Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Bispectral-based methods for clustering time series  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distinguishing among linear and nonlinear time series or between nonlinear time series generated by different underlying processes is challenging, as second-order properties are generally insufficient for the task. Different nonlinear processes have ... Keywords: Bispectral density function, Hierarchical clustering, Nonlinear time series

Jane L. Harvill, Nalini Ravishanker, Bonnie K. Ray

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Peaks Over Threshold Plot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... CAPTURE POT.OUT PEAKS OVER THRESHOLD PLOT Y17 R END OF CAPTURE . SKIP 0 READ DPST2F.DAT ITER NPOINTS THRESH R2 XR . ...

2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

3

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing vehicles [gasoline in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)] in 2020. This record documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. Principles: The cost threshold analysis is a "top-down" analysis of the cost at which hydrogen would be

4

The progress and challenges of threshold voltage control of high-k/metal-gated devices for advanced technologies (Invited Paper)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses recent progress in and challenges of threshold voltage control for advanced high-k/metal-gated (HKMG) devices. It presents the impact on threshold voltage (V"t) control of incorporating La and Al into HKMG devices. A dipole moment ... Keywords: CMOS, Capping layer, EOT, High-k, Metal gate, Threshold voltage control

Hsing-Huang Tseng; Paul Kirsch; C. S. Park; Gennadi Bersuker; Prashant Majhi; Muhammad Hussain; Raj Jammy

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Optimal multilevel thresholding using bacterial foraging algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conventional multilevel thresholding methods are efficient for bi-level thresholding. However, they are computationally expensive extending to multilevel thresholding since they exhaustively search the optimal thresholds to optimize the objective ... Keywords: Bacterial foraging, Histogram, Image segmentation, Kapur's function, Multilevel thresholding, Otsu's function

P. D. Sathya; R. Kayalvizhi

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Optimal Thresholds for the Estimation of Area Rain-Rate Moments by the Threshold Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimization of the threshold method, achieved by determination of the threshold that maximizes the correlation between an area-average rain-rate moment and the area coverage of rain rates exceeding the threshold, is demonstrated empirically and ...

David A. Short; Kunio Shimizu; Benjamin Kedem

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Threshold results for semilinear parabolic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A threshold result was proved in this paper for semilinear parabolic system with pure power type nonlinearities

Xie, Qiuyi Dai Haiyang He Junhui

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

Kruger, Albert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farooqi, Rahmatullah [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States), Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

9

Elevated Cloud and Aerosol Layer Retrievals from Micropulse Lidar Signal Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A threshold-based detection algorithm for cloud and aerosol layer heights in elevated micropulse lidar data (0.523 ?m) is described. Thresholds for differentiating cloud and aerosol signals from that of the molecular atmosphere are based on the ...

James R. Campbell; Kenneth Sassen; Ellsworth J. Welton

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

IRRADIANCE THRESHOLDS FOR CHORIORETINAL LESIONS  

SciTech Connect

With use of a high-intensity light source to produce chorioretinal lesions in the eyes of rabbits, cats, and guinea pigs, we determined, at different levels of retinal irradiance, the exposure time which produced an ophthalmoscopically visible lesion it was found that at irradiance levels greater than 2 cal. per square centimeter per second a radiant exposure of 1.0 cal. per square centimeter produced a threshold lesion. At irradiance levels 1ess than 0.7 cal. per square centimeter per second lesions could not be produced at any exposure time through 10 seconds. Histological data on the nature of the lesions and course of healing are presented and discussed. (auth)

DeMott, D.W.; Davis, T.P.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Database of average-power damage thresholds at 1064 nm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have completed a database of average-power, laser-induced, damage thresholds at 1064 nm on a variety of materials. Measurements were made with a newly constructed laser to provide design input for moderate and high average-power laser projects. The measurements were conducted with 16-ns pulses at pulse-repetition frequencies ranging from 6 to 120 Hz. Samples were typically irradiated for time ranging from a fraction of a second up to 5 minutes (36,000 shots). We tested seven categories of samples which included antireflective coatings, high reflectors, polarizers, single and multiple layers of the same material, bare and overcoated metal surfaces, bare polished surfaces, and bulk materials. The measured damage threshold ranged from 46 J/cm/sup 2/ for a bare polished glass substrate. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Rainer, F.; Hildum, E.A.; Milam, D.

1987-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

12

Matrix Recipes for Hard Thresholding Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Matrix Recipes for Hard Thresholding Methods Anastasios Kyrillidis and Volkan Cevher Abstract a new set of sparse and low-rank recovery algorithms within the class of hard thresholding methods. We complexity. Index Terms Affine rank minimization, compressed sensing, sparse approximation algorithms, hard

Diggavi, Suhas

13

Threshold 21 Model | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Threshold 21 Model Threshold 21 Model Jump to: navigation, search LEDSGP green logo.png FIND MORE DIA TOOLS This tool is part of the Development Impacts Assessment (DIA) Toolkit from the LEDS Global Partnership. Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Threshold 21 Model Agency/Company /Organization: Millennium Institute Sector: Climate Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Macroeconomic, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Website: www.millenniuminstitute.net/integrated_planning/tools/T21/index.html#r Cost: Free Threshold 21 Model Screenshot References: Threshold 21 Model[1] Related Tools MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model Global Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Electricity Markets Analysis (EMA) Model

14

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1300 Experimental onset threshold and magnetic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

current channels (flux ropes) driven by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) attraction and a 3D plasma-current-driven instability. Antiparallel magnetic field lines carried by these colliding flux ropes annihilate and drive an electric field. The inflow soon exceeds a threshold for the formation of a reconnection current layer

Loss, Daniel

15

Definition: Curtailment Threshold | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Curtailment Threshold Curtailment Threshold Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Curtailment Threshold The minimum Transfer Distribution Factor which, if exceeded, will subject an Interchange Transaction to curtailment to relieve a transmission facility constraint.[1] Related Terms transmission lines, Distribution Factor, transmission line References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An in LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. line Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Curtailment_Threshold&oldid=480338" Categories: Definitions ISGAN Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

16

Improved Sparsity Thresholds Through Dictionary Splitting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Known sparsity thresholds for basis pursuit to deliver the maximally sparse solution of the compressed sensing recovery problem typically depend on the dictionary's coherence. While the coherence is easy to compute, it can lead to rather pessimistic thresholds as it captures only limited information about the dictionary. In this paper, we show that viewing the dictionary as the concatenation of two general sub-dictionaries leads to provably better sparsity thresholds--that are explicit in the coherence parameters of the dictionary and of the individual sub-dictionaries. Equivalently, our results can be interpreted as sparsity thresholds for dictionaries that are unions of two general (i.e., not necessarily orthonormal) sub-dictionaries.

Kuppinger, Patrick; Bölcskei, Helmut

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

GC GUIDANCE ON MINOR CONSTRUCTION THRESHOLDS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GUIDANCE GUIDANCE ON MINOR CONSTRUCTION THRESHOLDS We have been asked about how the Department implements what is known as the "minor construction threshold," which limits the amount of certain funds that can be spent on minor construction projects that are not specifically authorized by law. This Guidance is intended to clarify both the applicable law and Department policy. The Secretary's authority to carry out construction projects is subject to several limitations in the Atomic Energy Defense Act (AEDA) on the use of funds appropriated for DOE national security programs. One of these limitations, the "minor construction threshold," caps the amount of "operation and maintenance funds" or "facilities and "infrastructure funds authorized by a DOE

18

Threshold Effects of Energy Price Changes ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effectiveness of policies to reduce the use of energy depend on the elasticity of substitution between the various inputs and on the rate of technological progress. This paper presents a theoretical model emphasising energy investments’ characteristics of uncertainty and irreversibility that result in hypotheses concerning the relative values of substitution parameters and rates of technological change in periods of high and increasing energy prices and in periods of low prices. The theoretical model suggests that threshold level effects exist. Firms are induced to substitute away from energy only if prices of energy exceed a certain threshold level and they reverse the technology only if prices are low enough. Using panel data for the Dutch economy we do not find threshold effects in the level of energy prices.

Daan P. Van Soest A; Gerard H. Kuper B; Jan Jacobs C

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

L-H Threshold Studies in NSTX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent experiments in the low aspect ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have been run in support of the high priority ITER and ITPA issue of access to the H-mode. Specifically, a series of experiments showed reduced power threshold values for deuterium vs helium plasmas, and for plasmas with lower current, lower triangularity and with lithium conditioning. Application of n=3 fields at the plasma edge resulted in higher power thresholds. To within the constraints of temporal and spatial resolutions, no systematic difference in T{sub e}, n{sub e}, p{sub e}, T{sub i}, v or their derivatives was found in discharges that transitioned into the H-mode versus those at slightly lower power that did not. Finally, H{sub 98y,2} {approx} 1 confinement quality could be achieved for powers just above the threshold power in ELM-free conditions.

Kaye, S M; Battaglia, D; Bell, R E; Chang, C S; Hosea, J; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B P; Meyer, H; Park, G Y

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

20

Modified bacterial foraging algorithm based multilevel thresholding for image segmentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilevel thresholding is one of the most popular image segmentation techniques. In order to determine the thresholds, most methods use the histogram of the image. This paper proposes multilevel thresholding for histogram-based image segmentation using ... Keywords: Bacterial foraging, Histogram, Image segmentation, Kapur's function, Multilevel thresholding, Otsu's function

P. D. Sathya; R. Kayalvizhi

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A magnetoelectronic macrocell employing reconfigurable threshold logic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we introduce a reconfigurable fabric based around a new class of circuit element: the hybrid Hall effect (HHE) magnetoelectronic device. Because they incorporate a ferromagnetic element, HHE devices are inherently non-volatile, retaining ... Keywords: PLA/CPLD, lookup table, magnetoelectronic circuits, non-volatility, threshold logic, wired-and logic

Steve P. Ferrera; Nicholas P. Carter

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Dynamic Multi--Threshold Metering Schemes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic Multi--Threshold Metering Schemes Carlo Blundo, Annalisa De Bonis, Barbara Masucci of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada E­mail: dstinson@cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca Abstract A metering and servers on the web during a certain number of time frames. Naor and Pinkas [7] considered metering schemes

Stinson, Douglas

23

Going after the k-SAT threshold  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Random k-SAT is the single most intensely studied example of a random constraint satisfaction problem. But despite substantial progress over the past decade, the threshold for the existence of satisfying assignments is not known precisely for ... Keywords: belief propagation, k-SAT, phase transitions, random structures, second moment method

Amin Coja-Oghlan; Konstantinos Panagiotou

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Reliability of underwater hearing thresholds in pinnipeds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliability of underwater hearing thresholds in pinnipeds Brandon L. Southall Long Marine@ucsc.edu Abstract: Repeated measures of low-frequency underwater hearing sensi- tivity in individuals of three and certain testing parameters (e.g., equipment and research personnel), measured underwater hearing

Reichmuth, Colleen

25

Finding critical thresholds for defining bursts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A burst, i.e., an unusally high frequency of an event in a time-window, is interesting in monitoring systems as it often indicates abnormality. While the detection of bursts is well addressed, the question of what "critical" thresholds, on the number ... Keywords: analytics for temporal data, massive data analytics

Bibudh Lahiri; Ioannis Akrotirianakis; Fabian Moerchen

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Perception Thresholds of Flicker in Modern Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This power quality (PQ) case study reports the results of tests performed at the University of New Brunswick Department of Psychology to determine whether perception thresholds of humans to flicker in modern magnetic, electronic, and halogen lighting is significantly different from their reaction to flicker in a standard 60-watt incandescent lamp.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

27

Local layering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a conventional 2d painting or compositing program, graphical objects are stacked in a user-specified global order, as if each were printed on an image-sized sheet of transparent film. In this paper we show how to relax this restriction so that users ... Keywords: animation, compositing, image editing, layers, stacking, visibility

James McCann; Nancy Pollard

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Reduce Threshold for Toplit Daylighting Area  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supporting analysis for proposed Supporting analysis for proposed changes to the commercial provisions of the 2012 IECC: Reduce Threshold for Toplit Daylighting Area R Hart R Athalye Pacific Northwest National Laboratory December 2012 2 Proposal Description This proposal modifies Section C402.3.2 of the 2012 IECC for the 2015 version. It reduces the area threshold for skylight daylit zones from 10,000 square feet to 2,000 square feet. It maintains 15 foot ceiling height requirement and the exception for climate zones 6 through 8. Energy Impact Based on average national energy prices 1 of $0.99 per therm and $0.1032 per kWh, the net savings are calculated with EnergyPlus(tm) 2 from whole building energy savings that result from reduced lighting, and depending on climate zone, increased or decreased heating and cooling.

29

Low Swing Dual Threshold Voltage Domino Logic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A low swing domino logic technique is proposed to decrease power consumption without sacrificing noise immunity. With the proposed low swing domino logic circuit technique, active power consumption is reduced by up to 9.4% while improving the noise immunity by 2.6% as compared to standard domino logic circuits. It is also shown that by applying a low swing contention reduction technique, the power savings can be further increased by 6.7% while the delay can be improved by 8.6%. A simple and efficient dual threshold voltage (dual-V t ) circuit technique that incorporates low swing signals is also proposed. It is shown that the proposed dual-V technique reduces the standby leakage current by approximately 235 times while offering enhanced delay characteristics as compared to a standard low threshold voltage implementation.

Volkan Kursun; Eby G. Friedman

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Probe threshold and probe trivially perfect graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An undirected graph G=(V,E) is a probeC graph if its vertex set can be partitioned into two sets, N (nonprobes) and P (probes) where N is independent and there exists E^'@?NxN such that G^'=(V,E@?E^') is a C graph. In this article we investigate probe ... Keywords: 2-SAT, Graph class, Probe graphs, Probe interval, Probe threshold, Probe trivially perfect

Daniel Bayer; Van Bang Le; H. N. de Ridder

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Tongue Liminary Threshold Identification to Electrotactile Stimulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many applications use electrostimulation of the human skin to provide tactile sensation. The effect of electrotactile stimulations were studied on a 6x6 matrix of tactile electrodes placed on the anterior part of the tongue. The liminary threshold with continuous or discontinuous waveform and patterns with 2 or 4 electrodes was investigated. The result suggest that for energy saving and to improve the yield, it would probably be better to use discontinuous stimulation with two electrode patterns.

Robineau, Fabien; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Payan, Yohan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Measurement and modeling of infrared nonlinear absorption coefficients and laser-induced damage thresholds in Ge and GaSb  

SciTech Connect

Using a simultaneous fitting technique to extract nonlinear absorption coefficients from data at two pulse widths, we measure two-photon and free-carrier absorption coefficients for Ge and GaSb at 2.05 and 2.5 {mu}m for the first time, to our knowledge. Results agreed well with published theory. Single-shot damage thresholds were also measured at 2.5 {mu}m and agreed well with modeled thresholds using experimentally determined parameters including nonlinear absorption coefficients and temperature dependent linear absorption. The damage threshold for a single-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} anti-reflective coating on Ge was 55% or 35% lower than the uncoated threshold for picosecond or nanosecond pulses, respectively.

Wagner, T. J.; Bohn, M. J.; Coutu, R. A. Jr. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Gonzalez, L. P.; Murray, J. M.; Guha, S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Schepler, K. L. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

Mandigo, R.L.

1996-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

34

Partially blind threshold signatures based on discrete logarithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a group-oriented partially blind (t, n) threshold signature scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem. By the scheme, any t out of n signers in a group can represent the group to sign partially blind threshold signatures, ... Keywords: Discrete logarithm, E-cash systems, Partially blind signatures, Privacy and security, Secure, Secure voting schemes, Threshold signatures

W. -S. Juang; C. -L. Lei

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

The AMS-01 Aerogel Threshold ?Cerenkov counter.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer in a precursor version (AMS-01), was flown in June 1998 on a 51.6 ? orbit and at altitudes ranging between 320 and 390 km, on board of the space shuttle Discovery (flight STS-91). AMS-01 included an Aerogel Threshold ? Cerenkov counter (ATC) to separate ¯p from e ? and e + from p, for momenta below 3.5 GeV/c. This paper presents a description of the ATC counter and reports on its performances during the flight STS-91.

D. Barancourt A; F. Barao B; G. Barbier A; G. Barreira C; M. Buénerd A; G. Castellini D; E. Choumilov E; J. Favier B; N. Fouque B; A. Gougas F; V. Hermel B; R. Kossakowski B; G. Laborie A; G. Laurenti G; S. -c. Lee F; F. Mayet A; B. Meillon A; Y. -t. Oyang F; V. Plyaskin E; V. Pojidaev E; C. Rossin A; D. Santos A; F. Vezzu A; J. P. Vialle B

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Quark mass thresholds in QCD thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss radiative corrections to how quark mass thresholds are crossed, as a function of the temperature, in basic thermodynamic observables such as the pressure, the energy and entropy densities, and the heat capacity of high temperature QCD. The indication from leading order that the charm quark plays a visible role at surprisingly low temperatures, is confirmed. We also sketch a way to obtain phenomenological estimates relevant for generic expansion rate computations at temperatures between the QCD and electroweak scales, pointing out where improvements over the current knowledge are particularly welcome.

M. Laine; Y. Schroder

2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

37

Kaon photoproduction and electroproduction near threshold  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the electromagnetic production of K{sup +}{Lambda} and K{sup 0}{Lambda} near their production thresholds by using isobar models. In the K{sup +}{Lambda} channel we show that the model can nicely describe the available experimental data. In the K{sup 0}{Lambda} channel we demonstrate that the K{sup 0} charge form factor has sizable effects on the longitudinal cross section. By extending the model up to W = 1730 MeV, we are able to observe the existence of the narrow P{sub 11}(J{sup p} = 1/2{sup +}) resonance in the kaon photoproduction process. It is found that the most convincing mass (width) of this resonance is 1650 MeV(5 MeV).

Mart, T. [Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

38

Transmission thresholds in time-periodically driven nonlinear disordered systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study energy propagation in locally time-periodically driven disordered nonlinear chains. For frequencies inside the band of linear Anderson modes, three different regimes are observed with increasing driver amplitude: 1) Below threshold, localized quasiperiodic oscillations and no spreading; 2) Three different regimes in time close to threshold, with almost regular oscillations initially, weak chaos and slow spreading for intermediate times, and finally strong diffusion; 3) Immediate spreading for strong driving. The thresholds are due to simple bifurcations, obtained analytically for a single oscillator, and numerically as turning-points of the nonlinear response manifold for a full chain. Generically, the threshold is nonzero also for infinite chains.

Magnus Johansson; Georgios Kopidakis; Stefano Lepri; Serge Aubry

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

39

Thinking in layers: modeling with layered materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This course serves as a guide to the considerable potential of layered surface models that are available in many commercial products. The key advantage of using such layered materials over traditional shading language constructs is that the end result ...

Andrea Weidlich; Alexander Wilkie

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Probabilistic Shock Iinitiation Thresholds and QMU Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Probabilistic Threshold Criterion (PTC) Project at LLNL develops phenomenological criteria for establishing margin of safety or performance margin on high explosive (HE) initiation in the high-speed impact regime, creating tools for safety assessment and design of initiation systems and HE trains in general. Until recently, there has been little foundation for probabilistic assessment of HE initiation scenarios. This work attempts to use probabilistic information that is available from both historic and ongoing tests to develop a basis for such assessment. Current PTC approaches start with the functional form of James Initiation Criterion as a backbone, and generalize to include varying areas of initiation and provide a probabilistic response based on test data. Recent work includes application of the PTC methodology to safety assessments involving a donor charge detonation and the need for assessment of a nearby acceptor charge's response, as well as flyer-acceptor configurations, with and without barriers. Results to date are in agreement with other less formal assessment protocols, and indicate a promising use for PTC-based assessments. In particular, there is interest in this approach because it supports the Quantified Margins and Uncertainties (QMU) framework for establishing confidence in the performance and/or safety of an HE system.

Hrousis, C A; Gresshoff, M; Overturf, G E

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

A threshold Cherenkov detector for K separation using silica aerogel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A threshold Cherenkov detector for Kþ =pþ separation using silica aerogel R. Siudak a,b , A August 2008 Keywords: Threshold Cherenkov detector Silica aerogel Reaction pp ! Kþ ðLp� Kþ =pþ separation in the focal plane of a magnetic spectrograph. Silica aerogel with refractive index of n ¼ 1:05 is applied

Magiera, Andrzej

42

Layer-by-Layer Assembled Thin Films for Battery Electrolytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Layer-by-Layer Assembled Thin Films for Battery Electrolytes ... Abstract Scope, Exponential layer-by-layer (eLBL) assembled battery ...

43

A New Algorithm for Finding Mixed Layer Depths with Applications to Argo Data and Subantarctic Mode Water Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new hybrid method for finding the mixed layer depth (MLD) of individual ocean profiles models the general shape of each profile, searches for physical features in the profile, and calculates threshold and gradient MLDs to assemble a suite of ...

James Holte; Lynne Talley

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Thresholds of Raman backscatter: effects of collisions and Landau damping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present 1.5 dimensional simulations and theory of the threshold of Raman backscatter for a variety of density profiles, background temperatures and collision frequencies, nu/sub ei/. The simulations show Raman backscatter of approx. 4 x 10/sup -4/ at intensities approx. 30 times below the del n threshold which we suggest is due to light scattering off of noise electron plasma waves. The absorption drops significantly and the threshold rises as the Landau damping ..omega../sub i/ and/or nu/sub ei/ approach the growth rate ..gamma../sub 0/. Many experiments are already in the collisional regime.

Estabrook, K.; Kruer, W.L.

1983-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

45

Earth's Core Hottest Layer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Earth's Core Hottest Layer Earth's Core Hottest Layer Name: Alfred Status: Grade: 6-8 Location: FL Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: Why is the inner core the hottest layer? How is that possible? Replies: There are two factors causing the center of the Earth hotter than various layers of the Earth's. First, the more dense is the layer. The denser layer, the hotter it will be. In addition, the source of the heating is due to heat produced by nuclear decay. These substances tend to be more dense than lower dense substances. So the source of heat (temperature) is higher, the greater will be the temperature. Having said all that, the reasons are rather more complicated in the "real" Earth. If the inner layers were less dense they would rise (bubble) to the "surface" leaving the inner layers more dense and thus hotter layers.

46

Power Analysis of Sub-threshold Logics for Security Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Requirements of ultra-low power for many portable devices have drawn increased attention to digital sub-threshold logic design. Major reductions in power consumption and frequency of… (more)

Haghighizadeh, Farhad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

On rewiring and simplification for canonicity in threshold logic circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rewiring is a well developed and widely used technique in the synthesis and optimization of traditional Boolean logic designs. The threshold logic is a new alternative logic representation to Boolean logic which poses a compactness characteristic of ...

Pin-Yi Kuo; Chun-Yao Wang; Ching-Yi Huang

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Segmentation of Satellite Imagery Using Hierarchical Thresholding and Neural Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant task in the automated interpretation of cloud features on satellite imagery is the segmentation of the image into separate cloud features to be identified. A new technique, hierarchical threshold segmentation (HTS), is presented. In ...

James E. Peak; Paul M. Tag

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Energy-efficient threshold circuits computing mod functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We prove that the modulus function MODm of n variables can be computed by a threshold circuit C of energy e and size s = O(e(n/m)1/(e?1)) for any integer e ? ...

Akira Suzuki, Kei Uchizawa, Xiao Zhou

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Bound states at threshold resulting from Coulomb repulsion  

SciTech Connect

The eigenvalue absorption for a many-particle Hamiltonian depending on a parameter is analyzed in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The long-range part of pair potentials is assumed to be pure Coulomb and no restriction on the particle statistics is imposed. It is proved that if the lowest dissociation threshold corresponds to the decay into two likewise non-zero charged clusters then the bound state, which approaches the threshold, does not spread and eventually becomes the bound state at threshold. The obtained results have applications in atomic and nuclear physics. In particular, we prove that an atomic ion with the critical charge Z{sub cr} and N{sub e} electrons has a bound state at threshold given that Z{sub cr} Element-Of (N{sub e}- 2, N{sub e}- 1), whereby the electrons are treated as fermions and the mass of the nucleus is finite.

Gridnev, Dmitry K. [FIAS, Ruth-Moufang Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment Print A threshold law describes the dependence of a reaction yield near a reaction threshold. It is also a...

