly ...

  13. An ultra-thin buffer layer for Ge epitaxial layers on Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawano, M.; Yamada, S.; Tanikawa, K.; Miyao, M.; Hamaya, K. [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sawano, K. [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Tokyo 158-0082 (Japan)] [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Tokyo 158-0082 (Japan)

    2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Using an Fe{sub 3}Si insertion layer, we study epitaxial growth of Ge layers on a Si substrate by a low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy technique. When we insert only a 10-nm-thick Fe{sub 3}Si layer in between Si and Ge, epitaxial Ge layers can be obtained on Si. The detailed structural characterizations reveal that a large lattice mismatch of {approx}4% is completely relaxed in the Fe{sub 3}Si layer. This means that the Fe{sub 3}Si layers can become ultra-thin buffer layers for Ge on Si. This method will give a way to realize a universal buffer layer for Ge, GaAs, and related devices on a Si platform.

  14. Surface engineering using layer-by-layer assembly of pH-sensitive polymers and nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Daeyeon

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface engineering of a variety of materials including colloidal particles and porous membranes has been achieved by using layer-by-layer assembly of pH-sensitive polymers and nanoparticles. In the first part of this ...

  15. Amperometric Glucose Biosensor by Means of Electrostatic Layer-by-layer Adsorption onto Electrospun Polyaniline Fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Young J.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    were formed and collected by electrospinning. Glucose oxidase was immobilized onto these fibers using an electrostatic layer-by-layer adsorption technique. In this method, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used as the counter ion source...

  16. automated spin-assisted layer-by-layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thomas 2005-01-01 16 Layer-by-Layer Assembly of a pH-Responsive and Electrochromic Thin Film MIT - DSpace Summary: This article summarizes an experiment on thin-film fabrication...

  17. Engineering the electrochromism and ion conduction of layer-by-layer assembled films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLongchamp, Dean M. (Dean Michael), 1975-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work applies the processing technique of layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly to the creation and development of new electrochemically active materials. Elements of the thin-film electrochromic cell were chosen as a particular ...

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Cationic Antiseptics in Layer-by-Layer Thin Film Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has proven to be a powerful technique for assembling thin films with a variety of properties including electrochromic, molecular sensing, oxygen barrier, and antimicrobial. LbL involves the deposition of alternating...

  19. Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, Coimbatore R. (Mt. Sinai, NY); Milau, Julius S. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.

  20. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Erik Wahlén

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct small-amplitude periodic water waves with multiple critical layers. In addition to waves with arbitrarily many critical layers and a single crest in each period, two-dimensional sets of waves with several crests and troughs in each period are found. The setting is that of steady two-dimensional finite-depth gravity water waves with vorticity.

  1. Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Rong, E-mail: rlongmech@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Dunn, Martin L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

  2. Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, J. Jr. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States) [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Department of Physics, Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, Texas 78155 (United States); Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Magee, R. M. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States) [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); TriAlpha Energy, Inc., Foothill Ranch, California 92610 (United States); Reynolds, E. [Department of Physics and Engineering, West Virginia Wesleyan, Buckhannon, West Virginia 26201 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Engineering, West Virginia Wesleyan, Buckhannon, West Virginia 26201 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability.

  3. Electropositive surface layer MPD thruster cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, F.R.; Kelly, A.J.; Jahn, R.G.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium and barium oxide have been used to generate electropositive surface layers on tungsten cathodes in low power steady state MPD thruster experiments. The electropositive surface layer decreases the cathode work function, resulting in substantial reductions in the steady state cathode operating temperature and erosion rate. Cathode temperature is reduced by 300 degrees with a lithium surface layer and by 800 degrees with a barium oxide surface layer at a 500 ampere thruster current level. These temperature reductions substantially reduce the calculated steady state evaporative erosion rate of the cathode by factors of 20 and 10,000 respectively. Cold cathode startup erosion is also reduced dramatically. The surface melting and arc cratering that is characteristic of pure tungsten cathodes does not occur with an electropositive surface layer cathode. In addition to reducing cathode erosion, the use of these materials increases thruster efficiency. 12 refs.

  4. Main Sequence Evolution with Layered Semiconvection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Kevin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconvection - mixing that occurs in regions that are stable when considering compositional gradients, but unstable when ignoring them - is shown to have the greatest potential impact on main sequence stars with masses in the range 1.2 - 1.7 solar masses. We present the first stellar evolution calculations using a prescription for semiconvection derived from extrapolation of direct numerical simulations of double-diffusive mixing down to stellar parameters. The dominant mode of semiconvection in stars is layered semiconvection, where the layer height is an adjustable parameter analogous to the mixing length in convection. The rate of mixing across the semiconvective region is sensitively dependent on the layer height. We find that there is a critical layer height that separates weak semiconvective mixing (where evolution is well-approximated by using the Ledoux criterion) from strong semiconvective mixing (where evolution is well-approximated by using the Schwarzschild criterion). This critical layer height...

  5. Electrical Engineering and Computer Cross-Layer Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Cross-Layer Design and Analysis of Wireless Networks Layer Design #12;Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Layered Approach Presentation Layer Session;Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Why not cross-layer design? · Difficulty. · Lack of insight

  6. Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure. 7 figures.

  7. Method for forming a barrier layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  8. Energy transport using natural convection boundary layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural convection is one of the major modes of energy transport in passive solar buildings. There are two primary mechanisms for natural convection heat transport through an aperture between building zones: (1) bulk density differences created by temperature differences between zones; and (2) thermosyphon pumping created by natural convection boundary layers. The primary objective of the present study is to compare the characteristics of bulk density driven and boundary layer driven flow, and discuss some of the advantages associated with the use of natural convection boundary layers to transport energy in solar building applications.

  9. Abstraction Layers for Scalable Microfluidic Biocomputers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amarasinghe, Saman

    Abstraction Layers for Scalable Microfluidic Biocomputers William Thies1 , John Paul Urbanski2 Hatsopoulos Microfluids Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology {thies, urbanski, thorsen, saman}@mit.edu Abstract. Microfluidic devices are emerging as an attractive technol- ogy for automatically orchestrating

  10. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  11. Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States) [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain)] [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

  12. Josephson vortex lattice in layered superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshelev, A. E., E-mail: koshelev@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Materials Science Division (United States); Dodgson, M. J. W. [Cavendish Laboratory, Theory of Condensed Matter Group (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Laboratory, Theory of Condensed Matter Group (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many superconducting materials are composed of weakly coupled conducting layers. Such a layered structure has a very strong influence on the properties of vortex matter in a magnetic field. This review focuses on the properties of the Josephson vortex lattice generated by the magnetic field applied in the direction of the layers. The theoretical description is based on the Lawrence-Doniach model in the London limit, which takes only the phase degree of freedom of the superconducting order parameter into account. In spite of its simplicity, this model leads to an amazingly rich set of phenomena. We review in detail the structure of an isolated vortex line and various properties of the vortex lattice, in both dilute and dense limits. In particular, we extensively discuss the influence of the layered structure and thermal fluctuations on the selection of lattice configurations at different magnetic fields.

  13. Multi-layer waste containment barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nickelson, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for constructing an underground containment barrier for containing an in-situ portion of earth. The apparatus includes an excavating device for simultaneously (i) excavating earthen material from beside the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming an open side trench defined by opposing earthen sidewalls, and (ii) excavating earthen material from beneath the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming a generally horizontal underground trench beneath the in-situ portion defined by opposing earthen sidewalls. The apparatus further includes a barrier-forming device attached to the excavating device for simultaneously forming a side barrier within the open trench and a generally horizontal, multi-layer barrier within the generally horizontal trench. The multi-layer barrier includes at least a first layer and a second layer.

  14. Finite element analysis of shells with layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiller, Jean-François, 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well established that thin shell structures frequently feature narrow bands of strain concentration and localized displacement irregularities referred to as boundary and internal layers. It is crucial to capture these ...

  15. Double layer capacitors : automotive applications and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New, David Allen, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents the work on the modeling of double layer capacitors (DLCs) and the validation of the modeling procedure. Several experiments were conducted to subject the device under test to a variety of ...

  16. Analytical Layer Planning for Nanometer VLSI Designs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chi-Yu

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    i ANALYTICAL LAYER PLANNING FOR NANOMETER VLSI DESIGNS A Thesis by CHI-YU CHANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 2012 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ii ANALYTICAL LAYER PLANNING FOR NANOMETER VLSI DESIGNS A Thesis by CHI-YU CHANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  17. Symmetry Breaking in Few Layer Graphene Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, A.; Ohta, T.; McChesney, J.L.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller,Th.; Horn, K.; Rotenberg, E.

    2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, it was demonstrated that the quasiparticledynamics, the layer-dependent charge and potential, and the c-axisscreening coefficient could be extracted from measurements of thespectral function of few layer graphene films grown epitaxially on SiCusing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). In this articlewe review these findings, and present detailed methodology for extractingsuch parameters from ARPES. We also present detailed arguments againstthe possibility of an energy gap at the Dirac crossing ED.

  18. Lattice Vibrations and Superconductivity in Layered Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Roland E.; Alldredg, GP; WETTE, FWD.

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 2, NUMBER 7 1 OCTOB ER, 1970 Lattice Vibrations and Superconductivity in Layered Structures* B. E. Allen, G. P. Alldredge, and F. W. de bette DePartment of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (Received 18... May 1970) In order to estimate the influence of both surface and interface effects on phonon frequencies and superconducting transition temperatures in layered structures, we have calculated the vibrational modes of structures composed...

  19. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  20. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  1. Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

  2. Graphene Layer Growth Chemistry: Five-Six-Ring Flip Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitesides, R.; Domin, D.; Salomon-Ferrer, R.; Lester Jr., W.A.; Frenklach, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are incorporated into growing graphene layers and hence willGRAPHENE LAYER GROWTH CHEMISTRY: FIVE-SIX-RING FLIP REACTIONon the zigzag edge of a graphene layer. A new reaction

  3. Graphene Layer Growth Chemistry: Five-Six-Ring Flip Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitesides, Russell; Domin, Dominik; Lester Jr., William A.; Frenklach, Michael

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    25-28, 2007. Topic: Soot GRAPHENE LAYER GROWTH CHEMISTRY:on the zigzag edge of a graphene layer isomerizes to reversea possibly important step in graphene layer growth, thus

  4. Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.

  5. Hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4?-oxydianiline. The successful superlattice formation with all the organic precursors is verified through x-ray reflectivity studies. The effects of the interspersed organic layers/superlattice structure on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of ZnO are investigated through resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature. The results suggest an increase in carrier concentration for small concentrations of organic layers, while higher concentrations seem to lead to rather large reductions in carrier concentration.

  6. Characterization of the plastic substrates, the reflective layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the plastic substrates, the reflective layers, the adhesives, and the grooves of today's archival-grade Characterization of the plastic substrates, the reflective layers, the...

  7. antarctic boundary layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: Boundary Layer Meteorology (METR 5103) Spring 2014 Syllabus General information Fundamentals of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and...

  8. atmosperic boundary layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: Boundary Layer Meteorology (METR 5103) Spring 2014 Syllabus General information Fundamentals of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and...

  9. Vacancies Ordered in Screw Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ordered in Screw Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide Thin Film Deposition by Laser Back Ablation. Vacancies Ordered in Screw Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide Thin Film...

  10. Amorphous layer coating induced brittle to ductile transition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    layer coating induced brittle to ductile transition in single crystalline SiC nanowires: an atomistic simulation. Amorphous layer coating induced brittle to ductile transition in...

  11. Layered Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Layered Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Layered lithium metal oxide compounds for ultra-high-capacity, rechargeable cathodes Lowers...

  12. Redox Chemistry in Thin Layers of Organometallic Complexes Prepared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redox Chemistry in Thin Layers of Organometallic Complexes Prepared Using Ion Soft Landing. Redox Chemistry in Thin Layers of Organometallic Complexes Prepared Using Ion Soft...

  13. Removal of carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium by means of soil vapor extraction enhanced by desiccation and water Removal of carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium...

  14. Removal of Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium by Means of Soil Vapor Extraction Enhanced by Desiccation and Water Removal of Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium...

  15. anisotropic porous layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Highly Porous Catalytic Layers for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Based on Carbon Aerogels Physics Websites Summary: Synthesis of Highly Porous Catalytic Layers for Polymer...

  16. Characterization of CZTSSe photovoltaic device with an atomic layer-deposited passivation layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Wei, E-mail: wei.wu@dupont.com; Cao, Yanyan; Caspar, Jonathan V.; Guo, Qijie; Johnson, Lynda K.; Mclean, Robert S.; Malajovich, Irina; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy [DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, Delaware 19880 (United States)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a CZTSSe (Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub 1?x},Se{sub x}){sub 4}) photovoltaic (PV) device with an ALD (atomic layer deposition) coated buffer dielectric layer for CZTSSe surface passivation. An ALD buffer layer, such as TiO{sub 2}, can be applied in order to reduce the interface recombination and improve the device's open-circuit voltage. Detailed characterization data including current-voltage, admittance spectroscopy, and capacitance profiling are presented in order to compare the performance of PV devices with and without the ALD layer.

  17. Metal-sensing layer-semiconductor and metal-sensing layer-metal heterostructure gas sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, M.; Li, Zheng; Fonash, S.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extremely sensitive gas sensors can be fabricated using heterostructures of the form metal-sensing layer-semiconductor or metal-sensing layer-metal. These structures are heterostructure diodes which have the barrier controlling transport at least partially located in the sensing layer. In the presence of the gas species to be detected, the electrical properties of the sensing layer evolve, resulting in a modification of the barrier to electric current transport and, hence, resulting in detection due to changes in the current-voltage characteristics of the device. This type of sensor structure is demonstrated using the Pd/Ti-O/sub x/Ti heterostructure hydrogen detector.

  18. On the role of monoterpene chemistry in the remote continental boundary layer E. C. Browne1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    MGLY methyl glyoxal PROPNN propanone nitrate MO2 methyl peroxy radical PYAC pyruvic acid MOBA organic methacrolein nitrate OP2 > C-1 organic peroxides MACRO2 peroxy radicals from MACR ORA1 formic acid MAHP methyl acrylic acid ORA2 acetic and higher acids MCTO alkoxy radicals from methyl catechol oxidation PER1 peroxy

  19. Layer-by-layer carbon nanotube electrodes for flexible chemical sensor and energy storage applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saetia, Kittipong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spray-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) technique has been investigated for creating multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) films on porous electrospun fiber mats via LbL assembly of surface-functionalized MWNTs. Negative and ...

  20. Layer-by-layer assembly of conducting membranes for photoelectrochemical cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Nicole R. (Nicole Rose)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray-assisted layer-by-layer (Spray-LbL) assembly is used to achieve vertical transfer of silicon microwire arrays into an ion-conducting, ultrathin polymer membrane. The choice of LbL platform and the properties of the ...

  1. Atomic Layer-by-Layer Thermoelectric Conversion in Topological Insulator Bismuth/Antimony Tellurides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Material design for direct heat-to-electricity conversion with substantial that the thermoelectric conversion can be interiorly achieved at the atomic steps of a homogeneous medium by directAtomic Layer-by-Layer Thermoelectric Conversion in Topological Insulator Bismuth

  2. A Micellar Route to Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Hydrophobic Functional Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yue

    A Micellar Route to Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Hydrophobic Functional Polymers Qi Bo, Xia Tong, Yi, 2008 ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a general approach to introduce hydrophobic functional polymers-chain liquid crystalline polymer (SCLCP) were synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization, followed

  3. Polyvalent surface modification of hydrocarbon polymers via covalent layer-by-layer self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Kang-Shyang

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on ionic interactions has proven to be a versatile route for surface modification and construction of ultrathin nanocomposites. Covalent LbL assembly based on facile ‘click’ covalent bond formation is an effective...

  4. Layer-by-layer assembly of electrically conductive polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan, Chien Sy Jason

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly was used to produce highly conductive thin films with carbon black (CB) and polyelectrolytes. The effects of sonication and pHadjustment of the deposition mixtures on the conductivity and transparency of deposited films...

  5. A simplex model for layered niche networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Fraundorf

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The standing crop of correlations in metazoan communities may be assessed by an inventory of niche structures focused inward and outward from the physical boundaries of skin (self), gene-pool (family), and meme-pool (culture). We consider tracking the progression from three and four correlation layers in many animal communities, to five of six layers for the shared adaptation of most humans, with an attention-slice model that maps the niche-layer focus of individuals onto the 6-variable space of a 5-simplex. The measure puts questions about the effect, on culture and species, of policy and natural events into a common context, and may help explore the impact of electronically-mediated codes on community health.

  6. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bias layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200 C, the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 {angstrom}/sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous. 4 figs.

  7. Chromatic control in coextruded layered polymer microlenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crescimanno, Michael; Andrews, James H; Zhou, Chuanhong; Petrus, Joshua B; Merlo, Cory; Bagheri, Cameron; Hetzel, Connor; Tancabel, James; Singer, Kenneth D; Baer, Eric

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the formation, characterization and theoretical understanding of microlenses comprised of alternating polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate layers produced by multilayer coextrusion. These lenses are fabricated by photolithography, using a grayscale mask followed by plasma etching, so that the refractive index alternation of the bilayer stack appears across the radius of the microlens. The alternating quarter-wave thick layers form a one-dimensional photonic crystal whose dispersion augments the material dispersion, allowing one to sculpt the chromatic dispersion of the lens by adjusting the layered structure. Using Huygen's principle, we model our experimental measurements of the focal length of these lenses across the reflection band of the multilayer polymer film from which the microlens is fashioned. For a 56 micron diameter multilayered lens of focal length 300 microns, we measured a nearly 25 percent variation in the focal length across a shallow, 50 nm-wide reflection band.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF COMBUSTION IN A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, R.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaporation, but the thermophoretic migration of particlesboundary layer due to thermophoretic motion and evaporation

  9. Double layer field shaping systems for toroidal plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi (La Jolla, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for plasma generation, confinement and control such as Tokamak plasma systems are described having a two layer field shaping coil system comprising an inner coil layer close to the plasma and an outer coil layer to minimize the current in the inner coil layer.

  10. LVT: A Layered Verification Technique for Distributed Computing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsson, Ron

    LVT: A Layered Verification Technique for Distributed Computing Systems Cui Zhang ? , Brian R of distributed computing systems with multiple component layers. Each lower layer in such a system provides languages as interfaces of systems, LVT treats each layer in a distributed computing system as a distributed

  11. Numerical Simulation of the Wave Bottom Boundary Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slinn, Donald

    boundary layer. Oscillatory boundary layers are examined using a high-resolution time-dependent threeNumerical Simulation of the Wave Bottom Boundary Layer Over a Smooth Surface. Part 1: Three for turbulent boundary layers that occur over a smooth bottom. Results indicate that turbulence levels

  12. Pd/Ni-WO3 anodic double layer gasochromic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.

  13. Fusion Utility in the Knudsen Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Seth [PPPL; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [PPPL

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In inertial confi#12;nement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared to those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer e#11;ffect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate restoring the reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  14. Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In inertial confinement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared with those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer effect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate the restoring reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  15. Energetic particle acceleration in shear layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ostrowski

    1999-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma velocity shear layer and/or a tangential flow discontinuity provide conditions allowing for energetic particle acceleration. We review such acceleration processes acting both in non-relativistic and in relativistic flows. In heliospheric conditions shear layers can provide particles with energies compatible with the observed values (from several keV up to MeV), while in relativistic extragalactic jets proton energies even in excess of 10^{19} eV can be obtained. Application of the discussed theory to particular astrophysical objects is severely limited by inadequate knowledge of local physical conditions.

  16. Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX)

    1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick Cds layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the C This invention was made with Government support under Subcontract No. ZL-7-06031-3 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  17. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  18. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  19. Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

  20. Physical-Layer Security Alexandra Filip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henkel, Werner

    Physical-Layer Security by Alexandra Filip A thesis for conferral of a Master of Science the bit-error ratio (BER). Secondly, the focus is placed on blind beamforming algorithms, techniques investigate how fast and accurate an eavesdropper can obtain the data as a result of blind beamforming

  1. Functional Data Analysis With Multi Layer Perceptrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleuret, François

    Analysis. We introduce a computation model for functional input data and we show that this model is a wellFunctional Data Analysis With Multi Layer Perceptrons Fabrice Rossi , Brieuc Conan-Guez and Fran as clas- sical multivariate data, because they are in general de- scribed by a finite set of input

  2. Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, Virginia

    2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution and transport of aerosol emitted to the lower troposphere is governed by the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which limits the dilution of pollutants and influences boundary-layer convection. Because radiative heating and cooling of the surface strongly affect the PBL top height, it follows diurnal and seasonal cycles and may vary by hundreds of meters over a 24-hour period. The cap the PBL imposes on low-level aerosol transport makes aerosol concentration an effective proxy for PBL height: the top of the PBL is marked by a rapid transition from polluted, well-mixed boundary-layer air to the cleaner, more stratified free troposphere. Micropulse lidar (MPL) can provide much higher temporal resolution than radiosonde and better vertical resolution than infrared spectrometer (AERI), but PBL heights from all three instruments at the ARM SGP site are compared to one another for validation. If there is agreement among them, the higher-resolution remote sensing-derived PBL heights can accurately fill in the gaps left by the low frequency of radiosonde launches, and thus improve model parameterizations and our understanding of boundary-layer processes.

  3. Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sawyer, Virginia

    The distribution and transport of aerosol emitted to the lower troposphere is governed by the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which limits the dilution of pollutants and influences boundary-layer convection. Because radiative heating and cooling of the surface strongly affect the PBL top height, it follows diurnal and seasonal cycles and may vary by hundreds of meters over a 24-hour period. The cap the PBL imposes on low-level aerosol transport makes aerosol concentration an effective proxy for PBL height: the top of the PBL is marked by a rapid transition from polluted, well-mixed boundary-layer air to the cleaner, more stratified free troposphere. Micropulse lidar (MPL) can provide much higher temporal resolution than radiosonde and better vertical resolution than infrared spectrometer (AERI), but PBL heights from all three instruments at the ARM SGP site are compared to one another for validation. If there is agreement among them, the higher-resolution remote sensing-derived PBL heights can accurately fill in the gaps left by the low frequency of radiosonde launches, and thus improve model parameterizations and our understanding of boundary-layer processes.

  4. Nano-soldering to single atomic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girit, Caglar O. (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, CA)

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

  5. Quantitative methods for Regulatory control layer selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    and the method is evaluated on two distillation column case studies with one, two or more closed loops. Keywords, a single multivariable controller (e.g. using MPC with no lower-layer PID controllers) would be optimal into the MPC design, so tuning would become Corresponding author address. Tel: +47 73 59 41 54; fax: +47 73 59

  6. Double layer capacitor prospects look good

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fourth International Seminar in Double Layer Capacitors and similar energy devices has been sponsored again by Dr. S.P. Wolsky and Dr. Nikola Marincic. The seminar was held in December 1994, at Deerfield Beach, FL. This report provides a brief description of information on supercapacitors.