52

Photonic layered media  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Origin of undesirable cracks during layer transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the origin of undesirable transverse cracks often observed in thin films obtained by the layer transfer technique. During this process, two crystals bonded to each other containing a weak plan produced by ion implantation are heated to let a thin layer of one of the material on the other. The level of stress imposed on the film during the heating phase due to the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate and the film is shown to be the relevant parameter of the problem. In particular, it is shown that if the film is submitted to a tensile stress, the microcracks produced by ion implantation are not stable and deviate from their straight trajectory making the layer transfer process impossible. However, if the compressive stress exceeds a threshold value, after layer transfer, the film can buckle and delaminate, leading to transverse cracks induced by bending. As a result, we show that the imposed stress \\sigma_m - or equivalently the heating temperature - must be within the ran...

Ponson, Laurent; Atwater, Harry; Ravichandran, Guruswami; Bhattacharya, Kaushik

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Threshold energy surface and Frenkel-pair resistivity for Cu  

SciTech Connect

In-situ electrical resistivity damage-rate measurements in the high voltage electron microscope have been used to study electron-irradiation-induced defect production in copper single crystals at T < 10/sup 0/K. Analysis of the directional and energy dependence yields a threshold energy surface that is significantly different from those of previous investigations: two pockets of low threshold energy centered at <100> and <110> surrounded by regions of much higher threshold energy. The corresponding damage function exhibits a plateau of 0.6 Frenkel pairs. the present results imply a Frenkel pair resistivity for C of (2.75/sub -0.2//sup +0.6/) x ..cap omega..-cm.

King, W.E.; Merkle, K.L.; Meshii, M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

H-mode threshold power scaling and the {gradient}B drift effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the largest influences on the H-mode power threshold (P{sub TH}) is the direction of the ion {gradient}B drift relative to the X-point location, where factors of 2--3 increase in P{sub TH} are observed for the ion {gradient}B drift away from the X-point. It is proposed that the threshold power scaling observed in single-null configurations with the ion {gradient}B drift toward the X-point location (P{sub TH} {approximately} nB, where n is the plasma density, and B is the toroidal field) is due to the scaling of the magnitude of the {gradient}B drift effect. Hinton and later Hinton and Stebler have modeled this effect as neoclassical cross field fluxes of both heat and particles driven by poloidal temperature gradients on the open field lines in the scrape-off layer (SOL). The {gradient}B drift effect influences the power threshold by affecting the edge conditions needed for the L-H transition. It is not essential for the L-H transition itself since transitions are observed with either direction of B. Predictions of this model include saturation of the B scaling of P{sub TH} at high field, 1/B scaling of P{sub TH} with reverse B, and no B scaling of P{sub TH} in balanced double-null configurations. This last prediction is consistent with the observed scaling of p{sub TH} in double-null plasma sin DIII-D.

Carlstrom, T.N.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Staebler, G.M.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Must Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths be accurate at threshold?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exact ground-state Kohn-Sham (KS) potential for the helium atom is known from accurate wave function calculations of the ground-state density. The threshold for photoabsorption from this potential matches the physical system exactly. By carefully studying its absorption spectrum, we show the answer to the title question is no. To address this problem in detail, we generate a highly accurate simple fit of a two-electron spectrum near the threshold, and apply the method to both the experimental spectrum and that of the exact ground-state Kohn-Sham potential.

Yang Zenghui; Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Faassen, Meta van [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1083, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

57

Layered plasma polymer composite membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

Babcock, W.C.

1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

58

Determination of Response Threshold of Optical Current Transformer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For an all-electric ship, power system is not only the energy source of power distribution, but also the energy source of ship driving system, so it is the development direction of ship in future. The optical current transformer is very important in ... Keywords: Response, Resolution threshold, Optical Current Transformer, Microminiaturization

Wang Jia-Ying, Fu Hai-Yan, Zhang Guo-Qing, Yu Wen-Bin, Cheng Song, Guo Zhi-Zhong

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Dynamic buffer management using per-queue thresholds: Research Articles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shared buffer switches consist of a memory pool completely shared among output ports of a switch. Shared buffer switches achieve low packet loss performance as buffer space is allocated in a flexible manner. However, this type of buffered switches suffers ... Keywords: buffer management, dynamic thresholds, shared memory switch

B. Gazi; Z. Ghassemlooy

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Threshold Photo-production of J/psi Mesons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With the advent of higher energies at Jefferson Lab, the study of charmonium becomes possible. The threshold production of J/{Psi} meson photo-production on hydrogen is {approx} 8.2 GeV, thus with a 8+ GeV beam, the elementary {gamma}-J/{Psi} cross section can be measured. Threshold charm production on a nucleus can give information on the J/{Psi}-N interaction. The standard method to extract this cross section has been to measure the nuclear dependence of J/{Psi} production. The majority of these A-dependent J/{Psi} production experiments have been measured at high energy, while the only near-threshold experiment was performed using 20 GeV photons. This 20 GeV SLAC experiment measured {sigma}{sub J/{Psi}N} = 3.6 {+-} 0.8 {+-} 0.5 mb[1]; whereas theory predicts this cross section to be higher, about 7 mb [2]. It is unclear whether the SLAC determination of {sigma}{sub J/{Psi}N} corresponds to the physical {sigma}{sub J/{Psi}N}, due to the fact that at these energies the J/{Psi} may still be formed outside the nucleus [3] [4]. A measurement of the nuclear dependence of threshold J/{Psi} photo-production may resolve this issue.

Jim Dunne

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A Threshold Autoregressive Model for Wholesale Electricity Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Threshold Autoregressive Model for Wholesale Electricity Prices B. Ricky Rambharat, Department, 2003 Abstract We introduce a discrete-time model for electricity prices, which accounts for both spikes Introduction The study of electricity price dynamics has attracted significant attention from researchers

62

A Threshold Autoregressive Model for Wholesale Electricity Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Threshold Autoregressive Model for Wholesale Electricity Prices B. Ricky Rambharat Carnegie model; electricity prices; spikes; Markov chain Monte Carlo. 1. Introduction The dynamics of electricity of electricity price dynamics is essential for pricing and hedging financial futures and options on power

63

A simple threshold authenticated key exchange from short secrets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper brings the password-based authenticated key exchange (PAKE) problem closer to practice. It takes into account the presence of firewalls when clients communicate with authentication servers. An authentication server can indeed be seen as two ... Keywords: password-based authentication, threshold protocols

Michel Abdalla; Olivier Chevassut; Pierre-Alain Fouque; David Pointcheval

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Multiple density layered insulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

Alger, T.W.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

65

Multiple density layered insulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Multiple layer insulation cover  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

Farrell, James J. (Livingston Manor, NY); Donohoe, Anthony J. (Ovid, NY)

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

67

Threshold Properties of the K{Lambda} Photoproduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated kaon photoproduction on a proton and a neutron near their production thresholds by utilizing an isobar model. The background term of the model is constructed from Feynman diagrams, while the resonance term is derived from the multipoles formalism. In the case of the {gamma}+p{yields}K{sup +}+{Lambda} channel we found that both pseudoscalar (PS) and pseudovector (PV) models are able to reproduce the available photoproduction data up to W = 50 MeV above the threshold. The hyperon resonance S{sub 01}(1800) is found to be important in improving the agreement between model calculation and experimental data. In the case of double polarization observables O{sub x}, and O{sub z}, our result is in agreement with the finding of Sandorfi et al. In the {gamma}+n{yields}K{sup 0}+{Lambda} channel we found that the difference between PS and PV models is sizable for future experiments.

Mart, T. [Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

68

On "Sub-Threshold" Reactions Involving Nuclear Fission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze reactions of several types that are naively below threshold but can proceed because of the release of binding energy from nuclear fission and occasionally the formation of Coulombic bound states. These reactions include (i) photofission with pion production and (ii) charged current neutrino-nucleus reactions that lead to fission and/or formation of a Coulomb bound state of a $\\mu^-$ with the nucleus of a fission fragment. We comment on the possible experimental observation of these reactions.

M. Goldhaber; R. Shrock

2000-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

69

Threshold energy surface and Frenkel-pair resistivity for Cu  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-situ electrical resistivity damage-rate measurements in the high voltage electron microscope have been used to study electron-irradiation-induced defect production in copper single crystals at T and surrounded by regions of much higher threshold energy. The corresponding damage function exhibits a plateau of 0.6 Frenkel pairs. the present results imply a Frenkel pair resistivity for C of (2.75/sub -0.2//sup +0.6/) x ..cap omega..-cm.

King, W.E.; Merkle, K.L.; Meshii, M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Constant threshold correction to electrically charged dilatonic black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effect of a constant threshold correction to a general non-extreme, static, spherically symmetric, electrically charged black hole solution of the dilatonic Einstein-Maxwell Lagrangian, with an arbitrary coupling $\\beta$ between the electromagnetic tensor and the dilaton field. For a small $\\beta$, an exact analytical solution is obtained. For an arbitrary of the metric and the dilaton are presented. In the extremal limit, the close form solution is reduced to an exact analytical form.

Chan, K L

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Interference in above-threshold-ionization electron distributions from molecules  

SciTech Connect

We present quantum-mechanical studies on above-threshold ionization of molecular ions in two and three dimensions. The momentum distributions show signatures of interfering emissions from the molecular centers. These structures deviate from a simple double-slit model that ignores the electron-ion interaction, but they are reproduced by an eikonal model. Such distortions of the interference pattern are partly responsible for the absence of clear interference patterns in the angle-integrated electron energy spectra.

Henkel, Jost [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, and Roentgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik and Centre for Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research (QUEST), Leibniz Universitaet Hannover Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Lein, Manfred [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik and Centre for Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research (QUEST), Leibniz Universitaet Hannover Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Engel, Volker [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, and Roentgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Structured luminescence conversion layer  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

73

Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment Print Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment Print A threshold law describes the dependence of a reaction yield near a reaction threshold. It is also a signature of the physical forces involved in the reaction, so the agreement of an observed threshold behavior with a threshold law or a departure from it can be a sensitive probe into how well the reaction physics is understood. A collaboration from Western Michigan University, the ALS, and Denison University has now shown that the threshold laws for inner-shell photodetachment of negative ions are not only obeyed but can extend over a much wider energy range than theory had predicted. Crossing a Threshold In physics and chemistry, a threshold refers to the minimum energy required for a reaction to just become observable. A threshold law mathematically describes the reaction yield as the energy varies near the threshold. For ionization of an atom, for example, the threshold is the minimum energy needed to eject an electron, and the threshold behavior of the ionization depends only on the Coulomb (electrical) attraction between the positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electron. When absorption of light causes removal (photodetachment) of an electron from a negatively charged ion (atom with one extra electron) the story changes because the negative electron is bound to a neutral atom.

74

Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment Print Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment Print A threshold law describes the dependence of a reaction yield near a reaction threshold. It is also a signature of the physical forces involved in the reaction, so the agreement of an observed threshold behavior with a threshold law or a departure from it can be a sensitive probe into how well the reaction physics is understood. A collaboration from Western Michigan University, the ALS, and Denison University has now shown that the threshold laws for inner-shell photodetachment of negative ions are not only obeyed but can extend over a much wider energy range than theory had predicted. Crossing a Threshold In physics and chemistry, a threshold refers to the minimum energy required for a reaction to just become observable. A threshold law mathematically describes the reaction yield as the energy varies near the threshold. For ionization of an atom, for example, the threshold is the minimum energy needed to eject an electron, and the threshold behavior of the ionization depends only on the Coulomb (electrical) attraction between the positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electron. When absorption of light causes removal (photodetachment) of an electron from a negatively charged ion (atom with one extra electron) the story changes because the negative electron is bound to a neutral atom.

75

Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Range Validity of Threshold Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment Print Wednesday, 29 March 2006 00:00 A threshold law describes the dependence of a reaction yield near a reaction threshold. It is also a signature of the physical forces involved in the reaction, so the agreement of an observed threshold behavior with a threshold law or a departure from it can be a sensitive probe into how well the reaction physics is understood. A collaboration from Western Michigan University, the ALS, and Denison University has now shown that the threshold laws for inner-shell photodetachment of negative ions are not only obeyed but can extend over a much wider energy range than theory had predicted.

76

(SE-33)Intelligent ID-Based threshold system by an encryption and decryption from bilinear pairing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We suggest a new intelligent ID-based threshold secure system by an encryption and decryption protocol using (k, n)-threshold scheme which only k agents or more are engaged to reconstruct an encrypted data for a mobile intelligent ...

Young Whan Lee; Byung Mun Choi

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

On the optimal blacklisting threshold for link selection in wireless sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Empirical studies on link blacklisting show that the delivery rate is sensitive to the calibration of the blacklisting threshold. If the calibration is too restrictive (the threshold is too high), all neighbors get blacklisted. On the other hand, if ...

Flavio Fabbri; Marco Zuniga; Daniele Puccinelli; Pedro Marrón

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Generalized Adjoint for Physical Processes with Parameterized Discontinuities. Part III: Multiple Threshold Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The generalized adjoint is extended to special situations in which the concerned switches are triggered simultaneously by more than one threshold condition. It is shown that the involved threshold conditions can be combined into a single ...

Qin Xu

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Layered electrode for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Mikhail, Youssef M. (Sterling Heights, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Novel Resonant-Tunneling Multiple-Threshold Logic Circuit Based on Switching Sequence Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a novel multiple-threshold circuit using resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs). The logic operation is based on detecting a switching sequence in the RTD circuit. This scheme enables us to increase the number of threshold voltages by more than ... Keywords: Resonant-tunneling diode, Multiple-threshold, analog-to-digital converter

Takao Waho; Kazufumi Hattori; Kouji Honda

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Properties of the Threshold Method on a Radar Rain Cluster Basis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The average rain rate R is estimated with radar data at the radar beam height by measuring the fractional area F(?) of pixels above a preset rain-rate threshold ?. This work applies the “threshold method” to smaller areas. The threshold method ...

L. Li; S. Sénési

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Layered semiconductor neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

83

Photoproduction of the phi (1020) near threshold in CLAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

and kinematical coverage. Complete measurements of phi meson production on the proton have been performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility using a liquid hydrogen target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The phi was identified by missing mass using a proton and positive kaon detected by CLAS in coincidence with an electron in the photon tagger. The energy of the tagged, bremsstrahlung photons ranged from phi-threshold to 2.4 GeV. A description of the data set and the differential cross section far (E_{gamma} = 2.0 GeV ) will be presented and compared with present theoretical calculations.

D.J. Tedeschi

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Electron Rescattering in Above-Threshold Photodetachment of Negative Ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present experimental and theoretical results on photodetachment of Br{sup -} and F{sup -} in a strong infrared laser field. The observed photoelectron spectra of Br{sup -} exhibit a high-energy plateau along the laser polarization direction, which is identified as being due to the rescattering effect. The shape and the extension of the plateau is found to be influenced by the depletion of negative ions during the interaction with the laser pulse. Our findings represent the first observation of electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of an atomic system with a short-range potential.

Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Becker, W. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bergues, B.; Hultgren, H.; Kiyan, I. Yu. [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

85

NRC Consent to Indirect License Transfer/Threshold Determination- Merger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Company ("CY"), and Yankee Atomic Electric Company ("YR") (each a "Yankee Company," and together, "the Yankee Companies"), hereby respond to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ("NRC") Third Request for Additional Information for Application for NRC Consent to Indirect License Transfer/Threshold Determination (TAC Nos. L24496, L24497, and L24498) ("RAI 3") received by the Yankee Companies on August 5, 2011. If you have questions or require additional information, please contact me or Joe Fay at (207) 350-0300. Sincerely, Wayne Norton

The Yankee Companies

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Pressure Systems Stored-Energy Threshold Risk Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Federal Regulation 10 CFR 851, which became effective February 2007, brought to light potential weaknesses regarding the Pressure Safety Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The definition of a pressure system in 10 CFR 851 does not contain a limit based upon pressure or any other criteria. Therefore, the need for a method to determine an appropriate risk-based hazard level for pressure safety was identified. The Laboratory has historically used a stored energy of 1000 lbf-ft to define a pressure hazard; however, an analytical basis for this value had not been documented. This document establishes the technical basis by evaluating the use of stored energy as an appropriate criterion to establish a pressure hazard, exploring a suitable risk threshold for pressure hazards, and reviewing the methods used to determine stored energy. The literature review and technical analysis concludes the use of stored energy as a method for determining a potential risk, the 1000 lbf-ft threshold, and the methods used by PNNL to calculate stored energy are all appropriate. Recommendations for further program improvements are also discussed

Paulsen, Samuel S.

2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

87

ATTRIBUTES AND THRESHOLDS IN MEASUREMENTS FOR TRANSPARENCY INITIATIVES  

SciTech Connect

The collection of programs broadly termed Transparency Initiatives frequently involves physics measurements that are applied to items with sensitive or classified properties. The inability or reluctance to perform quantitative measurements, in the safeguards tradition, to such items, and then to expose the results to international examination, has impelled development of an attributes approach to measurements, following the philosophy if it looks like a duck, walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, call it a duck, This approach avoids certain of the classification issues that would otherwise be associated with such measurements. Use of the attributes approach, however, continues to pose problems of interpretation, in light of the need to establish numerical thresholds whereby data obtained from the measurements can be evaluated to determine whether the attribute is present. In this paper we examine the foundations of the attributes approach and the steps used to determine appropriate attributes and thresholds, using examples from contemporary threat-reduction initiatives where possible. Implications for the detector technologies used in the measurements will be discussed, as will the characteristics of so-called information barriers intended to prevent inadvertent release of sensitive information during attributes measurements.

M. W. JOHNSON

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Three-photon above-threshold ionization of magnesium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-photon ionization cross sections from the ground state, and two-photon ionization from the 3 {sup 1}P(3s3p) state have been calculated for Mg in the region between the 3p and 4s ionization thresholds. These processes include an above-threshold ionization process for the last absorbed photon. We have used the Green's-function method in the Feshbach formalism and an L{sup 2} close coupling approach, with a basis of L{sup 2} integrable B-spline functions. We report the positions, widths, and assignments of a number of relevant {sup 1}P{sup o} and{sup 1}F{sup o} doubly excited Feshbach states. We also observe unusually high cross sections due to a bound-bound transition from the 3 {sup 1}S(3s{sup 2}) to the 3 {sup 1}P(3s3p) state, a core excitation process, and the population of an intermediate doubly excited state. Both total cross sections and angular distributions are reported.

Reber, A.; Berry, R.S. [Department of Chemistry and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Martin, F. [Departamento de Quimica C-9, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bachau, H. [Centre des Lasers Intenses et Applications (UMR 5107 du CNRS), Universite de Bordeaux I, 351 Cours de la Liberation, F-33405 Talence (France)

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In light of the rapid recent retreat of Arctic sea ice, a number of studies have discussed the possibility of a critical threshold (or "tipping point") beyond which the ice-albedo feedback causes the ice cover to melt away in an irreversible process. The focus has typically been centered on the annual minimum (September) ice cover, which is often seen as particularly susceptible to destabilization by the ice-albedo feedback. Here we examine the central physical processes associated with the transition from ice-covered to ice-free Arctic Ocean conditions. We show that while the ice-albedo feedback promotes the existence of multiple ice cover states, the stabilizing thermodynamic effects of sea ice mitigate this when the Arctic Ocean is ice-covered during a sufficiently large fraction of the year. These results suggest that critical threshold behavior is unlikely during the approach from current perennial sea ice conditions to seasonally ice-free conditions. In a further warmed climate, however, we find that a ...

Eisenman, I; 10.1073/pnas.0806887106

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Threshold electrodisintegration in the {ital A}=3 system  

SciTech Connect

Inclusive inelastic electron scattering cross sections for {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He were measured for excitation energies below 18 MeV. Longitudinal and transverse response functions were determined from these cross sections for six values of the three-momentum transfer {ital q} in the range 0.88 {lt}{ital q}{lt}2.87 fm{sup {minus}1}. A previously observed {ital C}0 multipole enhancement near threshold in the two-body channel for {sup 3}He is confirmed but is not observed for {sup 3}H. The experimental data are found to be in good agreement with two recent calculations of the longitudinal and transverse response functions. The first uses variational ground-state wave functions and the orthogonal correlated states method to describe the two- and three-body breakup channels. The second uses bound and continuum Faddeev wave functions obtained for a simple central potential. Agreement with the data is good for the first model and better for the second. The inclusion of final-state interactions (FSI) in the Faddeev continuum is found to be very important in these threshold breakup kinematics; in many cases inclusion of FSI changes the response functions by factors of two or three giving excellent agreement with the data. The transverse response functions are well reproduced, even though neither model includes meson exchange currents. Ratios of the response functions for the two nuclei are also well described.

Retzlaff, G.A.; Caplan, H.S.; Hallin, E.L.; Skopik, D.M. [Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 0W0 (Canada)] [Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 0W0 (Canada); Beck, D.; Blomqvist, K.I.; Dobson, G.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Flanz, J.; Kowalski, S.; Sapp, W.W.; Sargent, C.P.; Tieger, D.; Turchinetz, W.; Williamson, C.F. [Bates Linear Accelerator Center and Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Bates Linear Accelerator Center and Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dodge, W.; Maruyama, X.K.; Lightbody, J.W. Jr. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Goloskie, R. [Department of Physics, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts 01601 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts 01601 (United States); McCarthy, J.; Ueng, T.S.; Whitney, R.R. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22901 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22901 (United States); Quinn, B. [Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Dytman, S.; Von Reden, K. [Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Schiavilla, R. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy)] [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Tjon, J.A. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Utrecht, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)] [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Utrecht, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Threshold effect in lead-induced peripheral neuropathy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We previously demonstrated a negative correlation between blood lead level and motor nerve conduction velocity in 202 asymptomatic 5 to 9-year-old children living near a lead smelter in Idaho. Blood lead levels ranged from 13 to 97 micrograms/dL. To determine whether a threshold exists between blood lead level and maximal motor nerve conduction velocity, we conducted three regression analyses on these data: a ''hockey stick'' regression, a logistic regression, and a quadratic regression. We found evidence for a threshold in all three analyses: at a blood level of 30 micrograms/dL in the ''hockey stick'' regression, at 20 micrograms/dL in the logistic, and at 25 to 30 micrograms/dL in the quadratic. Neither age, sex, socioeconomic status, nor duration of residence near the smelter significantly modified the relationship. These analyses confirm that asymptomatic increased lead absorption causes slowing of nerve conduction, but they also indicate that measurement of maximal motor nerve conduction velocity is an insensitive screen for low-level lead toxicity.

Schwartz, J.; Landrigan, P.J.; Feldman, R.G.; Silbergeld, E.K.; Baker, E.L. Jr.; von Lindern, I.H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

An HI Threshold for Star Cluster Formation in Tidal Debris  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Super star clusters are young, compact star clusters found in the central regions of interacting galaxies. Recently, they have also been reported to preferentially form in certain tidal tails, but not in others. In this paper, we have used 21 cm HI maps and the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of eight tidal tail regions of four merging galaxy pairs to compare the kiloparsec scale HI distribution with the location of super star clusters found from the optical images. For most of the tails, we find that there is an increase in super star cluster density with increasing projected HI column density, such that the star cluster density is highest when log N(HI) >= 20.6 cm^{-2}, but equal to the background count rate at lower HI column density. However, for two tails (NGC 4038/39 Pos A and NGC 3921), there is no significant star cluster population despite the presence of gas at high column density. This implies that the N(HI) threshold is a necessary but not sufficient condition for cluster formation. Gas volume density is likely to provide a more direct criterion for cluster formation, and other factors such as gas pressure or strength of encounter may also have an influence. Comparison of HI thresholds needed for formation of different types of stellar structures await higher resolution HI and optical observations of larger numbers of interacting galaxies.

A. Maybhate; J. Masiero; J. E. Hibbard; J. C. Charlton; C. Palma; K. A. Knierman; J. English

2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

93

Heart Rate Variability Analysis Using Threshold of Wavelet Package Coefficients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a new efficient feature extraction method based on the adaptive threshold of wavelet package coefficients is presented. This paper especially deals with the assessment of autonomic nervous system using the background variation of the signal Heart Rate Variability HRV extracted from the wavelet package coefficients. The application of a wavelet package transform allows us to obtain a time-frequency representation of the signal, which provides better insight in the frequency distribution of the signal with time. A 6 level decomposition of HRV was achieved with db4 as mother wavelet, and the above two bands LF and HF were combined in 12 specialized frequencies sub-bands obtained in wavelet package transform. Features extracted from these coefficients can efficiently represent the characteristics of the original signal. ANOVA statistical test is used for the evaluation of proposed algorithm.