  7. Intrusive gravity currents in two-layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, Morris R.

    Intrusive gravity currents in two-layer stratified media Morris R. Flynn & Paul F. Linden Dept.avalanche.org/pictures #12;· `Microbursts' pose a non-trivial threat to airplane safety Introduction Impacts on human health;· Whereas gravity currents travel along a solid boundary, intrusive gravity currents or intrusions propagate

  8. Synthesis of a Cationic Inorganic Layered Material for Trapping Anionic Pharmaceutical Pollutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergo, Kevin Michael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CRUZ SYNTHESIS OF A CATIONIC INORGANIC LAYERED MATERIAL FORAbstract Synthesis of a Cationic Inorganic Layered Material

  9. Layer-by-layer Assembly of Nanobrick Wall Ultrathin Transparent Gas Barrier Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priolo, Morgan Alexander

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin layers with high barrier to oxygen and other gases are a key component to many packaging applications, such as flexible electronics, food, and pharmaceuticals. Vapor deposited thin films provide significant gas barrier, but are prone...

  10. Layer-by-layer Assembly of Nanobrick Wall Ultrathin Transparent Gas Barrier Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priolo, Morgan Alexander

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    to cracking when flexed, require special, non-ambient processing environments, and can involve complex fabrication when layered with polymers. The addition of clay into polymers can enhance barrier properties relative to the neat polymer; however...

  11. Elastodynamic behavior of the three dimensional layer-by-layer metamaterial structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Economou, E. N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology—Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion GR-71110, Greece and Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion GR-71003 (Greece)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we numerically investigate for the first time the elastodynamic behavior of a three dimensional layer-by-layer rod structure, which is easy to fabricate and has already proved to be very efficient as a photonic crystal. The Finite Difference Time Domain method was used for the numerical calculations. For the rods, several materials were examined and the effects of all the geometric parameters of the structure were also numerically investigated. Additionally, two modifications of the structure were included in our calculations. The results obtained here (for certain geometric parameters), exhibiting a high ratio of longitudinal over transverse sound velocity and therefore a close approach to ideal pentamode behavior over a frequency range, clearly show that the layer-by-layer rod structure, besides being an efficient photonic crystal, is a very serious contender as an elastodynamic metamaterial.

  12. Buried layer/connecting layer high energy implantation for improved CMOS latch-up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W. [Silicon Engineering, Austin, TX (United States); Rubin, L. [Eaton Corporation, Beverly, MA (United States); Wristers, D. [Advanced Micro Devices, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated P-Buried Layer formed by MeV ion implantation combined with a localized P-Connecting Layer has been studied for latch-up isolation improvements for advanced CMOS technology. Latch-up trigger currents have been characterized with regards to buried layer dose/energy, connecting layer dose/energy, and n-well retrograde dose. Simulation results confirmed by data indicate that P+ injection trigger currents > 450 {mu}A/{mu}m can be achieved by utilizing certain combinations of B.L./C.L. and n-well retrograde doses for n+/p+ spacings = 2.0{mu}m. The B.L./C.L. process architecture shows great promise for providing an alternative isolation technique for latch-up improvement that is easy to implement, and for eliminating the dependence on epi silicon for latch-up control.

  13. The Effect of Nanoparticles on the Thermal Transitions of Hydrated Layer-by-Layer Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puhr, Joseph Timothy

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ). 27 Figure 9. The various film configurations studied in this work. Parts a), c), and e) correspond to films incorporating SiO2 nanospheres, while parts b), d), and f) correspond to films incorporating LAP nanoplatelets. Polyethyleneimine... the nanospheres slowly embedding themselves in the film, thereby leading to film densification. SiO2 embedment in a PDAC layer is not an unusual phenomenon, being previously observed by Xu et al. [49]. In their experiments a single layer of PDAC was deposited...

  14. Inherent and apparent scattering properties of coated or uncoated spheres embedded in an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including cloud droplets can be well approximated as spheres in light-scattering calcula- tions. The Lorenz in both solar and infrared spectral regions. For scattering of solar and infrared radiation by atmospheric- rological Satellite Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1225 West Dayton Street, Madison, Wisconsin

  15. High thermal conductivity lossy dielectric using a multi layer configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for loss dielectrics. A loss dielectric includes at least one high dielectric loss layer and at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. A method of manufacturing a loss dielectric includes providing at least one high dielectric loss layer and providing at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. The systems and methods provide advantages because the loss dielectrics are less costly and more environmentally friendly than the available alternatives.

  16. Turbulent Fluxes in Stably Stratified Boundary Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L'vov, Victor S; Rudenko, Oleksii; 10.1088/0031-8949/2008/T132/014010

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an extended version of an invited talk given on the International Conference "Turbulent Mixing and Beyond". The dynamical and statistical description of stably stratified turbulent boundary layers with the important example of the stable atmospheric boundary layer in mind is addressed. Traditional approaches to this problem, based on the profiles of mean quantities, velocity second-order correlations, and dimensional estimates of the turbulent thermal flux run into a well known difficulty, predicting the suppression of turbulence at a small critical value of the Richardson number, in contradiction with observations. Phenomenological attempts to overcome this problem suffer from various theoretical inconsistencies. Here we present an approach taking into full account all the second-order statistics, which allows us to respect the conservation of total mechanical energy. The analysis culminates in an analytic solution of the profiles of all mean quantities and all second-order correlations removing t...

  17. Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norem, J; Pellin, M J; Antoine, C Z; Ciovati, G; Kneisel, P; Reece, C E; Rimmer, R A; Cooley, L; Gurevich, A V; Ha, Y; Proslier, Th

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: 1) evidence from point contact tunneling showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, 2) experimental results showing the production sharp niobium/oxide interfaces from a high temperature bake of ALD coated Al2O3 on niobium surfaces, 3) results from ALD coated structures.

  18. Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proslier, Th.; Ha, Y.; Zasadzinski, J.; /IIT, Chicago; Ciovati, G.; Kneissel, P.; Reece, C.; Rimmer, R.; /Jefferson Lab; Gurevich, A.; /Natl. High Mag. Field Lab.; Cooley, L.; Wu, G.; /Fermilab; Pellin, M.; /Argonne

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: (1) results from ALD coated cavities and coupons, (2) new evidence from point contact tunneling (PCT) showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, (3) a study of high pressure rinsing damage on niobium samples.

  19. Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

    2010-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are consistent with an impact followed by intense burning. Four holes in the Great Lakes, some deeper than Death Valley, are proposed as possible craters produced by the airburst breakup of a loosely aggregated projectile.

  20. Design and Implementation of Physical Layer Network Coding Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maduike, Dumezie K.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There has recently been growing interest in using physical layer network coding techniques to facilitate information transfer in wireless relay networks. The physical layer network coding technique takes advantage of the additive nature of wireless...

  1. Formation Of The Spinel Phase In The Layered Composite Cathode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of The Spinel Phase In The Layered Composite Cathode Used In Li-Ion Batteries. Formation Of The Spinel Phase In The Layered Composite Cathode Used In Li-Ion Batteries. Abstract:...

  2. auroral double layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Layer Gilles the flow of a viscous fluid around a thin layer of porous material. Using a BKW method, we perform an asymptotic expansion of the solution when a little parameter,...

  3. Soil Insulation For Barrier Layer Protection In Landfill Covers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory Smith Roy

    Landfill covers are designed to isolate waste from the environment by incorporating low-permeability barrier layers. The barrier layer minimizes and controls gas escaping from the waste and the amount of infiltrating moisture available for leachate generation. Barrier layers are typically designed and constructed of a thick layer of compacted fine-grain native soil material or a manufactured geosynthetic clay liner. The barrier layer must be protected from frost damage. Freezing of a compacted soil layer has been shown to cause quick and irreversible degradation. Large increases in permeability have been demonstrated in compacted clay barriers subjected to a minimum number of freezing and thawing cycles. Design methods to protect the barrier layer from frost damage have not been addressed in the research literature. A design procedure is addressed in this paper that determines the thickness of soil required to protect a barrier layer. The procedure is based on sitespecific temperature ...

  4. Effect of Gallium Nitride Template Layer Strain on the Growth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gallium Nitride Template Layer Strain on the Growth of InxGa1-xNGaN Multiple Quantum Well Light Emitting Diodes. Effect of Gallium Nitride Template Layer Strain on the Growth of...

  5. Turbulent transport across shear layers in magnetically confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nold, B.; Ramisch, M. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universität Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Manz, P.; Birkenmeier, G. [Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ribeiro, T. T.; Müller, H. W.; Scott, B. D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fuchert, G. [IJL, Université de Lorraine, CNRS (UMR 7198), BP 40239 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Stroth, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Shear layers modify the turbulence in diverse ways and do not only suppress it. A spatial-temporal investigation of gyrofluid simulations in comparison with experiments allows to identify further details of the transport process across shear layers. Blobs in and outside a shear layer merge, thereby exchange particles and heat and subsequently break up. Via this mechanism particles and heat are transported radially across shear layers. Turbulence spreading is the immanent mechanism behind this process.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Few Layer Semiconducting Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mann, John Calif

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preparation of single layer films by laser-based thinning,[26] plasma thinning,[27] liquid exfoliation,[28-31] graphene

  7. Modelling of fatigue crack tunneling and delamination in layered composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Norman A.

    and GLARE are laminates consisting of an alternating stack of aluminium alloy sheets and fibre­epoxy layers

  8. A Layered Approach to Complex Negotiations Xiaoqin Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiaoqin

    Honeywell Laboratories Tom.Wagner@honeywell.com May 17, 2004 Abstract In this paper, we present a layered

  9. Love wave propagation in layered magneto-electro-elastic structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ji

    Love wave propagation in layered magneto-electro-elastic structures with initial stress J. Du, X that the initial stress has an important effect on the Love wave propagation in layered piezomagnetic at their interface. He concluded that shear surface waves propagate in the layer and attenuate along the thickness

  10. Evolution of the layers in a subsumption architecture robot controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Togelius, Julian

    Evolution of the layers in a subsumption architecture robot controller Julian Togelius Dissertation julian@togelius.com +46-705-192088 #12;2 Abstract An approach to robotics called layered evolution. The evolvability and performance of layered evolution on this task is compared to (standard) monolithic evolution

  11. Effective anomalous Hall coefficient in an ultrathin Co layer sandwiched by Pt layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Di; Jiang, Zhengsheng; Sang, Hai, E-mail: weiwei.lin@u-psud.fr, E-mail: haisang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lin, Weiwei, E-mail: weiwei.lin@u-psud.fr, E-mail: haisang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay 91405 (France)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pt multilayer is important to study the effect of interface with strong spin-orbit coupling. However, the shunting effect of the layers in such system and the circuit in the plane perpendicular to the injected current were overlooked in most works and thus, anomalous Hall coefficient in Co/Pt multilayer has not been determined accurately. Considering the shunting effect and the equivalent circuit, we show that the effective anomalous Hall coefficient of a 0.5?nm thick Co layer sandwiched by Pt layers R{sub S} is 0.29?±?0.01????cm/T at the zero temperature limit and increases to about 0.73????cm/T at the temperature of 300?K. R{sub S} is one order larger than that in bulk Co film, indicating the large contribution of the Co/Pt interface. R{sub S} increases with the resistivity of Co as well as a resistivity independent contribution of ?0.23?±?0.01????cm/T. The equivalent anomalous Hall current in the Co layer has a maximum of 1.1% of the injected transverse current in the Co layer around the temperature of 80?K.

  12. Mechanical and Transport Properties of Layer-by-Layer Electrospun Composite Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mannarino, Matthew M.

    Composite membranes composed of highly conductive and selective layer-by-layer (LbL) films and electrospun fiber mats were fabricated and characterized for mechanical strength and electrochemical selectivity. The LbL ...

  13. Layer-by-layer assembled carbon nanotube nanostructures for high-power and high-energy lithium storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallant, Betar M. (Betar Maurkah)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic assembly technique is utilized to incorporate positively- and negatively-charged electroactive species in self-assembled electrodes that are binder- and additive- free. This work first ...

  14. Scalable Manufacture of Built-to-Order Nanomedicine: Spray-Assisted Layer-by-Layer Functionalization of PRINT Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herlihy, Kevin P.

    Scalable methods, PRINT particle fabrication, and spray-assisted Layer-by-Layer deposition are combined to generate uniform and functional nanotechnologies with precise control over composition, size, shape, and surface ...

  15. 2007 Raj JainCSE571SWashington University in St. Louis Secure Socket Layer (SSL)Secure Socket Layer (SSL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    15-1 ©2007 Raj JainCSE571SWashington University in St. Louis Secure Socket Layer (SSL)Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layerand Transport Layer Security (TLS)Security (TLS) Raj Jain Washington in St. Louis OverviewOverview History and overview of SSL/TLS Products and Implementations Datagram

  16. 2009 Raj JainCSE571SWashington University in St. Louis Secure Socket Layer (SSL)Secure Socket Layer (SSL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    15-1 ©2009 Raj JainCSE571SWashington University in St. Louis Secure Socket Layer (SSL)Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layerand Transport Layer Security (TLS)Security (TLS) Raj Jain Washington in St. Louis OverviewOverview History and overview of SSL/TLS Products and Implementations Datagram

  17. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan to look more closely at Vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2-8(H2O)] and Siderite [FeCO3] in the next stage of the project.

  18. Layered zeolite materials and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Maheshwari, Sudeep; Bates, Frank S; Koros, William J

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel oxide material (MIN-I) comprising YO.sub.2; and X.sub.2O.sub.3, wherein Y is a tetravalent element and X is a trivalent element, wherein X/Y=O or Y/X=30 to 100 is provided. Surprisingly, MIN-I can be reversibly deswollen. MIN-I can further be combined with a polymer to produce a nanocomposite, depolymerized to produce predominantly fully exfoliated layers (MIN-2), and pillared to produce a pillared oxide material (MIN-3), analogous to MCM-36. The materials are useful in a wide range of applications, such as catalysts, thin films, membranes, and coatings.

  19. Ruthenium / aerogel nanocomposits via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, J; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y; Nelson, E J; Kucheyev, S O; Hamza, A V; Kemell, M; Ritala, M; Leskela, M

    2006-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general approach to prepare metal/aerogel nanocomposites via template directed atomic layer deposition (ALD). In particular, we used a Ru ALD process consisting of alternating exposures to bis(cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium (RuCp{sub 2}) and air at 350 C to deposit metallic Ru nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of carbon and silica aerogels. The process does not affect the morphology of the aerogel template and offers excellent control over metal loading by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. We also discuss the limitations of our ALD approach, and suggest ways to overcome these.

  20. Rateless Codes with Progressive Recovery for Layered Multimedia Delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhao; Xu, Mai; Lu, Jianhua

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a novel approach, based on unequal error protection, to enhance rateless codes with progressive recovery for layered multimedia delivery. With a parallel encoding structure, the proposed Progressive Rateless codes (Pro-Rateless) assign unequal redundancy to each layer in accordance with their importance. Each output symbol contains information from all layers, and thus the stream layers can be recovered progressively at the expected received ratios of output symbols. Furthermore, the dependency between layers is naturally considered. The performance of the Pro-Rateless is evaluated and compared with some related UEP approaches. Results show that our Pro-Rateless approach provides better performance both theoretically and numerically.

  1. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir City, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  2. Buffer layers for REBCO films for use in superconducting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface. A biaxially textured buffer layer, which can be a cap layer, is supported by the substrate. The buffer layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different transition metal cations. A biaxially textured superconductor layer is deposited so as to be supported by the buffer layer. A method of making a superconducting article is also disclosed.

  3. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  4. Organic photovoltaic cell incorporating electron conducting exciton blocking layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to photosensitive optoelectronic devices including a compound blocking layer located between an acceptor material and a cathode, the compound blocking layer including: at least one electron conducting material, and at least one wide-gap electron conducting exciton blocking layer. For example, 3,4,9,10 perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI) and 1,4,5,8-napthalene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (NTCDA) function as electron conducting and exciton blocking layers when interposed between the acceptor layer and cathode. Both materials serve as efficient electron conductors, leading to a fill factor as high as 0.70. By using an NTCDA/PTCBI compound blocking layer structure increased power conversion efficiency is achieved, compared to an analogous device using a conventional blocking layers shown to conduct electrons via damage-induced midgap states.

  5. Combining multi-layered bitmap files using network specific hardware

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBois, David H. (Los Alamos, NM); DuBois, Andrew J. (Santa Fe, NM); Davenport, Carolyn Connor (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Images and video can be produced by compositing or alpha blending a group of image layers or video layers. Increasing resolution or the number of layers results in increased computational demands. As such, the available computational resources limit the images and videos that can be produced. A computational architecture in which the image layers are packetized and streamed through processors can be easily scaled so to handle many image layers and high resolutions. The image layers are packetized to produce packet streams. The packets in the streams are received, placed in queues, and processed. For alpha blending, ingress queues receive the packetized image layers which are then z sorted and sent to egress queues. The egress queue packets are alpha blended to produce an output image or video.

  6. The Deep Layers of Sunspot Umbrae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stellmacher, Goetz

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We model the deepest observable layers of dark sunspot umbral atmospheres in terms of an empirical model which equally describes observed near infrared continuum intensities and line profiles. We use the umbral continuum intensity at 1.67 nm and the three C I lines at 1,6888, 1,7449 and 1,7456 nm to model the deep layers near the minimum of H- absorption. We find that a radiative equilibrium stratification yields the best compromise between continuum and C I line observations. We determine the effective temperature from the umbral and photospheric flux ratio by down-scaling the monochromatic photospheric flux with the umbral contrast for each frequency. The thus obtained monochromatic umbral flux and the photospheric one are integratied over the whole frequency range, yielding the ratio of total umbral and photospheric flux, which gives 3560 K < T_eff < 3780 K. We assume for our model M3 T_eff=3750 K and fit M3 to the theoretical model by Meyer et al. (1974). Comparison of the model's 'nabla' gradient w...

  7. Electron holography of devices with epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gribelyuk, M. A., E-mail: Michael.gribelyuk@globalfoundries.com; Ontalus, V.; Baumann, F. H.; Zhu, Z.; Holt, J. R. [IBM Systems and Technology Group, Hopewell Junction, New York 12533 (United States)

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Applicability of electron holography to deep submicron Si devices with epitaxial layers is limited due to lack of the mean inner potential data and effects of the sample tilt. The mean inner potential V{sub 0}?=?12.75?V of the intrinsic epitaxial SiGe was measured by electron holography in devices with Ge content C{sub Ge}?=?18%. Nanobeam electron diffraction analysis performed on the same device structure showed that SiGe is strain-free in [220] direction. Our results showed good correlation with simulations of the mean inner potential of the strain-free SiGe using density function theory. A new method is proposed in this paper to correct electron holography data for the overlap of potentials of Si and the epitaxial layer, which is caused by the sample tilt. The method was applied to the analysis of the dopant diffusion in p-Field-effect Transistor devices with the identical gate length L?=?30?nm, which had alternative SiGe geometry in the source and drain regions and was subjected to different thermal processing. Results have helped to understand electrical data acquired from the same devices in terms of dopant diffusion.

  8. Thin layer chromatography residue applicator sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Kelly, Fredrick R. (Modesto, CA); Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Andresen, Brian D. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin layer chromatograph residue applicator sampler. The residue applicator sampler provides for rapid analysis of samples containing high explosives, chemical warfare, and other analyses of interest under field conditions. This satisfied the need for a field-deployable, small, hand-held, all-in-one device for efficient sampling, sample dissolution, and sample application to an analytical technique. The residue applicator sampler includes a sampling sponge that is resistant to most chemicals and is fastened via a plastic handle in a hermetically sealed tube containing a known amount of solvent. Upon use, the wetted sponge is removed from the sealed tube and used as a swiping device across an environmental sample. The sponge is then replaced in the hermetically sealed tube where the sample remains contained and dissolved in the solvent. A small pipette tip is removably contained in the hermetically sealed tube. The sponge is removed and placed into the pipette tip where a squeezing-out of the dissolved sample from the sponge into the pipette tip results in a droplet captured in a vial for later instrumental analysis, or applied directly to a thin layer chromatography plate for immediate analysis.

  9. Redox Active Layer-by-Layer Structures containing MnO2 Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazito, Fernanda; O'Brien, Robert; Buttry, Daniel A.

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale materials provide unique properties that will enable new technologies and enhance older ones. One area of intense activity in which nanoscale materials are being used is in the development of new functional materials for battery applications. This effort promises superior materials with properties that circumvent many of the problems associated with traditional battery materials. Previously we have worked on several approaches for using nanoscale materials for application as cathode materials in rechargeable Li batteries. Our recent work has focused on synthesizing MnO2 nanoparticles and using these in layer-by-layer (LbL) structures to probe the redox properties of the nanoparticles. We show that the aqueous colloidal nanoparticles produced by butanol reduction of tetramethylammonium permanganate can be trapped in thin films using a layer-by-layer deposition approach, and that these films are both redox active and exhibit kinetically facile electrochemical responses. We show cyclic voltammetry of MnO2 colloidal nanoparticles entrapped in a LbL thin film at an ITO electrode surface using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). CV experiments demonstrate that Li+ insertion accompanies Mn(IV) reduction in LiClO4 supporting electrolytes, and that reduction is hindered in supporting electrolytes containing only tetrabutylammonium cations. We also show that electron propagation through multilayer films is facile, suggesting that electrons percolate through the films via electron exchange between nanoparticles.

  10. Low Cost, Single Layer Replacement for the Back-Sheet and Encapsulant Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Thapa, P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) based polymers have been formulated for specific use in photovoltaic modules to produce better performance and longer term stability at a lower cost than standard materials. EPDM formulations are advantageous over ethylene vinyl-acetate (EVA) because they can use the same lamination/cure cycle as EVA, they do not need a second back-sheet protective material (e.g. PET/Tedlar), they have a lower glass transition temperature, no melting transition, more constant mechanical moduli as a function of temperature, they are less polar than EVA (provides better corrosion protection), and they have excellent damp heat (85 C/85% relative humidity) resistance against delamination. Module designs typically use EVA on the back side of cells despite the fact that transparency is not advantageous. We have developed a single encapsulant layer that will replace standard module back-sheet constructions consisting of EVA/PET/Tedlar. Because a single low-cost material layer is used, it will provide a significant materials cost savings of about $6 to $8/m{sup 2} as compared to traditional back-sheets. Electrical insulation tests were conducted using 0.85 mm thick stainless steel sheets as a model for a cell. It was found that a polymer layer thickness of about 0.33mm provided better high voltage electrical insulation than a combined film of Tedla (0.038 mm)/PET (0.051 mm)/EVA (0.55 mm). When formulated with a white pigment, reflectivity was comparable to Tedlar{trademark}. Upon accelerated exposure to light at 60C and 60% RH it was found that an EVA layer in front of these materials would decompose before significant yellowing and delamination of the back EPDM layer occurs.