Kheder, G; Massoued, M Ben; Samet, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

A STELLAR MASS THRESHOLD FOR QUENCHING OF FIELD GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate that dwarf galaxies (10{sup 7} < M{sub stellar} < 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, -12 > M{sub r} > -18) with no active star formation are extremely rare (<0.06%) in the field. Our sample is based on the NASA-Sloan Atlas which is a reanalysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8. We examine the relative number of quenched versus star-forming dwarf galaxies, defining quenched galaxies as having no H{alpha} emission (EW{sub H{alpha}} < 2 A) and a strong 4000 A break. The fraction of quenched dwarf galaxies decreases rapidly with increasing distance from a massive host, leveling off for distances beyond 1.5 Mpc. We define galaxies beyond 1.5 Mpc of a massive host galaxy to be in the field. We demonstrate that there is a stellar mass threshold of M{sub stellar} < 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} below which quenched galaxies do not exist in the field. Below this threshold, we find that none of the 2951 field dwarf galaxies are quenched; all field dwarf galaxies show evidence for recent star formation. Correcting for volume effects, this corresponds to a 1{sigma} upper limit on the quenched fraction of 0.06%. In more dense environments, quenched galaxies account for 23% of the dwarf population over the same stellar mass range. The majority of quenched dwarf galaxies (often classified as dwarf elliptical galaxies) are within 2 virial radii of a massive galaxy, and only a few percent of quenched dwarf galaxies exist beyond 4 virial radii. Thus, for galaxies with stellar mass less than 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, ending star formation requires the presence of a more massive neighbor, providing a stringent constraint on models of star formation feedback.

Geha, M. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Blanton, M. R.; Yan, R.; Tinker, J. L., E-mail: marla.geha@yale.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

95

Ion transport and structure of layer-by-layer assemblies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Layer-by-layer (LbL) films of various architectures were examined as potential solid state electrolytes for electrochemical systems (e.g. batteries and fuel cells). The relationship between materials properties and ion ...

Lutkenhaus, Jodie Lee

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Layer-by-layer assembly in confined geometries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamental nature of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in confined geometries was investigated for a number of different chemical systems. The first part of this thesis concerns the modification of microfluidic and ...

DeRocher, Jonathan P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Engineering electroresponsive layer-by-layer thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electroresponsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer films and polymer nanocomposite films were investigated as model systems for electrically triggered drug delivery applications and "mechanomutable" surface coating applications. ...

Schmidt, Daniel J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Hydrodynamic sweepout thresholds in BWR Mark III reactor cavity interactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Simulant-material experiments and related analysis are described which investigated hydrodynamics aspects of ex-vessel interactions following postulated core meltdown with subsequent meltthrough of the vessel lower head and ejection of molten corium from the vessel into the containment region beneath the vessel. Objectives were to examine the possible sweepout of water and corium from the cavity by the steam/H/sub 2/ flow. The dispersal pathways in this containment design include a single manway and four CRD penetrations in the cylindrical pedestal wall connecting to the drywell with a combined cross-sectional area of approx. 10 m/sup 2/. These openings range from 3.4 to 6.3 m in elevation off the concrete floor of the cavity. The experiments were performed using a 1:34 scale mock-up of the RPV/pedestal region. The first tests were quasi-steady tests. Tests were also performed using molten Wood's metal (WM). Some tests were performed with water on the cavity floor, and one test was performed using steel shot. The test results indicated that threshold gas flowrates existed beyond which dispersal of water and/or corium from the cavity can be expected. The predominant dispersal flow regime observed in the experiments involved fluidization of the water or molten WM by the gas flowrate through the system and sweepout of the fluidized liquid droplets as the gas exited the cavity through the openings in the wall. The superficial gas velocity at the onset of water sweepout ranged from 0.87 to 1.04 m/s in the tests which agrees very closely to the calculated fluidization threshold of 0.96 m/s. Application of the fluidization model for prediction of sweepout for the full-size system suggests that sweepout of water and corium can occur if the breach size in the RPV lower head exceeds approx. 10 and 17 cm dia, respectively, for steam blowdown at a vessel initial pressure of 1000 psi.

Spencer, B.W.; Baronowsky, S.P.; Kilsdonk, D.J.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

An HI Threshold for Star Cluster Formation in Tidal Debris  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Super star clusters are young, compact star clusters found in the central regions of interacting galaxies. Recently, they have also been reported to preferentially form in certain tidal tails, but not in others. In this paper, we have used 21 cm HI maps and the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of eight tidal tail regions of four merging galaxy pairs to compare the kiloparsec scale HI distribution with the location of super star clusters found from the optical images. For most of the tails, we find that there is an increase in super star cluster density with increasing projected HI column density, such that the star cluster density is highest when log N(HI) >= 20.6 cm^{-2}, but equal to the background count rate at lower HI column density. However, for two tails (NGC 4038/39 Pos A and NGC 3921), there is no significant star cluster population despite the presence of gas at high column density. This implies that the N(HI) threshold is a necessary but not sufficient condition for clust...

Maybhate, A; Hibbard, J E; Charlton, J C; Palma, C; Knierman, K A; English, J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Photocurrent Generation in Layer-By-Layer Assembled Dendrimers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photocurrent Generation in Layer-By-Layer Assembled Dendrimers with Photocurrent Generation in Layer-By-Layer Assembled Dendrimers with Ruthenium Tris-bipyridine Peripheral Groups and a Viologen-like Core Manal Abi Saab, Rouba Abdel-Malak, James F. Wishart, and Tarek H. Ghaddar Langmuir 23, 10807-10815 (2007). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: The photophysical and photoelectrochemical properties of first- and second-generation dendrimers with ruthenium tris-bipyridine peripheral groups and a tri-viologen like core (Ru3V3 and Ru6V3) were investigated in solution and when embedded within assembled films. The stepwise assembly of these dendrimers on quartz and ITO surfaces utilizing the layer-by-layer approach was investigated. The amount of the assembled dendrimers was found to increase on going to the higher generation dendrimer. This dendrimer

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Evaluation of force and torque magnitude discrimination thresholds on the human hand-arm system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reports on experiments about haptic perception aimed at measuring the force/torque differential thresholds applied to the hand-arm system. The experimental work analyzes how force is sent back to the user by means of a 6 degrees-of-freedom ... Keywords: Force thresholds, perceptual asymmetries, perceptual-based signal processing

M. Vicentini; S. Galvan; D. Botturi; P. Fiorini

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

An Adaptive Threshold Load Balancing Scheme for the End-to-End Reconfigurable System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, an adaptive threshold load balancing (ATLB) scheme is proposed for the joint load control (JOLDC) in the end-to-end reconfigurable system. The dynamic threshold based on heterogeneous load measurement is designed to adapt to varying load ... Keywords: Heterogeneous, Load balancing, Reconfigurability, Terminal selection, Vertical handover

Yongjing Zhang; Kui Zhang; Cheng Chi; Yang Ji; Zhiyong Feng; Ping Zhang

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Impact of MOSFET's performance on its threshold voltage and its influence on design of MOS inverters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to research the impact of physical parameters which characterize the MOSFET transistors structure on the threshold voltage values and its influence on critical voltage values which characterize digital circuits that contain the ... Keywords: MOSFET parameters, critical values, doped density, enhancement-type NMOS, impurities, narrow-channel, propagation delay, short-channel, threshold voltage, voltage level

Milaim Zabeli; Nebi Caka; Myzafere Limani; Qamil Kabashi

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

105

Picosecond laser structuring of thin film platinum layers covered with tantalum pentoxide isolation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thin film layer system consisting of platinum (Pt) as conductive layer on a glass substrate and tantalum pentoxide as isolating layer on top of the platinum is attractive for designing biocompatible conductor paths and contact pads for bio sensor chips. For the flexible and rapid patterning of the conductive and the isolating layers, both, the complete removal and the selective ablation of the individual thin films were investigated using ultra-short laser pulses with about 10 ps pulse duration and 1064 nm wavelength at low laser fluences. A platinum film covered with tantalum pentoxide shows a significantly lower ablation threshold than a single Pt film on glass alone when illuminated from the front side. Furthermore, we explored that the tantalum pentoxide film can be removed by glass side illumination from the Pt film, without affecting the Pt film and leaving the Pt film on the glass substrate intact. Those ablation phenomena occur at laser fluences of about 0.2 J/cm{sup 2}, far below the evaporation limit of platinum. We present a detailed ablation threshold value examination for the structuring of these layer systems by front side and glass side irradiation for different film thicknesses. Furthermore, we discuss the possible underlying physical mechanisms of these ablation phenomena.

Heise, Gerhard; Huber, Heinz [Lasercenter, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstr. 34, D-80335 Muenchen (Germany); Trappendreher, Daniel [Heinz-Nixdorf-Chair for Medical Electronics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 90, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany); Lasercenter, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstr. 34, D-80335 Muenchen (Germany); Ilchmann, Florian; Weiss, Robin S.; Wolf, Bernhard [Heinz-Nixdorf-Chair for Medical Electronics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 90, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

JET/DIII-D size scaling of the H-mode power threshold  

SciTech Connect

Previous scaling results indicate that the H-mode power threshold increases nearly linearly with the line averaged density, {bar n}{sub e}, and the toroidal field, B{sub t}. The power threshold was measured in similar, ITER-like, discharges in JET and DIII-D, at the same {bar n}{sub e} and B{sub t} in order to determine the size scaling of the power threshold. The results indicate a size scaling proportional to the surface area, S{sup 0.5}, which is weaker than the linear surface area dependence previously assumed.

Carlstrom, T.N. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Campbell, D.J.; Cordey, J.G. [Joint European Torus, Abingdon (United Kingdom)] [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Structure of Lambda(1405) and threshold behavior of pi Sigma scattering  

SciTech Connect

The scattering length and effective range of the pi-Sigma channel are studied in order to characterize the strangeness S = -1 meson-baryon scattering and the Lambda (1405) resonance. We examine various off-shell dependence of the amplitude in dynamical chiral models to evaluate the threshold quantities with the constraint at the KN threshold. We find that the pi-Sigma threshold parameters are important to the structure of the Lambda (1405) resonance and provide further constraints on the subthreshold extrapolation of the KN interaction.

Yoichi Ikeda, Tesuo Hyodo, Daisuke Jido, Hiroyuki Kamano, Toru Sato, Koichi Yazaki

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Fluence thresholds for laser-induced damage of optical components in the injector laser of the SSRL gun test facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluence thresholds for laser-induced damage of optical components in the injector laser of the SSRL gun test facility

Bolton, P

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Recent Trends in Maximum and Minimum Temperature Threshold Exceedences in the Northeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the annual number of daily maximum and minimum temperature threshold exceedences between 1951 and 1993 are assessed at a network of 22 primarily rural sites in the northeastern United States. After adjusting the annual time series for ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Analysis of an esoteric interpretation of a threshold in beta decay  

SciTech Connect

A threshold associated with a small mixing of a heavy neutrino in beta decay cannot be interpreted as due to the production of a fictitious neutral scalar in conjunction with a light neutrino.

Karl, G.; Novikov, V.; Simpson, J.J. (Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Observation of a Critical Gradient Threshold for Electron Temperature Fluctuations in the DIII-D Tokamak  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A critical gradient threshold has been observed for the first time in a systematic, controlled experiment for a locally measured turbulent quantity in the core of a confined high-temperature plasma. In an experiment in the ...

White, Anne E.

112

Future Occurrence of Threshold-Crossing Seasonal Rainfall Totals: Methodology and Application to Sites in Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical simulation framework is developed to explore the future frequencies of threshold-crossing events, focusing here on low seasonal rainfall totals. Global change (GC) is represented by a trend on the seasonal mean rainfall total. ...

Asher B. Siebert; M. Neil Ward

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Effect of MOSFET threshold voltage variation on high-performance circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The driving force for the semiconductor industry growth has been the elegant scaling nature of CMOS technology. In future CMOS technology generations, supply and threshold voltages will have to continually scale to sustain ...

Narendra, Siva G. (Siva Gurusami), 1971-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Development of a Probabilistic Convective Weather Forecast Threshold Parameter for Flight-Routing Decisions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a method for determining a threshold value of probabilistic convective weather forecast data. By synchronizing air traffic data and an experimental probabilistic convective weather forecast product, it was observed that ...

Kapil Sheth; Thomas Amis; Sebastian Gutierrez-Nolasco; Banavar Sridhar; Daniel Mulfinger

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Design and Optimization of Low Voltage High Performance Dual Threshold CMOS Circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reduction in leakage power has become an important concern in lowvoltage, lowpower and high performance applications. In this paper, we use dual threshold technique to reduce leakage power by assigning high threshold voltage to some transistors in non-critical paths, and using lowthreshold transistors in critical paths. In order to achieve the best leakage power saving under target performance constraints, an algorithm is presented for selecting and assigning an optimal high threshold voltage. A general standby leakage current model which has been veri#ed by HSPICE is used to estimate standby leakage power. Results show that dual threshold technique is good for power reduction during both standby and active modes. The standby leakage power savings for some ISCAS benchmarks can be more than 50#. 1 Introduction With the growing use of portable and wireless electronic systems, reduction in power consumption has become more and more importantintoday's VLSI circuit and system designs #1#, ...

Liqiong Wei; Zhanping Chen; Mark Johnson; Kaushik Roy; Vivek De

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

On the Formation of Whitecaps by a Threshold Mechanism. Part II: Monte Carlo Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is the second of three which seek to evaluate the hypothesis that deep water whitecapping is predictable in terms of a threshold mechanism involving the vertical acceleration.

R. M. Kennedy; R. L. Snyder

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Automated and human determination of threshold contrast for digital mammography systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

European Guidelines for quality control in digital mammography specify minimum and achievable standards of image quality in terms of threshold contrast, based on readings of images of the CDMAM test object by human observers. However this is time-consuming ...

Kenneth C. Young; James J. H. Cook; Jennifer M. Oduko

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Development of Probabilistic Convective Weather Forecast Threshold Parameter for Flight-Routing Decisions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a method for determining a threshold value of probabilistic convective weather forecast data. By synchronizing air traffic data and an experimental probabilistic convective weather forecast product, it was observed that ...

Kapil Sheth; Thomas Amis; Sebastian Gutierrez-Nolasco; Banavar Sridhar; Daniel Mulfinger

119

X-ray Diffraction Studies of Forward and Reverse Plastic Flow in Nanoscale Layers during Thermal Cycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The biaxial stress-strain response of layers within Cu/Ni nanolaminates is determined from in-plane x-ray diffraction spectra during heating/cooling. Thinner (11 nm) Cu and Ni layers with coherent, cube-on-cube interfaces reach ~1.8 GPa (Cu) and ~2.9 GPa (Ni) without yielding. Thicker (21 nm) layers with semi-coherent interfaces exhibit unusual plastic phenomena, including extraordinary plastic work hardening rates, and forward vs. reverse plastic flow with small (~10%) changes in stress, and evidence that threshold plastic stress in Ni layers is altered by preceding plastic flow in Cu layers. Line energy, pinning strength, net interfacial dislocation density and hardness are provided.

Gram, Michael D [Ohio State University, Columbus; Carpenter, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Anderson, Peter M [Ohio State University, Columbus

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Modeling soil quality thresholds to ecosystem recovery at Fort Benning, GA, USA  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to use a simple model of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics to predict nutrient thresholds to ecosystem recovery on degraded soils at Fort Benning, Georgia, in the southeastern USA. Artillery, wheeled, and tracked vehicle training at military installations can produce soil disturbance and potentially create barren, degraded soils. Ecosystem reclamation is an important component of natural resource management at military installations. Four factors were important to the development of thresholds to recovery of aboveground biomass on degraded soils: (1) initial amounts of aboveground biomass, (2) initial soil C stocks (i.e., soil quality), (3) relative recovery rates of biomass, and (4) soil sand content. Forests and old fields on soils with varying sand content had different predicted thresholds for ecosystem recovery. Soil C stocks at barren sites on Fort Benning were generally below predicted thresholds to 100% recovery of desired future ecosystem conditions defined on the basis of aboveground biomass. Predicted thresholds to ecosystem recovery were less on soils with more than 70% sand content. The lower thresholds for old field and forest recovery on more sandy soils were apparently due to higher relative rates of net soil N mineralization. Calculations with the model indicated that a combination of desired future conditions, initial levels of soil quality (defined by soil C stocks), and the rate of biomass accumulation determine the predicted success of ecosystem recovery on disturbed soils.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Ashwood, Tom L [ORNL

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The Subinertial Mixed Layer Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The density of the mixed layer is approximately uniform in the vertical but has dynamically important horizontal gradients. These nonuniformities in density result in a vertically sheared horizontal pressure gradient. Subinertial motions balance ...

W. R. Young

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Density Coordinate Mixed Layer Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of mixed layer models in so-called density coordinates is discussed. Density coordinates, or isopycnal coordinates as they are sometimes called, are becoming increasingly popular for use in ocean models due to their highly ...

William K. Dewar

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Modeling the Benthic Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A second-order turbulence closure model is used to study the development of the benthic boundary layer. Results are presented on the effects of a time-dependent oscillatory forcing flow and an initially stably stratified density gradient. Using ...

K. J. Richards

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Mixed Layer Instabilities and Restratification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The restratification of the oceanic surface mixed layer that results from lateral gradients in the surface density field is studied. The lateral gradients are shown to be unstable to ageostrophic baroclinic instabilities and slump from the ...

Giulio Boccaletti; Raffaele Ferrari; Baylor Fox-Kemper

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Hole in the ozone layer?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hole in the ozone layer? Hole in the ozone layer? Name: Kelley Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is there really a hole in the ozone layer? Replies: That depends on what one means by a "hole". There is a thinning of the layer that is particularly severe during certain seasons at the poles. But the ozone layer is thinning most everywhere. The thinning around the south pole of earth is particularly stunning, and has been referred to as a hole even though some ozone still exists there, it is much less concentrated. As you may know, this ozone destruction is probably due to human release of pollutants such as clorofluorocarbons (CFCs) an due to natural sources such as chemicals from volcanic eruptions. CFCs are used is cooling systems such as refrigerators and air conditioning. There is an international agreement to phase out the use of these destructive chemicals but they won't be banned entirely for years for fears of losing money. Meanwhile the ozone layer thins and we are exposed to increasingly higher doses of cancer causing radiation

126

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers H. P. Gunterman, a A.membrane fuel-cell catalyst layers are characterized in thecurves indicate that the catalyst layers tested are highly

Gunterman, Haluna P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Large-Eddy Boundary Layer Entrainment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of large-eddy simulations have been performed to explore boundary layer entrainment under conditions of a strongly capped inversion layer with the boundary layer dynamics driven dominantly by buoyant forcing. Different conditions ...

D. C. Lewellen; W. S. Lewellen

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

129

Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Exploring the potential of layered BRDF models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The key advantage of using layered BRDFs over traditional, more general shading-language constructs is that the automatic result is highly plausible. This course is a survey of the considerable potential of layered surface models. On a simple layered ...

Andrea Weidlich; Alexander Wilkie

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells  

SciTech Connect

A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

132

Scaling Turbulent Dissipation in the Transition Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from three midlatitude, month-long surveys are examined for evidence of enhanced vertical mixing associated with the transition layer (TL), here defined as the strongly stratified layer that exists between the well mixed layer and the ...

Oliver M. Sun; Steven R. Jayne; Kurt L. Polzin; Bryan A. Rahter; Louis C. St. Laurent

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Vertical Structure of the Tropical Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Obsemations presented show that the undisturbed subcloud layer near the ITCZ resembles that of the trades. Mixed and transition layers are also seen between cloud drafts during disturbed periods when shallow mixed layers (200 m) can persist for ...

Dayid R. Fitzjarrald; Michael Garstang

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Stratification Effects in a Bottom Ekman Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stratified bottom Ekman layer over a nonsloping, rough surface is studied using a three-dimensional unsteady large eddy simulation to examine the effects of an outer layer stratification on the boundary layer structure. When the flow field is ...

John R. Taylor; Sutanu Sarkar

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Wind and Temperature Profiles in the Radix Layer: The Bottom Fifth of the Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the middle of the convective atmospheric boundary layer is often a deep layer of vertically uniform wind speed (MUL), wind direction, and potential temperature (?UL). A radix layer is identified as the whole region below this uniform layer, ...

Edi Santoso; Roland Stull

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers Title Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5322E Year of Publication 2011 Authors...

137

Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites from Thermally ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... from a variety of polymers [polystyrene (PS), poly ... cap containing a 6.35-mm graphite rod counter ... 3-7-layer) tactoids with expanded layer spacings. ...

2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

138

Cryogenic ion implantation near amorphization threshold dose for halo/extension junction improvement in sub-30 nm device technologies  

SciTech Connect

We report on junction advantages of cryogenic ion implantation with medium current implanters. We propose a methodical approach on maximizing cryogenic effects on junction characteristics near the amorphization threshold doses that are typically used for halo implants for sub-30 nm technologies. BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant at a dose of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13}cm{sup -2} does not amorphize silicon at room temperature. When implanted at -100 Degree-Sign C, it forms a 30 - 35 nm thick amorphous layer. The cryogenic BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant significantly reduces the depth of the boron distribution, both as-implanted and after anneals, which improves short channel rolloff characteristics. It also creates a shallower n{sup +}-p junction by steepening profiles of arsenic that is subsequently implanted in the surface region. We demonstrate effects of implant sequences, germanium preamorphization, indium and carbon co-implants for extension/halo process integration. When applied to sequences such as Ge+As+C+In+BF{sub 2}{sup +}, the cryogenic implants at -100 Degree-Sign C enable removal of Ge preamorphization, and form more active n{sup +}-p junctions and steeper B and In halo profiles than sequences at room temperature.

Park, Hugh; Todorov, Stan; Colombeau, Benjamin; Rodier, Dennis; Kouzminov, Dimitry; Zou Wei; Guo Baonian; Khasgiwale, Niranjan; Decker-Lucke, Kurt [Applied Materials, Varian Semiconductor Equipment, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

139

Modeling Soil Quality Thresholds to Ecosystem Recovery at Fort Benning, Georgia, USA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to use a simple model of soil C and N dynamics to predict nutrient thresholds to ecosystem recovery on degraded soils at Fort Benning, Georgia, in the southeastern USA. The model calculates aboveground and belowground biomass, soil C inputs and dynamics, soil N stocks and availability, and plant N requirements. A threshold is crossed when predicted soil N supplies fall short of predicted N required to sustain biomass accrual at a specified recovery rate. Four factors were important to development of thresholds to recovery: (1) initial amounts of aboveground biomass, (2) initial soil C stocks (i.e., soil quality), (3) relative recovery rates of biomass, and (4) soil sand content. Thresholds to ecosystem recovery predicted by the model should not be interpreted independent of a specified recovery rate. Initial soil C stocks influenced the predicted patterns of recovery by both old field and forest ecosystems. Forests and old fields on soils with varying sand content had different predicted thresholds to recovery. Soil C stocks at barren sites on Fort Benning generally lie below predicted thresholds to 100% recovery of desired future ecosystem conditions defined on the basis of aboveground biomass (18000 versus 360 g m{sup -2} for forests and old fields, respectively). Calculations with the model indicated that reestablishment of vegetation on barren sites to a level below the desired future condition is possible at recovery rates used in the model, but the time to 100% recovery of desired future conditions, without crossing a nutrient threshold, is prolonged by a reduced rate of forest growth. Predicted thresholds to ecosystem recovery were less on soils with more than 70% sand content. The lower thresholds for old field and forest recovery on more sandy soils are apparently due to higher relative rates of net soil N mineralization in more sandy soils. Calculations with the model indicate that a combination of desired future conditions, initial levels of soil quality (defined by soil C stocks), and the rate of biomass accumulation determines the predicted success of ecosystem recovery on disturbed soils.

Garten Jr., C.T.

2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

140

Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

Nibur, Kevin A.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Analysis of the Tropical Tropopause Layer Cirrus in CALIPSO and MLS Data - A Water Perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two mechanisms appear to be primarily responsible for the formation of cirrus clouds in Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL): detrainment from deep convective anvils and in situ initiation. Here we propose to identify TTL cirrus clouds by analyzing water content measurements from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Using ice water content (IWC) and water vapor (H2O) abundances we identify TTL cirrus clouds that contain too much ice to have been formed in situ — and therefore must be of convective origin. We use two methods to infer amounts of water vapor available for in situ formation. Clouds with IWC greater than this threshold are categorized as being of convective origin; clouds with IWC below the threshold are ambiguous — they could either form from in situ or still be of convective origin. Applying the thresholds from December 2008 to November 2009, we found that at least 19.2% of tropical cirrus were definitively of convective origin at the tropopause (375 K) during boreal winter. At each level, we found three maxima in the occurrence of convective cirrus: western Pacific, equatorial Africa, and South America. Averaged over the entire tropics (30oS to 30oN), we found convective cirrus occurs more frequently in boreal winter and less frequently in boreal summer, basically following the a decreasing trend from DJF, MAM, SON, to JJA. During boreal summer, we found that only 4.6% of tropical cirrus come from convection. Sensitivity tests show that the thresholds derived at 390 K have the largest uncertainty. At lower levels, especially 375 K, our thresholds are robust.

Wang, Tao

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The FY 2007 Budget Request - On the Threshold of Incredible Advances  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 Budget Request 7 Budget Request On the Threshold of Incredible Advances Douglas L. Faulkner Acting Assistant Secretary Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy February 2006 2 President's State of the Union Address Keeping America competitive requires affordable energy. And here we have a serious problem: America is addicted to oil, which is often imported from unstable parts of the world. The best way to break this addiction is through technology.... and we are on the threshold of incredible advances... So tonight I announce...push for breakthroughs in two vital areas...change how we power our homes and offices,...change how we power our automobiles. On the Threshold of Incredible Advances 3 Change How We Power Our Automobiles * President's Biofuels Initiative * President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative

143

Question: What is the cost threshold for providing cost detail for subrecipient  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Question: What is the cost threshold for providing cost detail for subrecipients or consultant Question: What is the cost threshold for providing cost detail for subrecipients or consultant information? Is there a cost threshold set for third parties? Answer: Each subawardee/subrecipient/subcontractor whose work is expected to exceed $650,000 or 50% of the total work effort (whichever is less) should complete a Budget Justification package to include the SF 424A budget form, Budget Justification Guideline Excel document, and a narrative supporting the Budget Justification Guidelines. This information may be saved as a separate file or included with the Prime Applicant's Budget.pdf file. Summary level information for subawardees is not sufficient. Detailed explanations and supporting

144

Magnetic Fluctuation Power Near Proton Temperature Anisotropy Instability Thresholds in the Solar Wind  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proton temperature anisotropy in the solar wind is known to be constrained by the theoretical thresholds for pressure-anisotropy-driven instabilities. Here, we use approximately 1x10{sup 6} independent measurements of gyroscale magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind to show for the first time that these fluctuations are enhanced along the temperature anisotropy thresholds of the mirror, proton oblique firehose, and ion cyclotron instabilities. In addition, the measured magnetic compressibility is enhanced at high plasma beta (beta{sub ||} > or approx. 1) along the mirror instability threshold but small elsewhere, consistent with expectations of the mirror mode. We also show that the short wavelength magnetic fluctuation power is a strong function of collisionality, which relaxes the temperature anisotropy away from the instability conditions and reduces correspondingly the fluctuation power.

Bale, S. D. [Physics Department and Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States); Kasper, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Howes, G. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Quataert, E. [Physics Department and Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States); Salem, C.; Sundkvist, D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States)

2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

145

Graphical algorithms and threshold error rates for the 2d colour code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent work on fault-tolerant quantum computation making use of topological error correction shows great potential, with the 2d surface code possessing a threshold error rate approaching 1% (NJoP 9:199, 2007), (arXiv:0905.0531). However, the 2d surface code requires the use of a complex state distillation procedure to achieve universal quantum computation. The colour code of (PRL 97:180501, 2006) is a related scheme partially solving the problem, providing a means to perform all Clifford group gates transversally. We review the colour code and its error correcting methodology, discussing one approximate technique based on graph matching. We derive an analytic lower bound to the threshold error rate of 6.25% under error-free syndrome extraction, while numerical simulations indicate it may be as high as 13.3%. Inclusion of faulty syndrome extraction circuits drops the threshold to approximately 0.1%.

Wang, D S; Hill, C D; Hollenberg, L C L

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Graphical algorithms and threshold error rates for the 2d colour code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent work on fault-tolerant quantum computation making use of topological error correction shows great potential, with the 2d surface code possessing a threshold error rate approaching 1% (NJoP 9:199, 2007), (arXiv:0905.0531). However, the 2d surface code requires the use of a complex state distillation procedure to achieve universal quantum computation. The colour code of (PRL 97:180501, 2006) is a related scheme partially solving the problem, providing a means to perform all Clifford group gates transversally. We review the colour code and its error correcting methodology, discussing one approximate technique based on graph matching. We derive an analytic lower bound to the threshold error rate of 6.25% under error-free syndrome extraction, while numerical simulations indicate it may be as high as 13.3%. Inclusion of faulty syndrome extraction circuits drops the threshold to approximately 0.1%.

D. S. Wang; A. G. Fowler; C. D. Hill; L. C. L. Hollenberg

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

147

Vortex lattices in layered superconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study vortex lattices in a superconductor--normal-metal superlattice in a parallel magnetic field. Distorted lattices, resulting from the shear deformations along the layers, are found to be unstable. Under field variation, nonequilibrium configurations undergo an infinite sequence of continuous transitions, typical for soft lattices. The equilibrium vortex arrangement is always a lattice of isocell triangles, without shear.

Prokic, V. (Department of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Davidovic, D. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States) Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L. (Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

ARM - VAP Process - visst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Productsvisst Productsvisst Documentation & Plots visst : XDC documentation Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP : Minnis Cloud Products Using Visst Algorithm (VISST) Instrument Categories Cloud Properties, Satellite Observations General Overview Satellite based retrievals of cloud and radiation properties are available in this value-added product provided by Pat Minnis' group at NASA/Langley using the VISST (Visible Infrared Solar-Infrared Split Window Technique) algorithm. These datastreams are both pixel-level (4-km) retrievals and averages on a 0.3 or 0.5 degree latitude-longitude grid and replace earlier satellite-based retrievals on the Layered Bispectral Threshold Method

149

Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties Derived from MODIS, VIRS, AVHRR, and GMS Data Over the Tropical Western Pacific  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microphysical and Radiative Properties Derived Microphysical and Radiative Properties Derived from MODIS, VIRS, AVHRR, and GMS Data Over the Tropical Western Pacific G. D. Nowicki, M. L. Nordeen, P. W. Heck, D. R. Doelling, and M. M. Khaiyer Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Atmospheric Sciences Division Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia S. Sun-Mack Science Applications International Corporation Hampton, Virginia Introduction Utilization of the geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS) imagery has allowed for the derivation of cloud and radiative properties over the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) on relatively high spatial and temporal scales. The layered bispectral threshold method (LBTM) has been applied to GMS data

150

Effect of magnetic boundary conditions on the dynamo threshold of von Karman swirling flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the effect of different boundary conditions on the kinematic dynamo threshold of von Karman type swirling flows in a cylindrical geometry. Using an analytical test flow, we model different boundary conditions: insulating walls all over the flow, effect of sodium at rest on the cylinder side boundary, effect of sodium behind the impellers, effect of impellers or side wall made of a high-magnetic-permeability material. We find that using high-magnetic-permeability boundary conditions decreases the dynamo threshold, the minimum being achieved when they are implemented all over the flow.

Christophe Gissinger; Alexei Iskakov; Stephan Fauve; Emmanuel Dormy

2008-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

151

P-wave contribution to third-order top-quark pair production near threshold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The next-to-leading order (NLO) P-wave Coulomb Green function contributes at third-order to top-pair production in e+ e- collisions near threshold. In this paper we compute the NLO P-wave Green function in dimensional regularization, as required for a consistent combination with non-resonant production of the W+ W- b\\bar{b} final state, and present a phenomenological analysis of the P-wave contribution. We further briefly discuss squark production near threshold and top-pair production in gamma gamma collisions, where no S-wave contribution is present, and the P-wave thus constitutes the dominant production process.

M. Beneke; J. Piclum; T. Rauh

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

152

Experimental Determination of Damage Threshold Characteristics of IR Compatible Optical Materials  

SciTech Connect

The accelerating gradient in a laser-driven dielectric accelerating structure is often limited by the laser damage threshold of the structure. For a given laser-driven dielectric accelerator design, we can maximize the accelerating gradient by choosing the best combination of the accelerator's constituent material and operating wavelength. We present here a model of the damage mechanism from ultrafast infrared pulses and compare that model with experimental measurements of the damage threshold of bulk silicon. Additionally, we present experimental measurements of a variety of candidate materials, thin films, and nanofabricated accelerating structures.

Soong, Ken

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

153

Error Threshold for Color Codes and Random 3-Body Ising Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the error threshold of color codes, a class of topological quantum codes that allow a direct implementation of quantum Clifford gates suitable for entanglement distillation, teleportation and fault-tolerant quantum computation. We map the error-correction process onto a statistical mechanical random 3-body Ising model and study its phase diagram via Monte Carlo simulations. The obtained error threshold of p_c = 0.109(2) is very close to that of Kitaev's toric code, showing that enhanced computational capabilities does not necessarily imply lower resistance to noise.

Helmut G. Katzgraber; H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

154

Error Threshold for Color Codes and Random 3-Body Ising Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the error threshold of color codes, a class of topological quantum codes that allow a direct implementation of quantum Clifford gates suitable for entanglement distillation, teleportation and fault-tolerant quantum computation. We map the error-correction process onto a statistical mechanical random 3-body Ising model and study its phase diagram via Monte Carlo simulations. The obtained error threshold of p_c = 0.109(2) is very close to that of Kitaev's toric code, showing that enhanced computational capabilities does not necessarily imply lower resistance to noise.

Katzgraber, Helmut G; Martín-Delgado, M A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Threshold vibrational excitation of CO{sub 2} by slow electrons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Threshold structures, reminiscent of those seen in the polar hydrogen halides, have recently been observed in the cross sections for electron impact excitation of certain vibrational levels of the non-polar CO2 molecule. These structures occur at energies outside the range where shape resonances dominate the dynamics. We propose a virtual state model that describes the multi-dimensional nuclear dynamics during the collision and explains quantitatively the selectivity observed in the excitation of the Fermi dyad, as well as the pattern of threshold peaks and oscillations seen in the upper levels of the higher polyads.

Vanroose, Wim; Zhang, Zhiyong; McCurdy, C.W.; Rescigno, T.N.

2003-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

156

Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans (Knoxville, TN); Schoop, Urs (Westborough, MA); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA); Verebelyi, Darren T. (Oxford, MA); Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA)

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

157

Path selection in multi-layer networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-layer networks are computer networks where the configuration of the network can be changed dynamically at multiple layers. However, in practice, technologies at different layers may be incompatible to each other, which necessitates a careful choice ... Keywords: Multi-layer network, Network description, Path selection

Fernando Kuipers; Freek Dijkstra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Layered Graphene Sheets Could Solve Hydrogen Storage ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Layered Graphene Sheets Could Solve Hydrogen Storage Issues. For Immediate Release: March 16, 2010. ...

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

159

Energy-momentum uncertainties as possible origin of threshold anomalies in UHECR and TeV-gamma ray events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A threshold anomaly refers to a theoretically expected energy threshold that is not observed experimentally. Here we offer an explanation of the threshold anomalies encountered in the ultra-high energy cosmic ray events and the TeV-gamma ray events, by arguing that energy-momentum uncertainties due to quantum gravity, too small to be detected in low-energy regime, can affect particle kinematics so as to raise or even eliminate the energy thresholds. A possible modification of the energy-momentum dispersion relation, giving rise to time-of-flight differences between photons of different energies from gamma ray bursts, is also discussed.

Y. Jack Ng; D. -S. Lee; M. C. Oh; H. van Dam

2000-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

On the spectrum of two quantum layers coupled by a window  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the Dirichlet Laplacian in a domain two three-dimensional parallel layers having common boundary and coupled by a window. The window produces the bound states below the essential spectrum; we obtain two-sided estimates for them. It is also shown that the eigenvalues emerge from the threshold of essential spectrum as the window passes through certain critical shapes. We prove the necessary condition for the window to be of critical shape. Under an additional assumption we show that this condition is sufficient and obtain the asymptotic expansion for the emerging eigenvalue as well as for the associated eigenfunction.

Denis Borisov

2007-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Study of the $?p$ Interaction Close to the $?^+n$ and $?^0p$ Thresholds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The $\\Lambda p$ interaction close to the $\\Sigma N$ threshold is considered. Specifically, the pronounced structure seen in production reactions like $K^-d \\to \\pi^- \\Lambda p$ and $pp\\to K^+ \\Lambda p$ around the $\\Sigma N$ threshold is analyzed. Modern interaction models of the coupled $\\Lambda N - \\Sigma N$ systems generate such a structure either due to the presence of a (deuteron-like) unstable bound state or of an inelastic virtual state. % A determination of the position of the prominent peak as observed in various experiments for the two aforementioned reactions leads to values that agree quite well with each other. Furthermore, the deduced mean value of $2128.7\\pm 0.3$ MeV for the peak position coincides practically with the threshold energy of the $\\Sigma^+ n$ channel. This supports the interpretation of the structure as a genuine cusp, signaling an inelastic virtual state in the $^3S_1-^3D_1$ partial wave of the $\\Sigma N$ isospin 1/2 channel. % There is also evidence for a second peak (or shoulder) in the data sets considered which appears at roughly 10-15 MeV above the $\\Sigma N$ threshold. However, its concrete position varies significantly from data set to data set and, thus, a theoretical interpretation is difficult.

H. Machner; J. Haidenbauer; F. Hinterberger; A. Magiera; J. A. Niskanen; J. Ritman; R. Siudak

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

162

Automatic classification of auditory brainstem responses using SVM-based feature selection algorithm for threshold detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel system for automatic recognition of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to detect hearing threshold. ABR is an important potential signal for determining objective audiograms. Its detection is usually performed by medical experts ... Keywords: Auditory evoked potentials, Feature selection, Support vector machines

Nurettin Ac?r; Özcan Özdamar; Cüneyt Güzeli?

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Directional histogram ratio at random probes: A local thresholding criterion for capillary images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the development of micron-scale imaging techniques, capillaries can be conveniently visualized using methods such as two-photon and whole mount microscopy. However, the presence of background staining, leaky vessels and the diffusion of small fluorescent ... Keywords: Capillary, Directional histogram ratio, Image thresholding, Random probe, Two-photon imaging, Whole mount microscopy

Na Lu; Jharon Silva; Yu Gu; Scott Gerber; Hulin Wu; Harris Gelbard; Stephen Dewhurst; Hongyu Miao

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Where to stop reading a ranked list?: threshold optimization using truncated score distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ranked retrieval has a particular disadvantage in comparison with traditional Boolean retrieval: there is no clear cut-off point where to stop consulting results. This is a serious problem in some setups. We investigate and further develop methods to ... Keywords: distributed retrieval, effectiveness measure optimization, expectation maximization, filtering, fusion, meta-search, probability of relevance, score distribution, score normalization, threshold optimization, truncated distribution

Avi Arampatzis; Jaap Kamps; Stephen Robertson

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Selection of Thresholding Scheme for Image Noise Reduction on Wavelet Components Using Bayesian Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods for image noise reduction based on wavelet analysis perform by first decomposing the image and then by applying non-linear compression functions on the wavelet components. The approach commonly used to reduce the noise is to threshold the absolute ... Keywords: Bayesian estimation, Image noise reduction, wavelet analysis

A. De Stefano; P. R. White; W. B. Collis

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Organic thin film devices with stabilized threshold voltage and mobility, and method for preparing the devices  

SciTech Connect

Organic thin film devices that included an organic thin film subjected to a selected dose of a selected energy of ions exhibited a stabilized mobility (.mu.) and threshold voltage (VT), a decrease in contact resistance R.sub.C, and an extended operational lifetime that did not degrade after 2000 hours of operation in the air.

Nastasi, Michael Anthony; Wang, Yongqiang; Fraboni, Beatrice; Cosseddu, Piero; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

167

Effects of Vibrator Types and Their Placement on Bone?Conduction Threshold Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monaural bone?conduction threshold measurements in the quiet were obtained for 10 normally hearing young adults at both forehead and mastoid positions using two hearing?aid?type vibrators of different manufacture. Physical calibration data for the vibrators were obtained by other laboratories

Peter B. Weston; Roy W. Gengel; Ira J. Hirsh

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

On the Relative Performance of Linear vs. Piecewise-Linear-Threshold Intertemporal Incentives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper employs numerical simulations to compare the relative performance of linear contracts with piecewise-linear-threshold contracts in the case where the agent chooses actions over time. These contracts are restricted to be functions of the ending ... Keywords: dynamic programming, intertemporal incentives, linear contracts, salesforce compensation

Joseph Y. Chen; Bruce L. Miller

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

A CMOS threshold voltage reference source for very-low-voltage applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a CMOS voltage reference that makes use of weak inversion CMOS transistors and linear resistors, without the need for bipolar transistors. Its operation is analogous to the bandgap reference voltage, but the reference voltage is ... Keywords: Threshold voltage, Ultra-low-power, Very-low-voltage, Voltage reference

Luis H. C. Ferreira; Tales C. Pimenta; Robson L. Moreno

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Novel universal threshold logic gate based on RTD and its application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) are receiving much attention because of their high-speed switching capability and functional versatility. Due to the negative differential resistance exhibited by RTDs, great functionality with a single gate can be achieved. ... Keywords: Monostable-bistable logic element (MOBILE), Resonant tunneling diode (RTD), Spectral technology, Threshold logic

Yi Wei; Jizhong Shen

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Underwater temporary threshold shift in pinnipeds: Effects of noise level and duration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underwater temporary threshold shift in pinnipeds: Effects of noise level and duration David Kastak psychophysical techniques were used to evaluate the residual effects of underwater noise on the hearing , amplified Realis- tic MPA-20 , and projected from one of two underwater transducers NUWC J-9 or Lubell

Reichmuth, Colleen

172

Underwater temporary threshold shift induced by octave-band noise in three species of pinniped  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underwater temporary threshold shift induced by octave-band noise in three species of pinniped at center frequency . Each subject was trained to dive into a noise field and remain stationed underwater airborne. When human divers were tested underwater, for instance, the resultant levels of TTS were much

Reichmuth, Colleen

173

Yukawa Coupling Thresholds: Application to the MSSM and the Minimal Supersymmetric SU(5) GUT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a particular class of threshold corrections to Yukawa couplings and mass relations in the MSSM and supersymmetric grand unified models. We give a complete treatment of Yukawa coupling thresholds at the unification scale $\\Mx$ and the effective supersymmetry scale $\\Ms$ and apply them to corrections to the tree-level prediction $y_b(\\Mx) = y_{\\tau}(\\Mx)$ in minimal supersymmetric SU(5). We apply both gauge and Yukawa coupling thresholds to gauge unification and the above Yukawa unification condition to find predictions for the top quark mass, $M_t$, the superheavy vector boson mass $\\Mv$ and the colored Higgs triplet mass $\\Mhs$. We discuss the dependencies of $\\Mx$ and $\\Mhs$ on $\\alpha_s(M_Z)$, $M_t$ and the sparticle spectrum as well as those of $M_t$ on $\\tan\\beta$, $\\alpha_s(M_Z)$ and the bottom quark mass, $M_b$. The effect of the Yukawa coupling thresholds on $M_t$ are given for representative sparticle spectra. We describe the quantitative differences between these effects for low and high $\\tan\\beta$. We also give new bounds on superheavy masses, incorporating proton decay as well as unification constraints, the former leading to a lower bound on $\\alpha_s$.

Brian D. Wright

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

174

Radiation damage to amorphous carbon thin films irradiated by multiple 46.9 nm laser shots below the single-shot damage threshold  

SciTech Connect

High-surface-quality amorphous carbon (a-C) optical coatings with a thickness of 45 nm, deposited by magnetron sputtering on a silicon substrate, were irradiated by the focused beam of capillary-discharge Ne-like Ar extreme ultraviolet laser (CDL=capillary-discharge laser; XUV=extreme ultraviolet, i.e., wavelengths below 100 nm). The laser wavelength and pulse duration were 46.9 nm and 1.7 ns, respectively. The laser beam was focused onto the sample surface by a spherical Sc/Si multilayer mirror with a total reflectivity of about 30%. The laser pulse energy was varied from 0.4 to 40 muJ on the sample surface. The irradiation was carried out at five fluence levels between 0.1 and 10 J/cm{sup 2}, accumulating five different series of shots, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40. The damage to the a-C thin layer was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Nomarski differential interference contrast (DIC) optical microscopy. The dependence of the single-shot-damaged area on pulse energy makes it possible to determine a beam spot diameter in the focus. Its value was found to be equal to 23.3+-3.0 mum using AFM data, assuming the beam to have a Gaussian profile. Such a plot can also be used for a determination of single-shot damage threshold in a-C. A single-shot threshold value of 1.1 J/cm{sup 2} was found. Investigating the consequences of the multiple-shot exposure, it has been found that an accumulation of 10, 20, and 40 shots at a fluence of 0.5 J/cm{sup 2}, i.e., below the single-shot damage threshold, causes irreversible changes of thin a-C layers, which can be registered by both the AFM and the DIC microscopy. In the center of the damaged area, AFM shows a-C removal to a maximum depth of 0.3, 1.2, and 1.5 nm for 10-, 20- and 40-shot exposure, respectively. Raman microprobe analysis does not indicate any change in the structure of the remaining a-C material. The erosive behavior reported here contrasts with the material expansion observed earlier [L. Juha et al., Proc. SPIE 5917, 91 (2005)] on an a-C sample irradiated by a large number of femtosecond pulses of XUV high-order harmonics.

Juha, L.; Hajkova, V.; Vorlicek, V. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chalupsky, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Ritucci, A.; Reale, A.; Zuppella, P. [Department of Physics, University of L'Aquila, gc Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-INFN), 67010 Coppito, L'Aquila (Italy); Stoermer, M. [GKSS Research Center, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Nanostructured ZnO arrays with self-ZnO layer created using simple electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Formation of unique ZnO nanoarrays utilizing photodynamic polymer, surface-relief grating structures, and unique electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly as a simple and economical methodology was demonstrated. Atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron ...

PilHo Huh; Seong-Cheol Kim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Layer-by-Layer Nanoparticles with a pH-Sheddable Layer for in Vivo Targeting of Tumor Hypoxia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inspired by the simplicity and versatility of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, we applied multilayered polyelectrolyte assemblies on nanoparticles to create viable systemic delivery systems. Focusing on tumor-specific delivery, ...

Poon, Zhiyong

177

Dual Gate Thin Film Transistors Based on Indium Oxide Active Layers  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline Indium Oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were employed as an active channel layer for the fabrication of bottom and top gate thin film transistors. While conventional SiO{sub 2} served as a bottom gate dielectric, cross-linked poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) was used a top gate dielectric. These nano-crystalline TFTs exhibited n-channel behavior with their transport behavior highly dependent on the thickness of the channel. The correlation between the thickness of the active layer and TFT parameters such as on/off ratio, field-effect mobility, threshold voltage were carried out. The optical spectra revealed a high transmittance in the entire visible region, thus making them promising candidates for the display technology.

Kekuda, Dhananjaya; Rao, K. Mohan; Tolpadi, Amita [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Chu, C. W. [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Monsoon Trough Boundary Layer Experiment (MONTBLEX)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Monsoon Trough Boundary Layer Experiment (MONTBLEX) is a multi-institutional, all-India coordinated program to study the atmospheric boundary-layer processes in the monsoon trough (MT) area of northern India. The experiment is being organized ...

Malti Goel; H. N. Srivastava

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of California. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers Thomasconditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of areaction of reactant gases (1). A number of strategies exist

Dursch, Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

On the Background Stratospheric Aerosol Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near ...

D. J. Hofmann; J. M. Rosen

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Advanced Titanium Powder Processing - Additive Layer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Cost Affordable Titanium IV. Presentation Title, Advanced Titanium Powder Processing - Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) and Metal Injection ...

182

Stability of Free Surface Ekman Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stability of free surface, laminar Ekman layers is examined for both the homogeneous and the two-layer case. The eigenvalues of the homogeneous case depend upon the wavenumbers ? and ? and the Reynolds number Re. Those of the two-layer case ...