  11. Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens O. Yaroshchuk,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens O. Yaroshchuk,1 V photoaligning layers by thin layers of reactive mesogens, strong enhancement in LC alignment stability layer, the photoalignment technique minimizes me- chanical damage and electric charging, provides

  12. Hand portable thin-layer chromatography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Kelly, Fredrick R. (Modesto, CA); Bushman, John F. (Oakley, CA); Wiefel, Michael H. (La Honda, CA); Jensen, Wayne A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  13. Cleaning graphene with a titanium sacrificial layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joiner, C. A., E-mail: cjoiner3@gatech.edu; Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is a promising material for future electronic applications and chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper is a promising method for synthesizing graphene on the wafer scale. The processing of such graphene films into electronic devices introduces a variety of contaminants which can be difficult to remove. An approach to cleaning residues from the graphene channel is presented in which a thin layer of titanium is deposited via thermal e-beam evaporation and immediately removed. This procedure does not damage the graphene as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy, greatly enhances the electrical performance of the fabricated graphene field effect transistors, and completely removes the chemical residues from the surface of the graphene channel as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  14. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajoure, Meloud, E-mail: Tajoore2000@yahoo.com [MechanicalEng.,HIHM,Gharian (Libya); Tajouri, Ali, E-mail: Tajouri-am@yahoo.com, E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar, E-mail: Tajouri-am@yahoo.com, E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com [Materials and Metallurgical Eng., UOT, Tripoli (Libya); Akreem, Mosbah, E-mail: makreem@yahoo.com [Industrial Research Centre,Tripoli (Libya)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  15. Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson; Christopher S. (Naperville, IL), Thackeray; Michael M. (Naperville, IL), Vaughey; John T. (Elmhurst, IL), Kahaian; Arthur J. (Chicago, IL), Kim; Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

  16. Forty kilojoule carbon double layer capacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, D.A. [Evans Co., East Providence, RI (United States)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evans was awarded a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant from the Department of the Navy to determine if carbon double layer capacitor (DLC) technology could be used as a bridge DC power source for submarine computer systems. The Navy is interested in the technology because DLCs have high power density, require no maintenance, and are free of the hazards commonly associated with batteries. The proposed work had three main objectives: First, to design a DLC power source capable of a 15 kw average discharge rate for a minimum of 100 ms. The operating voltage was to be selected by external buss connections at 15 to 120 volts. And, the unit needed to be sealed to prevent contamination and electrolyte loss. Second, to fabricate the device according to this design and third, to measure the electrical characteristics, evaluate power performance, and report the results to the Navy. This article describes the design and performance of the capacitor.

  17. Performance evaluation of Threshold-based Multi-layer Traffic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López, Víctor

    at the IP layer [2]. This way, the optical layer may be used to reduce the CAPEX and OPEX requirements

  18. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David; Waldhauer, Ann

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  19. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D; Waldhauer, Ann

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  20. Photovoltaic Cell Having A P-Type Polycrystalline Layer With Large Crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX)

    1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic cell has an n-type polycrystalline layer and a p-type polycrystalline layer adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer to form a photovoltaic junction. The p-type polycrystalline layer comprises a substantially planar layer portion having relatively large crystals adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer. The planar layer portion includes oxidized impurities which contribute to obtainment of p-type electrical properties in the planar layer portion.

  1. Evaluate Si Layers: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-255

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teplin, C.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluate Si layers based on heteroepitaxial Si growth on RABITS textured metal substrates coated with textured buffer layers.

  2. Power Control in Multi-Layer Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davaslioglu, Kemal

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the possible performance gains of power control in multi-layer cellular systems where microcells and picocells are distributed within macrocells. Although multilayers in cellular networks help increase system capacity and coverage, and can reduce total energy consumption; they cause interference, reducing the performance of the network. Therefore, downlink transmit power levels of multi-layer hierarchical cellular networks need to be controlled in order to fully exploit their benefits. In this work, we present an analytical derivation to determine optimum power levels for two-layer cellular networks and generalize our solution to multi-layer cellular networks. We also simulate our results in a typical multi-layer network setup and observe significant power savings compared to single-layer cellular networks.

  3. Effect of temperature on layer separation by plasma hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di, Z. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Rossi, F. [Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 21020 Ispra (Italy); Shao, L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3133 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Thompson, P. E. [Code 6812, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375-5347 (United States)

    2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied hydrogen diffusion in plasma hydrogenated Si/SiGe/Si heterostructure at different temperatures. At low temperature, intrinsic point defects in the molecular beam epitaxy grown Si capping layer are found to compete with the buried strain SiGe layer for hydrogen trapping. The interaction of hydrogen with point defects affects the hydrogen long-range diffusion, and restricts the amount of hydrogen available for trapping by the SiGe layer. However, hydrogen trapping by the capping layer is attenuated with increasing hydrogenation temperature allowing more hydrogen to be trapped in the strain SiGe layer with subsequent surface blister formation. A potential temperature window for plasma hydrogenation induced layer separation is identified based on the combined considerations of trap-limited diffusion at low temperature and outdiffusion of H{sub 2} molecule together with the dissociation of Si-H bonds inside of H platelet at high temperature.

  4. Effect of temperature on layer separation by plasma-hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di, Zengfeng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michael, Nastasi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied hydrogen diffusion in plasma hydrogenated Si/SiGe/Si heterostructure at different temperatures. At low temperature, intrinsic point defects in the molecular beam epitaxy grown Si capping layer are found to compete with the buried strain SiGe layer for hydrogen trapping. The interaction of hydrogen with point defects affects the hydrogen long-range diffusion, and restricts the amount of hydrogen available for trapping by the SiGe layer. However, hydrogen trapping by the capping layer is attenuated with increasing hydrogenation temperature allowing more hydrogen to be trapped in the strain SiGe layer with subsequent surface blister formation. A potential temperature window for plasma hydrogenation induced layer separation is identified based on the combined considerations of trap-limited diffusion at low temperature and outdiffusion of H{sub 2} molecule together with the dissociation of Si-H bonds inside of H platelet at high temperature.

  5. Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qingwu (Chelmsford, MA); Li, Wenguang (Andover, MA); Jiang, Hua (Methuen, MA)

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

  6. Methods for making thin layers of crystalline materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G; Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Tanto, Boy

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for making growth templates for the epitaxial growth of compound semiconductors and other materials are provided. The growth templates are thin layers of single-crystalline materials that are themselves grown epitaxially on a substrate that includes a thin layer of sacrificial material. The thin layer of sacrificial material, which creates a coherent strain in the single-crystalline material as it is grown thereon, includes one or more suspended sections and one or more supported sections.

  7. Dual ion beam assisted deposition of biaxially textured template layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, James R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Hammond, Robert H.

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed towards a process and apparatus for epitaxial deposition of a material, e.g., a layer of MgO, onto a substrate such as a flexible metal substrate, using dual ion beams for the ion beam assisted deposition whereby thick layers can be deposited without degradation of the desired properties by the material. The ability to deposit thicker layers without loss of properties provides a significantly broader deposition window for the process.

  8. Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene Layers in Gas Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Thuiner; R. Hall-Wilton; R. B. Jackman; H. Müller; T. T. Nguyen; E. Oliveri; D. Pfeiffer; F. Resnati; L. Ropelewski; J. A. Smith; M. van Stenis; R. Veenhof

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical, electrical and optical properties. For the first time graphene layers suspended on copper meshes were installed into a gas detector equipped with a gaseous electron multiplier. Measurements of low energy electron and ion transfer through graphene were conducted. In this paper we describe the sample preparation for suspended graphene layers, the testing procedures and we discuss the preliminary results followed by a prospect of further applications.

  9. Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene Layers in Gas Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thuiner, P; Jackman, R B; Müller, H; Nguyen, T T; Oliveri, E; Pfeiffer, D; Resnati, F; Ropelewski, L; Smith, J A; van Stenis, M; Veenhof, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical, electrical and optical properties. For the first time graphene layers suspended on copper meshes were installed into a gas detector equipped with a gaseous electron multiplier. Measurements of low energy electron and ion transfer through graphene were conducted. In this paper we describe the sample preparation for suspended graphene layers, the testing procedures and we discuss the preliminary results followed by a prospect of further applications.

  10. adherent cell layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Djilali, Supervisor Victoria, University of 110 Electrochimica Acta 52 (2006) 14171425 Optimization of cathode catalyst layer for direct methanol fuel cells Energy Storage,...

  11. arctic boundary layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of many theoretical studies over the last forty years. (A Davies, Christopher 18 Tropical cyclone boundary layer shocks CERN Preprints Summary: This paper presents numerical...

  12. Vacancies in fully hydrogenated boron nitride layer: implications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using density functional theory, a series of calculations of structural and electronic properties of hydrogen vacancies in a fully hydrogenated boron nitride (fH-BN) layer were...

  13. Analytic Model of the Universal Structure of Turbulent Boundary Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor S. L'vov; Itamar Procaccia; Oleksii Rudenko

    2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulent boundary layers exhibit a universal structure which nevertheless is rather complex, being composed of a viscous sub-layer, a buffer zone, and a turbulent log-law region. In this letter we present a simple analytic model of turbulent boundary layers which culminates in explicit formulae for the profiles of the mean velocity, the kinetic energy and the Reynolds stress as a function of the distance from the wall. The resulting profiles are in close quantitative agreement with measurements over the entire structure of the boundary layer, without any need of re-fitting in the different zones.

  14. aluminum oxide layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE...

  15. aluminum oleate layered: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE...

  16. aluminum oxide layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE...

  17. atmospheric layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  18. atmosphere boundary layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  19. atmospheric superficial layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  20. atmospheric boundary layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  1. atmospheric boundary layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  2. apatite composite layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in passing through an anisotropic material oriented at an arbitrary angle composite materials. Samples are constructed from alternating, subwavelength-thick layers of titanium...

  3. ELLIPSOMETRY OF SURFACE LAYERS ON LEAD AND LITHIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard Dudley

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface Layers on Lead and Lithium By Richard Dudley Peterssulfuric acid and and lithium to water, Acid concentrationsbeen observed in the reaction of lithium with water vapor. i

  4. Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium...

  5. An Analytical Study Of A 2-Layer Transient Thermal Conduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Typical interpretation schemes are based on simple, one-layer solutions to the Fourier conduction equation using the annual solar cycle as a surface heat source. We present...

  6. Thin-Layer Spectroelectrochemistry on an Aqueous Microdrop. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and fluorescence spectrometry. Citation: Schroll CA, S Chatterjee, WR Heineman, and SA Bryan.2012."Thin-Layer Spectroelectrochemistry on an Aqueous Microdrop."Electroanalysis...

  7. active constrained layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    preserving the Hamiltonian structure. These two Vellekoop, Michel 2 CROSS-LAYER OPTIMIZATION IN ENERGY CONSTRAINED NETWORKS Engineering Websites Summary: and feasible approach...

  8. amorphous ge layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on resistive switching in semiconducting alloys. PC materials are based on the extremely thin polycrystalline layer, whose states must show sufficient contrast in resistivity or...

  9. Modeling the scalability of acrylic stream programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Jeremy Ng, 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the fact that the streaming application domain is becoming increasingly widespread, few studies have focused specifically on the performance characteristics of stream programs. We introduce two models by which the ...

  10. Melanin as an active layer in biosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina, E-mail: marinaness@yahoo.com; Congiu, Mirko, E-mail: congiumat@gmail.com; Oliveira Graeff, Carlos Frederico de, E-mail: graeff@fc.unesp.br [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences - UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Jéssica Colnaghi, E-mail: jeziga-cf@yahoo.com.br; Biziak de Figueiredo, Natália, E-mail: natbiziak@yahoo.com.br; Mulato, Marcelo, E-mail: mmulato@ffclrp.usp.br [Department of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters at Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters at Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of pH sensors is of great interest due to its extensive application in several areas such as industrial processes, biochemistry and particularly medical diagnostics. In this study, the pH sensing properties of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) based on melanin thin films as active layer are investigated and the physical mechanisms related to the device operation are discussed. Thin films were produced from different melanin precursors on indium tin oxide (ITO) and gold substrates and were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in the pH range from 2 to 12. EGFETs with melanin deposited on ITO and on gold substrates showed sensitivities ranging from 31.3 mV/pH to 48.9 mV/pH, depending on the melanin precursor and the substrate used. The pH detection is associated with specific binding sites in its structure, hydroxyl groups and quinone imine.

  11. Layered Binary-Dielectrics for Energy Applications: Limitations and Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuncer, Enis [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, an attempt is made to illustrate how performance of an electrically insulating material, a dielectric, can be improved by constructing a layered binary-dielectric structure that employs a weak insulator with high dielectric permittivity. It is shown that layered binary-dielectrics could have a signicant impact on energy storage and electrical insulation.

  12. The Ozone Layer in the 21st Lead Authors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    CHAPTER 6 The Ozone Layer in the 21st Century Lead Authors: G.E. Bodeker D.W. Waugh Coauthors: H;#12;CHAPTER 6 THE OZONE LAYER IN THE 21ST CENTURY Contents SCIENTIFIC SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 6.2 A FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATING CHANGES IN OZONE ABUNDANCES

  13. Current isolating epitaxial buffer layers for high voltage photodiode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Cooper, Gregory A. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of photodiodes in series on a common semi-insulating substrate has a non-conductive buffer layer between the photodiodes and the semi-insulating substrate. The buffer layer reduces current injection leakage between the photodiodes of the array and allows optical energy to be converted to high voltage electrical energy.

  14. NANO EXPRESS Open Access Multiscale investigation of graphene layers on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NANO EXPRESS Open Access Multiscale investigation of graphene layers on 6H-SiC(000-1) Antoine , Cecile Naud2 , Jean-Yves Veuillen2* Abstract In this article, a multiscale investigation of few graphene, the authors show that the UHV growth yields few layer graphene (FLG) with an average thickness given by Auger

  15. IEEE 802.11 scanning algorithms: cross-layer experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IEEE 802.11 scanning algorithms: cross-layer experiments German Castignani (Télécom Bretagne.11 Scanning Algorithms: Cross-Layer Experiments German Castignani1 , Nicolas Montavont1 , Andr´es Arcia-Moret2 scanning functions. For both, timers are usually constant (within the 802.11 driver

  16. Organic photosensitive optoelectronic device having a phenanthroline exciton blocking layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark E. (Anaheim Hills, CA); Li, Jian (Los Angeles, CA); Forrest, Stephen (Princeton, NJ); Rand, Barry (Princeton, NJ)

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having an anode, a cathode, and an organic blocking layer between the anode and the cathode is described, wherein the blocking layer comprises a phenanthroline derivative, and at least partially blocks at least one of excitons, electrons, and holes.

  17. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  18. Microstructure of Gas Diffusion Layers for PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres. William J.

    Microstructure of Gas Diffusion Layers for PEM Fuel Cells N. Parikh1 , J. S. Allen1 , R. S. Yassar1 Introduction A gas diffusion layer (GDL) in a proton exchange mem- brane fuel cell (PEMFC) often is comprised porosimetry (MSP) [5]. The general procedure for obtaining the pore size distribution is to inject a fluid

  19. Thermal Transport in Suspended and Supported Few-Layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baowen

    Thermal Transport in Suspended and Supported Few-Layer Graphene Ziqian Wang,, Rongguo Xie,,,§, Cong few-layer graphene using a thermal-bridge configuration. The room temperature value of is comparable transport of the suspended graphene. The measured values of are generally lower than those from theoretical

  20. Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arya, Rajeewa R. (Doylestown, PA)

    1988-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells comprise a plurality of first and second lattices of amorphous silicon alternatingly formed on one another. Each of the first lattices has a first optical bandgap and each of the second lattices has a second optical bandgap different from the first optical bandgap. A method of fabricating the superlattice doped layers also is disclosed.

  1. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers: interior dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Gabriele Villari

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study small-amplitude steady water waves with multiple critical layers. Those are rotational two-dimensional gravity-waves propagating over a perfect fluid of finite depth. It is found that arbitrarily many critical layers with cat's-eye vortices are possible, with different structure at different levels within the fluid. The corresponding vorticity depends linearly on the stream function.

  2. Electroluminescent apparatus having a structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains color-changing and non-color-changing regions arranged in a particular pattern.

  3. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel. The comosition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than aproximatley 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300.degree. C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  4. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel is disclosed. The composition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than approximately 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  5. PASSIVATION LAYER STABILITY OF A METALLIC ALLOY WASTE FORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, M.; Mickalonis, J.; Fisher, D.; Sindelar, R.

    2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloy waste form development under the Waste Forms Campaign of the DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research & Development program includes the process development and characterization of an alloy system to incorporate metal species from the waste streams generated during nuclear fuel recycling. This report describes the tests and results from the FY10 activities to further investigate an Fe-based waste form that uses 300-series stainless steel as the base alloy in an induction furnace melt process to incorporate the waste species from a closed nuclear fuel recycle separations scheme. This report is focused on the initial activities to investigate the formation of oxyhydroxide layer(s) that would be expected to develop on the Fe-based waste form as it corrodes under aqueous repository conditions. Corrosion tests were used to evaluate the stability of the layer(s) that can act as a passivation layer against further corrosion and would affect waste form durability in a disposal environment.

  6. Alternative barrier layers for surface covers in dry climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stormont, J.C.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface covers are one of the most widespread remediation and waste management options in all climates. Barrier layers to limit percolation through cover systems are principal features of engineered, multi-component cover designs. Conventional barrier layer components developed for humid climates have limitations in dry climates. One alternative barrier layer is a capillary barrier, which consists of a fine-over-coarse soil arrangement. The capacity of capillary barrier to laterally divert downward moving water is the key to their success. Another alternative is a dry barrier, in which atmospheric air is circulated through a coarse layer within the cover to remove water vapor. Incorporating a coarse layer which stores water for subsequent removal by air flow reduces the requirements for the air flow velocity and increases the applicability of the dry barrier.

  7. Strain tensors in layer systems by precision ion channeling measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trinkaus, H.; Buca, D.; Hollaender, B.; Minamisawa, R. A.; Mantl, S. [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN 1) and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Hartmann, J. M. [CEA-LETI, MINATEC, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A powerful method for analyzing general strain states in layer systems is the measurement of changes in the ion channeling directions. We present a systematic derivation and compilation of the required relations between the strain induced angle changes and the components of the strain tensor for general crystalline layer systems of reduced symmetry compared to the basic (cubic) crystal. It is shown that, for the evaluation of channeling measurements, virtually all layers of interest may be described as being 'pseudo-orthorhombic'. The commonly assumed boundary conditions and the effects of surface misorientations on them are discussed. Asymmetric strain relaxation in layers of reduced symmetry is attributed to a restriction in the slip system of the dislocations inducing it. The results are applied to {l_brace}110{r_brace}SiGe/Si layer systems.

  8. Experimental study of a shock accelerated thin gas layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, J.W. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering; Jenkins, D.G.; Klein, D.L.; Benjamin, R.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging is utilized in shock-tube experiments to visualize the development of a shock-accelerated thin gas layer. The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of both sides of the heavy gas layer causes perturbations initially imposed on the two interfaces to develop into one of three distinct flow patterns. Two of the patterns exhibit vortex pairs which travel either upstream or downstream in the shock tube, while the third is a sinuous pattern that shows no vortex development until late in its evolution. The development of the observed patterns as well as the growth in the layer thickness is modeled by considering the dynamics of vorticity deposited in the layer by the shock interaction process. This model yields an expression for the layer growth which is in good agreement with measurements.

  9. The structure of GaAs/Si(211) heteroepitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Weber, E.R.; Washburn, J.; Liu, T.Y.; Kroemer, H.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gallium arsenide films grown on (211)Si by molecular-beam epitaxy have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The main defects observed in the alloy were of misfit dislocations, stacking faults, and microtwin lamellas. Silicon surface preparation was found to play an important role on the density of defects formed at the Si/GaAs interface. Two different types of strained-layer superlattices, InGaAs/InGaP and InGaAs/GaAs, were applied either directly to the Si substrate, to a graded layer (GaP-InGaP), or to a GaAs buffer layer to stop the defect propagation into the GaAs films. Applying InGaAs/GaAs instead of InGaAs/InGaP was found to be more effective in blocking defect propagation. In all cases of strained-layer superlattices investigated, dislocation propagation was stopped primarily at the top interface between the superlattice package and GaAs. Graded layers and unstrained AlGaAs/GaAs superlattices did not significantly block dislocations propagating from the interface with Si. Growing of a 50 nm GaAs buffer layer at 505/sup 0/C followed by 10 strained-layer superlattices of InGaAs/GaAs (5 nm each) resulted in the lowest dislocation density in the GaAs layer (approx.5 x 10/sup 7//cm/sup 2/) among the structures investigated. This value is comparable to the recently reported density of dislocations in the GaAs layers grown on (100)Si substrates. Applying three sets of the same strained layers decreased the density of dislocations an additional approx.2 to 3 times.

  10. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  11. Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  12. NMR of thin layers using a meanderline surface coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowgill, Donald F. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature meanderline sensor coil which extends the capabilities of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to provide analysis of thin planar samples and surface layer geometries. The sensor coil allows standard NMR techniques to be used to examine thin planar (or curved) layers, extending NMRs utility to many problems of modern interest. This technique can be used to examine contact layers, non-destructively depth profile into films, or image multiple layers in a 3-dimensional sense. It lends itself to high resolution NMR techniques of magic angle spinning and thus can be used to examine the bonding and electronic structure in layered materials or to observe the chemistry associated with aging coatings. Coupling this sensor coil technology with an arrangement of small magnets will produce a penetrator probe for remote in-situ chemical analysis of groundwater or contaminant sediments. Alternatively, the sensor coil can be further miniaturized to provide sub-micron depth resolution within thin films or to orthoscopically examine living tissue. This thin-layer NMR technique using a stationary meanderline coil in a series-resonant circuit has been demonstrated and it has been determined that the flat meanderline geometry has about he same detection sensitivity as a solenoidal coil, but is specifically tailored to examine planar material layers, while avoiding signals from the bulk.

  13. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  14. Method for making photovoltaic devices using oxygenated semiconductor thin film layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James Neil; Albin, David Scott; Feldman-Peabody, Scott; Pavol, Mark Jeffrey; Gossman, Robert Dwayne

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making a photovoltaic device is presented. The method includes steps of disposing a window layer on a substrate and disposing an absorber layer on the window layer. Disposing the window layer, the absorber layer, or both layers includes introducing a source material into a deposition zone, wherein the source material comprises oxygen and a constituent of the window layer, of the absorber layer or of both layers. The method further includes step of depositing a film that comprises the constituent and oxygen.

  15. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  16. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  17. Electric Field in a Double Layer and the Imparted Momentum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruchtman, A. [Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel)

    2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the net momentum delivered by the large electric field inside a one-dimensional double layer is zero. This is demonstrated through an analysis of the momentum balance in the double layer at the boundary between the ionosphere and the aurora cavity. For the recently observed double layer in a current-free plasma expanding along a divergent magnetic field, an analysis of the evolution of the radially averaged variables shows that the increase of plasma thrust results from the magnetic-field pressure balancing the plasma pressure in the direction of acceleration, rather than from electrostatic pressure.

  18. Increased Upstream Ionization due to Formation of a Double Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thakur, S. Chakraborty; Harvey, Z.; Biloiu, I. A.; Hansen, A.; Hardin, R. A.; Przybysz, W. S.; Scime, E. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We report observations that confirm a theoretical prediction that formation of a current-free double layer in a plasma expanding into a chamber of larger diameter is accompanied by an increase in ionization upstream of the double layer. The theoretical model argues that the increased ionization is needed to balance the difference in diffusive losses upstream and downstream of the expansion region. In our expanding helicon source experiments, we find that the upstream plasma density increases sharply at the same antenna frequency at which the double layer appears.