George F. Spooner

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Driving toroidally asymmetric current through the tokamak scrape-off layer, Part I: Potential for ELM suppression  

SciTech Connect

A potential technique for suppressing edge localized magnetohydrodynamic instabilities (ELMs) is theoretically analyzed. Recent experiments have shown that externally generated resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can stabilize ELMs by modifying the density profile [T. E. Evans, et al., Nature Phys. 2, 419 (2006); Y. Liang, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265004 (2007)]. Driving toroidally asymmetric current internally, through the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma itself, can also generate RMPs that are close to the required threshold for ELM control. The limiting ion saturation current densities can be achieved by producing potential differences on the order of the electron temperature. Although the threshold is uncertain in future devices, if driven coherently though the SOL, the upper limit for the resulting field would exceed the present experimental threshold. This analysis provides the tools required for estimating the magnitude of the coherent SOL current and RMP generated via toroidally asymmetric biasing of the target. Flux expansion increases the RMP near the X-point, while phase interference due to the shearing of field lines near the X-point reduces the amplitude of the effective SOL perturbation and makes the result sensitive to both toroidal mode number n and the radial coherence width of the biasing region. If the limiting current density decays rapidly enough radially, both the width and the amplitude of the current density drawn from the target will be reduced. The RMP can still exceed the present threshold at low n if the radial location and width of the biasing region are optimally chosen.

Joseph, I; Cohen, R H; Ryutov, D D

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

Identification of Low-Dimensional Energy Containing/Flux Transporting Eddy Motion in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Using Wavelet Thresholding Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The partitioning of turbulent perturbations into a “low-dimensional” active part responsible for much of the turbulent energy and fluxes and a “high-dimensional” passive part that contributes little to turbulent energy and transport dynamics is ...

Gabriel Katul; Brani Vidakovic

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Longitudinal Single-Bunch Instability in the ILC Damping Rings: Estimate of Current Threshold  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of single-bunch instabilities in the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings (DRs) has been indicated as a high-priority activity toward completion of an engineering design. In this paper we report on a first estimate ofthe current thresholds for the instability using numerical and analytical models of the wake potentials associated with the various machine components. The numerical models were derived (upon appropriate scaling) from designs of the correspondingcomponents installed in existing machines. The current thresholds for instabilities were determined by numerical solution of the Vlasov equation for the longitudinal dynamics. For the DR baseline lattice as of Feb. 2007 we find the critical current forinstability to be safely above the design specifications leaving room for further optimization of the choice of the momentum compaction.

Venturini, Marco; Venturini, Marco

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

186

Multiresonant Spectroscopy and the High-Resolution Threshold Photoionization of Combustion Free Radicals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a program of research on the thermochemistry, spectroscopy and intramolecular relaxation dynamics of the combustion intermediate, HCO. We prepare this radical from acetaldehyde as a photo-precursor in a differentially pumped laser-ionization source quadrupole mass spectrometer. Using a multiresonant spectroscopic technique established in our laboratory, we select individual rotational states and overcome Franck-Condon barriers associated with neutral-to-cation geometry changes to promote transitions to individual autoionizing series and state-resolved ionization thresholds. Systematic analysis of rotational structure and associated lineshapes provide experimental insight on autoionization dynamics as input for theoretical modeling. Extrapolation of series, combined with direct threshold-photoelectron detection, yield precise ionization potentials that constitute an important contribution to the thermochemical base of information on HCO.

Edward R. Grant

2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

Development of high damage threshold optics for petawatt-class short-pulse lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors report laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics and gold-coated optics at 1053 and 526 nm for pulse durations, {tau}, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Damage thresholds of gold coatings are limited to 500 mJ/cm{sup 2} in the subpicosecond range for 1053-nm pulses. In dielectrics, qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated {tau}1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for {tau}{le}10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for {tau}>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in quantitative agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results.

Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Boyd, R.D. [and others

1995-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

188

Rydberg and autoionizing triplet states in Helium up to the N = 5 threshold  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy levels of highly excited bound Rydberg states, the position and widths of autoionizing states, and oscillator strengths are calculated for He {sup 3}S, {sup 3}P{sup e}, {sup 3}P{sup o}, {sup 3}D{sup e} and {sup 3}D{sup o} symmetries up to the N = 5 He{sup +} excitation threshold. The calculations are performed with the K-matrix B-spline method with maximum orbital angular momentum l{sub max} = 8. Reliable doubly excited-state parameters up to the n = 20 multiplet below each ionization threshold are presented. One thousand and six hundred newly identified bound and metastable states, seven times those available in literature, fill many gaps, reveal a dozen intruder states, and allow new speculations on propensity rules and radiative decays of triplet Rydberg states.

Argenti, L. [DICASM, Universita di Bologna, via Saragozza 8, I-40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: luca.argenti@gmail.com

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Remarks on double Higgs boson production by gluon fusion at threshold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The amplitude of double Higgs boson production by the gluon fusion, $gg \\to hh$, is known to be small due to cancellation between the graphs with the boson trilinear coupling and those with the coupling to the top quark. For this reason a study of this process was suggested as a sensitive probe of the Higgs sector nonlinearity. We calculate in a closed analytical form this amplitude at the threshold of the two bosons, where the cancellation is the strongest, and discuss the origin of the small value of the amplitude. We also note that the cancellation in the double boson production is in fact a part of a more general phenomenon of suppression of similar threshold amplitudes for multiple boson production, which, although not directly relevant to the actual top quark and the Higgs boson, can be useful in other studies.

Xin Li; M. B. Voloshin

2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

190

Nonsequential double ionization below laser-intensity threshold: Anticorrelation of electrons without excitation of parent ion  

SciTech Connect

Two-electron correlated spectra of nonsequential double ionization below laser-intensity threshold are known to exhibit back-to-back scattering of the electrons, i.e., the anticorrelation of the electrons. Currently, the widely accepted interpretation of the anticorrelation is recollision-induced excitation of the ion plus subsequent field ionization of the second electron. We argue that another mechanism, namely, simultaneous electron emission, when the time of return of the rescattered electron is equal to the time of liberation of the bounded electron (i.e., the ion has no time for excitation), can also explain the anticorrelation of the electrons in the deep, below laser-intensity threshold regime. Our conclusion is based on the results of the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a model system of two one-dimensional electrons, as well as on an adiabatic analytic model that allows for a closed-form solution.

Bondar, D. I. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Yudin, G. L. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada); Liu, W.-K. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Ivanov, M. Yu. [Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Bandrauk, A. D. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization  

SciTech Connect

Using a triatomic molecular model, we show that the interference pattern in the high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) spectrum depends dramatically on the charge distribution of the molecular ion. Therefore the charge distribution can be considered a crucial factor for imaging a molecular geometric structure. Based on this study, a general destructive interference formula for each above-threshold ionization channel is obtained for a polyatomic molecule concerning the positions and charge values of each nuclei. Comparisons are made for the HATI spectra of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}. These results may shed light on imaging complex molecular structure by the HATI spectrum.

Wang Bingbing; Fu Panming [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Guo Yingchun [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang Bin; Zhao Zengxiu [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yan Zongchao [Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3 (Canada)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Distant perturbation asymptotics in window-coupled waveguides. I. The non-threshold case  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a pair of adjacent quantum waveguides, in general of different widths, coupled laterally by a pair of windows in the common boundary, not necessarily of the same length, at a fixed distance. The Hamiltonian is the respective Dirichlet Laplacian. We analyze the asymptotic behavior of the discrete spectrum as the window distance tends to infinity for the generic case, i.e. for eigenvalues of the corresponding one-window problems separated from the threshold.

D. Borisov; P. Exner

2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

193

A Low-threshold Analysis of CDMS Shallow-site Data  

SciTech Connect

Data taken during the final shallow-site run of the first tower of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) detectors have been reanalyzed with improved sensitivity to small energy depositions. Four {approx}224 g germanium and two {approx}105 g silicon detectors were operated at the Stanford Underground Facility (SUF) between December 2001 and June 2002, yielding 118 live days of raw exposure. Three of the germanium and both silicon detectors were analyzed with a new low-threshold technique, making it possible to lower the germanium and silicon analysis thresholds down to the actual trigger thresholds of {approx}1 and {approx}2 keV, respectively. Limits on the spin-independent cross section for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) to elastically scatter from nuclei based on these data exclude interesting parameter space for WIMPs with masses below 9 GeV/c{sup 2}. Under standard halo assumptions, these data partially exclude parameter space favored by interpretations of the DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT experiments data as WIMP signals, and exclude new parameter space for WIMP masses between 3 and 4 GeV/c{sup 2}.

Akerib, D.S.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Attisha, M.J.; /Brown U.; Baudis, L.; /Zurich-Irchel U.; Bauer, D.A.; /Fermilab; Bolozdynya, A.I.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Brink, P.L.; /SLAC; Bunker, R.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Caldwell, D.O.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Chang, C.L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Clarke, R.M.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Cooley, J.; /Southern Methodist U.; Crisler, M.B.; /Fermilab; Cushman, P.; /Minnesota U.; DeJongh, F.; /Fermilab; Dixon, R.; /Fermilab; Driscoll, D.D.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Filippini, J.; /Caltech; Funkhouser, S.; /UC, Berkeley; Gaitskell, R.J.; /Brown U.; Golwala, S.R.; /Caltech /Fermilab /Fermilab /Colorado U., Denver /Case Western Reserve U. /Texas A-M /Minnesota U. /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Caltech /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Minnesota U. /Queen's U., Kingston /Minnesota U. /St. Olaf Coll. /Florida U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Texas A-M /UC, Santa Barbara /Syracuse U. /UC, Berkeley /Princeton U. /Case Western Reserve U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara /Fermilab /Santa Clara U.

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

194

Intensity-dependent enhancements in high-order above-threshold ionization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The very pronounced intensity-dependent enhancements of groups of peaks of high-order above-threshold-ionization spectra of rare-gas atoms are investigated using an improved version of the strong-field approximation, which realistically models the respective atom. Two types of enhancements are found and explained in terms of constructive interference of the contributions of a large number of long quantum orbits. The first type is observed for intensities slightly below channel closings. Its intensity dependence is comparatively smooth and it is generated by comparatively few (of the order of 20) orbits. The second type occurs precisely at channel closings and exhibits an extremely sharp intensity dependence. It requires constructive interference of a very large number of long orbits (several hundreds) and generates cusps in the electron spectrum at integer multiples of the laser-photon energy. An interpretation of these enhancements as a threshold phenomenon is also given. An interplay of different types of the threshold anomalies is observed. The position of both types of enhancements, in the photoelectron-energy--laser-intensity plane, shifts to the next channel closing intensity with the change of the ground-state parity. The enhancements gradually disappear with decreasing laser pulse duration. This confirms the interpretation of enhancements as a consequence of the interference of long strong-laser-field-induced quantum orbits.

Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hasovic, E.; Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Busuladzic, M. [Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Cekalusa 90, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Becker, W. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

A low-threshold analysis of CDMS shallow-site data  

SciTech Connect

Data taken during the final shallow-site run of the first tower of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) detectors have been reanalyzed with improved sensitivity to small energy depositions. Four {approx}224 g germanium and two {approx}105 g silicon detectors were operated at the Stanford Underground Facility (SUF) between December 2001 and June 2002, yielding 118 live days of raw exposure. Three of the germanium and both silicon detectors were analyzed with a new low-threshold technique, making it possible to lower the germanium and silicon analysis thresholds down to the actual trigger thresholds of {approx}1 keV and {approx}2 keV, respectively. Limits on the spin-independent cross section for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) to elastically scatter from nuclei based on these data exclude interesting parameter space for WIMPs with masses below 9 GeV/c{sup 2}. Under standard halo assumptions, these data partially exclude parameter space favored by interpretations of the DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT experiments data as WIMP signals, and exclude new parameter space for WIMP masses between 3 GeV/c{sup 2} and 4 GeV/c{sup 2}.

Akerib, D.S.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Attisha, M.J.; /Brown U.; Baudis, L.; /Zurich-Irchel U.; Bauer, D.A.; /Fermilab; Bolozdynya, A.I.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Brink, P.L.; /SLAC; Bunker, R.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Caldwell, D.O.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Chang, C.L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Clarke, R.M.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Southern Methodist U.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Layer-by-Layer Characterization of a Model Biofuel Cell Anode by (in Situ) Vibrational Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Layer-by-Layer Characterization of a Model Biofuel Cell Anode by (in Situ) Vibrational Spectroscopy during the construction of a model biofuel cell anode. The model anode was a layered structure formedDH to the CB layer confirmed successful enzyme immobilization. 1. Introduction Biofuel cells use microorganisms

Brolo, Alexandre G.

197

Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto (University of New Mexico); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure.

Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

Manganese containing layer for magnetic recording media  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides for a magnetic recording media incorporating Mn-containing layers between a substrate and a magnetic layer to provide media having increased coercivity and lower noise. The Mn-containing layer can be incorporated in a rotating, translating or stationary recording media to operate in conjunction with magnetic transducing heads for recording and reading of magnetic data, as well as other applications. The magnetic recording medium of the invention preferably includes a Co or Co alloy film magnetic layer, and Mn-containing layer, preferably comprised of VMn, TiMn, MnZn, CrMnMo, CrMnW, CrMnV, and CrMnTi, and most preferably a CrMn alloy, disposed between the substrate and the magnetic layer to promote an epitaxial crystalline structure in the magnetic layer. The medium can further include seed layers, preferably polycrystalline MgO for longitudinal media, underlayers, and intermediate layers. Underlayers and intermediate layers are comprised of materials having either an A2 structure or a B2-ordered crystalline structure disposed between the seed layer and the magnetic layer. Materials having an A2 structure are preferably Cr or Cr alloys, such as CrV, CrMo, CrW and CrTi. Materials having a B2-ordered structure having a lattice constant that is substantially comparable to that of Cr, such as those preferably selected from the group consisting of NiAl, AILCo, FeAl, FeTi, CoFe, CoTi, CoHf, CoZr, NiTi, CuBe, CuZn, A-LMn, AlRe, AgMg, and Al.sub.2 FeMn.sub.2, and is most preferably FeAl or NiAl.

Lambeth, David N. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lee, Li-Lien (Santa Clara, CA); Laughlin, David E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Analytical soft error models accounting for die-to-die and within-die variations in sub-threshold SRAM cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sub-threshold SRAM cells are attractive because of their low leakage power and low access energy. However, the susceptibility of sub-threshold SRAM cells to soft errors is high due to their low supply voltage, high density, and shrinking geometry. Moreover, ... Keywords: circuit modeling and optimization, critical charge, process variation, soft error rate (SER), sub-threshold SRAM

Hassan Mostafa; Mohab H. Anis; Mohamed Elmasry

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

H-Mode Turbulence, Power Threshold, ELM, and Pedestal Studies in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

High-confinement mode (H-mode) operation plays a crucial role in NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] research, allowing higher beta limits due to reduced plasma pressure peaking, and long-pulse operation due to high bootstrap current fraction. Here, new results are presented in the areas of edge localized modes (ELMs), H-mode pedestal physics, L-H turbulence, and power threshold studies. ELMs of several other types (as observed in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks) are often observed: (1) large, Type I ELMs, (2) ''medium'' Type II/III ELMs, and (3) giant ELMs which can reduce stored energy by up to 30% in certain conditions. In addition, many high-performance discharges in NSTX have tiny ELMs (newly termed Type V), which have some differences as compared with ELM types in the published literature. The H-mode pedestal typically contains between 25-33% of the total stored energy, and the NSTX pedestal energy agrees reasonably well with a recent international multi-machine scaling. We find that the L-H transition occurs on a {approx}100 {micro}sec timescale as viewed by a gas puff imaging diagnostic, and that intermittent quiescent periods precede the final transition. A power threshold identity experiment between NSTX and MAST shows comparable loss power at the L-H transition in balanced double-null discharges. Both machines require more power for the L-H transition as the balance is shifted toward lower single null. High field side gas fueling enables more reliable H-mode access, but does not always lead to a lower power threshold e.g., with a reduction of the duration of early heating. Finally the edge plasma parameters just before the L-H transition were compared with theories of the transition. It was found that while some theories can separate well-developed L- and H-mode data, they have little predictive value.

R. Maingi; C.E. Bush; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; J.E. Menard; H. Meyer; D. Mueller; N. Nishino; A.L. Roquemore; S.A. Sabbagh; K. Tritz; S.J. Zweben; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; T. Biewer; J.A. Boedo; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; R.J. Maqueda; T. Munsat; R. Raman; V.A. Soukhanovskii; T. Stevenson; D. Stutman

2004-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

202

Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photosensitive device includes a plurality of organic photoconductive materials disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode, including a first continuous layer of donor host material, a second continuous layer of acceptor host material, and at least one other organic photoconductive material disposed as a plurality of discontinuous islands between the first continuous layer and the second continuous layer. Each of these other photoconductive materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor host material and the acceptor host material. Preferably, each of the discontinuous islands consists essentially of a crystallite of the respective organic photoconductive material, and more preferably, the crystallites are nanocrystals.

Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ); Rand, Barry P. (Somers, NY)

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

203

Layered Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries  

AV AILABLE FOR LICENSING Layered lithium metal oxide compounds for ultra-high capacity, rechargeable cathodes. The Invention High-capacity, rechargeable cathodes made ...

204

Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier Layers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technical report explores the Enhanced Densification of SCD Barrier Layers A samaria-doped ceria (SDC) barrier layer separates the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode from the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to prevent the formation of electrically resistive interfacial SrZrO{sub 3} layers that arise from the reaction of Sr from the LSCF with Zr from the YSZ. However, the sintering temperature of this SDC layer must be limited to {approx}1200 C to avoid extensive interdiffusion between SDC and YSZ to form a resistive CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution. Therefore, the conventional SDC layer is often porous and therefore not as impervious to Sr-diffusion as would be desired. In the pursuit of improved SOFC performance, efforts have been directed toward increasing the density of the SDC barrier layer without increasing the sintering temperature. The density of the SDC barrier layer can be greatly increased through small amounts of Cu-doping of the SDC powder together with increased solids loading and use of an appropriate binder system in the screen print ink. However, the resulting performance of cells with these barrier layers did not exhibit the expected increase in accordance with that achieved with the prototypical PLD SDC layer. It was determined by XRD that increased sinterability of the SDC also results in increased interdiffusivity between the SDC and YSZ, resulting in formation of a highly resistive solid solution.

Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

205

Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film ...  

... a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer.

206

Comparative study of InGaP/GaAs high electron mobility transistors with upper and lower delta-doped supplied layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Influence corresponding to the position of {delta}-doped supplied layer on InGaP/GaAs high electron mobility transistors is comparatively studied by two-dimensional simulation analysis. The simulated results exhibit that the device with lower {delta}-doped supplied layer shows a higher gate potential barrier height, a higher saturation output current, a larger magnitude of negative threshold voltage, and broader gate voltage swing, as compared to the device with upper {delta}-doped supplied layer. Nevertheless, it has smaller transconductance and inferior high-frequency characteristics in the device with lower {delta}-doped supplied layer. Furthermore, a knee effect in current-voltage curves is observed at low drain-to-source voltage in the two devices, which is investigated in this article.

Tsai, Jung-Hui, E-mail: jhtsai@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw; Ye, Sheng-Shiun [National Kaohsiung Normal University, Department of Electronic Engineering, Taiwan (China); Guo, Der-Feng [Air Force Academy, Kaohsiung, Department of Electronic Engineering, Taiwan (China); Lour, Wen-Shiung [National Taiwan Ocean University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taiwan (China)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Strong-field above-threshold photoemission from sharp metal tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present energy-resolved measurements of electron emission from sharp metal tips driven with low energy pulses from a few-cycle laser oscillator. We observe above-threshold photoemission with a photon order of up to 9. At a laser intensity of 2*10^11 W/cm^2 suppression of the lowest order peak occurs, indicating the onset of strong-field effects. We also observe peak shifting linearly with intensity with a slope of around -1.8eV / (10^12 W/cm^2). We attribute the magnitude of the laser field effects to field enhancement taking place at the tip's surface.

Markus Schenk; Michael Krüger; Peter Hommelhoff

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Threshold conditions for lasing of a free electron laser oscillator with longitudinal electrostatic wiggler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The system of the nonlinear non-stationary equations describing spatial-temporal dynamics of the amplitudes of an ondulator radiation and a space-charge wave of a relativistic electron beam in the resonator is obtained. A free electron laser resonator with longitudinal electrostatic wiggler is considered. In the linear approximation, the threshold conditions of lasing for Raman and Compton regimes under excitation of forward and backward electromagnetic wave are achieved. In the various physical situations, the variation of the minimum length of the resonator with the amplitude of wiggler, density of electron beam, and with the reflection coefficients of resonator's mirrors is investigated.

Sepehri Javan, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil, 56199-11367 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

An application of the Threshold Accepting metaheuristic for curriculum based course timetabling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The article presents a local search approach for the solution of timetabling problems in general, with a particular implementation for competition track 3 of the International Timetabling Competition 2007 (ITC 2007). The heuristic search procedure is based on Threshold Accepting to overcome local optima. A stochastic neighborhood is proposed and implemented, randomly removing and reassigning events from the current solution. The overall concept has been incrementally obtained from a series of experiments, which we describe in each (sub)section of the paper. In result, we successfully derived a potential candidate solution approach for the finals of track 3 of the ITC 2007.

Geiger, Martin Josef

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Essays on price dynamics, discovery, and dynamic threshold effects among energy spot markets in North America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given the role electricity and natural gas sectors play in the North American economy, an understanding of how markets for these commodities interact is important. This dissertation independently characterizes the price dynamics of major electricity and natural gas spot markets in North America by combining directed acyclic graphs with time series analyses. Furthermore, the dissertation explores a generalization of price difference bands associated with the law of one price. Interdependencies among 11 major electricity spot markets are examined in Chapter II using a vector autoregression model. Results suggest that the relationships between the markets vary by time. Western markets are separated from the eastern markets and the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas. At longer time horizons these separations disappear. Palo Verde is the important spot market in the west for price discovery. Southwest Power Pool is the dominant market in Eastern Interconnected System for price discovery. Interdependencies among eight major natural gas spot markets are investigated using a vector error correction model and the Greedy Equivalence Search Algorithm in Chapter III. Findings suggest that the eight price series are tied together through sixlong-run cointegration relationships, supporting the argument that the natural gas market has developed into a single integrated market in North America since deregulation. Results indicate that price discovery tends to occur in the excess consuming regions and move to the excess producing regions. Across North America, the U.S. Midwest region, represented by the Chicago spot market, is the most important for price discovery. The Ellisburg-Leidy Hub in Pennsylvania and Malin Hub in Oregon are important for eastern and western markets. In Chapter IV, a threshold vector error correction model is applied to the natural gas markets to examine nonlinearities in adjustments to the law of one price. Results show that there are nonlinear adjustments to the law of one price in seven pair-wise markets. Four alternative cases for the law of one price are presented as a theoretical background. A methodology is developed for finding a threshold cointegration model that accounts for seasonality in the threshold levels. Results indicate that dynamic threshold effects vary depending on geographical location and whether the markets are excess producing or excess consuming markets.

Park, Haesun

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Combustion fronts in porous media with two layers Steve Schecter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion fronts in porous media with two layers layer 1 layer 2 Steve Schecter North Carolina Subject: Propagation of a combustion front through a porous medium with two parallel layers having different properties. · Each layer admits a traveling combustion wave. · The layers are coupled by heat

Schecter, Stephen

212

Threshold concentrations in zinc-doped lithium niobate crystals and their structural conditionality  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of precise X-ray diffraction study of lithium niobate single crystals of congruent composition and four zinc-doped (at 2.8, 5.2, 7.6, and 8.2 mol %) crystals, structural conditionality of the threshold concentrations of the dopant has been established. At these concentrations, the mechanism of zinc incorporation into crystal changes. As the zinc concentration increases, this element first substitutes excess niobium, localized in lithium positions, with a simultaneous decrease in the number of vacancies in these positions. Then zinc substitutes lithium with formation of new lithium vacancies. When a certain limit on the number of vacancies is reached, zinc begins to substitute niobium in its main positions. This process is naturally accompanied by a decrease in the number of vacancies to their complete disappearance and formation of a self-compensating crystal. The character of the dependence of the crystal physical properties on the dopant concentration changes specifically when the impurity concentration passes through the threshold values.