  19. Electrodeposition of biaxially textured layers on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N; Phok, Sovannary; Spagnol, Priscila; Chaudhuri, Tapas

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of producing one or more biaxially textured layer on a substrate, and articles produced by the methods, are disclosed. An exemplary method may comprise electrodepositing on the substrate a precursor material selected from the group consisting of rare earths, transition metals, actinide, lanthanides, and oxides thereof. An exemplary article (150) may comprise a biaxially textured base material (130), and at least one biaxially textured layer (110) selected from the group consisting of rare earths, transition metals, actinides, lanthanides, and oxides thereof. The at least one biaxially textured layer (110) is formed by electrodeposition on the biaxially textured base material (130).

  20. Enhanced adhesion for LIGA microfabrication by using a buffer layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajikar, Sateesh S. (San Jose, CA); De Carlo, Francesco (Darien, IL); Song, Joshua J. (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an improvement on the LIGA microfabrication process wherein a buffer layer is applied to the upper or working surface of a substrate prior to the placement of a resist onto the surface of the substrate. The buffer layer is made from an inert low-Z material (low atomic weight), a material that absorbs secondary X-rays emissions from the substrate that are generated from the substrate upon exposure to a primary X-rays source. Suitable materials for the buffer layer include polyamides and polyimide. The preferred polyimide is synthesized form pyromellitic anhydride and oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA).

  1. Initial experience with the CDF layer 00 silicon detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Hill

    2003-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on initial experience with the CDF Layer 00 Detector. Layer 00 is an innovative, low-mass, silicon detector installed in CDF during the upgrade for Run 2A of the Tevatron. Noise pickup present during operation at CDF is discussed. An event-by-event pedestal correction implemented by CDF is presented. This off-line solution prevents L00 from being used in the current incarnation of the on-line displaced track trigger. Preliminary performance of Layer 00 is described.

  2. A methodology to identify material properties in layered visoelastic halfspaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torpunuri, Vikram Simha

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UNKNOWN SYSTEM OUTPUT D FORWARD MODEL MODEL: M + \\ CI ~ OUTPUT ERROR a) NOISE INPUT + INPUT ERROR~ UNKNOWN SYSTEM INVERSE MODEL: M I OUTPUT D INVERSE MODEL b) NOISE UNK NOWN SYSTEM OUTPUT GENERALIZE= MODEL Ml M -I 2 c) GENERALIZED... that displacements vary linearly within each sublayer 25 Sensors 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Layer 1 E' - E'(v) + iE" (v) E?m, t, Layer 2 E' E'(v) (1 + i8) E?8? t, Layer 3 E' E'(8) (1 + i8) E?8? t, Halfspace E* - E'(m) (1 + i8) E? 8? ~ Figure 4 Schematic...

  3. Enhanced adhesion for LIGA microfabrication by using a buffer layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajikar, Sateesh S.; De Carlo, Francesco; Song, Joshua J.

    2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an improvement on the LIGA microfabrication process wherein a buffer layer is applied to the upper or working surface of a substrate prior to the placement of a resist onto the surface of the substrate. The buffer layer is made from an inert low-Z material (low atomic weight), a material that absorbs secondary X-rays emissions from the substrate that are generated from the substrate upon exposure to a primary X-rays source. Suitable materials for the buffer layer include polyamides and polyimide. The preferred polyimide is synthesized form pyromellitic anhydride and oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA).

  4. Petrofabric analysis of experimentally folded multilithologic, layered rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pattison, Linda Jean

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of shortening and elongation parallel to the layering and normal to the fold axis and regions of relatively small differen- tial stress are located from the study of the orientations and positions of small thrust and normal faults, macro- and microfrac... to the bottom layer of the fold in the central anticline or to the top layer of the syncline. Movement on type G fractures creates a 0 thrust fault, and the displacement is at 20 to the direction of 25 loading (F'igure 6, p. 27 ). Type G fractures do...

  5. Method of making dense, conformal, ultra-thin cap layers for nanoporous low-k ILD by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing (Albuquerque, NM); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Barrier layers and methods for forming barrier layers on a porous layer are provided. The methods can include chemically adsorbing a plurality of first molecules on a surface of the porous layer in a chamber and forming a first layer of the first molecules on the surface of the porous layer. A plasma can then be used to react a plurality of second molecules with the first layer of first molecules to form a first layer of a barrier layer. The barrier layers can seal the pores of the porous material, function as a diffusion barrier, be conformal, and/or have a negligible impact on the overall ILD k value of the porous material.

  6. Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel Methodology Engineering University of Notre Dame University of Notre Dame #12;Outline: Overview of combustion synthesis Reaction system Combustion front analaysis Theoretical model results Conclusions Acknowledgements #12

  7. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, James M. (Lisle, IL); Lepetre, Yves J. (Lauris, FR); Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  8. Temperature and salinity variability in thermohaline staircase layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuebe, David Allen

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A moored profiler record from the western tropical North Atlantic provides the first continuous time series of temperature, salinity and velocity profiles in a thermohaline staircase. Variations in the intensity of layering ...

  9. anthracene emission layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    layers Physics Websites Summary: , and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131, 1577-1579 (1999). 7. Jiang, X.Z., et al.,...

  10. anode catalyst layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  11. anode buffer layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  12. anode interfacial layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  13. Co-Solvency in Liquid Exfoliation of Layered Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Chu Ran

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. Wassei and R. B. Kaner, Materials Today 13, 52-59 (2010).K. K. Chawla, Composite Materials: Science and Engineering,Layered Materials………………………………………………………. 4 2.3 Criteria for

  14. ELLIPSOMETRY OF SURFACE LAYERS ON LEAD AND LITHIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard Dudley

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    obtained from corrosion of lead in sulfuric acid. DimensionlC2.430 References L Bode, Lead teries (Wiley-Interscienceof Surface Layers on Lead and Lithium By Richard Dudley

  15. Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors Using Carbon Nanotube Electrode Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindall, Joel E.

    The structure and behavior of the electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) are described. The use of activated carbon electrodes is discussed and the limitations on voltage and accessible surface area are presented. Metrics ...

  16. algaassb epitaxial layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daniel 3 van der Waals Epitaxy of InAs Nanowires Vertically Aligned on Single-Layer Graphene Engineering Websites Summary: -organic vapor-phase epitaxy Hybrid junctions composed...

  17. atomic layer chemical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has been a burgeoning field of study since the discovery of isolated single layer graphene in 2004. Graphene, a semi-metal, has a unique gapless Dirac-like band ... Baugher,...

  18. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Study of the Electrical Double Layer at Silver...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    double layer at AgClaqueous electrolyte (KCl) interfaces are presented, accompanied by a new force field and properties of bulk AgCl computed using planewave density functional...

  20. Implementation and testing of a parallel layer peeling algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandapur, Tasneem Kausar

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    events into account. Two different implementations of the above mentioned serial algorithm viz., Layer Peeling and Characteristic Tracing have been previously described, and the characteristic tracing method has been implemented in parallel...

  1. Anisotropic Etching and Nanoribbon Formation in Single-Layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campos, Leonardo

    We demonstrate anisotropic etching of single-layer graphene by thermally activated nickel nanoparticles. Using this technique, we obtain sub-10-nm nanoribbons and other graphene nanostructures with edges aligned along a ...

  2. Interaction between surface and atmosphere in a convective boundary layer /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garai, Anirban

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cold fluid constitute most of the heat transport andevent cold air descends to the ground, heat transport fromcold air during sweep events. The convective boundary layer has a great influence on moisture transport,

  3. Anisotropic Complementary Acoustic Metamaterial for Canceling out Aberrating Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Chen

    In this paper, we investigate a type of anisotropic, acoustic complementary metamaterial (CMM) and its application in restoring acoustic fields distorted by aberrating layers. The proposed quasi two-dimensional (2D), ...

  4. Technical Tools for Boundary Layers and Applications to Heterogeneous Coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkis, Marcus

    , Poland. This work was supported in part by the Polish Sciences Foundation under grant NN201006933. 2 energy in a thin layer and vice versa, how to control the energy of a discrete harmonic function

  5. Recyclability of a layered silicateethermoplastic olefin elastomer nanocomposite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    Recyclability of a layered silicateethermoplastic olefin elastomer nanocomposite M.R. Thompson*, K. Despite the occurrence of degradation in the nanocomposite during recycling, its rheological. All rights reserved. Keywords: Thermo-oxidative degradation; Nanocomposite; Recyclability; Organoclay

  6. Anti-eavesdropping communication layer to protect against traffic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yiping

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we present unicast and multicast protocols to resist eavesdropping and traffic profiling of group communications. At the application layer, we propose a secret-sharing approach for the exchange of shared keys. That is, multicast...

  7. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  8. Internal wave energy radiated from a turbulent mixed layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munroe, James R., E-mail: jmunroe@mun.ca [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland A1B 3X7 (Canada); Sutherland, Bruce R., E-mail: bsuther@ualberta.ca [Departments of Physics and Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine mixed-layer deepening and the generation of internal waves in stratified fluid resulting from turbulence that develops in response to an applied surface stress. In laboratory experiments the stress is applied over the breadth of a finite-length tank by a moving roughened conveyor belt. The turbulence in the shear layer is characterized using particle image velocimetry to measure the kinetic energy density. The internal waves are measured using synthetic schlieren to determine their amplitudes, frequencies, and energy density. We also perform fully nonlinear numerical simulations restricted to two dimensions but in a horizontally periodic domain. These clearly demonstrate that internal waves are generated by transient eddies at the integral length scale of turbulence and which translate with the background shear along the base of the mixed layer. In both experiments and simulations we find that the energy density of the generated waves is 1%–3% of the turbulent kinetic energy density of the turbulent layer.

  9. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  10. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  11. Modeling Interfacial Liquid Layers in Environmental Ices SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Symbol Quantity ice wf Fugacity of pure ice brine wf^ Fugacity of water in brine layer vap wf Fugacity of water in vapor space above ice wf Fugacity of pure liquid water wx Mole fraction of water in brine layer ice wH Enthalpy of ice at T, P 0,ice wH Enthalpy of ice at reference state brine wH Partial molar

  12. Distributed boundary layer suction utilizing wing tip effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jay Thomas

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this system to existing light aircraft would present no mechanical complications, either in the perforation of the wings or in the maintenance of the system. Recommendations for Other A lications 1. An investigation into the possibility of delaying... Means of Effecting Boundary Layer Control by Suction, " Aeronautical En ineerin Review, September, 1953. 17. Cornish, J. , "Practical High Lift Systems Using Distributed Boundary Layer Control, " Research Report $19, Miss. State College, 1958. 18...

  13. Neutron detectors comprising ultra-thin layers of boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehul; Morris, Christopher

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material having a thickness of from about 50 nm to about 250 nm and comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  14. Surface Modification of Layered Zirconium Phosphates: A Novel Pathway to Multifunctional Nanomaterials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosby, Brian Matthew

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    the surface or exterior layers of the material, while leaving the internal layers and structure unchanged. This allows for organic derivatives of layered materials in which the interlayer chemistry is not lost to achieve organic functionalization. The addition...

  15. Structural Defects in Laterally Overgrown GaN Layers Grown on Non-polar Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Ni, X.; Morkoc, H.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overgrown GaN Layers Grown on Non-polar Substrates Z.in GaN layers grown on polar and non-polar substrates areGaN-based layers, since they are grown heteroepitaxially on foreign substrates (

  16. Method of making a layered composite electrode/electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode/electrolyte structure is prepared by a plurality of methods. An unsintered (possibly bisque fired) moderately catalytic electronically-conductive or homogeneous mixed ionic electronic conductive electrode material is deposited on a layer composed of a sintered or unsintered ionically-conductive electrolyte material prior to being sintered. A layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on an unsintered ("green") layer of electrolyte material and the electrode and electrolyte layers are sintered simultaneously, sometimes referred to as "co-firing," under conditions suitable to fully densify the electrolyte while the electrode retains porosity. Or, the layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on a previously sintered layer of electrolyte, and then sintered. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of an electrolcatalyst precursor (e.g., a metal salt such as a transition metal nitrate). This may be followed by low temperature firing to convert the precursor to catalyst. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in an ionic (electrochemical) device such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  17. Understanding Molecular Interactions within Chemically Selective Layered Polymer Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary J. Blanchard

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work focuses on two broad issues. These are (1) the molecular origin of the chemical selectivity achieved with ultrathin polymer multilayers, and (2) how the viscoelastic properties of the polymer layers are affected by exposure to solvent and analytes. These issues are inter-related, and to understand them we need to design experiments that probe both the energetic and kinetic aspects of interfacial adsorption processes. This project focuses on controling the chemical structure, thickness, morphology and sequential ordering of polymer layers bound to interfaces using maleimide-vinyl ether and closely related alternating copolymerization chemistry and efficient covalent cross-linking reactions that allow for layer-by-layer polymer deposition. This chemistry has been developed during the funding cycle of this Grant. We have measure the equilibrium constants for interactions between specific layers within the polymer interfaces and size-controlled, surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The ability to control both size and functionality of gold nanoparticle model analytes allows us to evaluate the average “pore size” that characterizes our polymer films. We have measured the “bulk” viscosity and shear modulus of the ultrathin polymer films as a function of solvent overlayer identity using quartz crystal microbalance complex impedance measurements. We have measured microscopic viscosity at specific locations within the layered polymer interfaces with time-resolved fluorescence lifetime and depolarization techniques. We combine polymer, cross-linking and nanoparticle synthetic expertise with a host of characterization techniques, including QCM gravimetry and complex impedance analysis, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopies.

  18. High rate buffer layer for IBAD MgO coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Articles are provided including a base substrate having a layer of an oriented material thereon, and, a layer of hafnium oxide upon the layer of an oriented material. The layer of hafnium oxide can further include a secondary oxide such as cerium oxide, yttrium oxide, lanthanum oxide, scandium oxide, calcium oxide and magnesium oxide. Such articles can further include thin films of high temperature superconductive oxides such as YBCO upon the layer of hafnium oxide or layer of hafnium oxide and secondary oxide.

  19. Layered CU-based electrode for high-dielectric constant oxide thin film-based devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Auciello, Orlando

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A layered device including a substrate; an adhering layer thereon. An electrical conducting layer such as copper is deposited on the adhering layer and then a barrier layer of an amorphous oxide of TiAl followed by a high dielectric layer are deposited to form one or more of an electrical device such as a capacitor or a transistor or MEMS and/or a magnetic device.

  20. Transient finite element analysis of electric double layer using Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations with a modified stern layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jong Il

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ). There are two kinds of supercapacitors: electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) and pseudo-capacitors (2). Supercapacitors have several advantages over existing batteries. They have at least ten times more specific power, hundreds of times more cycles (~1... the extra power needed for acceleration, and to store energy during breaking, which can be reused in the next acceleration process. Among the supercapacitors, the electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are considered in this dissertation. An EDLC...

  1. Synthesis of Graphene Layers from Metal-Carbon Melts: Nucleation and Growth Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amini, Shaahin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    59   Single layer graphene preparation1.9.2. Single layer graphene preparation techniques Theretechniques for graphene preparation, above all, three major

  2. acrylate-acrylic acid dry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation of a fluorescent compound. derivative of the vitamin is prevented by forming a boric acid-dehydro- ascorbic acid complex prior to addition of the diamine solution. This...

  3. Strained layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K; Carroll, Malcolm S; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F; Young, Erik W; Cich, Michael J

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

  4. Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, R., E-mail: richard.geiger@psi.ch, E-mail: hans.sigg@psi.ch; Sigg, H., E-mail: richard.geiger@psi.ch, E-mail: hans.sigg@psi.ch [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frigerio, J.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G. [L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Süess, M. J. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials Science, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Scientific Center for Optical and Electron Microscopy (SCOPEM), ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spolenak, R. [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials Science, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Faist, J. [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The excess charge carrier lifetimes in Ge layers grown on Si or germanium-on-insulator are measured by synchrotron based pump-probe transmission spectroscopy. We observe that the lifetimes do not strongly depend on growth parameters and annealing procedure, but on the doping profile. The defect layer at the Ge/Si interface is found to be the main non-radiative recombination channel. Therefore, the longest lifetimes in Ge/Si (2.6?ns) are achieved in sufficiently thick Ge layers with a built-in field, which repels electrons from the Ge/Si interface. Longer lifetimes (5.3?ns) are obtained in overgrown germanium-on-insulator due to the absence of the defective interface.

  5. Growth mode evolution of hafnium oxide by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, Xianglong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Dayan, E-mail: madayan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Xu, Kewei [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China and Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi'an University of Arts and Science, Xi'an 710065, Shaanxi (China)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HfO{sub 2} thin films were deposited using tetrakis-ethylmethylamido hafnium and H{sub 2}O as precursors on silicon by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The morphology and microstructures at different ALD cycles were characterized by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Based on the height–height correlation function and power spectral density function, quantitative analysis of surface morphologies was performed. Three characteristic dimensions (?{sub 1}, ?{sub 2}, and ?{sub 3}) corresponding to three surface structures, islands, local and global fluctuations, were identified. The evolution of ALD growth mode at range of the three critical scales was investigated, respectively. It suggests the transformation of growth mode from quasi two-dimensional layer-by-layer to three-dimensional island for global fluctuations.

  6. Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Robert K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bogart, Gregory R. (Corrales, NM); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL)

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

  7. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: mika.vaha-nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI?02044 VTT (Finland); Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI?02044 VTT (Finland); Johansson, Leena-Sisko, E-mail: leena-sisko.johansson@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, PO Box 16100, FI?00076 AALTO (Finland); Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI?02044 VTT (Finland)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  8. Sound-insulation layers low-frequency modeling, using the fuzzy structure theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    09NVC-0163 Sound-insulation layers low-frequency modeling, using the fuzzy structure theory Laurent [20,200] Hz, sound-insulation layer modeling remains a critical topic. Recent work allows- insulation layer. Nevertheless, such an approach requires a FE model of sound-insulation layer, which may

  9. Layers for Effective Volume Rendering Sundaresan Raman, Oleg Mishchenko, and Roger Crawfis, Member, IEEE Computer Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawfis, Roger

    Layers for Effective Volume Rendering Sundaresan Raman, Oleg Mishchenko, and Roger Crawfis, Member, IEEE Computer Society Abstract--A multi-layer volume rendering framework is presented. The final image is obtained by compositing a number of renderings, each being represented as a separate layer. This layer

  10. Hydraulic Fracture Optimization with a Pseudo-3D Model in Multi-layered Lithology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Mei

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    -layered reservoir, (3) The upwards and downwards growth of the fracture tip from the crack center....

  11. Lecture 8: SSL and Layer 4 Security INFS 766/INFT 865

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandhu, Ravi

    1 Lecture 8: SSL and Layer 4 Security INFS 766/INFT 865 Prof. Ravi Sandhu Internet Security Protocols Spring 2000 INFS 766/INFT 865 Internet Security Protocols Spring 2000 Lecture 8 SSL Layer 4 security Prof. Ravi Sandhu 2ÃShvÃThquÃ2000 SECURE SOCKETS LAYER (SSL) x layered on top of TCP x SSL

  12. Translational dynamics of water in a nanoporous layered silicate Sankar Nair*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Translational dynamics of water in a nanoporous layered silicate Sankar Nair* School of Chemical three-dimensionally nanoporous silicate layers spaced by claylike interlayer regions. The synthesis in the silicate layer. This first investigation of transport phenomena in nanoporous layered silicates like AMH-3

  13. Organic photovoltaic device with interfacial layer and method of fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Hains, Alexander W.

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic photovoltaic device and method of forming same. In one embodiment, the organic photovoltaic device has an anode, a cathode, an active layer disposed between the anode and the cathode; and an interfacial layer disposed between the anode and the active layer, the interfacial layer comprising 5,5'-bis[(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]-2,2'-bithiophene (PABTSi.sub.2).

  14. Vertical strain and doping gradients in thick GaN layers H. Siegle,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    between layer and common substrates, e.g., sapphire or GaAs.1 Consequently, most GaN layers and also from the surface of the GaN layer nearer to the substrate interface, as can be seen from the CLVertical strain and doping gradients in thick GaN layers H. Siegle,a) A. Hoffmann, L. Eckey, and C

  15. Homogeneous, dual layer, solid state, thin film deposition for structural and/or electrochemical characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Li, Wenming

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state, thin film, electrochemical devices (10) and methods of making the same are disclosed. An exemplary device 10 includes at least one electrode (14) and an electrolyte (16) deposited on the electrode (14). The electrolyte (16) includes at least two homogenous layers of discrete physical properties. The two homogenous layers comprise a first dense layer (15) and a second porous layer (16).

  16. Capillary Flow Layer-by-Layer: A Microfluidic Platform for the High-Throughput Assembly and Screening of Nanolayered Film Libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castleberry, Steven A.

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a powerful tool with increasing real world applications in energy, biomaterials, active surfaces, and membranes; however, the current state of the art requires individual sample construction ...

  17. Optical testing of layered microstructures with and without underlying vias.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, Justin Raymond; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of microsystem components to laser irradiation is relevant to the use of laser processing, optical diagnostics, and optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device design and performance. The dimensions of MEMS are on the same order as infrared laser wavelengths which results in interference phenomena when the parts are partially transparent. Four distinct polycrystalline structures were designed and irradiated with 808 nm laser light to determine the effect of layers and the presence of a substrate via on the laser power threshold for damage. The presence of a substrate via resulted in lower damage thresholds, and interference phenomena resulted in a single layer structure having the highest damage threshold.

  18. Plasma flows in scrape-off layer of Aditya tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangwan, Deepak; Jha, Ratneshwar; Brotankova, Jana; Gopalkrishna, M. V. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetized Mach probe is used to make measurement of plasma flows in the scrape-off layer of the Aditya tokamak [R. Jha et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 095010 (2009)]. This probe is further used to measure dependencies of Mach number on local plasma densities and radial distances of the probe in the scrape-off layer. The measured Mach number has contributions from E Multiplication-Sign B drift, Pfrisch-Schlueter, and transport driven flows. We have determined that the toroidal flow is towards the ion side of the limiter and the poloidal flow direction is towards the contact of the last closed flux surface with the limiter.

  19. Shear zone refraction and deflection in layered granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Borzsonyi; Tamas Unger; Balazs Szabo

    2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Refraction and deflection of shear zones in layered granular materials was studied experimentally and numerically. We show, that (i) according to a recent theoretical prediction [T. Unger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 018301 (2007)] shear zones refract in layered systems in analogy with light refraction, (ii) zone refraction obeys Snell's law known from geometric optics and (iii) under natural pressure conditions (i.e. in the presence of gravity) the zone can also be deflected by the interface so that the deformation of the high friction material is avoided.

  20. Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuskus, Alexander J. (West Hartford, CT); Cowher, Melvyn E. (East Brookfield, MA)

    1985-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

  1. Actinide speciation in glass leach-layers: An EXAFS study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biwer, B.M.; Soderholm, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Greegor, R.B. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Lytle, F.W. [EXAFS Co., Pioche, NV (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium L{sub 3} X-ray absorption data were obtained from two borosilicate glasses, which are considered as models for radioactive wasteforms, both before and after leaching. Surface sensitivity to uranium speciation was attained by a novel application of simultaneous fluorescence and electron-yield detection. Changes in speciation are clearly discernible, from U(VI) in the bulk to (UO{sub 2}){sup 2+}-uranyl in the leach layer. The leach-layer uranium concentration variations with leaching times are also determined from the data.

  2. Time-resolved measurements of double layer evolution in expanding plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scime, E. E.; Biloiu, I. A.; Carr, J. Jr.; Thakur, S. Chakraborty; Galante, M.; Hansen, A.; Houshmandyar, S.; Keesee, A. M.; McCarren, D.; Sears, S. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Biloiu, C. [Varian Associates, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States); Sun, X. [Tri-Alpha Corporation, Foothill Ranch, California 92610 (United States)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations in steady-state plasmas confirm predictions that formation of a current-free double layer in a plasma expanding into a chamber of larger diameter is accompanied by an increase in ionization upstream of the double layer. The upstream plasma density increases sharply at the same driving frequency at which a double layer appears. For driving frequencies at which no double layer appears, large electrostatic instabilities are observed. Time-resolved measurements in pulsed discharges indicate that the double layer initially forms for all driving frequencies. However, for particularly strong double layers, instabilities appear early in the discharge and the double layer collapses.

  3. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability within Sediment Layers Due to Gas Retention: Preliminary Theory and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rassat, Scot D.

    2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In Hanford underground waste storage tanks, a typical waste configuration is settled beds of waste particles beneath liquid layers. The settled beds are typically composed of layers, and these layers can have different physical and chemical properties. One postulated configuration within the settled bed is a less-dense layer beneath a more-dense layer. The different densities can be a result of different gas retention in the layers or different degrees of settling and compaction in the layers. This configuration can experience a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability where the less dense lower layer rises into the upper layer. Previous studies of gas retention and release have not considered potential buoyant motion within a settle bed of solids. The purpose of this report is to provide a review of RT instabilities, discuss predictions of RT behavior for sediment layers, and summarize preliminary experimental observations of RT instabilities in simulant experiments.

  4. Substrate Structures For Growth Of Highly Oriented And/Or Epitaxial Layers Thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Groves, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite substrate structure including a substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer is provided together with additional layers such as one or more layers of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. Jc's of 2.3×106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 320 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide for a superconducting article including a flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, an inert oxide material layer upon the surface of the flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the layer of the inert oxide material, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer, a layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer, and, a top-layer of a high temperature superconducting material upon the layer of a buffer material.

  5. NUCLEOSYNTHETIC LAYERS IN THE SHOCKED EJECTA OF CASSIOPEIA A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isensee, Karl; Olmschenk, Greg; Rudnick, Lawrence [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); DeLaney, Tracey [Department of Physics and Engineering, West Virginia Wesleyan College, 59 College Avenue, Buckhannon, WV 26201 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Smith, J. D. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Reach, William T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kozasa, Takashi [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Gomez, Haley, E-mail: isensee@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: larry@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: delaney_t@wvwc.edu, E-mail: jrho@sofia.usra.edu, E-mail: jd.smith@utoledo.edu, E-mail: reach@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: kozasa@mail.sci.hokudai.ac.jp, E-mail: haley.morgan@astro.cf.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wales, P.O. Box 913, Cardiff CF24 3YB (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a three-dimensional analysis of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A using high-resolution spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We observe supernova ejecta both immediately before and during the shock-ejecta interaction. We determine that the reverse shock of the remnant is spherical to within 7%, although the center of this sphere is offset from the geometric center of the remnant by 810 km s{sup -1}. We determine that the velocity width of the nucleosynthetic layers is {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} over 4000 arcsec{sup 2} regions, although the velocity width of a layer along any individual line of sight is <250 km s{sup -1}. Si and O, which come from different nucleosynthetic layers in the progenitor star, are observed to be coincident in velocity space in some directions, but segregated by up to {approx}500 km s{sup -1} in other directions. We compare these observations of the nucleosynthetic layers to predictions from supernova explosion models in an attempt to constrain such models. Finally, we observe small-scale, corrugated velocity structures that are likely caused during the supernova explosion itself, rather than hundreds of years later by dynamical instabilities at the remnant's reverse shock.

  6. The equatorial F-layer: progress and puzzles H. Rishbeth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the iono- spheric F-layer in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. Starting with a historical and Thomas, 1963; Thomas, 1968). The strong ionospheric electric current known as the equatorial electrojet, 1948). Geomagnetic mea- surements in the equatorial region have a long history, especially in India

  7. Progress in Creating Stabilized Gas Layers in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; D'Urso, Brian R [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee uses a liquid mercury target that is bombarded with protons to produce a pulsed neutron beam for materials research and development. In order to mitigate expected cavitation damage erosion (CDE) of the containment vessel, a two-phase flow arrangement of the target has been proposed and was earlier proven to be effective in significantly reducing CDE in non-prototypical target bodies. This arrangement involves covering the beam "window", through which the high-energy proton beam passes, with a protective layer of gas. The difficulty lies in establishing a stable gas/liquid interface that is oriented vertically with the window and holds up to the strong buoyancy force and the turbulent mercury flow field. Three approaches to establishing the gas wall have been investigated in isothermal mercury/gas testing on a prototypical geometry and flow: (1) free gas layer approach, (2) porous wall approach, and (3) surface-modified approach. The latter two of these approaches show success in that a stabilized gas layer is produced. Both of these successful approaches capitalize on the high surface energy of liquid mercury by increasing the surface area of the solid wall, thus increasing gas hold up at the wall. In this paper, a summary of these experiments and findings is presented as well as a description of the path forward toward incorporating the stabilized gas layer approach into a feasible gas/mercury SNS target design.

  8. active layer dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    active layer dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine...

  9. adsorbed water layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    adsorbed water layers First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Surface Science Letters...

  10. Characterization of Oxide Layers Formed During Corrosion in Supercritical Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    characteristic oxide structures lead to protective behavior and a lower corrosion rate. A review is presentedCharacterization of Oxide Layers Formed During Corrosion in Supercritical Water A.T.Motta1 , J of the protective oxide formed, such that small alloying content differences cause significant differences

  11. Functional Data Analysis With Multi Layer Perceptrons0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossi, Fabrice

    Analysis. We introduce a computation model for functional input data and we show that this model is a wellFunctional Data Analysis With Multi Layer Perceptrons0 Fabrice Rossi1 , Brieuc Conan-Guez and Fran as clas- sical multivariate data, because they are in general de- scribed by a finite set of input

  12. GUIDED WAVES IN LAYERED PLATE WITH DELAMINATIONS Fabrizio Ricci, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) techniques. Among the various existing techniques, guided wave methods provide a good compromise in termsGUIDED WAVES IN LAYERED PLATE WITH DELAMINATIONS 1 Fabrizio Ricci, 2 Ajit K. Mal, 1 Ernesto Monaco) models are used for more practical cases, for which the geometric and material complexities of actual

  13. Analyzing Business Continuity through a Multi-Layers Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analyzing Business Continuity through a Multi-Layers Model Yudistira Asnar and Paolo Giorgini.asnar,paolo.giorgini}@disi.unitn.it Abstract. Business Continuity Management (BCM) is a process to manage risks, emergencies, and recovery plans of an organization during a crisis. It results in a document called Business Continuity Plans (BCP

  14. THE SYNTHESIS OF AN INTERSTRATIFIED LAYERED OXIDE FROM EXFOLIATED PRECURSORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    THE SYNTHESIS OF AN INTERSTRATIFIED LAYERED OXIDE FROM EXFOLIATED PRECURSORS RICHARD L. SMITH 15213 ABSTRACT Aqueous suspensions of exfoliated Li0 .25MoO 3 and Na-montmorillonite have been combined solids can be exfoliated and restacked to form new interstratified materials. INTRODUCTION A wide variety

  15. Adhesion of benzocyclobutene-passivated silicon in epoxy layered structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, John W.

    different epoxy underfill resins. The effects of environmental variables were studied with temperature. The underfill is typically an epoxy resin with thermal expansion and elas- tic properties tailoredAdhesion of benzocyclobutene-passivated silicon in epoxy layered structures Robert J. Hohlfelder

  16. Distributed Roughness Receptivity in a Flat Plate Boundary Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuester, Matthew Scott

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    for the three different unit Reynolds num- ber test conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.4 Spanwise uniformity of boundary layer integral quantities at x = 870 mm for low unit Reynolds number test condition... with the distributed roughness configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.5 Differential pressure across the flat plate leading edge. . . . . . . . . . 25 3.6 Roughness patch (k = 1 mm), before windowing . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3...

  17. Layered Protection of Availability Jussipekka Leiwo and Yuliang Zheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yuliang

    Layered Protection of Availability Jussipekka Leiwo and Yuliang Zheng Peninsula School of Computing objectives of information seurity ,availability is far less understood than con dentiality and integrity of information. As threats against availability are too numerous to be identi ed, a di ernt approach is required

  18. Cross-layered Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cross-layered Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Thomas Beluch, Daniela. Advances in wireless sensor network performances and improvement of attainable bit rates allow research on such measurement systems using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). However, current WSN synchronization protocols do

  19. Do stable atmospheric layers exist? S. Lovejoy,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    01802, doi:10.1029/2007GL032122. [2] There are two basic theoretical approaches for under- standing atmospheric stratification: the statistical turbulent approach and the deterministic ``dynamical meteorology. [1] The notion of stable atmospheric layers is a classical idealization used for understanding

  20. Using tire chips as a leachate drainage layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, D.P. [RMT, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Old tires represent a potentially cost-effective construction material that can be used in the installation of leachate drainage and collection systems. In fact, recent studies show that using shredded tires in conjunction with granular soil materials can even enhance the long-term performance of these systems. A typical design using shredded tire chips involves the placement of a minimum 1-foot-thick layer of chips on a granular soil layer overlaying the composite liner system. However, implementation of this design is not as simple as it looks. Protecting the liner from wire protruding from the tire chips derived from belted tires is essential. Because tire chips tend to clump together, placement and spreading also must be in relatively thick lifts and performed by low-ground-pressure equipment. In addition, a significant volume reduction in the tire chip layer can be anticipated as a result of normal loadings from the overlying waste. Equivalent internal friction angles and cohesiveness for the tire chips should be estimated for factors of safety against side-slope failure. Despite theses concerns, however,the advantages of constructing a tire-chip drainage layer often can outweigh the disadvantages, as long as the chips` long-term permeability characteristics and resistance to clogging -- a result of biological activity -- are at least equal to that of typical granular soil materials commonly used in leachate drainage and collection systems.

  1. Development of Highly Selective Oxidation Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to use Atomic Layer Deposition to construct nanostructured catalysts to improve the effectiveness of oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes. More effective catalysts could enable higher specific conversion rates and result in drastic energy savings - up to 25 trillion Btu per year by 2020.

  2. ON THE ACOUSTIC SINGLE LAYER POTENTIAL: STABILIZATION AND FOURIER ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buffa, Annalisa

    ON THE ACOUSTIC SINGLE LAYER POTENTIAL: STABILIZATION AND FOURIER ANALYSIS A. BUFFA AND S. SAUTER in the stability and convergence estimates attains its minumum. Key words. Acoustic scattering, Galerkin boundary discretizations for the Helmholtz problem suffer from the pollution effect, i.e., the constants in the Galerkin

  3. Photoalignment of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals by Azodye Layers Eugene POZHIDAEV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    buffing of thin polyimide films. The impurities and electrostatic charge of polyimide align- ing films surfaces, including rubbed polyimide films4­7) and photoaligned layers,8­13) were used. Several types-irradiated polyimide films by the double exposure method.9) A high contrast ratio and a perfectly bistable switching

  4. Thermoelectric Properties of Superlattice Materials with Variably Spaced Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    Thermoelectric Properties of Superlattice Materials with Variably Spaced Layers T.D. Musho of electronic level alignment. We have investigated the thermoelectric proper- ties of VSSL structures using leads to enhancement of thermoelectric properties. This presumption is based on electrical studies

  5. ccsd00001676, Epitaxy and growth of titanium bu er layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ccsd­00001676, version 1 ­ 16 Jun 2004 Epitaxy and growth of titanium bu#11;er layers on Al 2 O 3 de Lourmel, 75015 Paris, France Abstract The structure and growth of thin #12;lms of titanium on #11 [2110] and Ti[1010] k Al 2 O 3 [1100] epitaxy of the #11; phase of titanium reported before for thick

  6. PLM: Fast Convergence for Cumulative Layered Multicast Transmission Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legout, Arnaud

    PLM: Fast Convergence for Cumulative Layered Multicast Transmission Schemes A. Legout and E. W- ticast congestion control protocol (called PLM) for audio/video and file transfer applications based PLM for a large variety of scenarios and show that it converges fast to the optimal link utilization

  7. WHAT'S GRAPHENE? Mono or few layers of sp2 bonded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    WHAT'S GRAPHENE? · Mono or few layers of sp2 bonded carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice 105cm2/Vs at RT. 1 Due to its unique transport properties, graphene is suitable for implementation sampling (EOS) timeresolved spectroscopy to optically pump and THz probe exfoliated graphene ribbons (GR

  8. Vibration atomic layer deposition for conformal nanoparticle coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Suk Won; Woo Kim, Jun; Jong Choi, Hyung; Hyung Shim, Joon, E-mail: shimm@korea.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A vibration atomic layer deposition reactor was developed for fabricating a conformal thin-film coating on nanosize particles. In this study, atomic layer deposition of 10–15-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films was conducted on a high-surface-area acetylene black powder with particle diameters of 200–250?nm. Intense vibration during the deposition resulted in the effective separation of particles, overcoming the interparticle agglomeration force and enabling effective diffusion of the precursor into the powder chunk; this phenomenon led to the formation of a conformal film coating on the nanopowder particles. It was also confirmed that the atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films initially grew on the high-surface-area acetylene black powder particles as discrete islands, presumably because chemisorption of the precursor and water occurred only on a few sites on the high-surface-area acetylene black powder surface. Relatively sluggish growth of the films during the initial atomic layer deposition cycles was identified from composition analysis.

  9. Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Layer Graphene Alexander A. Balandin,*,, Suchismita Ghosh, Department of Electrical Engineering, UniVersity of California-RiVerside, RiVerside, California 92521, Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, UniVersity of California

  10. Strategic Control of Transverse Jet Shear Layer Instabilities J. Davitian,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M'Closkey, Robert T.

    jet in crossflow or transverse jet. Jet nozzles that are flush as well as elevated with respect indicate that the jet's shear layer transitions to global instability when the jet-to-crossflow velocity THE transverse jet or jet in crossflow (JICF) is a flowfield with widespread applications in energy

  11. Carbon transport in the bottom boundary layer. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Y.C.

    1998-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities and findings from a field experiment devised to estimate the rates and mechanisms of transport of carbon across the continental shelves. The specific site chosen for the experiment was the mid-Atlantic Bight, a region off the North Carolina coast. The experiment involved a large contingent of scientists from many institutions. The specific component of the program was the transport of carbon in the bottom boundary layer. The postulate mechanisms of transport of carbon in the bottom boundary layer are: resuspension and advection, downward deposition, and accumulation. The high turbulence levels in the bottom boundary layer require the understanding of the coupling between turbulence and bottom sediments. The specific issues addressed in the work reported here were: (a) What is the sediment response to forcing by currents and waves? (b) What is the turbulence climate in the bottom boundary layer at this site? and (c) What is the rate at which settling leads to carbon sequestering in bottom sediments at offshore sites?

  12. MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER FOR UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Min

    sensor networks, energy-efficient reliable MAC protocol, and slotted FAMA MAC protocol and low1 CHAPTER 1 MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER FOR UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS* Yanping Zhang* , Yang Xiao of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0290 USA E-mail: yangxiao@ieee.org + Dept. of Electrical and Computer

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANARIZING LAYERS IN TANDEM SOLAR CELLS Hamed Achour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candea, George

    °C H2 and CO2 Plasma treatment of deposited films Characterization: Transmittance, FTIR, SEM properties were found to be dependent on temperature. Good top cell surface planarization was observed temperature for application as an intermediate reflector (ZIR) in micromorph solar cells The ZIR layer should

  14. UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belanger, David P.

    UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE A thesis submitted deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide on crystalline silicon and anodized aluminum substrates. A homemade ALD system is used with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water as precursors to deposit uniform aluminum oxide

  15. Highly efficient flexible inverted organic solar cells using atomic layer deposited ZnO as electron selective layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Conventional OSCs generally consist of an acidic poly(3,4-ethyl- enedioxythiophene) : poly function metallic cathode which oxidizes easily in air. Therefore, these devices exhibit poor lifetimes.7 a PCE of 3.09%.14 Hau et al. adopted spin-coated ZnO nanoparticles as the electron selective layer

  16. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing,more »between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.« less

  17. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.

  18. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Friedmann, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

  19. Buffer layers for narrow bandgap a-SiGe solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, X.B.; Walker, J.; Deng, X.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In high efficiency narrow bandgap (NBG) a-SiGe solar cells, thin buffer layers of unalloyed hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si) are usually used at the interfaces between the a-SiGe intrinsic layer and the doped layers. They investigated the effect of inserting additional a-SiGe interface layers between these a-Si buffer layers and the a-SiGe absorber layer. They found that such additional interface layers increase solar cell V{sub oc} and FF sizably, most likely due to the reduction or elimination of the abrupt bandgap discontinuity between the a-SiGe absorber layer and the a-Si buffer layers. With these improved narrow bandgap solar cells incorporated into the fabrication of triple-junction a-Si based solar cells, they obtained triple cells with initial efficiency of 10.6%.

  20. Multi-layer micro/nanofluid devices with bio-nanovalves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Hao; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Firestone, Millicent A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A user-friendly multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device and micro/nano fabrication process are provided for numerous uses. The multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device can comprise: a substrate, such as indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO glass); a conductive layer of ferroelectric material, preferably comprising a PZT layer of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) positioned on the substrate; electrodes connected to the conductive layer; a nanofluidics layer positioned on the conductive layer and defining nanochannels; a microfluidics layer positioned upon the nanofluidics layer and defining microchannels; and biomolecular nanovalves providing bio-nanovalves which are moveable from a closed position to an open position to control fluid flow at a nanoscale.

  1. Structure and dynamics of electrical double layers in organic electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Feng, Guang [Clemson University

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The organic electrolyte of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF{sub 4}) in the aprotic solvent of acetonitrile (ACN) is widely used in electrochemical systems such as electrochemical capacitors. In this paper, we examine the solvation of TEA{sup +} and BF{sub 4}{sup -} in ACN, and the structure, capacitance, and dynamics of the electrical double layers (EDLs) in the TEABF{sub 4}-ACN electrolyte using molecular dynamics simulations complemented with quantum density functional theory calculations. The solvation of TEA+ and BF4- ions is found to be much weaker than that of small inorganic ions in aqueous solutions, and the ACN molecules in the solvation shell of both types of ions show only weak packing and orientational ordering. These solvation characteristics are caused by the large size, charge delocalization, and irregular shape (in the case of TEA+ cation) of the ions. Near neutral electrodes, the double-layer structure in the organic electrolyte exhibits a rich organization: the solvent shows strong layering and orientational ordering, ions are significantly contact-adsorbed on the electrode, and alternating layers of cations/anions penetrate ca. 1.1 nm into the bulk electrolyte. The significant contact adsorption of ions and the alternating layering of cation/anion are new features found for EDLs in organic electrolytes. These features essentially originate from the fact that van der Waals interactions between organic ions and the electrode are strong and the partial desolvation of these ions occurs easily, as a result of the large size of the organic ions. Near charged electrodes, distinct counter-ion concentration peaks form, and the ion distribution cannot be described by the Helmholtz model or the Helmholtz + Poisson-Boltzmann model. This is because the number of counter-ions adsorbed on the electrode exceeds the number of electrons on the electrode, and the electrode is over-screened in parts of the EDL. The computed capacitances of the EDLs are in good agreement with that inferred from experimental measurements. Both the rotations (ACN only) and translations of interfacial ACN and ions are found to slow down as the electrode is electrified. We also observe an asymmetrical dependence of these motions on the sign of the electrode charge. The rotation/diffusion of ACN and the diffusion of ions in the region beyond the first ACN or ion layer differ only weakly from those in the bulk

  2. Photovoltaic Device Including A Boron Doping Profile In An I-Type Layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Liyou (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic cell for use in a single junction or multijunction photovoltaic device, which includes a p-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon, an i-type layer of an amorphous semiconductor compound including silicon, and an n-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon formed on the i-type layer. The i-type layer including an undoped first sublayer formed on the p-type layer, and a boron-doped second sublayer formed on the first sublayer.

  3. In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes providing a drive fluid to a first hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the first layer. At least some of the mobilized hydrocarbons are allowed to flow into a second hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation. Heat is provided to the second layer from one or more heaters located in the second layer. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the second layer of the formation.

  4. Aerodynamic Models for Hurricanes III. Modeling hurricane boundary layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonov, Arkady I

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The third paper of the series (see previous ones in Refs.[1-2]) discusses basic physicalprocesses in the (quasi-) steady hurricane boundary layer (HBL), develops an approximate airflow model, establishes the HBL structure, and presents integral balance relations for dynamic and thermodynamic variables in HBL. Models of evaporation and condensation are developed, where the condensation is treated similarly to the slow combustion theory. A turbulent approximation for the lower sub-layer of HBL is applied to the sea-air interaction to establish the observed increase in angular momentum in the outer region of HBL.A closed set of balance relations has been obtained. Simple analytical solution of the set yields expressions for the basic dynamic variables - maximal tangential and radial velocities in hurricane, maximal vertical speed in eye wall, the affinity speed of hurricane travel, and the maximal temperature increase after condensation. Estimated values of the variables seem to be realistic. An attempt is also ...

  5. The Effect of Disorder in Superfluid Double Layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian Dellabetta; Matthew J. Gilbert

    2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the superfluid properties of disordered double layer graphene systems using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The complexity of such a structure makes it imperative to study the effects of lattice vacancies which will inevitably arise during fabrication. We present and compare room temperature performance characteristics for both ideal and disordered bilayer graphene systems in an effort to illustrate the behavior of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in the presence of lattice defects under non-equilibrium conditions. We find that lattice vacancies spread throughout the top layer past the coherence length have a reduced effect compared to the ideal case. However, vacancies concentrated near the metal contacts within the coherence length significantly alter the interlayer superfluid transport properties.