Chernaya, T. S.; Volk, T. R.; Verin, I. A.; Simonov, V. I., E-mail: simonov@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Energy dependence of the pp->K{sup +}nSIGMA{sup +} reaction close to threshold  

SciTech Connect

Production of the SIGMA{sup +} hyperon through the pp->K{sup +}nSIGMA{sup +} reaction has been investigated at four energies close to threshold, 1.826,1.920,1.958, and 2.020 GeV. At low energies, correlated K{sup +}pi{sup +} pairs can only originate from SIGMA{sup +} production so their measurement allows the total cross section for the reaction to be determined. The results obtained are completely consistent with the values extracted from the study of the K{sup +}-proton correlation spectra obtained in the same experiment. These spectra, as well as the inclusive K{sup +} momentum distributions, also provide conservative upper limits on SIGMA{sup +} production rates. The measurements show a SIGMA{sup +} production cross section that varies roughly like phase space, and, in particular, none of the three experimental approaches used supports the anomalously high, near-threshold pp->K{sup +}nSIGMA{sup +} total cross section previously reported [T. Rozek et al., Phys. Lett. B 643, 251 (2006)].

Valdau, Yu.; Mikirtychiants, S. [High Energy Physics Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RU-188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Centre for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Barsov, S.; Dzyuba, A.; Koptev, V. [High Energy Physics Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RU-188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Buescher, M.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Nekipelov, M.; Ohm, H.; Rathmann, F.; Stroeher, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Centre for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Chiladze, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Centre for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi State University, 0186 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Dymov, S. [Physikalisches Institut II, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Keshelashvili, I. [High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi State University, 0186 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Physics Department, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Khoukaz, A.; Mielke, M.; Papenbrock, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Kulessa, P. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, PL-31342 Cracow (Poland); Merzliakov, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Centre for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Searching for low-lying multi-particle thresholds in lattice spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the Euclidean-time tails of odd-parity nucleon correlation functions in a search for the S-wave pion-nucleon scattering-state threshold contribution. The analysis is performed using 2+1 flavor 32^3 x 64 PACS-CS gauge configurations available via the ILDG. Correlation matrices composed with various levels of fermion source/sink smearing are used to project low-lying states. The consideration of 25,600 fermion propagators reveals the presence of more than one state in what would normally be regarded as an eigenstate-projected correlation function. This observation is in accord with the scenario where the eigenstates contain a strong mixing of single and multi-particle states but only the single particle component has a strong coupling to the interpolating field. Employing a two-exponential fit to the eigenvector-projected correlation function, we are able to confirm the presence of two eigenstates. The lower-lying eigenstate is consistent with a N-pi scattering threshold and has a relatively small coupling to the three-quark interpolating field. We discuss the impact of this small scattering-state contamination in the eigenvector projected correlation function on previous results presented in the literature.

M. Selim Mahbub; Waseem Kamleh; Derek B. Leinweber; Anthony G. Williams

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

215

Blister Threshold Based Thermal Limits for the U-Mo Monolithic Fuel System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel failure is most commonly induced in research and test reactor fuel elements by exposure to an under-cooled or over-power condition that results in the fuel temperature exceeding a critical threshold above which blisters form on the plate. These conditions can be triggered by normal operational transients (i.e. temperature overshoots that may occur during reactor startup or power shifts) or mild upset events (e.g., pump coastdown, small blockages, mis-loading of fuel elements into higher-than-planned power positions, etc.). The rise in temperature has a number of general impacts on the state of a fuel plate that include, for example, stress relaxation in the cladding (due to differential thermal expansion), softening of the cladding, increased mobility of fission gases, and increased fission-gas pressure in pores, all of which can encourage the formation of blisters on the fuel-plate surface. These blisters consist of raised regions on the surface of fuel plates that occur when the cladding plastically deforms in response to fission-gas pressure in large pores in the fuel meat and/or mechanical buckling of the cladding over damaged regions in the fuel meat. The blister temperature threshold decreases with irradiation because the mechanical properties of the fuel plate degrade while under irradiation (due to irradiation damage and fission-product accumulation) and because the fission-gas inventory progressively increases (and, thus, so does the gas pressure in pores).

D. M. Wachs; I. Glagolenko; F. J. Rice; A. B. Robinson; B. H. Rabin; M. K. Meyer

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

The Boundary Layer of Mars: Fluxes, Stability, Turbulent Spectra, and Growth of the Mixed Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spectra of wind from high-frequency measurements in the Martian atmospheric surface layer, along with the diurnal variation of the height of the mixed surface layer, are calculated for the first time for Mars. Heat and momentum fluxes, stability, ...

James E. Tillman; Lars Landberg; Søren E. Larsen

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Engineering the electrochromism and ion conduction of layer-by-layer assembled films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work applies the processing technique of layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly to the creation and development of new electrochemically active materials. Elements of the thin-film electrochromic cell were chosen as a particular ...

DeLongchamp, Dean M. (Dean Michael), 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The NRL Layered Global Ocean Model (NLOM) with an Embedded Mixed Layer Submodel: Formulation and Tuning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A bulk-type (modified Kraus–Turner) mixed layer model that is embedded within the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Layered Ocean Model (NLOM) is introduced. It is an independent submodel loosely coupled to NLOM's dynamical core, requiring only ...

Alan J. Wallcraft; A. Birol Kara; Harley E. Hurlburt; Peter A. Rochford

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Lidar Observations of Mixed Layer Dynamics: Tests of Parameterized Entrainment Models of Mixed Layer Growth Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground based lidar measurements of the atmospheric mixed layer depth, the entrainment zone depth and the wind speed and wind direction were used to test various parameterized entrainment models of mixed layer growth rate. Six case studies under ...

R. Boers; E. W. Eloranta; R. L. Coulter

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The Layered Structure of the Winter Atmospheric Boundary Layer in the Interior of Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-latitude winter atmospheric boundary layer of interior Alaska continually exhibits a complex layered structure as a result of extreme meteorological conditions. In this paper the occurrence of elevated inversions (EI), surface-based ...

John A. Mayfield; Gilberto J. Fochesatto

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Surface engineering using layer-by-layer assembly of pH-sensitive polymers and nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface engineering of a variety of materials including colloidal particles and porous membranes has been achieved by using layer-by-layer assembly of pH-sensitive polymers and nanoparticles. In the first part of this ...

Lee, Daeyeon

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

An ultra-thin buffer layer for Ge epitaxial layers on Si  

SciTech Connect

Using an Fe{sub 3}Si insertion layer, we study epitaxial growth of Ge layers on a Si substrate by a low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy technique. When we insert only a 10-nm-thick Fe{sub 3}Si layer in between Si and Ge, epitaxial Ge layers can be obtained on Si. The detailed structural characterizations reveal that a large lattice mismatch of {approx}4% is completely relaxed in the Fe{sub 3}Si layer. This means that the Fe{sub 3}Si layers can become ultra-thin buffer layers for Ge on Si. This method will give a way to realize a universal buffer layer for Ge, GaAs, and related devices on a Si platform.

Kawano, M.; Yamada, S.; Tanikawa, K.; Miyao, M.; Hamaya, K. [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sawano, K. [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Tokyo 158-0082 (Japan)] [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Tokyo 158-0082 (Japan)

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

223

Analytical steam injection model for layered systems  

SciTech Connect

Screening, evaluation and optimization of the steam flooding process in homogeneous reservoirs can be performed by using simple analytical predictive models. In the absence of any analytical model for layered reservoirs, at present, only numerical simulators can be used. And these are expensive. In this study, an analytical model has been developed considering two isolated layers of differing permeabilities. The principle of equal flow potential is applied across the two layers. Gajdica`s (1990) single layer linear steam drive model is extended for the layered system. The formulation accounts for variation of heat loss area in the higher permeability layer, and the development of a hot liquid zone in the lower permeability layer. These calculations also account for effects of viscosity, density, fractional flow curves and pressure drops in the hot liquid zone. Steam injection rate variations in the layers are represented by time weighted average rates. For steam zone calculations, Yortsos and Gavalas`s (1981) upper bound method is used with a correction factor. The results of the model are compared with a numerical simulator. Comparable oil and water flow rates, and breakthrough times were achieved for 100 cp oil. Results with 10 cp and 1000 cp oils indicate the need to improve the formulation to properly handle differing oil viscosities.

Abdual-Razzaq; Brigham, W.E.; Castanier, L.M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Maximizing Buoyancy Flux across Layered Geostrophic Sections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For layered analogues of the ocean stratification, the problem of maximizing buoyancy flux across a section with zero mass flux is considered. The two layer situation on an f-plane is particularly simple and it is shown that the buoyancy flux is ...

Nelson G. Hogg; Henry M. Stommel

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Steady water waves with multiple critical layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct small-amplitude periodic water waves with multiple critical layers. In addition to waves with arbitrarily many critical layers and a single crest in each period, two-dimensional sets of waves with several crests and troughs in each period are found. The setting is that of steady two-dimensional finite-depth gravity water waves with vorticity.

Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Erik Wahlén

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

226

Texture of atomic layer deposited ruthenium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ruthenium films were grown by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si(100) and ALD TiN. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the as-deposited films on Si(100) were polycrystalline, on TiN they were (002) oriented. After annealing at 800^oC ... Keywords: Ammonia plasma, Atomic layer deposition, Ruthenium, Silicide, Texture

J. Musschoot; Q. Xie; D. Deduytsche; K. De Keyser; D. Longrie; J. Haemers; S. Van den Berghe; R. L. Van Meirhaeghe; J. D'Haen; C. Detavernier

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Final report for CCS cross-layer reliability visioning study  

SciTech Connect

The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance known as Moore's Law has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. Looking forward, increasing unpredictability threatens our ability to continue scaling integrated circuits at Moore's Law rates. As the transistors and wires that make up integrated circuits become smaller, they display both greater differences in behavior among devices designed to be identical and greater vulnerability to transient and permanent faults. Conventional design techniques expend energy to tolerate this unpredictability by adding safety margins to a circuit's operating voltage, clock frequency or charge stored per bit. However, the rising energy costs needed to compensate for increasing unpredictability are rapidly becoming unacceptable in today's environment where power consumption is often the limiting factor on integrated circuit performance and energy efficiency is a national concern. Reliability and energy consumption are both reaching key inflection points that, together, threaten to reduce or end the benefits of feature size reduction. To continue beneficial scaling, we must use a cross-layer, Jull-system-design approach to reliability. Unlike current systems, which charge every device a substantial energy tax in order to guarantee correct operation in spite of rare events, such as one high-threshold transistor in a billion or one erroneous gate evaluation in an hour of computation, cross-layer reliability schemes make reliability management a cooperative effort across the system stack, sharing information across layers so that they only expend energy on reliability when an error actually occurs. Figure 1 illustrates an example of such a system that uses a combination of information from the application and cheap architecture-level techniques to detect errors. When an error occurs, mechanisms at higher levels in the stack correct the error, efficiently delivering correct operation to the user in spite of errors at the device or circuit levels. In the realms of memory and communication, engineers have a long history of success in tolerating unpredictable effects such as fabrication variability, transient upsets, and lifetime wear using information sharing, limited redundancy, and cross-layer approaches that anticipate, accommodate, and suppress errors. Networks use a combination of hardware and software to guarantee end-toend correctness. Error-detection and correction codes use additional information to correct the most common errors, single-bit transmission errors. When errors occur that cannot be corrected by these codes, the network protocol requests re-transmission of one or more packets until the correct data is received. Similarly, computer memory systems exploit a cross-layer division of labor to achieve high performance with modest hardware. Rather than demanding that hardware alone provide the virtual memory abstraction, software page-fault and TLB-miss handlers allow a modest piece of hardware, the TLB, to handle the common-case operations on a cyc1e-by-cycle basis while infrequent misses are handled in system software. Unfortunately, mitigating logic errors is not as simple or as well researched as memory or communication systems. This lack of understanding has led to very expensive solutions. For example, triple-modular redundancy masks errors by triplicating computations in either time or area. T

Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dehon, Andre [U. PENN; Carter, Nicj [INTEL

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

228

ARM - Measurement - Planetary boundary layer height  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsPlanetary boundary layer height govMeasurementsPlanetary boundary layer height ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Planetary boundary layer height Top of the planetary boundary layer; also known as depth or height of the mixing layer. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments VCEIL : Vaisala Ceilometer External Instruments NCEPGFS : National Centers for Environment Prediction Global Forecast System Field Campaign Instruments

229

Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells incorporating a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells which incorporate a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer adjacent to the junction forming metal layer exhibit increased open circuit voltages compared to standard rectifying junction metal devices, i.e., Schottky barrier devices, and rectifying junction metal insulating silicon devices, i.e., MIS devices.

Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Effects of the Thickness of Niobium Surface Oxide Layers on Field Emission  

SciTech Connect

Field emission on the inner surfaces of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities is still one of the major obstacles for reaching high accelerating gradients for SRF community. Our previous experimental results* seemed to imply that the threshold of field emission was related to the thickness of Nb surface oxide layers. In this contribution, a more detailed study on the influences of the surface oxide layers on the field emission on Nb surfaces will be reported. By anodization technique, the thickness of the surface pentoxide layer was artificially fabricated from 3 nm up to 460 nm. A home-made scanning field emission microscope was employed to perform the scans on the surfaces. Emitters were characterized using a scanning electron microscope together with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer. The SFEM experimental results were analyzed in terms of surface morphology and oxide thickness of Nb samples and chemical composition and geographic shape of the emitters. A model based on the classic electromagnetic theory was developed trying to understand the experimental results. Possibly implications for Nb SRF cavity applications from this study will be discussed.

A.T. Wu, S. Jin, J.D. Mammosser, R.A. Rimmer, X.Y. Lu, K. Zhao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Infrared Heating of Hydrogen Layers in Hohlraums  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors report results of modeling and experiments on infrared heated deuterium-hydride (HD) layers in hohlraums. A 2 mm diameter, 40 {micro}m thick shell with 100-400 {micro}m thick HD ice inside a NIF scale-1 gold hohlraum with 1-3 {micro}m rms surface roughness is heated by pumping the HD vibrational bands. Models indicate control of the low-mode layer shape by adjusting the infrared distribution along the hohlraum walls. They have experimentally demonstrated control of the layer symmetry perpendicular to the hohlraum axis.

Kozioziemski, B J; McEachern, R L; London, R A; Bitter, D N

2001-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Strained layer Fabry-Perot device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflectance modulator (AFPM) consists of an active region between top and bottom mirrors, the bottom mirror being affixed to a substrate by a buffer layer. The active region comprises a strained-layer region having a bandgap and thickness chosen for resonance at the Fabry-Perot frequency. The mirrors are lattice matched to the active region, and the buffer layer is lattice matched to the mirror at the interface. The device operates at wavelengths of commercially available semiconductor lasers.

Brennan, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hammons, Burrell E. (Tijeras, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Threshold corrections in bottom and charm quark hadroproduction at next-to-next-to-leading order.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ar X iv :h ep -p h/ 04 01 05 6v 1 9 Ja n 20 04 Cavendish-HEP-04/01 LBNL-54251 Threshold corrections in bottom and charm quark hadroproduction at next-to-next-to-leading order Nikolaos Kidonakisa and Ramona Vogtb aCavendish Laboratory, University... be either qq or gg. A more detailed discussion of the kinematics can be found in Ref. [2]. In 1PI kinematics, a single heavy quark is identified so that i(pa) + j(pb) ?? Q(p1) +X[Q](p2) (2.1) where Q is the identified bottom or charm quark of mass m and X...

Kidonakis, Nikolaos; Vogt, Ramona

234

NNLL threshold resummation for top-pair and single-top production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I discuss threshold resummation at NNLL accuracy in the standard moment-space approach in perturbative QCD for top-pair and single-top production. For top quark pair production I present new approximate NNLO results for the total cross section and for the top quark transverse momentum and rapidity distributions at 8 TeV LHC energy. I discuss the accuracy of the soft-gluon approximation and show that the NLO and NNLO approximate results from resummation are practically indistinguishable from exact NLO and partial NNLO results. For single top production I present new approximate NNLO results for the total cross sections in all three channels at the LHC and also for the top quark transverse momentum distributions in t-channel production and in top-quark associated production with a W boson. For both ttbar and single-top production the agreement of theoretical results with LHC and Tevatron data is excellent.

Nikolaos Kidonakis

2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

235

{phi}-Meson Photoproduction with Linearly Polarized Photons at Threshold Energies  

SciTech Connect

The observables provided by linearly-polarized photons are of interest in delineating the contributions of the various hadronic processes giving rise to vector meson photoproduction. In particular, we describe how {phi}-meson production affords an incisive tool for exploring the nature of the parity exchange at threshold energies, the strangeness content of proton, as well as extracting signatures for the violation of Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka observation (OZI rule). Our goal is to study the {gamma}-vectorp{yields}{phi}p reaction, with {phi}{yields}K{sup +}K{sup -}, in the photon energy range of 1.7 to 2.1 GeV by using the Coherent Linear Bremsstrahlung Facility in Hall B of Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA. The data were collected during the g8b run in the summer of 2005.

Salamanca, Julian; Cole, Philip L. [Idaho State University, Dept. of Physics, Pocatello, Idaho 83209 (United States)

2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

236

Threshold Resonant Structure of the 232Th Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The structures observed in the sub-threshold neutron-induced fission of ^{232}Th were investigated employing a recent developed model. Theoretical single-particle excitations of a phenomenological two-humped barrier are determined by solving a system of coupled differential equations for the motion along the optimal fission path. A rather good agreement with experimental data was obtained using a small number of independent parameters. It is predicted that the structure at 1.4 and 1.6 MeV is mainly dominated by spin 3/2 partial cross-section with small admixture of spin 1/2, while the structure at 1.7 MeV is given by a large partial cross section of spin 5/2.

M. Mirea; L. Tassan-Got; C. Stephan; C. O. Bacri; R. C. Bobulescu

2007-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

237

Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by infrared carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stable few-cycle laser pulses is analyzed both experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical approach is based on the recently developed molecular improved strong-field approximation (ISFA), generalized to few-cycle pulses. Instead of using the first Born approximation, the rescattering matrix element in the ISFA is now calculated exactly. This modification leads to the appearance of characteristic minima in the differential cross section as a function of the scattering angle. Experimental angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} molecules are obtained using the velocity map imaging technique. A relatively good agreement of experimental and simulated angle-resolved spectra, CEP-dependent asymmetry maps, and extracted electron-molecular ion elastic scattering differential cross sections is obtained.

Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Hasovic, E. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Busuladzic, M. [Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Cekalusa 90, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bistrik 7, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W. K. [FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrakking, M. J. J. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lepine, F. [Universite Lyon 1 (France); CNRS (France); LASIM, UMR 5579, 43 bvd. du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Sansone, G.; Nisoli, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Physics, National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Znakovskaya, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kling, M. F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Sympathetic Cooling of Molecular Ions in Selected Rotational and Vibrational States Produced by Threshold Photoionization  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method for the generation of rotationally and vibrationally state-selected, translationally cold molecular ions in ion traps. Our technique is based on the state-selective threshold photoionization of neutral molecules followed by sympathetic cooling of the resulting ions with laser-cooled calcium ions. Using N{sub 2}{sup +} ions as a test system, we achieve >90% selectivity in the preparation of the ground rovibrational level and state lifetimes on the order of 15 minutes limited by collisions with background-gas molecules. The technique can be employed to produce a wide range of apolar and polar molecular ions in the ground and excited rovibrational states. Our approach opens up new perspectives for cold quantum-controlled ion-molecule-collision studies, frequency-metrology experiments with state-selected molecular ions and molecular-ion qubits.

Tong Xin; Winney, Alexander H.; Willitsch, Stefan [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Study of a Threshold Cherenkov Counter Based on Silica Aerogels with Low Refractive Indices ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To identify ? ± and K ± in the region of 1.0 ? 2.5 GeV/c, a threshold Cherenkov counter equipped with silica aerogels has been investigated. Silica aerogels with a low refractive index of 1.013 have been successfully produced using a new technique. By making use of these aerogels as radiators, we have constructed a Cherenkov counter and have checked its properties in a test beam. The obtained results have demonstrated that our aerogel was transparent enough to make up for loss of the Cherenkov photon yield due to a low refractive index. Various configurations for the photon collection system and some types of photomultipliers, such as the fine-mesh type, for a read out were also tested. From these studies, our design of a Cherenkov counter dedicated to ?/K separation up to a few GeV/c with an efficiency greater than 90 % was considered. 1

I. Adachi; T. Sumiyoshi; K. Hayashi; N. Iida; R. Enomoto; K. Tsukada; R. Suda; S. Matsumoto; K. Natori; M. Yokoyama; H. Yokogawa

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Strangeness Production close to Threshold in Proton-Nucleus and Heavy-Ion Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss strangeness production close to threshold in p+A and A+A collision. Comparing the body of available K+, K0, K-, and Lambda data with the IQMD transport code and for some key observables as well with the HSD transport code, we find good agreement for the large majority of the observables. The investigation of the reaction with help of these codes reveals the complicated interaction of the strange particles with hadronic matter which makes strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions very different from that in elementary interactions. We show how different strange particle observables can be used to study the different facets of this interaction (production, rescattering and potential interaction) which finally merge into a comprehensive understanding of these interactions. We identify those observables which allow for studying (almost) exclusively one of these processes to show how future high precision experiments can improve our quantitative understanding. Finally, we discuss how the K+ multipl...

Hartnack, Christoph; Leifels, Yvonne; Bratkovskaya, Elena L; Aichelin, Jörg

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Anomalous particle-production thresholds through systematic and non-systematic quantum-gravity effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A growing number of studies is being devoted to the identification of plausible quantum properties of spacetime which might give rise to observably large effects. The literature on this subject is now relatively large, including studies in string theory, loop quantum gravity and noncommutative geometry. It is useful to divide the various proposals into proposals involving a systematic quantum-gravity effect (an effect that would shift the main/average prediction for a given observable quantity) and proposals involving a non-systematic quantum-gravity effect (an effect that would introduce new fundamental uncertanties in some observable quantity). The case of quantum-gravity-induced particle-production-threshold anomalies, a much studied example of potentially observable quantum-gravity effect, is here used as an example to illustrate the differences to be expected between systematic and non-systematic effects.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia; Y. Jack NG; Hendrik Van Dam

2002-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

242

Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

2009-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

243

Evaluating Formulations of Stable Boundary Layer Height  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stable boundary layer height h is determined from eddy correlation measurements of the vertical profiles of the buoyancy flux and turbulence energy from a tower over grassland in autumn, a tower over rangeland with variable snow cover during ...

D. Vickers; L. Mahrt

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Interaction of Ekman Layers and Islands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The circulation induced by the interaction of surface Ekman transport with an island is considered using both numerical models and linear theory. The basic response is similar to that found for the interaction of Ekman layers and an infinite ...

Michael A. Spall; Joseph Pedlosky

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Tracer dispersion in the turbulent convective layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental results for passive tracer dispersion in the turbulent surface layer under convective conditions are presented. In this case, the dispersion of tracer particles is determined by the interplay of two mechanisms: buoyancy and advection. ...

Alex Skvortsov; Milan Jamriska; Timothy C. DuBois

246

Ocean Boundary Mixing during Ekman Layer Arrest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a water parcel comes into contact with an ocean boundary, energy is dissipated within the boundary layer with some fraction directed into vertical mixing. In a stratified flow this increases the potential energy associated with the density ...

Scott A. Condie

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Eddy Formation in 2½-Layer, Quasigeostrophic Jets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of nonlinear eddies in unstable 2½-layer, quasigeostrophic jets is investigated using a piecewise constant potential vorticity, “contour dynamical” model. Both infinite and semi-infinite jet dynamics are explored, considering a ...

Ilson C. A. da Silveira; Glenn R. Flierl

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Double layer capacitors : automotive applications and modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis documents the work on the modeling of double layer capacitors (DLCs) and the validation of the modeling procedure. Several experiments were conducted to subject the device under test to a variety of ...

New, David Allen, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Puff Growth in an Ekman Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of dispersion from a ground-level, instantaneous point source into an Ekman boundary layer is studied. First and second moments of the material are found for all heights, directions and times, considerably extending the results found ...

Albion D. Taylor

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Subsidence in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nights with clear skies and strong radiative cooling that favor the formation of statically stable nocturnal boundary layers (NBL) are also those nights most likely to have subsidence, because of the presence of synoptic high-pressure regions. ...

Merrilee A. Carlson; Roland B. Stull

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Mixed Layer Deepening Due to Langmuir Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction between wind-driven Langmuir circulation and preexisting stratification is examined in order to elucidate its role in the deepening of the ocean surface mixed layer. For linear stratification, a numerical model suggests that ...