  6. Perspectives on Localized Corrosion in Thin Layers of Particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payer, Joe H. [Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., 404 White Bldg., Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States); Kelly, Robert G. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 116 Engineer's Way, Materials Science Building 323, PO Box 400745, Charlottesville, VA, 22904-4745 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements for the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion are reviewed, and the stability criteria for sustained localized corrosion are discussed. A conceptual framework is applied to a specific scenario of a hot metal surface covered by a thin layer of particulate containing dissolvable salts in the presence of air of limited humidity. A number of processes are demonstrated to affect the crevice corrosion propagation, stifling and arrest. Contributions of the particulate layer properties, the anode, cathode and coupled processes are identified, showing that any of these can control localized corrosion propagation. Whether stifling or arrest occur will depend upon the material and environmental conditions for a given case. The findings add to the technical basis for the analysis of localized corrosion by a decision tree methodology. (authors)

  7. Multi-Layer Inkjet Printed Contacts to Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Kaydanova, T.; Smith, L.; Ginley, D. S.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ag, Cu, and Ni metallizations were inkjet printed with near vacuum deposition quality. The approach developed can be easily extended to other conductors such as Pt, Pd, Au, etc. Thick highly conducting lines of Ag and Cu demonstrating good adhesion to glass, Si, and printed circuit board (PCB) have been printed at 100-200 deg C in air and N2 respectively. Ag grids were inkjet-printed on Si solar cells and fired through the silicon nitride AR layer at 850 deg C, resulting in 8% cells. Next generation inks, including an ink that etches silicon nitride, have now been developed. Multi-layer inkjet printing of the etching ink followed by Ag ink produced contacts under milder conditions and gave solar cells with efficiencies as high as 12%.

  8. Relative Lifetime Prediction for CPV Die-Attach Layers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, T. J.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) cell assemblies, a large-area die-attach layer is subjected to thermal cycles, leading to thermomechanical fatigue. This causes cracking and the eventual failure of the CPV cell by thermal runaway. We define a damage metric representing lumped progress toward failure and present a numerical model for computing the accumulation of damage for arbitrary transient temperature conditions. The model is applied to a particular design with a solder die-attach layer. We show that accelerated-test thermal cycles with higher ramp rates cause more damage, both per cycle and per unit time. Outdoor exposure to one entire year in two geographic locations is also simulated, revealing that a year of exposure in Golden, Colorado is equivalent to 1.4 years of exposure in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  9. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Sincrotone Trieste S.C.p.A., s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  10. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively.

  11. Cobalt disilicide buffer layer for YBCO film on silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belousov, I.; Rudenko, E. [Institute for Physic Metals, Kiev (Ukraine); Linzen, S.; Seidel, P. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany)] [Friedrich-Shiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CoSi{sub 2} films were used as buffer layers of YBCO/CoSi{sub 2}/Si(100), YBCO/ZrO{sub 2}/CoSi{sub 2}/Si(100) and YBCO/CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/CoSi{sub 2}/epi-Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterostructures in this work. Transition temperatures of YBCO films were obtained up to 86K for YBCO films deposited by laser ablation on the top of CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/CoSi{sub 2}/Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} structure. Local nucleation on the crystal defects of silicon, the phenomenon of lateral directed growth (DLG) and agglomeration of CoSi{sub 2} phase are responsible for grain boundaries (GB) position in CoSi{sub 2} layer and its roughness. The roughness was decreased using an additional Zr film on the top structure.

  12. Development and current status of electric double-layer capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morimoto, Takeshi; Hiratsuka, Kazuya; Sanada, Yasuhiro [Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Research Center; Kurihara, Kaname [ELNA Co., Ltd., Fujisawa (Japan)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) based on the charge storage at the interface between a high surface area carbon electrode and an electrolyte solution is widely used as maintenance-free power source for IC memories and microcomputers. New applications for electric double-layer capacitors have been proposed in recent years. The popularity of these devices is derived from their high energy density relative to conventional capacitors and their long cycle life and high power density relative to batteries. In this paper a classification and a characteristics of industrially produced Japanese small EDLCs are reviewed. Structure and performance of power capacitors under development as well as materials and performance of industrially produced small capacitors are discussed.

  13. Layered Vanadium and Molybdenum Oxides: Batteries and Electrochromics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chernova, N. A.; Roppolo, M.; Dillon, A. C.; Whittingham, M. S.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The layered oxides of vanadium and molybdenum have been studied for close to 40 years as possible cathode materials for lithium batteries or electrochromic systems. The highly distorted metal octahedra naturally lead to the formation of a wide range of layer structures, which can intercalate lithium levels exceeding 300 Ah/kg. They have found continuing success in medical devices, such as pacemakers, but many challenges remain in their application in long-lived rechargeable devices. Their high-energy storage capability remains an encouragement to researchers to resolve the stability concerns of vanadium dissolution and the tendency of lithium and vanadium to mix changing the crystal structure on cycling the lithium in and out. Nanomorphologies have enabled higher reactivities to be obtained for both vanadium and molybdenum oxides, and with the latter show promise for electrochromic displays.

  14. Multi-layer electrode for high contrast electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwendeman, Irina G. (Wexford, PA); Finley, James J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA); Boykin, Cheri M. (Wexford, PA)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A polymeric anode is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive electrode. A second transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. In one aspect of the invention, a multi-layer polymeric cathode is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode. In one non-limiting embodiment, the multi-layer cathode includes a first cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode and a second cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the first cathodically coloring polymer. An ionic liquid is positioned between the anode and the cathode.

  15. A Multi-Layer Three Dimensional Superconducting Nanowire Photon Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Matthew Smith

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we propose a new design paradigm for a superconducting nanowire single photon detector that uses a multi-layer architecture that places the electric leads beneath the nanowires. This allows for a very large number of detector elements, which we will call pixels in analogy to a conventional CCD camera, to be placed in close proximity. This leads to significantly better photon number resolution than current single and multi-nanowire meanders, while maintaining similar detection areas. We discuss the reset time of the pixels and how the design can be modified to avoid the latching failure seen in extremely short superconducting nanowires. These advantages give a multi-layer superconducting number-resolving photon detector significant advantages over the current design paradigm of long superconducting nanowire meanders. Such advantages are desirable in a wide array of photonics applications.

  16. Adhesion layer for etching of tracks in nuclear trackable materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming nuclear tracks having a width on the order of 100-200 nm in nuclear trackable materials, such as polycarbonate (LEXAN) without causing delamination of the LEXAN. The method utilizes an adhesion film having a inert oxide which allows the track to be sufficiently widened to >200 nm without delamination of the nuclear trackable materials. The adhesion film may be composed of a metal such as Cr, Ni, Au, Pt, or Ti, or composed of a dielectric having a stable surface, such as silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), silicon nitride (SiN.sub.x), and aluminum oxide (AlO). The adhesion film can either be deposited on top of the gate metal layer, or if the properties of the adhesion film are adequate, it can be used as the gate layer. Deposition of the adhesion film is achieved by standard techniques, such as sputtering or evaporation.

  17. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandi, R., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Mohan, S., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Major, S. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 (India); Srinivasa, R. S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology and vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.

  18. Layering Transitions and Solvation Forces in an Asymmetrically Confined Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maria C. Stewart; Robert Evans

    2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a simple fluid confined between two parallel walls (substrates), separated by a distance L. The walls exert competing surface fields so that one wall is attractive and may be completely wet by liquid (it is solvophilic) while the other is solvophobic. Such asymmetric confinement is sometimes termed a `Janus Interface'. The second wall is: (i) purely repulsive and therefore completely dry (contact angle 180 degrees) or (ii) weakly attractive and partially dry (the contact angle is typically in the range 160-170 degrees). At low temperatures, but above the bulk triple point, we find using classical density functional theory (DFT) that the fluid is highly structured in the liquid part of the density profile. In case (i) a sequence of layering transitions occurs: as L is increased at fixed chemical potential (mu) close to bulk gas--liquid coexistence, new layers of liquid-like density develop discontinuously. In contrast to confinement between identical walls, the solvation force is repulsive for all wall separations and jumps discontinuously at each layering transition and the excess grand potential exhibits many metastable minima as a function of the adsorption. For a fixed temperature T=0.56Tc, where Tc is the bulk critical temperature, we determine the transition lines in the L, mu plane. In case (ii) we do not find layering transitions and the solvation force oscillates about zero. We discuss how our mean-field DFT results might be altered by including effects of fluctuations and comment on how the phenomenology we have revealed might be relevant for experimental and simulation studies of water confined between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, emphasizing it is important to distinguish between cases (i) and (ii).

  19. Misfit layer compounds and ferecrystals: Model systems for thermoelectric nanocomposites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merrill, Devin R. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Moore, Daniel B. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Bauers, Sage R. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Falmbigl, Matthias [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Johnson, David C. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A basic summary of thermoelectric principles is presented in a historical context, following the evolution of the field from initial discovery to modern day high-zT materials. A specific focus is placed on nanocomposite materials as a means to solve the challenges presented by the contradictory material requirements necessary for efficient thermal energy harvest. Misfit layer compounds are highlighted as an example of a highly ordered anisotropic nanocomposite system. Their layered structure provides the opportunity to use multiple constituents for improved thermoelectric performance, through both enhanced phonon scattering at interfaces and through electronic interactions between the constituents. Recently, a class of metastable, turbostratically-disordered misfit layer compounds has been synthesized using a kinetically controlled approach with low reaction temperatures. The kinetically stabilized structures can be prepared with a variety of constituent ratios and layering schemes, providing an avenue to systematically understand structure-function relationships not possible in the thermodynamic compounds. We summarize the work that has been done to date on these materials. The observed turbostratic disorder has been shown to result in extremely low cross plane thermal conductivity and in plane thermal conductivities that are also very small, suggesting the structural motif could be attractive as thermoelectric materials if the power factor could be improved. The first 10 compounds in the [(PbSe)1+?]m(TiSe?)n family (m, n ? 3) are reported as a case study. As n increases, the magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient is significantly increased without a simultaneous decrease in the in-plane electrical conductivity, resulting in an improved thermoelectric power factor.

  20. A Three-layered Conceptual Framework of Data Mining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Yiyu

    A Three-layered Conceptual Framework of Data Mining Y.Y. Yao1 , N. Zhong2 and Y. Zhao1 1 Department-Cho, Maebashi 371, Japan E-mail: zhong@maebashi-it.ac.jp Summary. The study of the foundations of data mining may be viewed as a scien- tific inquiry into the nature of data mining and the scope of data mining

  1. Transversely isotropic elasticity and poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the classic work of Postma [1955] and Backus [1962], much has been learned about elastic constants in vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media when the anisotropy is due to fine layering of isotropic elastic materials. However, new results are still being discovered. For example, the P-wave anisotropy parameter c{sub 11}/c{sub 33} lies in the range 1/4 {<=} c{sub 11}/c{sub 33} {<=} <{lambda}+2{mu}><1/({lambda}+2{mu})>, when the layers are themselves composed of isotropic elastic materials with Lame constants {lambda} and {mu} and the vertical average of the layers is symbolized by <{center_dot}>. The lower bound corrects a result of Postma. For porous layers, a connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. For isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media, we establish general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann [1951] formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement. Such results are important for applications to oil exploration using AVO (amplitude versus offset) since the presence or absence of a fluid component, as well as the nature of the fluid, is the critical issue and the ways in which the fluid influences seismic reflection data still need to be better understood.

  2. Examining A Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer at Low Reynolds Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semper, Michael Thomas

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    z spanwise direction, m Greek Symbols boundary layer thickness, m displacement thickness, m ratio of speci c heats hotwire recovery ratio dynamic viscosity, Pa s density, kg=m3 hotwire overheat ratio, Twire=Tt momentum thickness, m... direct numerical simulation LDV laser doppler velocimetry LES large eddy simulation MTV molecular tagging velocimetry OHR overheat ratio (see ) PIV particle image velocimetry PLIF planar laser induced uorescence RANS Reynolds averaged Navier...

  3. Double dielectric passivation layer on InAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egley, James Lee

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) August 1985 ABSTRACT Double Dielectric Passivation Layer on InAs. (August 1985) James Lee Egley, B. S. , Lewis University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Yellapu Anjaneyulu This thesis investigates the characteristics of the substrate surface... as the lubricant. The wafers were polished to a mirror-like finish. An alumina slurry was also tried for this step, but it was found that the chemicals contained in the slurry etched the surface. After the above mechanical polishing the samples were removed...

  4. Misfit layer compounds and ferecrystals: Model systems for thermoelectric nanocomposites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merrill, Devin R.; Moore, Daniel B.; Bauers, Sage R.; Falmbigl, Matthias; Johnson, David C.

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A basic summary of thermoelectric principles is presented in a historical context, following the evolution of the field from initial discovery to modern day high-zT materials. A specific focus is placed on nanocomposite materials as a means to solve the challenges presented by the contradictory material requirements necessary for efficient thermal energy harvest. Misfit layer compounds are highlighted as an example of a highly ordered anisotropic nanocomposite system. Their layered structure provides the opportunity to use multiple constituents for improved thermoelectric performance, through both enhanced phonon scattering at interfaces and through electronic interactions between the constituents. Recently, a class ofmore »metastable, turbostratically-disordered misfit layer compounds has been synthesized using a kinetically controlled approach with low reaction temperatures. The kinetically stabilized structures can be prepared with a variety of constituent ratios and layering schemes, providing an avenue to systematically understand structure-function relationships not possible in the thermodynamic compounds. We summarize the work that has been done to date on these materials. The observed turbostratic disorder has been shown to result in extremely low cross plane thermal conductivity and in plane thermal conductivities that are also very small, suggesting the structural motif could be attractive as thermoelectric materials if the power factor could be improved. The first 10 compounds in the [(PbSe)1+?]m(TiSe?)n family (m, n ? 3) are reported as a case study. As n increases, the magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient is significantly increased without a simultaneous decrease in the in-plane electrical conductivity, resulting in an improved thermoelectric power factor.« less

  5. Nondestructive testing using stress waves: wave propagation in layered media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Jose Alberto

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING USING STRESS WAVES: WAVE PROPAGATION IN LAYERED MEDIA A Senior Honors Thesis by JOSE ALBERTO ORTEGA Submitted to the Office of Honors Program & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2002 Group: Engineering NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING USI WAVE PROPAGATION IN LA A Senior Honors The ~pe -C JOSE ALBERTO ORTI /CI Submitted to the Office of Honors Program k. Academic...

  6. Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  7. Gas mixing in the wall layer of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterneus, J.; Johnsson, F. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracer-gas measurements were carried out in the transport zone of a 12 MW CFB boiler with special emphasis on the wall-layer flow. Helium (He) was used as tracer gas and a mass spectrometer was used to determine the He-concentrations. The primary gas velocity, U{sub 0}, was 1.2, 2.6 and 4.3 m/s (no secondary air) and the bed material was silica sand with an average particle diameter of 0.32 mm. Tracer gas was injected at different distances from one of the furnace walls and sampled above and below the injection level. In the wall layer, tracer-gas concentrations were detected above (C{sub above}) as well as below (C{sub below}) the injection height for all operating conditions, i.e., the gas flows both up and down from the injection point. The data show that the net flow of tracer gas in the wall layer depends on the operating conditions, and the concentration ratio of the down- and up-flowing gas, {psi} = C{sub below}/C{sub above}, decreases with increased gas velocity ({psi} > 1 for U{sub 0} = 1.2 m/s, {psi} {approx} 1 for U{sub 0} = 2.6 m/s and {psi} < 1 for U{sub 0} = 4.3 m/s). There exists a gas exchange between the core region and the wall-layer. A plug flow model applied to the core region gives a radial dispersion coefficient, D{sub r}, in the range of 0.015--0.025 m{sup 2}/s which is higher than the D{sub r} values reported in literature which are below 0.01 m{sup 2}/x. However, the latter values were obtained in tall and narrow risers.

  8. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  9. A counter-charge layer in generalized solvents framework for electrical double layers in neat and hybrid ionic liquid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have received significant attention as electrolytes due to a number of attractive properties such as their wide electrochemical windows. Since electrical double layers (EDLs) are the cornerstone for the applications of RTILs in electrochemical systems such as supercapacitors, it is important to develop an understanding of the structure capacitance relationships for these systems. Here we present a theoretical framework termed counter-charge layer in generalized solvents (CGS) for describing the structure and capacitance of the EDLs in neat RTILs and in RTILs mixed with different mass fractions of organic solvents. Within this framework, an EDL is made up of a counter-charge layer exactly balancing the electrode charge, and of polarized generalized solvents (in the form of layers of ion pairs, each of which has a zero net charge but has a dipole moment the ion pairs thus can be considered as a generalized solvent) consisting of all RTILs inside the system except the counter-ions in the counter-charge layer, together with solvent molecules if present. Several key features of the EDLs that originate from the strong ion ion correlation in RTILs, e.g., overscreening of electrode charge and alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions, are explicitly incorporated into this framework. We show that the dielectric screening in EDLs is governed predominately by the polarization of generalized solvents (or ion pairs) in the EDL, and the capacitance of an EDL can be related to its microstructure with few a priori assumptions or simplifications. We use this framework to understand two interesting phenomena observed in molecular dynamics simulations of EDLs in a neat IL of 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and in a mixture of [BMIM][BF4] and acetonitrile (ACN): (1) the capacitance of the EDLs in the [BMIM][BF4]/ACN mixture increases only slightly when the mass fraction of ACN in the mixture increases from zero to 50% although the dielectric constant of bulk ACN is more than two times higher than that of neat [BMIM][BF4]; (2) the capacitance of EDLs near negative electrodes (with BMIM+ ion as the counter-ion) is smaller than that near positive electrodes (with BF4as counter-ion) although the closest approaches of both ions to the electrode surface are nearly identical.

  10. Energetic Particle Synthesis of Metastable Layers for Superior Mechanical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Myers, S.M.; Dugger, M.T.; Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Monteiro, O.R.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G.; Christenson, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energetic particle methods have been used to synthesize two metastable layers with superior mechanical properties: amorphous Ni implanted with overlapping Ti and C, and amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) formed by vacuum-arc deposition or pulsed laser deposition. Elastic modulus, yield stress and hardness were reliably determined for both materials by fitting finite-element simulations to the observed layer/substrate responses during nanoindentation. Both materials show exceptional properties, i.e., the yield stress of amorphous Ni(Ti,C) exceeds that of hardened steels and other metallic glasses, and the hardness of DLC (up to 88 GPa) approaches that of crystalline diamond (approx. 100 GPa). Tribological performance of the layers during unlubricated sliding contact appears favorable for treating Ni-based micro-electromechanical systems: stick-slip adhesion to Ni is eliminated, giving a low coefficient of friction (approx. 0.3-0.2) and greatly reduced wear. We discuss how energetic particle synthesis is critical to forming these phases and manipulating their properties for optimum performance.

  11. Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chakraborty, Jui, E-mail: jui@cgcri.res.in [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ghosh, Swapankumar, E-mail: swapankumar.ghosh2@mail.dcu.ie [National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR, Trivandrum 695019 (India); Mitra, Manoj K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Basu, Debabrata [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 A in pristine LDH to 21.3 A in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug molecule in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion. - Graphical abstract: ZnAl-layered double hydroxide intercalated with methotrexate ({approx}34% loading) promises the possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in controlled delivery. Highlights: > ZnAl-layered double hydroxide methotrexate nanohybrid has been synthesized. > XRD and TEM studies on nanohybrid revealed successful intercalation of methotrexate. > TG and CHN analyses showed {approx}34 wt% of methotrexate loading into the nanohybrid. > Possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in delivery.

  12. Coupled wake boundary layer model of wind-farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Richard J A M; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present and test a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a wind-farm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall wind-farm boundary layer structure. The wake expansion/superposition model captures the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down portion adds the interaction between the wind-turbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the model requires specification of a parameter that is not known a-priori. For the wake model the wake expansion coefficient is required, while the top-down model requires an effective span-wise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion coefficient is obtained by matching the predicted mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective span-wise turbine spacing depends on turbine positioning and thus can be determined from the wake expansion...

  13. Improving Subtropical Boundary Layer Cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Ruiyu N.; Han, J.

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of short-wave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parameterisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single-column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.

  14. Thermographic analysis of turbulent non-isothermal water boundary layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Znamenskaya, Irina A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the turbulent water boundary layer in the jet mixing flows using high-speed infrared (IR) thermography. Two turbulent mixing processes were studied: a submerged water jet impinging on a flat surface and two intersecting jets in a round disc-shaped vessel. An infrared camera (FLIR Systems SC7700) was focused on the window transparent for IR radiation; it provided high-speed recordings of heat fluxes from a thin water layer close to the window. Temperature versus time curves at different points of water boundary layer near the wall surface were acquired using the IR camera with the recording frequency of 100 Hz. The time of recording varied from 3 till 20 min. The power spectra for the temperature fluctuations at different points on the hot-cold water mixing zone were calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. The obtained spectral behavior was compared to the Kolmogorov "-5/3 spectrum" (a direct energy cascade) and the dual-cascade scenario predicted for...

  15. Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

  16. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide buffer layer on a textured substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.

    2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An article with an improved buffer layer architecture includes a substrate having a textured metal surface, and an electrically conductive lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The article can also include an epitaxial superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. An epitaxial capping layer can be placed between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article includes providing a substrate with a metal surface and depositing on the metal surface a lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer. The method can further include depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial buffer layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

  17. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide buffer layer on a textured substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.

    2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An article with an improved buffer layer architecture includes a substrate having a textured metal surface, and an electrically conductive lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The article can also include an epitaxial superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. An epitaxial capping layer can be placed between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article includes providing a substrate with a metal surface and depositing on the metal surface a lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer. The method can further include depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial buffer layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

  18. Radio-transparent multi-layer insulation for radiowave receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J. [Korea University, Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea University, Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Ishitsuka, H. [Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan)] [Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Mima, S. [Terahertz Sensing and Imaging Team, Terahertz-wave Research Group, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Terahertz Sensing and Imaging Team, Terahertz-wave Research Group, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Oguri, S., E-mail: shugo@post.kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, K. [Terahertz Sensing and Imaging Team, Terahertz-wave Research Group, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan) [Terahertz Sensing and Imaging Team, Terahertz-wave Research Group, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Tajima, O. [Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan) [Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the field of radiowave detection, enlarging the receiver aperture to enhance the amount of light detected is essential for greater scientific achievements. One challenge in using radio transmittable apertures is keeping the detectors cool. This is because transparency to thermal radiation above the radio frequency range increases the thermal load. In shielding from thermal radiation, a general strategy is to install thermal filters in the light path between aperture and detectors. However, there is difficulty in fabricating metal mesh filters of large diameters. It is also difficult to maintain large diameter absorptive-type filters in cold because of their limited thermal conductance. A technology that maintains cold conditions while allowing larger apertures has been long-awaited. We propose radio-transparent multi-layer insulation (RT-MLI) composed from a set of stacked insulating layers. The insulator is transparent to radio frequencies, but not transparent to infrared radiation. The basic idea for cooling is similar to conventional multi-layer insulation. It leads to a reduction in thermal radiation while maintaining a uniform surface temperature. The advantage of this technique over other filter types is that no thermal links are required. As insulator material, we used foamed polystyrene; its low index of refraction makes an anti-reflection coating unnecessary. We measured the basic performance of RT-MLI to confirm that thermal loads are lowered with more layers. We also confirmed that our RT-MLI has high transmittance to radiowaves, but blocks infrared radiation. For example, RT-MLI with 12 layers has a transmittance greater than 95% (lower than 1%) below 200 GHz (above 4 THz). We demonstrated its effects in a system with absorptive-type filters, where aperture diameters were 200 mm. Low temperatures were successfully maintained for the filters. We conclude that this technology significantly enhances the cooling of radiowave receivers, and is particularly suitable for large-aperture systems. This technology is expected to be applicable to various fields, including radio astronomy, geo-environmental assessment, and radar systems.

  19. Transforming Wave Propagation in Layered Media via Instability-Induced Interfacial Wrinkling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudykh, Stephan

    The ability to control wave propagation in highly deformable layered media with elastic instability-induced wrinkling of interfacial layers is presented. The onset of a wrinkling instability in initially straight interfacial ...

  20. ZnS Thin Films Deposited by a Spin Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ZnS Thin Films Deposited by a Spin Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction Process. ZnS Thin Films Deposited by a Spin Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction...

  1. Advancement of Erosion Testing, Modeling, and Design of Concrete Pavement Subbase Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Youn Su

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Concrete pavement systems have great capacity to provide long service lives; however, if the subbase layer is improperly designed or mismanaged, service life would be diminished significantly since the subbase layer performs many important roles...

  2. Non-diffusive cross field transport in scrape-off-layer in Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Guanghui

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    meso- scale structures in tokamak edge plasmas,” Czech. J.Blob transport in the tokamak scrape-off-layer,” Contrib.layer/shadow regions of tokamaks and linear devices,” Phys.

  3. Characterization of thermo-mechanical and long-term behaviors of multi-layered composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Aravind R.

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents characterization of thermo-mechanical viscoelastic and long-term behaviors of thick-section multi-layered fiber reinforced polymer composite materials. The studied multi-layered systems belong to a class of thermo...

  4. Design of graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM fuel cells. Design of graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM fuel cells. Abstract: A series of cathodes using Pt...

  5. Few-Layer Graphene as a Dry Lubricant | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Few-Layer Graphene as a Dry Lubricant Technology available for licensing: Graphene layers act as a two-dimensional nanomaterial and form a conformal protective coating on sliding...

  6. Hydraulic Interaction between Geosynthetic Drainage Layers and Unsaturated Low Plasticity Clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    1 Hydraulic Interaction between Geosynthetic Drainage Layers and Unsaturated Low Plasticity Clay of soil density on the hydraulic interaction between unsaturated, low plasticity clay and geosynthetic drainage layers. The hydraulic interaction was evaluated using the system hydraulic conductivity, moisture

  7. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF TITANIUM HYDRIDE LAYERS GROWN ON TITANIUM IMPLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF TITANIUM HYDRIDE LAYERS GROWN ON TITANIUM, Switzerland Keywords: SLA treated titanium - bone-anchored dental implants - transmission and scanning electron microscopy - titanium hydride sub-surface layer - epitaxy Abstract Commercially pure titanium

  8. Theory of first-order layering transitions in thin helium films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saslow, WM; Agnolet, Glenn; Campbell, CE; Clements, BE; Krotscheck, E.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin liquid He-4 films on graphite show evidence of layered growth with increasing number density via a succession of first-order phase transitions. These so-called ''layering transitions'' separate uniformly covering phases, such as monolayers...

  9. On the 1/f noise of atomic-layer-deposition metal films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiawa

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the measurement techniques and results of low-frequency noise for atomic-layer-deposition Pt films. Atomic-layer-deposition has been developed as an approach to make ultra-thin and conformal films. It ...

  10. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for...

  11. Elastic fields of quantum dots in subsurface layers A. E. Romanov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beltz, Glenn E.

    to vertical stacking of dots provided that the thickness of the intervening layer ``spacer layer'' is in the order or thinner than the lateral dimensions of the dot.4 It is now clear that dot ordering is driven

  12. Mapping misorientation and crystallographic tilt in GaN layers via polychromatic microdiffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coefficients between GaN and the substrate. Understandingpenetrate both the GaN layer and the substrate. Two samplespattern from the GaN layer and the substrate on a charge-

  13. Nanofluidic Ion Transport through Reconstructed Layered Materials Kalyan Raidongia and Jiaxing Huang*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jiaxing

    Nanofluidic Ion Transport through Reconstructed Layered Materials Kalyan Raidongia and Jiaxing counterparts. Fabrication of nanofluidic devices typically relies on expensive lithography techniques up to 50 mM. Nanofluidic devices based on reconstructed layer materials have distinct advantages

  14. Multilayered gold/silica nanoparticulate bilayer devices using layer-by-layer self organisation for flexible bending and pressure sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah Alam, Md. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, 12120 Pathumthani (Thailand); Mohammed, Waleed S., E-mail: waleed.m@bu.ac.th [Center of Research in Optoelectronics, Communication and Control System (BU-CROCCS), School of Engineering, Bangkok University, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Dutta, Joydeep, E-mail: dutta@squ.edu.om [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, 12120 Pathumthani (Thailand); Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al Khoud 123 (Oman)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure and bending sensor was fabricated using multilayer thin films fabricated on a flexible substrate based on layer-by-layer self-organization of 18?nm gold nanoparticles separated by a dielectric layer of 30?nm silica nanoparticles. 50, 75, and 100 gold-silica bi-layered films were deposited and the device characteristics were studied. A threshold voltage was required for electron conduction which increases from 2.4?V for 50 bi-layers to 3.3?V for 100 bi-layers. Upon bending of the device up to about 52°, the threshold voltage and slope of the I-V curves change linearly. Electrical characterization of the multilayer films was carried out under ambient conditions with different pressures and bending angles in the direct current mode. This study demonstrates that the developed multilayer thin films can be used as pressure as well as bending sensing applications.

  15. Innovative Nano-Layered Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bengyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Fauth, Daniel J; Gray, McMahan L; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-layered sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture, for the first time, were developed using layer-by-layer nanoassembly. A CO{sub 2}-adsorbing polymer and a strong polyelectrolyte were alternately immobilized within porous particles. The developed sorbents had fast CO{sub 2} adsorption and desorption properties and their CO{sub 2} capture capacity increased with increasing nano-layers of the CO{sub 2}-adsorbing polymer.

  16. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  17. Photovoltaic devices comprising zinc stannate buffer layer and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic device has a buffer layer zinc stannate Zn.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 disposed between the semiconductor junction structure and the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer to prevent formation of localized junctions with the TCO through a thin window semiconductor layer, to prevent shunting through etched grain boundaries of semiconductors, and to relieve stresses and improve adhesion between these layers.

  18. Doped Y.sub.2O.sub.3 buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs (Westborough, MA) [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA) [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T. (Oxford, MA) [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA) [Framingham, MA

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the metallic substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising Y.sub.2O.sub.3 and a dopant for blocking cation diffusion through the Y.sub.2O.sub.3, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  19. AIP/123-QED Fuzzy structure theory modeling of sound-insulation layers in complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AIP/123-QED Fuzzy structure theory modeling of sound-insulation layers in complex vibroacoustic France (Dated: September 11, 2008) Fuzzy structure theory for sound-insulation layers 1 hal-00684495 is proposed in developing an elas- toacoustic element useful to model sound-insulation layers for compu

  20. STOCHASTIC COMPUTATIONAL DYNAMICAL MODEL OF UNCERTAIN STRUCTURE COUPLED WITH AN INSULATION LAYER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    STOCHASTIC COMPUTATIONAL DYNAMICAL MODEL OF UNCERTAIN STRUCTURE COUPLED WITH AN INSULATION LAYER the effect of insulation layers in complex dynamical systems for low- and medium-frequency ranges such as car booming noise analysis, one introduces a sim- plified stochastic model of insulation layers based

  1. A case study of boundary layer ventilation by convection and coastal processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dacre, Helen

    A case study of boundary layer ventilation by convection and coastal processes H. F. Dacre,1 S. L; published 12 September 2007. [1] It is often assumed that ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer during a nonfrontal day that occurred on 9 May

  2. Friction of a slider on a granular layer: Nonmonotonic thickness dependence and effect of boundary conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    Friction of a slider on a granular layer: Nonmonotonic thickness dependence and effect of boundary the effective friction encountered by a mass sliding on a granular layer as a function of bed thickness and boundary roughness conditions. The observed friction has minima for a small number of layers before

  3. Adding STARFire Analysis Layers to Google Earth through a KML Network Link 1) Launch Google Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adding STARFire Analysis Layers to Google Earth through a KML Network Link 1) Launch Google Earth 2) The network link will be added in the Places control within Google Earth. Select the node level in the tree layers for viewing within Google Earth. Double clicking on a layer will zoom you to the extent

  4. MEMS Pressure Sensor Array for Aeroacoustic Analysis of the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Robert D.

    holes Density of air c Speed of sound µ Viscosity of air 1 Density of diaphragm (Polysilicon) E1 Modulus of elasticity of diaphragm 1 Poisson's ratio of diaphragm t2 Thickness of Parylene-C layer 2 Density of Parylene-C layer E2 Modulus of elasticity of Parylene-C layer Research Assistant, Department

  5. BOUNDARY LAYER (BL) THERMAL EDDIES OVER A PINE FOREST FROM CARES 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BOUNDARY LAYER (BL) THERMAL EDDIES OVER A PINE FOREST FROM CARES 2010 Gunnar Senum and Stephen are three thermal eddies, about 250 meters wide, in the boundary layer. These thermal eddies are formed from the solar heating of the surface and help to form the boundary layer. The eddy updrafts are transporting

  6. Electrical Characteristics of Multi-Layer Power Distribution Grids Andrey V. Mezhiba and Eby G. Friedman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Electrical Characteristics of Multi-Layer Power Distribution Grids Andrey V. Mezhiba and Eby G. Unlike single layer grids, the electrical character- istics of a multi-layer grid can vary significantly. Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New York

  7. Graphene growth on glass 1 Synthesis of conducting transparent few-layer graphene directly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Graphene growth on glass 1 Synthesis of conducting transparent few-layer graphene directly on glass major hurdles that research has to overcome to get graphene out of research laboratories. Here, using transparent graphene layers at temperatures as low as 450 °C. Our few-layer graphene grows at the interface

  8. Development of an Electroless Method to Deposit Corrosion-Resistant Silicate Layers on Metallic Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Development of an Electroless Method to Deposit Corrosion-Resistant Silicate Layers on Metallic, USA A novel electroless method for depositing corrosion-resistant silicate layers on metallic substrates from aqueous solutions has been developed. The silicate layer was deposited from an aqueous

  9. Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations Wun 20 March 2013 Available online 9 April 2013 Keywords: Layered silicates AMH-3 Composite membrane Exfoliation Interface CO2 separation a b s t r a c t Nanoporous layered silicate/polymer composite membranes

  10. Layered silicate by proton exchange and swelling of AMH-3 Sunho Choi a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Layered silicate by proton exchange and swelling of AMH-3 Sunho Choi a,1 , Joaquin Coronas a,b,1 August 2007 Accepted 10 December 2007 Available online 4 March 2008 Keywords: Layered silicate Molecular exchange of interlayer cations of the layered silicate AMH-3 using an aqueous solution of amino acid

  11. Loop Current Mixed Layer Energy Response to Hurricane Lili (2002). Part I: Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Loop Current Mixed Layer Energy Response to Hurricane Lili (2002). Part I: Observations ERIC W-dimensional oceanic energy evolution in response to Hurricane Lili's (2002) passage. Mixed layer temperature analyses, Florida (Manuscript received 4 May 2011, in final form 3 October 2011) ABSTRACT The ocean mixed layer

  12. Layering and orientational ordering of propane on graphite: An experimental and simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    Layering and orientational ordering of propane on graphite: An experimental and simulation study 2002; accepted 30 July 2002 We report the results of an experimental and theoretical study of propane and experiments show that propane adsorbs in a layer-by-layer fashion and exhibits continuous growth beyond

  13. Ferrite-ferroelectric layered structures for electrically and magnetically tunable microwave resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demokritov, S.O.

    Ferrite-ferroelectric layered structures for electrically and magnetically tunable microwave It is demonstrated experimentally that a layered structure consisting of ferrite and ferroelectric thin films can constant , and a bias magnetic field to the ferrite layer. The resonator having central frequency f0 5 GHz

  14. Numerical Simulations of the Wave Bottom Boundary Layer over Sand Ripples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slinn, Donald

    locations. Under conditions of oscillatory potential flow external to the boundary layer causedNumerical Simulations of the Wave Bottom Boundary Layer over Sand Ripples by Thomas Pierro A Thesis boundary layer are believed to play a major role in the re-suspension and transport of sediment, as well

  15. Characterization of Oscillatory Boundary Layer over a Closely Packed Bed of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Sourabh V.

    Characterization of Oscillatory Boundary Layer over a Closely Packed Bed of Sediment Particles Boundary Layer over a Closely Packed Bed of Sediment Particles Chaitanya D. Ghodke*, Joseph Skitka a detailed knowledge of the small amplitude oscillatory flow over the sediment layer near the sea bed. Fully

  16. A new twist on Stokes' second problem: Partial penetration of nonlinearity in sheared viscoelastic layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest, M. Gregory

    viscoelastic layer to an oscillating boundary, greater than the gap-loading limit of typical shear rheometers oscillatory shear driving con- ditions on the mucus layer. Very little evidence is available on the details extend our previous studies [3­5] of viscoelas- tic layers under oscillatory driving conditions

  17. Optical anisotropy and liquid-crystal alignment properties of rubbed polyimide layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exeter, University of

    Optical anisotropy and liquid-crystal alignment properties of rubbed polyimide layers FUZI YANG polyimide layers and the rubbing process is investigated using the recently developed polarization-conversion guided mode technique. Results indicate that the effective optical anisotropy of the polyimide layers may

  18. The Free Energy of an Electrical Double Layer DEREK Y. C. CHAN AND D. JOHN MITCHELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    The Free Energy of an Electrical Double Layer DEREK Y. C. CHAN AND D. JOHN MITCHELL Department for the potential determining ions. The interaction free energy due to the overlap of two double layers has a simple The concept of the free energy of an elec- trical double layer is of considerable impor- tance in colloid

  19. Atomic layer deposition of TiN films Growth and electrical behavior down to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic layer deposition of TiN films Growth and electrical behavior down to sub-nanometer scale Hao Van Bui #12;ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TiN FILMS GROWTH AND ELECTRICAL BEHAVIOR DOWN TO SUBD. Thesis - University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands Title: Atomic layer deposition of TiN films

  20. Response of the benthic nepheloid layer to near-inertial internal waves in southern Lake Michigan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    resuspension by shoaling internal waves maintains the layer during the stratified period. The origin and maintenance of the benthic nepheloid layer is most likely the result of local resuspension due: Limnology; KEYWORDS: Lake Michigan, nepheloid layer, sediment resuspension, Morlet wavelet Citation: Hawley

  1. RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THINFILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    THESIS RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Lei Chen LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS BE AC- CEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin­film solar cells are developing dramatically

  2. Layered Frequency-Domain Turbo Equalization for Single Carrier Broadband MIMO Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yahong Rosa

    Layered Frequency-Domain Turbo Equalization for Single Carrier Broadband MIMO Systems Jian Zhang 72701, USA Abstract-- A new layered frequency-domain turbo equalization (LFDTE) scheme is proposed the respective advantages of layered detection and turbo equalization to further lower the bit error rate (BER

  3. CORIOLIS EFFECTS IN MESOSCALE SHALLOW LAYER FLOWS J. C. R. Hunt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    CORIOLIS EFFECTS IN MESOSCALE SHALLOW LAYER FLOWS J. C. R. Hunt ¢¡ £ ,A. Orr , D. Cresswell layer or inversion layer, is developed for idealised and steady, but typical, mesoscale atmospheric estimates for a wide range of perturbed mesoscale flows, especially where the surface conditions change

  4. Si/SiGe modulation-doped structures with thin buffer layers: Effect of substrate orientation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Si/SiGe modulation-doped structures with thin buffer layers: Effect of substrate orientation G. L and Nomarski microscopy. In n-type modulation-doped Si-SiGe structures, the band structure is type II where SiGe layer, generally on top of the strained Si, is intentionally doped leaving the adjacent Si layer

  5. TEM studies of laterally overgrown GaN layers grown on non-polar substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Ni, X.; Morkoc, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between these substrates and the GaN layers leads to a highpendeo-epitaxial GaN layer grown on (1120) 4H-SiC substrate.in GaN layers grown on polar and non-polar substrates are

  6. Planform selection in two-layer Benard-Marangoni convection * and J. B. Swift2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engel, Andreas

    on thin oil layers heated from below 1 have become the trademark of pattern formation in hy- drodynamic were performed using simplified models of the experimental situ- ation. The initial assumption with this assumption. Also, most investigations focused on a single-layer model in which a lower liquid layer

  7. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hyunsoo [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hagyoung; Ham, Giyul; Shin, Seokyoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition have been used for thin film encapsulation of organic light emitting diode. In this study, a multi-density layer structure consisting of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers with different densities are deposited with different deposition conditions of O{sub 2} plasma reactant time. This structure improves moisture permeation barrier characteristics, as confirmed by a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) test. The lowest WVTR of the multi-density layer structure was 4.7 × 10{sup ?5} gm{sup ?2} day{sup ?1}, which is one order of magnitude less than WVTR for the reference single-density Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. This improvement is attributed to the location mismatch of paths for atmospheric gases, such as O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, in the film due to different densities in the layers. This mechanism is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed that the multi-density layer structure exhibits very good characteristics as an encapsulation layer via location mismatch of paths for H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} between the two layers.

  8. Asymmetric perfectly matched layer for the absorption of waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, Jean-Luc

    2002-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) has become a standard for comparison in the techniques that have been developed to close the system of Maxwell equations (more generally wave equations) when simulating an open system. The original Berenger PML formulation relies on a split version of Maxwell equations with numerical electric and magnetic conductivities. They present here an extension of this formulation which introduces counterparts of the electric and magnetic conductivities affecting the term which is spatially differentiated in the equations. they phase velocity along each direction is also multiplied by an additional coefficient. They show that, under certain constraints on the additional numerical coefficients, this ''medium'' does not generate any reflection at any angle and any frequency and is then a Perfectly Matched Layer. Technically it is a super-set of Berenger's PML to which it reduces for a specific set of parameters and like it, it is anisotropic. However, unlike the PML, it introduces some asymmetry in the absorption rate and is therefore labeled an APML for Asymmetric Perfectly Matched Layer. They present here the numerical considerations that have led them to introduce such a medium as well as its theory. Several finite-different numerical implementations are derived (in one, two and three dimensions) and the performance of the APML is contrasted with that of the PML in one and two dimensions. Using plane wave analysis, they show that the APML implementations lead to higher absorption rates than the considered PML implementations. Although they have considered in this paper the finite-different discretization of Maxwell-like equations only, the APML system of equations may be used with other discretization schemes, such as finite-elements, and may be applied to other equations, for applications beyond electromagnetics.

  9. Water Vapor Turbulence Profiles in Stationary Continental Convective Mixed Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D. D.; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Berg, Larry K.; Schween, Jan

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north-central Oklahoma has collected water vapor mixing ratio (q) profile data more than 90% of the time since October 2004. Three hundred (300) cases were identified where the convective boundary layer was quasi-stationary and well-mixed for a 2-hour period, and q mean, variance, third order moment, and skewness profiles were derived from the 10-s, 75-m resolution data. These cases span the entire calendar year, and demonstrate that the q variance profiles at the mixed layer (ML) top changes seasonally, but is more related to the gradient of q across the interfacial layer. The q variance at the top of the ML shows only weak correlations (r < 0.3) with sensible heat flux, Deardorff convective velocity scale, and turbulence kinetic energy measured at the surface. The median q skewness profile is most negative at 0.85 zi, zero at approximately zi, and positive above zi, where zi is the depth of the convective ML. The spread in the q skewness profiles is smallest between 0.95 zi and zi. The q skewness at altitudes between 0.6 zi and 1.2 zi is correlated with the magnitude of the q variance at zi, with increasingly negative values of skewness observed lower down in the ML as the variance at zi increases, suggesting that in cases with larger variance at zi there is deeper penetration of the warm, dry free tropospheric air into the ML.

  10. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF NON-REPOSITORY LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC LAYERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. JONES

    2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This model report addresses activities described in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport Thermal Properties and Analysis Reports Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171708]). The model develops values for thermal conductivity, and its uncertainty, for the nonrepository layers of Yucca Mountain; in addition, the model provides estimates for matrix porosity and dry bulk density for the nonrepository layers. The studied lithostratigraphic units, as identified in the ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM 2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]), are the Timber Mountain Group, the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Yucca Mountain Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, the Topopah Spring Tuff (excluding the repository layers), the Calico Hills Formation, the Prow Pass Tuff, the Bullfrog Tuff, and the Tram Tuff. The deepest model units of the GFM (Tund and Paleozoic) are excluded from this study because no data suitable for model input are available. The parameter estimates developed in this report are used as input to various models and calculations that simulate heat transport through the rock mass. Specifically, analysis model reports that use product output from this report are: (1) Drift-scale coupled processes (DST and TH seepage) models; (2) Drift degradation analysis; (3) Multiscale thermohydrologic model; and (4) Ventilation model and analysis report. In keeping with the methodology of the thermal conductivity model for the repository layers in ''Thermal Conductivity of the Potential Repository Horizon'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169854]), the Hsu et al. (1995 [DIRS 158073]) three-dimensional (3-D) cubic model (referred to herein as ''the Hsu model'') was used to represent the matrix thermal conductivity as a function of the four parameters (matrix porosity, thermal conductivity of the saturating fluid, thermal conductivity of the solid, and geometric connectivity of the solid). The Hsu model requires input data from each test specimen to meet three specific conditions: (1) Known value for matrix porosity; (2) Known values for wet and dry thermal conductivity; and (3) The location of the measured specimen in relation to the model stratigraphic unit. The only matrix thermal conductivity values developed are limited to fully saturated and dry conditions. The model does not include the effects of convection and thermal radiation in voids. The model does not include temperature dependence of thermal conductivity, porosity, or bulk density.

  11. Radiation due to Josephson oscillations in layered superconductors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Koshelev, A. E.; Materials Science Division; LANL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the power of direct radiation into free space induced by Josephson oscillations in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered superconductors. We consider the superradiation regime for a crystal cut in the form of a thin slice parallel to the c axis. We find that the radiation correction to the current-voltage characteristic in this regime depends only on crystal shape. We show that at a large number of junctions oscillations are synchronized providing high radiation power and efficiency in the terahertz frequency range. We discuss the crystal parameters and bias current optimal for radiation power and crystal cooling.

  12. Polymer Effects on Heat Transport in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching; Vivien W. S. Chu

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a laminar Blasius boundary-layer flow above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study the effect of polymer additives on the heat transport. We show that the action of the polymers can be understood as a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value then decreases exponentially back to the zero-shear value as one moves away from the boundary. We find that with such an effective viscosity, both the horizontal and vertical velocities near the plate are decreased thus leading to an increase in the friction drag and a decrease in the heat transport in the flow.

  13. Coherent structures in compressible free-shear-layer flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Kennedy, C.A.; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion and Physical Sciences Center

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large scale coherent structures are intrinsic fluid mechanical characteristics of all free-shear flows, from incompressible to compressible, and laminar to fully turbulent. These quasi-periodic fluid structures, eddies of size comparable to the thickness of the shear layer, dominate the mixing process at the free-shear interface. As a result, large scale coherent structures greatly influence the operation and efficiency of many important commercial and defense technologies. Large scale coherent structures have been studied here in a research program that combines a synergistic blend of experiment, direct numerical simulation, and analysis. This report summarizes the work completed for this Sandia Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project.

  14. Surface-plasmons lasing in double-graphene-layer structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinov, A. A. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, and Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Aleshkin, V. Ya. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, and Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ryzhii, V. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Electronics, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Otsuji, T. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the concept of injection terahertz lasers based on double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures with metal surface-plasmon waveguide and study the conditions of their operation. The laser under consideration exploits the resonant radiative transitions between GLs. This enables the double-GL laser room temperature operation and the possibility of voltage tuning of the emission spectrum. We compare the characteristics of the double-GL lasers with the metal surface-plasmon waveguides with those of such laser with the metal-metal waveguides.

  15. Digital volume imaging of the PEFC gas diffusion layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha [ORNL; Shim, Eunkyoung [NC ST

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas diffusion layer (GDL) plays a key role in the overall performance/durability of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Of profound importance, especially in the context of water management and flooding phenomena, is the influence of the underlying pore morphology and wetting characteristics Of the GDL microstructure. In this article, we present the digital volumetric imaging (DVI) technique in order to generate the 3-D carbon paper GDL microstructure. The internal pore structure and the local microstructural variations in terms of fiber alignment and fiber/binder distributions are investigated using the several 3-D thin sections of the sample obtained from DVI.

  16. A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0 ARRA Newsletters 2010 ARRAA Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid

  17. A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is always evolving, soFuelDepartmentPotawatomiA Liquid Layer Solution

  18. TFB:TPDSi2 interfacial layer usable in organic photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Iobin J. (Evanston, IL); Hains, Alexander W. (Evanston, IL)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode; an active organic layer comprising an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material; and an interfacial layer formed between the anode and active organic layer, where the interfacial layer comprises a hole-transporting polymer characterized with a hole-mobility higher than that of the electron-donating organic material in the active organic layer, and a small molecule that has a high hole-mobility and is capable of crosslinking on contact with air.

  19. Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with active layers from 300 to 900 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momblona, C.; Malinkiewicz, O.; Soriano, A.; Gil-Escrig, L.; Bandiello, E.; Scheepers, M.; Bolink, H. J., E-mail: henk.bolink@uv.es [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático J. Beltrán 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Roldán-Carmona, C. [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático J. Beltrán 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Department of Physical Chemistry and Applied Thermodynamics, University of Córdoba, Campus Rabanales, Ed. C3, 14014, Córdoba (Spain); Edri, E. [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Herzl St. 34, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite-based solar cells have been prepared in which the perovskite layer is sandwiched in between two organic charge transporting layers that block holes and electrons, respectively. This configuration leads to stable and reproducible devices that do not suffer from strong hysteresis effects and when optimized lead to efficiencies close to 15%. The perovskite layer is formed by using a dual-source thermal evaporation method, whereas the organic layers are processed from solution. The dual-source thermal evaporation method leads to smooth films and allows for high precision thickness variations. Devices were prepared with perovskite layer thicknesses ranging from 160 to 900 nm. The short-circuit current observed for these devices increased with increasing perovskite layer thickness. The main parameter that decreases with increasing perovskite layer thickness is the fill factor and as a result optimum device performance is obtained for perovskite layer thickness around 300 nm. However, here we demonstrate that with a slightly oxidized electron blocking layer the fill factor for the solar cells with a perovskite layer thickness of 900 nm increases to the same values as for the devices with thin perovskite layers. As a result the power conversion efficiencies for the cells with 300 and 900 nm are very similar, 12.7% and 12%, respectively.

  20. Plasma hydrogenation of strained Si/SiGe/Si heterostructure for layer transfer without ion implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao Lin; Lin Yuan; Lee, J.K.; Jia, Q.X.; Wang Yongqiang; Nastasi, M.; Thompson, Phillip E.; Theodore, N. David; Chu, Paul K.; Alford, T.L.; Mayer, J.W.; Chen Peng; Lau, S.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Code 6812, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5347 (United States); Advanced Products Research and Development Laboratory, Freescale Semiconductor Inc., Tempe, Arizona 85284 (United States); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed an innovative approach without the use of ion implantation to transfer a high-quality thin Si layer for the fabrication of silicon-on-insulator wafers. The technique uses a buried strained SiGe layer, a few nanometers in thickness, to provide H trapping centers. In conjunction with H plasma hydrogenation, lift-off of the top Si layer can be realized with cleavage occurring at the depth of the strained SiGe layer. This technique avoids irradiation damage within the top Si layer that typically results from ion implantation used to create H trapping regions in the conventional ion-cut method. We explain the strain-facilitated layer transfer as being due to preferential vacancy aggregation within the strained layer and subsequent trapping of hydrogen, which lead to cracking in a well controlled manner.

  1. Computational synthesis of single-layer GaN on refractory materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Arunima K.; Hennig, Richard G., E-mail: rhennig@cornell.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of single-layer materials relies on suitable substrates. In this paper, we identify suitable substrates for the stabilization and growth of single-layer GaN and characterize the effect of the substrate on the electronic structure of single-layer GaN. We identify two classes of epitaxial substrates, refractory metal diborides and transition-metal dichalcogenides. We find that the refractory diborides provide epitaxial stabilization for the growth and functionalization of single layer GaN. We show that chemical interactions of single layer GaN with the diboride substrates result in n-type doping of the single-layer GaN. Transition-metal dichalcogenides, on the other hand, although epitaxially matched, cannot provide sufficient thermodynamic stabilization for the growth of single layer GaN. Nonetheless, energy band alignments of GaN/metal chalcogenides show that they make good candidates for heterostructures.

  2. Relaxed graded SiGe donor substrates incorporating hydrogen-gettering and buried etch stop layers for strained silicon layer transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relaxed graded SiGe donor substrates incorporating hydrogen-gettering and buried etch stop layers lattice constants of SiGe on Si with low threading dislocation den- sities in the surface layer, the relaxed graded SiGe buffer i.e., x Si1-xGex /Si Refs. 6­8 has been utilized for both the SSOI as well

  3. SCRAPE-OFF LAYER FEATURES OF THE QH-MODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LASNIER, C.J.; BURRELL, K.H.; deGRASSIE, J.S.; LEONARD, A.W.; MOYER, R.A.; PORTER, G.D.; WATKINS, J.G.; DIII-D TEAM

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quiescent high confinement (QH-mode) and quiescent double barrier (QDB) modes in DIII-D have long-duration H-mode confinement without ELMs, possibly an alternative operating mode in future tokamaks for avoiding damage by ELMs . Instead of ELMs, there is an edge harmonic oscillation (EHO), which is a continuous electromagnetic mode with associated density fluctuations. The edge pedestal is similar to ELMing H-mode, but at very low density to date. We see C{sup +6} ion temperatures of 3-7 keV in scrape-off layer (SOL), 100 kV/m radial electric fields just inside the separatrix, and a hot area on the divertor baffle whose heating correlates with the presence of the EHO. We attribute the baffle heating to perturbation of trapped ion orbits by the EHO, allowing particles to strike the baffle. The outboard scrape-off layer is wider than the inboard, probably for lack of trapped ions on the inside.

  4. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagheri, Mehran, E-mail: mh-bagheri@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran 19835-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrami, Mousa [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons.

  5. Delaying natural transition of a boundary layer using smooth steps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Hui; Sherwin, Spencer J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The boundary layer flow over a smooth forward-facing stepped plate is studied with particular emphasis on the delay of the transition to turbulence. The interaction between the Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves and the base flow over a single/two forward facing smooth steps is conducted by linear analysis indicating the amplitude of the T-S waves are attenuated in the boundary layer over a single smooth plate. Furthermore, we show that two smooth forward facing steps give rise to a further reduction of the amplitude of the T-S waves. A direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for the two smooth forward steps correlating favourably with the linear analysis and showing that for the investigated parameters, the K-type transition is inhibited whereas the turbulence onset of the H-type transition is postponed albeit not suppressed. Transition is indeed delayed and drag reduced for both these transition scenarios suggesting smooth forward facing steps could be leveraged as a passive flow control strategy to de...

  6. Laminar-turbulent separatrix in a boundary layer flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biau, Damien

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transitional boundary layer flow over a flat plate is investigated. The boundary layer flow is known to develop unstable Tollmien-Schlichting waves above a critical value of the Reynolds number. However, it is also known that this transition can be observed for sub-critical Reynolds numbers. In that case, the basin of attraction of the laminar state coexists with the sustained turbulence. In this article, the trajectory on the separatrix between these two states is simulated. The state on the separatrix is independent from the initial condition and is dynamically connected to both the laminar flow and the turbulence. Such an edge state provides information regarding the basic features of the transitional flow. The solution takes the form of a low speed streak, flanked by two quasi-streamwise sinuous vortices. The shape of the streaks is close to that simulated with the linear optimal perturbation method. This solution is compared to existing results concerning streak breakdown. The simulations are realize...

  7. An asymptotic model of seismic reflection from a permeable layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Goloshubin, G.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of compression wave propagation in a poroelastic medium predicts a peak of reflection from a high-permeability layer in the low-frequency end of the spectrum. An explicit formula expresses the resonant frequency through the elastic moduli of the solid skeleton, the permeability of the reservoir rock, the fluid viscosity and compressibility, and the reservoir thickness. This result is obtained through a low-frequency asymptotic analysis of Biot's model of poroelasticity. A review of the derivation of the main equations from the Hooke's law, momentum and mass balance equations, and Darcy's law suggests an alternative new physical interpretation of some coefficients of the classical poroelasticity. The velocity of wave propagation, the attenuation factor, and the wave number, are expressed in the form of power series with respect to a small dimensionless parameter. The absolute value of this parameter is equal to the product of the kinematic reservoir fluid mobility and the wave frequency. Retaining only the leading terms of the series leads to explicit and relatively simple expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a planar wave crossing an interface between two permeable media, as well as wave reflection from a thin highly-permeable layer (a lens). Practical applications of the obtained asymptotic formulae are seismic modeling, inversion, and at-tribute analysis.

  8. Molecular layer deposition of alucone films using trimethylaluminum and hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, Devika; Sarkar, Shaibal K., E-mail: shaibal.sarkar@iitb.ac.in [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Mahuli, Neha [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid organic–inorganic polymer film grown by molecular layer deposition (MLD) is demonstrated here. Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum [Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and hydroquinone [C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}] are used to deposit the polymeric films, which is a representative of a class of aluminum oxide polymers known as “alucones.” In-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies are employed to determine the growth characteristics. An average growth rate of 4.1 Å per cycle at 150?°C is obtained by QCM and subsequently verified with x-ray reflectivity measurements. Surface chemistry during each MLD-half cycle is studied in depth by in-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) vibration spectroscopy. Self limiting nature of the reaction is confirmed from both QCM and FTIR measurements. The conformal nature of the deposit, typical for atomic layer deposition and MLD, is verified with transmission electron microscopy imaging. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements confirm the uniform elemental distribution along the depth of the films.

  9. Radial transmission line analysis of multi-layer structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of multi-layer beam tubes is a standard problem and involves axially propagating waves. This treatment is ill suited to a short multi-layer structure such as the present example of a ferrite covered ceramic break in the beam tube at the ERL photo-cathode electron gun. This paper demonstrates that such structure can better be treated by radial wave propagation. The theoretical method is presented and numerical results are compared with measured network analyser data and Microwave Studio generated simulations. The results confirm the concept of radial transmission lines as a valid analytical method. An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is being constructed at this laboratory for the purpose of research towards an envisioned Electron Ion Collider. One of the pertinent topics is damping of Higher Order Modes (HOM). In this ERL, the damping is provided by ferrite absorbers in the beam tube. A modified version thereof, a ceramic break surrounded by ferrite, is planed for the superconducting electron gun. The damper here is located at room temperature just outside of the gun. If used in a cavity chain, the ceramic break is in the vacuum tube at helium temperature whereas the ferrite is moved into the cryostat insulating vacuum allowing higher temperatures. The general properties of the ferrite HOM dampers have been published but are more detailed in this paper.

  10. Enhanced molecular dynamics for simulating porous interphase layers in batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Wong, Bryan Matthew; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Lee, Jonathan (Rice University, Houston, TX)

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding charge transport processes at a molecular level using computational techniques is currently hindered by a lack of appropriate models for incorporating anistropic electric fields in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. An important technological example is ion transport through solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers that form in many common types of batteries. These layers regulate the rate at which electro-chemical reactions occur, affecting power, safety, and reliability. In this work, we develop a model for incorporating electric fields in MD using an atomistic-to-continuum framework. This framework provides the mathematical and algorithmic infrastructure to couple finite element (FE) representations of continuous data with atomic data. In this application, the electric potential is represented on a FE mesh and is calculated from a Poisson equation with source terms determined by the distribution of the atomic charges. Boundary conditions can be imposed naturally using the FE description of the potential, which then propagates to each atom through modified forces. The method is verified using simulations where analytical or theoretical solutions are known. Calculations of salt water solutions in complex domains are performed to understand how ions are attracted to charged surfaces in the presence of electric fields and interfering media.

  11. Final report for CCS cross-layer reliability visioning study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dehon, Andre [U. PENN; Carter, Nicj [INTEL

    2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance known as Moore's Law has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. Looking forward, increasing unpredictability threatens our ability to continue scaling integrated circuits at Moore's Law rates. As the transistors and wires that make up integrated circuits become smaller, they display both greater differences in behavior among devices designed to be identical and greater vulnerability to transient and permanent faults. Conventional design techniques expend energy to tolerate this unpredictability by adding safety margins to a circuit's operating voltage, clock frequency or charge stored per bit. However, the rising energy costs needed to compensate for increasing unpredictability are rapidly becoming unacceptable in today's environment where power consumption is often the limiting factor on integrated circuit performance and energy efficiency is a national concern. Reliability and energy consumption are both reaching key inflection points that, together, threaten to reduce or end the benefits of feature size reduction. To continue beneficial scaling, we must use a cross-layer, Jull-system-design approach to reliability. Unlike current systems, which charge every device a substantial energy tax in order to guarantee correct operation in spite of rare events, such as one high-threshold transistor in a billion or one erroneous gate evaluation in an hour of computation, cross-layer reliability schemes make reliability management a cooperative effort across the system stack, sharing information across layers so that they only expend energy on reliability when an error actually occurs. Figure 1 illustrates an example of such a system that uses a combination of information from the application and cheap architecture-level techniques to detect errors. When an error occurs, mechanisms at higher levels in the stack correct the error, efficiently delivering correct operation to the user in spite of errors at the device or circuit levels. In the realms of memory and communication, engineers have a long history of success in tolerating unpredictable effects such as fabrication variability, transient upsets, and lifetime wear using information sharing, limited redundancy, and cross-layer approaches that anticipate, accommodate, and suppress errors. Networks use a combination of hardware and software to guarantee end-toend correctness. Error-detection and correction codes use additional information to correct the most common errors, single-bit transmission errors. When errors occur that cannot be corrected by these codes, the network protocol requests re-transmission of one or more packets until the correct data is received. Similarly, computer memory systems exploit a cross-layer division of labor to achieve high performance with modest hardware. Rather than demanding that hardware alone provide the virtual memory abstraction, software page-fault and TLB-miss handlers allow a modest piece of hardware, the TLB, to handle the common-case operations on a cyc1e-by-cycle basis while infrequent misses are handled in system software. Unfortunately, mitigating logic errors is not as simple or as well researched as memory or communication systems. This lack of understanding has led to very expensive solutions. For example, triple-modular redundancy masks errors by triplicating computations in either time or area. T

  12. Collaborative Research: Dynamics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves on Current Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Jolene S.

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research carried out under the subject grant has provided insight into the generation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs), which are nonlinear structures observed in space plasma data. These ESWs, appearing as pulses in the electric field time series data, represent the presence of several hundred meters to kilometer size positive potential structures, similar to champagne bubbles, where the electrons have been depleted, and which travel along Earth's magnetic field lines. The laboratory experiments carried out at the UCLA LAPD under the grant allowed us the opportunity to change various plasma and field conditions within the plasma device, and experiment with injection of suprathermal electron beams, in order to create ESWs. This then allowed us to determine the most likely method of generation of the ESWs. By comparing the properties of the ESWs observed in the LAPD to those observed in space and the plasma and field conditions under which those ESWs were observed in both locations, we were able to evaluate various ESW generation mechanisms. The findings of the laboratory experiments are that ESWs are generated through a lower hybrid instability. The ESWs observed in Earth's auroral current regions have similar characteristics to those generated by the laboratory when referenced to basic plasma and field characteristics, leading us to the conclusion that the lower hybrid drift instability is certainly a possibility for generation of the ESWs, at least in the auroral (northern/southern lights) regions. Due to space instrumentation insufficiencies and the limitations on telemetry, and thus poor time resolution, it is not possible to determine absolutely what generates these bubbles in space, but the laboratory experiments and supporting simulations have helped us to further our understanding of the processes under which they are generated. The public benefits from the findings of this research because the research is focused on current layers around Earth, which are affected by our Sun's activity. Understanding how these current layers are affected by the Sun provides insight into why radio communications are sometimes affected on Earth and how these layers help protect and facilitate our life on Earth.

  13. IMPROVED pc-Si p-LAYER AND a-Si i-LAYER MATERIALS USING VHF PLASMA X. Deng, S. J. Jones, T. Liu, M. Izu and S. R. Ovshinsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    IMPROVED pc-Si p-LAYER AND a-Si i-LAYER MATERIALS USING VHF PLASMA DEPOSITION X. Deng, S. J. Jones, Michigan 48084 ABSTRACT Microcrystalline Si p-layers have been widely used in a-Si solar cell technology of high quality pc-Si p-layer material using a modified very high frequency (VHF) plasma enhanced CVD

  14. A Multi-Layered Image Cache for Scientific Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaMar, E C

    2003-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a multi-layered image cache system that is designed to work with a pool of rendering engines to facilitate an interactive, frameless, asynchronous rendering environment. Our system decouples the rendering from the display of imagery. Therefore, it decouples render frequency and resolution from display frequency and resolution, and allows asynchronous transmission of imagery instead of the compute/send cycle of standard parallel systems. It also allows local, incremental refinement of imagery without requiring all imagery to be re-rendered. Images are placed in fixed position in camera (vs. world) space to eliminate occlusion artifacts. Display quality is improved by increasing the number of images. Interactivity is improved by decreasing the number of images.

  15. Method for producing functionally graded nanocrystalline layer on metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O. (Oswego, IL); Hershberger, Jeffrey G. (Berwyn, IL)

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for the creation or formation of nanocrystalline layers on substrates' surfaces is provided. The process involves "prescuffing" the surface of a substrate such as a metal by allowing friction to occur on the surface by a load-bearing entity making rubbing contact and moving along and on the substrate's surface. The "prescuffing" action is terminated when the coefficient of friction between the surface and the noise is rising significantly. Often, the significant rise in the coefficient of friction is signaled by a change in pitch of the scuffing action sound emanating from the buffeted surface. The "prescuffing" gives rise to a harder and smoother surface which withstands better any inadequate lubrication that may take place when the "prescuffed" surface is contacted by other surfaces.

  16. Origin and effect of nonlocality in a layered composite.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple demonstration of nonlocality in a heterogeneous material is presented. By analysis of the microscale deformation of a two-component layered medium, it is shown that nonlocal interactions necessarily appear in a homogenized model of the system. Explicit expressions for the nonlocal forces are determined. The way these nonlocal forces appear in various nonlocal elasticity theories is derived. The length scales that emerge involve the constituent material properties as well as their geometrical dimen- sions. A peridynamic material model for the smoothed displacement eld is derived. It is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data that the incorporation of non- locality in modeling dramatically improves the prediction of the stress concentration in an open hole tension test on a composite plate.

  17. Probing Excitonic Dark States in Single-layer Tungsten Disulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Ziliang; O'Brien, Kevin; Zhu, Hanyu; Yin, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuan; Louie, Steven G; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayer has recently emerged as an important two-dimensional semiconductor with promising potentials for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unlike semi-metallic graphene, layered TMDC has a sizable band gap. More interestingly, when thinned down to a monolayer, TMDC transforms from an indirect bandgap to a direct bandgap semiconductor, exhibiting a number of intriguing optical phenomena such as valley selective circular dichroism, doping dependent charged excitons, and strong photocurrent responses. However, the fundamental mechanism underlying such a strong light-matter interaction is still under intensive investigation. The observed optical resonance was initially considered to be band-to-band transitions. In contrast, first-principle calculations predicted a much larger quasiparticle band gap size and an optical response that is dominated by excitonic effects. Here, we report experimental evidence of the exciton dominance mechanism by discovering a series of exc...

  18. Applications of Fourier analysis in homogenization and boundary layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksanyan, Hayk; Sjölin, Per

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we prove convergence results for the boundary layer homogenization problem for solutions of partial differential system with rapidly oscillating Dirichlet data. Our method is based on analysis of oscillatory integrals. In the uniformly convex regime and smooth boundaries we prove pointwise as well as $L^p$ convergence results. Namely, we prove $|u_{\\e}(x)-u_0 (x)| \\leq C_{\\kappa} \\e^{(d-1)/2}\\frac{1}{d(x)^{\\kappa}}$, $\\forall x\\in D$, $ \\forall \\ \\kappa>d-1$, and for $1\\leq pboundary of $D$. In particular for $p=2$ our result relates to the recent result of D. G\\'{e}rarad-Varet and N. Masmoudi \\cite{GM}.

  19. Revised Knudsen-layer reduction of fusion reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, B. J.; Molvig, Kim; Huang, C.-K.; Simakov, A. N.; Dodd, E. S.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Schmit, P. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1186 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1186 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work by Molvig et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 095001 (2012)] examined how fusion reactivity may be reduced from losses of fast ions in finite assemblies of fuel. In this paper, this problem is revisited with the addition of an asymptotic boundary-layer treatment of ion kinetic losses. This boundary solution, reminiscent of the classical Milne problem from linear transport theory, obtains a free-streaming limit of fast ion losses near the boundary, where the diffusion approximation is invalid. Thermonuclear reaction rates have been obtained for the ion distribution functions predicted by this improved model. It is found that while Molvig's “Knudsen distribution function” bounds from above the magnitude of the reactivity reduction, this more accurate treatment leads to less dramatic losses of tail ions and associated reduction of thermonuclear reaction rates for finite fuel volumes.

  20. Heat transport by laminar boundary layer flow with polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching.; Vivien W. S. Chu

    2011-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by recent experimental observations, we consider a steady-state Prandtl-Blasius boundary layer flow with polymers above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study how the heat transport might be affected by the polymers. We discuss how a set of equations can be derived for the problem and how these equations can be solved numerically by an iterative scheme. By carrying out such a scheme, we find that the effect of the polymers is equivalent to producing a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value at the plate then decreases rapidly back to the zero-shear value far from the plate. We further show that such an effective viscosity leads to an enhancement in the drag, which in turn leads to a reduction in heat transport.