Ming Li; Chris Garrett

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Multi-layer waste containment barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for constructing an underground containment barrier for containing an in-situ portion of earth. The apparatus includes an excavating device for simultaneously (i) excavating earthen material from beside the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming an open side trench defined by opposing earthen sidewalls, and (ii) excavating earthen material from beneath the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming a generally horizontal underground trench beneath the in-situ portion defined by opposing earthen sidewalls. The apparatus further includes a barrier-forming device attached to the excavating device for simultaneously forming a side barrier within the open trench and a generally horizontal, multi-layer barrier within the generally horizontal trench. The multi-layer barrier includes at least a first layer and a second layer.

Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nickelson, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Satellite Remote Sensing of Multiple Cloud Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goals of the current study are threefold: 1) to present a multispectral, multiresolution (MSMR) methodology for analysis of scenes containing multiple cloud layers; 2) to apply the MSMR method to two multilevel cloud scenes recorded by the ...

B.A. Baum; T. Uttal; M. Poellot; T.P. Ackerman; J.M. Alvarez; J. Intrieri; D.O'C. Starr; J. Titlow; V. Tovinkere; E. Clothiaux

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Cermet layer for amorphous silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A transparent high work function metal cermet forms a Schottky barrier in a Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell and adheres well to the P+ layer in a PIN amorphous silicon solar cell.

Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 {mu}m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm{sup 2}. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

Wilson, M.S.

1991-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

256

The GATE Boundary Layer Instrumentation System (BLIS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A tethered sonde, the Boundary Layer Instrument System (BLIS), was designed for use from shipboard platforms in the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE). This system was able to monitor the thermal and kinematic properties of the boundary ...

Donald P. Wylie; Chester F. Ropelewski

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Marine Stratocumulus Layers. Part 1: Mean Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mean radiational, dynamical and thermodynamical structure of the marine stratocumulus-topped mixed layers of the California coast is described for two days in June 1976 using data from the NCAR Electra aircraft. We suggest that the synoptic ...

R. A. Brost; D. H. Lenschow; J. C. Wyngaard

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Buoyancy Effects in a Stratified Ekman Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The K-profile parameterization scheme is used to investigate the stratified Ekman layer in a “fair weather” regime of weak mean surface heating, persistently stable density stratification, diurnal solar cycle, and broadband fluctuations in the ...

James C. McWilliams; Edward Huckle; Alexander F. Shchepetkin

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Physical layer model design for wireless networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wireless network analysis and simulations rely on accurate physical layer models. The increased interest in wireless network design and cross-layer design require an accurate and efficient physical layer model especially when a large number of nodes are to be studied and building the real network is not possible. For analysis of upper layer characteristics, a simplified physical layer model has to be chosen to model the physical layer. In this dissertation, the widely used two-state Markov model is examined and shown to be deficient for low to moderate signal-to-noise ratios. The physical layer statistics are investigated, and the run length distributions of the good and bad frames are demonstrated to be the key statistics for accurate physical layer modeling. A four-state Markov model is proposed for the flat Rayleigh fading channel by approximating the run length distributions with a mixture of exponential distributions. The transition probabilities in the four-state Markov model can be established analytically without having to run extensive physical layer simulations, which are required for the two-state Markov model. Physical layer good and bad run length distributions are compared and it is shown that the four-state Markov model reasonably approximates the run length distributions. Ns2 simulations are performed and the four-state Markov model provides a much more realistic approximation compared to the popular two-state Markov model. Achieving good results with the flat Rayleigh fading channel, the proposed four-state Markov model is applied to a few diversity channels. A coded orthogonal fre- quency division multiplexing (OFDM) system with a frequency selective channel and the Alamouti multiple-input multiple-output system are chosen to verify the accuracy of the four-state Markov model. The network simulation results show that the four-state Markov model approximates the physical layer with diversity channel well whereas the traditional two-state Markov model estimates the network throughput poorly. The success of adapting the four-state Markov model to the diversity channel also shows the flexibility of adapting the four-state Markov model to various channel conditions.

Yu, Yi

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Symmetry Breaking in Few Layer Graphene Films  

SciTech Connect

Recently, it was demonstrated that the quasiparticledynamics, the layer-dependent charge and potential, and the c-axisscreening coefficient could be extracted from measurements of thespectral function of few layer graphene films grown epitaxially on SiCusing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). In this articlewe review these findings, and present detailed methodology for extractingsuch parameters from ARPES. We also present detailed arguments againstthe possibility of an energy gap at the Dirac crossing ED.

Bostwick, A.; Ohta, T.; McChesney, J.L.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller,Th.; Horn, K.; Rotenberg, E.

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

262

Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

263

Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

264

Acquisition and Analysis of Bispectral Bidirectional Reflectance and Reradiation Distribution Functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Lensch2 1MPI Informatik 2Ulm University 3University College London i o Fluor. yellow Fluorescent red Green spray paint Pink spray paint Dull day-glo red White paper Figure 1: Fluorescent materials absorb]. Fluorescence is represented by the off-diagonal entries. Abstract In fluorescent materials, light from

Kautz, Jan

265

Limitations of Bispectral Infrared Cloud Phase Determination and Potential for Improvement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Determining cloud thermodynamic phase using infrared satellite observations typically requires a priori assumptions about relationships between cloud phase and cloud temperature. In this study, limitations of an approach using two infrared ...

Shaima L. Nasiri; Brian H. Kahn

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Mathematical Formulation of Multi-Layer Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A network representation is useful for describing the structure of a large variety of complex systems. However, most real and engineered systems have multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and the data produced by such systems is very rich. Achieving a deep understanding of such systems necessitates generalizing "traditional" network theory, and the newfound deluge of data now makes it possible to test increasingly general frameworks for the study of networks. In particular, although adjacency matrices are useful to describe traditional single-layer networks, such a representation is insufficient for the analysis and description of multiplex and time-dependent networks. One must therefore develop a more general mathematical framework to cope with the challenges posed by multi-layer complex systems. In this paper, we introduce a tensorial framework to study multi-layer networks, and we discuss the generalization of several important network descriptors and dynamical processes --including degree centrality, clustering coefficients, eigenvector centrality, modularity, Von Neumann entropy, and diffusion-- for this framework. We examine the impact of different choices in constructing these generalizations, and we illustrate how to obtain known results for the special cases of single-layer and multiplex networks. Our tensorial approach will be helpful for tackling pressing problems in multi-layer complex systems, such as inferring who is influencing whom (and by which media) in multichannel social networks and developing routing techniques for multimodal transportation systems.

Manlio De Domenico; Albert Solè-Ribalta; Emanuele Cozzo; Mikko Kivelä; Yamir Moreno; Mason A. Porter; Sergio Gòmez; Alex Arenas

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

267

Dual-Layer Asymmetric Microporous Silica Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report a novel sol-gel dip-coating process to form dual-layer microporous silica membranes with improved membrane performance and reproducibility. First, we deposit a surfactant-templated silica (STS) intermediate layer on top of a commercial {gamma}-alumina support both to improve its ''surface finish'' and to prevent a subsequently deposited microporous overlayer from penetrating into the support. Second, membranes are processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust contamination and, third, membranes are vacuum-calcined to promote further pore shrinkage and impart surface hydrophobicity. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in pore diameter from 50{angstrom} ({gamma}-alumina support layer) to 10-12{angstrom} (STS intermediate layer), and then to 3-4{angstrom} (30nm thick, ultramicroporous silica top-layer). Compared to a single-layer process using only the microporous overlayer, the dual-layer process improves both flux and selectivity. For the industrially important problem of natural gas purification, the combined CO{sub 2} flux [(3{approx} 0.5) x 10{sup {minus}4} cm{sup 3}(STP)/(s{center_dot}cm{sup 2}{center_dot}cm-Hg)] and CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation factors [200{approx}600] are superior to all previously reported values for separation of a 50/50 (v/v) CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} gas mixture. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen from a simulated reformate from partial oxidation of methanol as evidenced by a high concentration of hydrogen recovery.

TSAI,CHUNG-YI; TAM,SIU-YUE; LU,YUNFENG; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

1999-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

268

A General Framework for an “Unmixed Layer” PBL Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed-layer models are computationally efficient, but they do not realistically represent the structure of the boundary layer under many conditions. Many of the deficiencies of the mixed-layer model can be attributed to the assumed flat profiles. ...

Martin J. Otte; John C. Wyngaard

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Graphene Layer Growth Chemistry: Five-Six-Ring Flip Reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

25-28, 2007. Topic: Soot GRAPHENE LAYER GROWTH CHEMISTRY:on the zigzag edge of a graphene layer isomerizes to reversea possibly important step in graphene layer growth, thus

Whitesides, Russell; Domin, Dominik; Lester Jr., William A.; Frenklach, Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Graphene Layer Growth Chemistry: Five-Six-Ring Flip Reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are incorporated into growing graphene layers and hence willGRAPHENE LAYER GROWTH CHEMISTRY: FIVE-SIX-RING FLIP REACTIONon the zigzag edge of a graphene layer. A new reaction

Whitesides, R.; Domin, D.; Salomon-Ferrer, R.; Lester Jr., W.A.; Frenklach, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.

Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

272

Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 .mu.m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm.sup.2. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. Alternatively, the catalyst layer is formed by applying a Na.sup.+ form of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer directly to the membrane, drying the film at a high temperature, and then converting the film back to the protonated form of the ionomer. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Inorganic dual-layer microporous supported membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides for a dual-layer inorganic microporous membrane capable of molecular sieving, and methods for production of the membranes. The inorganic microporous supported membrane includes a porous substrate which supports a first inorganic porous membrane having an average pore size of less than about 25 .ANG. and a second inorganic porous membrane coating the first inorganic membrane having an average pore size of less than about 6 .ANG.. The dual-layered membrane is produced by contacting the porous substrate with a surfactant-template polymeric sol, resulting in a surfactant sol coated membrane support. The surfactant sol coated membrane support is dried, producing a surfactant-templated polymer-coated substrate which is calcined to produce an intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane. The intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane is then contacted with a second polymeric sol producing a polymeric sol coated substrate which is dried producing an inorganic polymeric coated substrate. The inorganic polymeric coated substrate is then calcined producing an inorganic dual-layered microporous supported membrane in accordance with the present invention.

Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Tsai, Chung-Yi (6 Mount Vernon Dr., Apt. C, Vernon, CT 06066); Lu, Yungfeng (1055 N. Capital Ave., #20, San Jose, CA 95133)

2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

274

Causal Viscosity in Accretion Disc Boundary Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The structure of the boundary layer region between the disc and a comparatively slowly rotating star is studied using a causal prescription for viscosity. The vertically integrated viscous stress relaxes towards its equilibrium value on a relaxation timescale $\\tau$, which naturally yields a finite speed of propagation for viscous information. For a standard alpha prescription with alpha in the range 0.1-0.01, and ratio of viscous speed to sound speed in the range 0.02-0.5, details in the boundary layer are strongly affected by the causality constraint. We study both steady state polytropic models and time dependent models, taking into account energy dissipation and transport. Steady state solutions are always subviscous with a variety of $\\Omega$ profiles which may exhibit near discontinuities. For alpha =0.01 and small viscous speeds, the boundary layer adjusted to a near steady state. A long wavelength oscillation generated by viscous overstability could be seen at times near the outer boundary. Being confined there, the boundary layer remained almost stationary. However, for alpha =0.1 and large viscous speeds, short wavelength disturbances were seen throughout which could significantly affect the power output in the boundary layer. This could be potentially important in producing time dependent behaviour in accreting systems such as CVs and protostars.

W. Kley; J. C. B. Papaloizou

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

275

Analyzing the distribution of threshold voltage degradation in nanoscale transistors by using reaction-diffusion and percolation theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continued scaling of transistors into the nanoscale regime has led to large device-to-device variation in transistor characteristics. These variations reflect differences in substrate doping, channel length, interface and/or oxide defects, etc. among ... Keywords: Exponential distribution, Interface defect statistics, Markov Chain Monte-Carlo, Reaction-diffusion model, Skew-normal distribution, Threshold voltage degradation

Ahmad Ehteshamul Islam; Muhammad Ashraful Alam

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Near-threshold production of the {eta} meson via the quasifree pn{yields}pn{eta} reaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total cross sections for the quasifree pn{yields}pn{eta} reaction in the range from the kinematical threshold up to 20 MeV excess energy have been determined. At threshold they exceed corresponding cross sections for the pp{yields}pp{eta} reaction by a factor of about 3 in contrast to the factor of 6 established for higher excess energies. To large extent, the observed decrease of the ratio {sigma}(pn{yields}pn{eta})/{sigma}(pp{yields}pp{eta}) toward threshold may be assigned to the different energy dependence of the proton-proton and proton-neutron final-state interactions. The experiment was conducted using a proton beam of the cooler synchrotron COSY and a cluster jet deuteron target. The proton-neutron reactions were tagged by the spectator proton whose momentum was measured for each event. Protons and neutron outgoing from the pn{yields}pn{eta} reaction have been registered by means of the COSY-11 facility, an apparatus dedicated for threshold meson production.

Moskal, P.; Czerwinski, E.; Janusz, M. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, PL-30-059 Cracow (Poland); IKP and ZEL, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Czyzykiewicz, R.; Gil, D.; Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Klaja, P.; Majewski, J.; Piskor-Ignatowicz, C.; Przerwa, J.; Rejdych, B.; Silarski, M.; Smyrski, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zdebik, J. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, PL-30-059 Cracow (Poland); Adam, H.-H.; Khoukaz, A.; Taeschner, A. [IKP, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Bass, S. D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck (Austria)] (and others)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

The interpretation of speech reception threshold data in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners: Steady-state noise  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Speech-in-noise-measurements are important in clinical practice and have been the subject of research for a long time. The results of these measurements are often described in terms of the speech reception threshold(SRT) and SNR loss. Using the basic concepts that underlie several models of speech recognition in steady-state noise

Cas Smits; Joost M. Festen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Eyelid and eyelash detection method in the normalized iris image using the parabolic Hough model and Otsu's thresholding method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eyelids and eyelashes occluding the iris region are noise factors that degrade the performance of iris recognition. If they are incorrectly classified as an iris region, the false iris region information decreases the recognition rate. Thus, reliable ... Keywords: Eyelash detection, Eyelid detection, Iris recognition, Parabolic Hough model, Thresholding

Tae-Hong Min; Rae-Hong Park

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen) on the bathyal Pakistan margin, where sediments grade from fully laminated sediment at 700 m (0.12 mL LÃ?1 O2 [5 m matter to generate abrupt faunal transitions on the Pakistan margin. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

Levin, Lisa

280

Threshold jumping and wrap-around scan techniques toward efficient tag identification in high density RFID systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the emergence of wireless RFID technologies, the problem of Anti-Collision has been arousing attention and instigated researchers to propose different heuristic algorithms for advancing RFID systems operated in more efficient manner. However, there ... Keywords: Query tree, Tag anti-collision, Threshold jumping, Wrap-around scan

Ching-Hsien Hsu; Han-Chieh Chao; Jong Hyuk Park

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Layered Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries | Argonne...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Layered Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Layered lithium metal oxide compounds for ultra-high-capacity, rechargeable cathodes...

282

Strategies for Joining Nano- and Micro-multi-layered Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Strategies for Joining Nano- and Micro-multi-layered Materials Preserving Layer Structure and Properties Using the Example of Composite ...

283

Heat transfer in excimer laser melting of thin polysilicon layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat transfer in excimer laser melting of thin polysilicon layers Title Heat transfer in excimer laser melting of thin polysilicon layers Publication Type Journal Article Year of...

284

Graphene Layer Growth: Collision of Migrating Five-Member Rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monte Carlo simulations of graphene edge buildup, the rateGraphene layer growth: Collision of migrating five- memberon the zigzag edge of a graphene layer. The process is

Whitesides, Russell; Kollias, Alexander C.; Domin, Dominik; Lester Jr., William A.; Frenklach, Michael

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color...

286

Investigation of the Cause of Low Blister Threshold Temperatures in the RERTR-12 and AFIP-4 Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Blister–threshold testing of fuel plates is a standard method through which the safety margin for operation of plate-type in research and test reactors is assessed. The blister-threshold temperature is indicative of the ability of fuel to operate at high temperatures for short periods of time (transient conditions) without failure. This method of testing was applied to the newly developed U-Mo monolithic fuel system. Blister annealing studies on the U-Mo monolithic fuel plates began in 2007, with the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR)-6 experiment, and they have continued as the U-Mo fuel system has evolved through the research and development process. Blister anneal threshold temperatures from early irradiation experiments (RERTR-6 through RERTR-10) ranged from 400 to 500°C. These temperatures were projected to be acceptable for NRC-licensed research reactors and the high-power Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) based on current safety-analysis reports (SARs). Initial blister testing results from the RERTR-12 experiment capsules X1 and X2 showed a decrease in the blister-threshold temperatures. Blister threshold temperatures from this experiment ranged from 300 to 400°C. Selected plates from the AFIP-4 experiment, which was fabricated using a process similar to that used to fabricate the RERTR-12 experiment, also underwent blister testing to determine whether results would be similar. The measured blister-threshold temperatures from the AFIP-4 plates fell within the same blister-threshold temperature range measured in the RERTR-12 plates. Investigation of the cause of this decrease in bister threshold temperature is being conducted under the guidance of Idaho National Laboratory PLN-4155, “Analysis of Low Blister Threshold Temperatures in the RERTR-12 and AFIP-4 Experiments,” and is driven by hypotheses. The main focus of the investigation is in the following areas: 1. Fabrication variables 2. Pre-irradiation characterization 3. Irradiation conditions 4. Post-irradiation examination 5. Additional blister testing 6. Mechanical modeling This report documents the preliminary results of this investigation. Several hypotheses can be dismissed as a result of this investigation. Two primary categories of causes remain. The most prominent theory, supported by the data, is that low blister-threshold temperature is the result of mechanical energy imparted on the samples during the fabrication process (hot and cold rolling) without adequate post processing (annealing). The mechanisms are not clearly understood and require further investigation, but can be divided into two categories: • Residual Stress • Undesirable interaction boundary and/or U-Mo microstructure change A secondary theory that cannot be dismissed with the information that is currently available is that a change in the test conditions has resulted in a statistically significant downward shift of measured blister temperature. This report outlines the results of the forensic investigations conducted to date. The data and conclusions presented in this report are preliminary. Definitive cause and effect relationships will be established by future experimental programs.

Mitchell K Meyer

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Diffraction at a time grating in above-threshold ionization: The influence of the Coulomb potential  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the photoelectron emission spectrum in atomic above-threshold ionization by a linearly polarized short-laser pulse. Direct electrons can be characterized by both intracycle and intercycle interferences. The former results from the coherent superposition of two different electron trajectories released in the same optical cycle, whereas the latter is the consequence of the superposition of multiple trajectories released in different cycles. In the present article, a semiclassical analytical expression for the complete (both intracycle and intercycle) interference pattern is derived. We show that the recently proposed semiclassical description in terms of a diffraction process at a time grating remains qualitatively unchanged in the presence of the long-range Coulomb potential. The latter causes only a phase shift of the intracycle interference pattern. We verify the predictions of the semiclassical model by comparison with full three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) solutions. One key finding is that the subcycle interference structures originating from trajectories launched within a time interval of less than 1 femtosecond should be experimentally observable also in low-resolution spectra for longer multicycle pulses.

Arbo, Diego G. [Institute for Astronomy and Space Physics, IAFE (CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28 (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Physics, FCEN, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ishikawa, Kenichi L. [Photon Science Center, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Schiessl, Klaus; Persson, Emil; Burgdoerfer, Joachim [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Near-threshold H/D exchange in CD{sub 3}CHO photodissociation.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measuring the isotopic abundance of hydrogen versus deuterium atoms is a key method for interrogating reaction pathways in chemistry. H/D 'scrambling' is the intramolecular rearrangement of labile isotopes of hydrogen atoms and when it occurs through unanticipated pathways can complicate the interpretation of such experiments. Here, we investigate H/D scrambling in acetaldehyde at the energetic threshold for breaking the formyl C-H bond and reveal an unexpected unimolecular mechanism. Laser photolysis experiments of CD{sub 3}CHO show that up to 17% of the products have undergone H/D exchange to give CD{sub 2}H + DCO. Transition-state theory calculations reveal that the dominant mechanism involves four sequential H- or D-shifts to form CD{sub 2}HCDO, which then undergoes conventional C-C bond cleavage. At the lowest energy the molecule undergoes an average of 20 H- or D-shifts before products are formed, evincing significant scrambling of H and D atoms. Analogous photochemically induced isomerizations and isotope scrambling are probably important in both atmospheric chemistry and combustion reactions.

Heazlewood, B. R.; Maccarone, A. T.; Andrews, D. U.; Osborn, D. L.; Harding, L. B.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Jordan, M. J. T.; Kable, S. H. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Univ. of Sydney); (SNL)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Intensity-resolved Above Threshold Ionization Yields of Atoms with Ultrashort Laser Pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The above threshold ionization (ATI) spectra provide a diversity of information about a laser-atom ionization process such as laser intensity, pulse duration, carrier envelope phase, and atomic energy level spacing. However, the spatial distribution of intensities inherent in all laser beams reduces the resolution of this information. This research focuses on recovering the intensity-resolved ATI spectra from experimental data using a deconvolution algorithm. Electron ionization yields of xenon were measured for a set of laser pulse intensities using a time of flight (TOF) setup. Horizontally polarized, unchirped, 50fs pulses were used in the ionization process. All laser parameters other than the radiation intensity were held constant over the set of intensity measurements. A deconvolution algorithm was developed based on the experimental parameters. Then the deconvolution algorithm was applied to the experimental data to obtain the intensity-resolved total yield probability and ATI spectra. Finally, an error analysis was performed to determine the stability and accuracy of the algorithm as well as the quality of the data. It was found that the algorithm produced greater contrast for peaks in the ATI spectra where atom specific resonant behavior is observed. Additionally, the total yield probability showed that double ionization may be observed in the ionization yield. The error analysis revealed that the algorithm was stable under the experimental conditions for a range of intensities.

Hart, Nathan Andrew

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Study of a Threshold Cherenkov Counter Based on Silica Aerogels with Low Refractive Indices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To identify $\\pi^{\\pm}$ and $K^{\\pm}$ in the region of $1.0\\sim 2.5$ GeV/c, a threshold Cherenkov counter equipped with silica aerogels has been investigated. Silica aerogels with a low refractive index of 1.013 have been successfully produced using a new technique. By making use of these aerogels as radiators, we have constructed a Cherenkov counter and have checked its properties in a test beam. The obtained results have demonstrated that our aerogel was transparent enough to make up for loss of the Cherenkov photon yield due to a low refractive index. Various configurations for the photon collection system and some types of photomultipliers, such as the fine-mesh type, for a read out were also tested. From these studies, our design of a Cherenkov counter dedicated to $\\pi / K$ separation up to a few GeV/c %in the momentum range of $1.0 \\sim 2.5$ GeV/c with an efficiency greater than $90$ \\% was considered.

I. Adachi et al

1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

291

Phase space path-integral formulation of the above-threshold ionization  

SciTech Connect

Atoms and molecules submitted to a strong laser field can emit electrons of high energies in the above-threshold ionization (ATI) process. This process finds a highly intuitive and also quantitative explanation in terms of Feynman's path integral and the concept of quantum orbits [P. Salieres et al., Science 292, 902 (2001)]. However, the connection with the Feynman path-integral formalism is explained only by intuition and analogy and within the so-called strong-field approximation (SFA). Using the phase space path-integral formalism we have obtained an exact result for the momentum-space matrix element of the total time-evolution operator. Applying this result to the ATI we show that the SFA and the so-called improved SFA are, respectively, the zeroth- and the first-order terms of the expansion in powers of the laser-free effective interaction of the electron with the rest of the atom (molecule). We have also presented the second-order term of this expansion which is responsible for the ATI with double scattering of the ionized electron.

Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina) [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bistrik 7, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

STAR FORMATION LAWS AND THRESHOLDS FROM INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM STRUCTURE AND TURBULENCE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an analytical model of the relation between the surface density of gas and star formation rate in galaxies and clouds, as a function of the presence of supersonic turbulence and the associated structure of the interstellar medium (ISM). The model predicts a power-law relation of index 3/2, flattened under the effects of stellar feedback at high densities or in very turbulent media, and a break at low surface densities when ISM turbulence becomes too weak to induce strong compression. This model explains the diversity of star formation laws and thresholds observed in nearby spirals and their resolved regions, the Small Magellanic Cloud, high-redshift disks and starbursting mergers, as well as Galactic molecular clouds. While other models have proposed interstellar dust content and molecule formation to be key ingredients to the observed variations of the star formation efficiency, we demonstrate instead that these variations can be explained by ISM turbulence and structure in various types of galaxies.

Renaud, Florent; Kraljic, Katarina; Bournaud, Frederic, E-mail: florent.renaud@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp, Universite Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

293

A Spin-down Power Threshold for Pulsar Wind Nebula Generation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A systematic X-ray survey of the most energetic rotation-powered pulsars known, based on spin-down energy loss rate, $\\dot E$ = $I\\omega\\dot\\omega$, shows that all energetic pulsars with $\\dot E > \\dot E_{c} \\approx 3.4 \\times\\ 10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$ are X-ray bright, manifest a distinct pulsar wind nebula (PWN), and are associated with a supernova event, either historically or via a thermal remnant, with over half residing in shell-like supernova remnants. Below $\\dot E_c$, the 2-10 keV PWN flux ratio $F_{PWN}/F_{PSR}$ decreases by an order-of-magnitude. This threshold is predicted by the lower limit on the spectral slope $\\Gamma_{min} \\approx 0.5$ observed for rotation-powered pulsars (Gotthelf 2003). The apparent lack of bright pulsar nebulae below a critical Edot suggests a change in the particle injection spectrum and serves as a constraint on emission models for rotation-powered pulsars. Neither a young age nor a high density environment is found to be a sufficient condition for generating a PWN, as often suggested, instead the spin-down energy loss rate is likely the key parameter in determining the evolution of a rotation-powered pulsar.

E. V. Gotthelf

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

294

PT-symmetric sinusoidal optical lattices at the symmetry-breaking threshold  

SciTech Connect

The PT-symmetric potential V{sub 0}[cos(2{pi}x/a)+i{lambda}sin(2{pi}x/a)] has a completely real spectrum for {lambda}{<=}1 and begins to develop complex eigenvalues for {lambda}>1. At the symmetry-breaking threshold {lambda}=1 some of the eigenvectors become degenerate, giving rise to a Jordan-block structure for each degenerate eigenvector. In general this is expected to result in a secular growth in the amplitude of the wave. However, it has been shown in a recent paper by Longhi, by numerical simulation and by the use of perturbation theory, that for a broad initial wave packet this growth is suppressed, and instead a saturation leading to a constant maximum amplitude is observed. We revisit this problem by explicitly constructing the Bloch wave functions and the associated Jordan functions and using the method of stationary states to find the dependence on the longitudinal distance z for a variety of different initial wave packets. This allows us to show in detail how the saturation of the linear growth arises from the close connection between the contributions of the Jordan functions and those of the neighboring Bloch waves.

Graefe, Eva-Maria [Mathematics Department, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Jones, H. F. [Physics Department, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

ARM - Field Campaign - Boundary Layer Cloud IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsBoundary Layer Cloud IOP govCampaignsBoundary Layer Cloud IOP Campaign Links Campaign Images Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Boundary Layer Cloud IOP 2005.07.11 - 2005.08.07 Lead Scientist : William Shaw For data sets, see below. Description Investigators from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in collaboration with scientists from a number of other institutions, carried out a month of intensive measurements at the ARM Climate Research Facility on the North Slope of Alaska in the summer of 2005. The purpose of these measurements was to determine how much the arctic land surface modifies the way low clouds reflect, absorb, and transmit solar and infrared radiation. This is an important problem because arctic clouds play a prominent role in

296

Growth of oxide exchange bias layers  

SciTech Connect

An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bia layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200.degree. C., the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 .ANG./sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous.

Chaiken, Alison (Fremont, CA); Michel, Richard P. (Bloomington, MN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Geostrophic Adjustment and Restratification of a Mixed Layer with Horizontal Gradients above a Stratified Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The restratification of a mixed layer with horizontal density gradients above a stratified layer is considered. Solutions are obtained on the assumption that the width across this front is much larger than the local radius of deformation ?bh?/|f| based ...

Amit Tandon; Chris Garrett

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick Cds layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the C This invention was made with Government support under Subcontract No. ZL-7-06031-3 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX)

1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

299

The Free Surface Turbulent Shear layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In applying the Wall layer analogy to a wind blown free surface it is necessary to decide in what coordinate system such an anology is realistic. A smoothed sea surface is taken to be that produced by the nearly irrotational components of the ...

G. T. Csanady

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Intrusive gravity currents in two-layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intrusive gravity currents in two-layer stratified media Morris R. Flynn & Paul F. Linden Dept to as a gravity current · In contrast to waves, gravity currents transport significant mass (e.g. fluid parcels, sediment, insects, etc.) Introduction Gravity currents in the environment www

Flynn, Morris R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers  

SciTech Connect

Water uptake profiles of proton-exchange-membrane fuel-cell catalyst layers are characterized in the form of capillary-pressure saturation (Pc-S) curves. The curves indicate that the catalyst layers tested are highly hydrophilic and require capillary pressures as low as -80 kPa to eject imbibed water. Comparison of materials made with and without Pt indicates a difference in water ejection and uptake phenomena due to the presence of Pt. The addition of Pt increases the tendency of the catalyst layer to retain water. Dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) is used to characterize the water-vapor sorption onto Nafion, Pt/C, and C surfaces. The DVS results align with the trends found from the Pc-S curves and show an increased propensity for water uptake in the presence of Pt. The effect of the ion in Nafion, sodium or protonated form, is also compared and demonstrates that although the protonation of the Nafion in the catalyst layer also increases hydrophilicity, the effect is not as great as that caused by Pt.

Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony H.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Boundary-Layer Damping of Baroclinic Instability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A shooting method is applied to a 100-level perturbation model with an explicit Ekman layer. Growth rates for a no-slip boundary condition are similar to those found previously. It is noted that the large cross-isobaric flow of the classic Ekman ...

D. O. Staley

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Spectral Scaling in a Tidal Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The simple scaling of a tidal bottom boundary layer by the shear velocity, u*, and the wall to the wall describes well the mean Bow field. To test the full extent of this scaling measurements were made of the turbulence spectra in a natural tidal ...

Thomas F. Gross; Arthur R. M. Nowell

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Does Stommel's Mixed Layer “Demon” Work?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stommel argued that the seasonal cycle leads to a bias in the coupling between the surface mixed layer and the main thermocline of the ocean. He suggested that a “demon” operated that effectively only allowed fluid at the end of winter to pass ...

Richard G. Williams; John C. Marshall; Michael A. Spall

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

An ATM Adaptation Layer for Reliable Transfers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been much attention given to ATM Adaptation Layers (AAL) over the ten-year history of ATM standardization. Yet none of the existing standards include a retransmission protocol to ensure reliability of the transfers. In this paper we propose ...

Gunnar Karlsson

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Impedance of surface footings on layered ground  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2Hz. Unfortunately, environmental ... Keywords: Boundary elements, Domain-transformation method, Dynamic stiffness, Footing, Foundation, Layered soil, Wind turbine

L. Andersen; J. Clausen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Quantum Security for the Physical Layer  

SciTech Connect

The physical layer describes how communication signals are encoded and transmitted across a channel. Physical security often requires either restricting access to the channel or performing periodic manual inspections. In this tutorial, we describe how the field of quantum communication offers new techniques for securing the physical layer. We describe the use of quantum seals as a unique way to test the integrity and authenticity of a communication channel and to provide security for the physical layer. We present the theoretical and physical underpinnings of quantum seals including the quantum optical encoding used at the transmitter and the test for non-locality used at the receiver. We describe how the envisioned quantum physical sublayer senses tampering and how coordination with higher protocol layers allow quantum seals to influence secure routing or tailor data management methods. We conclude by discussing challenges in the development of quantum seals, the overlap with existing quantum key distribution cryptographic services, and the relevance of a quantum physical sublayer to the future of communication security.

Humble, Travis S [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Nano-soldering to single atomic layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

Girit, Caglar O. (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, CA)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

309

Field Calibration of Mixed-Layer Drifters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of field experiments was conducted to determine the water-following characteristics of mixed-layer drifters with “holey-sock” drogues. Through the use of a drifting current meter array, direct estimates of slip velocity (or the difference ...

W. Rockwell Geyer

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

THRESHOLD PROBABILITY FUNCTIONS AND THERMAL INHOMOGENEITIES IN THE Ly{alpha} FOREST  

SciTech Connect

We introduce to astrophysics the threshold probability functions S{sub 2}, C{sub 2}, and D{sub 2} first derived by Torquato et al., which effectively samples the flux probability distribution function (PDF) of the Ly{alpha} forest at different spatial scales. These statistics are tested on mock Ly{alpha} forest spectra based on various toy models for He II reionization, with homogeneous models with various temperature-density relations as well as models with temperature inhomogeneities. These mock samples have systematics and noise added to simulate the latest Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) data. We find that the flux PDF from SDSS DR7 can be used to constrain the temperature-density relation {gamma} (where T{proportional_to}(1 + {Delta}){sup {gamma}-1}) of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 2.5 to a precision of {Delta}{gamma} = 0.2 at {approx}4{sigma} confidence. The flux PDF is degenerate to temperature inhomogeneities in the IGM arising from He II reionization, but we find S{sub 2} can detect these inhomogeneities at {approx}3{sigma}, with the assumption that the flux continuum of the Ly{alpha} forest can be determined to 9% accuracy, approximately the error from current fitting methods. If the flux continuum can be determined to 3% accuracy, then S{sub 2} is capable of constraining the characteristic scale of temperature inhomogeneities, with {approx}4{sigma} differentiation between toy models with hot bubble radii of 50 h{sup -1} Mpc and 25 h{sup -1} Mpc.

Lee, Khee-Gan; Spergel, David N., E-mail: lee@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

311

Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer  

SciTech Connect

One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

312

Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

313

A Two-Layer First-Order Closure Model for the Study of the Baroclinic Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A steady-state two-layer model has been developed for the baroclinic boundary layer. The lower layer is the constant flux surface layer (SL) in which the eddy viscosity K varies with height and stability according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity ...

K. Krishna

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Single top quark production at the Fermilab Tevatron: Threshold resummation and finite-order soft gluon corrections  

SciTech Connect

I present a calculation of threshold soft-gluon corrections to single top-quark production in pp collisions via all partonic processes in the t and s channels and via associated top quark and W boson production. The soft-gluon corrections are formally resummed to all orders, and finite-order expansions of the resummed cross section are calculated through next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNNLO) at next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy. Numerical results for single top-quark production at the Tevatron are presented, including the dependence of the cross sections on the top-quark mass and on the factorization and renormalization scales. The threshold corrections in the t channel are small while in the s channel they are large and dominant. Associated tW production remains relatively minor due to the small leading-order cross section even though the K factors are large.

Kidonakis, Nikolaos [Kennesaw State University, Physics 1202, 1000 Chastain Rd., Kennesaw, Georgia 30144-5591 (United States)

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Exotic Effects at the Charm Threshold and Other Novel Physics Topics at JLab-12 GeV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I briefly survey a number of novel hadron physics topics which can be investigated with the 12 GeV upgrade at J-Lab. The topics include new the formation of exotic heavy quark resonances accessible above the charm threshold, intrinsic charm and strangeness phenomena, the exclusive Sivers effect, hidden-color Fock states of nuclei, local two-photon interactions in deeply virtual Compton scattering, and non-universal antishadowing.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

316

Pulsed atomic layer epitaxy of quaternary AlInGaN layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this letter, we report on a material deposition scheme for quaternary Al{sub x}In{sub y}Ga{sub 1-x--y}N layers using a pulsed atomic layer epitaxy (PALE) technique. The PALE approach allows accurate control of the quaternary layer composition and thickness by simply changing the number of aluminum, indium, and gallium pulses in a unit cell and the number of unit cell repeats. Using PALE, AlInGaN layers with Al mole fractions in excess of 40% and strong room-temperature photoluminescence peaks at 280 nm can easily be grown even at temperatures lower than 800{sup o}C. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Zhang, J.; Kuokstis, E.; Fareed, Q.; Wang, H.; Yang, J.; Simin, G.; Asif Khan, M.; Gaska, R.; Shur, M.

2001-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

317

On Mixed-Layer Modeling of the Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research aircraft measurements of a well-developed marine stratocumulus cloud-topped boundary layer, made in June 1981 off the coast of California, are analyzed using the saturation point method developed by Betts. Estimates of the cloud-top ...

Howard P. Hanson

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

PRESTRESSING A TWO-LAYER PRESSURE VESSEL BY CONTROLLED YIELDING OF THE INNER LAYER  

SciTech Connect

A method of designing a two-layer pressure vessel is presented wherein contact between the layers is produced by controlled yielding of the inner vessel by internal pressure. The amount of prestress depends upon the dimensions of the vessel, the properties of the material of construction, and the prestressing pressure. The method takes into account the actual stress-strain curve of the material and satisfies the rales of plastic flow with work hardening. (auth)

Schneider, R.W.

1964-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

PRESTRESSING A TWO-LAYER PRESSURE VESSEL BY CONTROLLED YIELDING OF THE INNER LAYER  

SciTech Connect

A method is presented for designing a two-layer pressure vessel wherein contact between the layers is produced by controlled yielding of the inner vessel by internal pressure. The amount of prestress depends upon the dimensions of the vessel, the properties of the material of construction, and the prestressing pressure. The method takes into account the actual stress-strain curve of the material and satisfies the rules of plastic flow with work hardening. (auth)

Schneider, R.W.

1964-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

320

Evolution of exciton states near the percolation threshold in two-phase systems with II-VI semiconductor quantum dots  

SciTech Connect

From studies of two-phase systems (borosilicate matrices containing ZnSe or CdS quantum dots), it was found that the systems exhibit a specific feature associated with the percolation phase transition of charge carriers (excitons). The transition manifests itself as radical changes in the optical spectra of both ZnSe and CdS quantum dot systems and by fluctuations of the emission band intensities near the percolation threshold. These effects are due to microscopic fluctuations of the density of quantum dots. The average spacing between quantum dots is calculated taking into account their finite dimensions and the volume fraction occupied by the quantum dots at the percolation threshold. It is shown that clustering of quantum dots occurs via tunneling of charge carriers between the dots. A physical mechanism responsible for the percolation threshold for charge carriers is suggested. In the mechanism, the permittivity mismatch of the materials of the matrix and quantum dots plays an important role in delocalization of charge carriers (excitons): due to the mismatch, 'a dielectric trap' is formed at the external surface of the interface between the matrix and a quantum dot and, thus, surface exciton states are formed there. The critical concentrations of quantum dots are determined, such that the spatial overlapping of such surface states provides the percolation transition in both systems.

Bondar, N. V., E-mail: jbond@iop.kiev.ua; Brodyn, M. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Shock Dynamics in Layered Periodic Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solutions of constant-coefficient nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs generically develop shocks, even if the initial data is smooth. Solutions of hyperbolic PDEs with variable coefficients can behave very differently. We investigate formation and stability of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation, no shock formation is detected even after times much greater than the time of shock formation in a homogeneous medium. Furthermore, weak shocks are observed to be dynamically unstable in the sense that they do not lead to significant long-term entropy decay. We propose a characteristic condition for admissibility of shocks in heterogeneous media that generalizes the classical Lax entropy condition and accurately predicts the formation or absence of shocks in these media.

David I Ketcheson; Randall J. LeVeque

2011-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

322

Double layer capacitance of carbon foam electrodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have evaluated a wide variety of microcellular carbon foams prepared by the controlled pyrolysis and carbonization of several polymers including: polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF), divinylbenzene/methacrylonitrile (DVB), phenolics (furfuryl/alcohol), and cellulose polymers such as Rayon. The porosity may be established by several processes including: Gelation (1-5), phase separation (1-3,5-8), emulsion (1,9,10), aerogel/xerogel formation (1,11,12,13), replication (14) and activation. In this report we present the complex impedance analysis and double layer charging characteristics of electrodes prepared from one of these materials for double layer capacitor applications, namely activated cellulose derived microcellular carbon foam.

Delnick, F.M.; Ingersoll, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Firsich, D. [EG& G Mound Lab., Miamisburg, OH (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities  

SciTech Connect

We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: 1) evidence from point contact tunneling showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, 2) experimental results showing the production sharp niobium/oxide interfaces from a high temperature bake of ALD coated Al2O3 on niobium surfaces, 3) results from ALD coated structures.

Norem, J; Pellin, M J; Antoine, C Z; Ciovati, G; Kneisel, P; Reece, C E; Rimmer, R A; Cooley, L; Gurevich, A V; Ha, Y; Proslier, Th

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Study of small carbon and semiconductor clusters using negative ion threshold photodetachment spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The bonding and electronics of several small carbon and semiconductor clusters containing less than ten atoms are probed using negative ion threshold photodetachment (zero electron kinetic energy, or ZEKE) spectroscopy. ZEKE spectroscopy is a particularly advantageous technique for small cluster study, as it combines mass selection with good spectroscopic resolution. The ground and low-lying electronic states of small clusters in general can be accessed by detaching an electron from the ground anion state. The clusters studied using this technique and described in this work are C{sub 6}{sup {minus}}/C{sub 6}, Si{sub n}{sup {minus}}/Si{sub n} (n = 2, 3, 4), Ge{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/Ge{sub 2}, In{sub 2}P{sup {minus}}/In{sub 2}P,InP{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/InP{sup 2}, and Ga{sub 2}As{sup {minus}}. The total photodetachment cross sections of several other small carbon clusters and the ZEKE spectrum of the I{sup {minus}}{center_dot}CH{sub 3}I S{sub N}2 reaction complex are also presented to illustrate the versatility of the experimental apparatus. Clusters with so few atoms do not exhibit bulk properties. However, each specie exhibits bonding properties that relate to the type of bonding found in the bulk. C{sub 6}, as has been predicted, exhibits a linear cumulenic structure, where double bonds connect all six carbon atoms. This double bonding reflects how important {pi} bonding is in certain phases of pure carbon (graphite and fullerenes). The symmetric stretch frequencies observed in the C{sub 6}{sup {minus}} spectra, however, are in poor agreement with the calculated values. Also observed as sharp structure in total photodetachment cross section scans was an excited anion state bound by only {approximately}40 cm{sup {minus}1} relative to the detachment continuum. This excited anion state appears to be a valence bound state, possible because of the high electron affinity of C{sub 6}, and the open shell of the anion.

Arnold, C.C.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling.

Klem, John F. (Sandia Park, NM); Zolper, John C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and etching of high-k gadolinium oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-quality gadolinium oxide thin films is achieved using Gd(iPrCp){sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth is observed from 150 to 350 deg. C, though the optical properties of the film improve at higher temperature. True layer-by-layer ALD growth of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred in a relatively narrow window of temperature and precursor dose. A saturated growth rate of 1.4 A/cycle was observed at 250 deg. C. As the temperature increases, high-quality films are deposited, but the growth mechanism appears to become CVD-like, indicating the onset of precursor decomposition. At 250 deg. C, the refractive index of the film is stable at {approx}1.80 regardless of other deposition conditions, and the measured dispersion characteristics are comparable to those of bulk Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. XPS data show that the O/Gd ratio is oxygen deficient at 1.3, and that it is also very hygroscopic. The plasma etching rate of the ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film in a high-density helicon reactor is very low. Little difference is observed in etching rate between Cl{sub 2} and pure Ar plasmas, suggesting that physical sputtering dominates the etching. A threshold bias power exists below which etching does not occur; thus it may be possible to etch a metal gate material and stop easily on the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film has a dielectric constant of about 16, exhibits low C-V hysteresis, and allows a 50 x reduction in gate leakage compared to SiO{sub 2}. However, the plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) process causes formation of an {approx}1.8 nm SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer, and generates a fixed charge of -1.21 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, both of which may limit use of PE-ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate dielectric.

Vitale, Steven A.; Wyatt, Peter W.; Hodson, Chris J. [MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States); Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, Yatton, Bristol, BS49 4AP (United Kingdom)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Layered Atom Arrangements in Complex Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this report, we develop an atom layer stacking model to describe systematically the crystal structures of complex materials. To illustrate the concepts, we consider a sequence of oxide compounds in which the metal cations progress in oxidation state from monovalent (M{sup 1+}) to tetravalent (M{sup 4+}). We use concepts relating to geometric subdivisions of a triangular atom net to describe the layered atom patterns in these compounds (concepts originally proposed by Shuichi Iida). We demonstrate that as a function of increasing oxidation state (from M{sup 1+} to M{sup 4+}), the layer stacking motifs used to generate each successive structure (specifically, motifs along a 3 symmetry axis), progress through the following sequence: MMO, MO, M{sub r}O, MO{sub r/s}O{sub u/v}, MOO (where M and O represent fully dense triangular atom nets and r/s and u/v are fractions used to describe partially filled triangular atom nets). We also develop complete crystallographic descriptions for the compounds in our oxidation sequence using trigonal space group R{bar 3}.

K.E. Sikafus; R.W.Grimes; S.M.Corish; A.R. Cleave; M.Tang; C.R.Stanek; B.P. Uberuaga; J.A.Valdez

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure

329

Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced.

Sullivan, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Friedmann, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are consistent with an impact followed by intense burning. Four holes in the Great Lakes, some deeper than Death Valley, are proposed as possible craters produced by the airburst breakup of a loosely aggregated projectile.

Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

2010-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

331

Photoionization thresholds of rare-earth impurity ions. EuS :CaF2, CeT :YAG, and SmS :CaF2  

SciTech Connect

The spectral dependence of the photoionization energy of EuS :CaF2, CeT :YAG, and SmS :CaF2 systems have been measured and thresholds experimentally determined and compared with theoretical values calculated from electrostatic models. It is shown that the excited state absorption transitions or the persistent hole burning observed by other authors occur above the threshold energy of photoionization of the impurities and that the states of the crystal which form the bottom of the conduction band may play an important role in the strong probability of these processes. A review of thresholds now known is also given.

Pedrini, C.; Rogemond, F.; McClure, D.S.

1986-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Sub-threshold production of $\\Sigma$(1385) baryons in Al+Al collisions at 1.9$A$ GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

First measurement of sub-threshold $\\Sigma$(1385) production is presented. Experimental data are presented for Al+Al reactions at 1.9$A$ GeV measured with the FOPI detector at SIS/GSI. The $\\Sigma$(1385)/$\\Lambda$ ratio is found to be in good agreement with the transport and statistical model predictions. The results allow for a better understanding of sub-threshold strangeness production and strangeness exchange reaction which is the dominant process for $K^-$ production below and close-to threshold.

Lopez, FOPI Collboration: X; Crochet, P

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Static contrast enhancement layer for photolithographic processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the ever expanding microelectronic industry, there is a constant demand for improved photolithographic techniques useful in the manufacture of integrated circuits and the like. Over the years, however, the linewidths of structures patterned for microelectronic fabrication have continued to decrease. At present, 0.8 {mu}m lines and spaces are now imaged in commercial production and much smaller features are predicted for the near future. These feature sizes represent a significant drop below the previously predicted limit of optical lithography, originally thought to be around 1.25 {mu}m. These advances have been due in large part to the extensive worldwide research effort in improved optical patterning techniques. One of the more significant developments in optical patterning has been the advent of contrast enhancement layer lithography. A static stable contrast enhancement layer is provided for improving the resolution possible in photolithographic processes which comprises a photoacid generator such as an onium salt and acid-base indicator dye such as methyl yellow incorporated into a polymeric binder. The contrast enhancement layer is coated onto a conventional photoresist, and upon exposure to light in the appropriate absorption range, the salt undergoes a transformation to a strong Bronsted acid which will then bleach the indicator dye. The system is particularly designed so that an in situ contact mask is formed in a first deep UV exposure which is used to mask light projected upon the photoresist at a second wavelength. The present invention allows for exposure using deep UV sources without the need for the development of new photoresist chemistry. 1 fig.

Renschler, C.L.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

An Analysis of Tropical Ocean Diurnal Warm Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During periods of light surface wind, a warm stable layer forms at the ocean surface with a maximum sea surface temperature (SST) in the early afternoon. The diurnal SST amplitude (DSA) associated with these diurnal warm layers (DWLs) can reach ...

Hugo Bellenger; Jean-Philippe Duvel

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Behavior of Turbulence Statistics in the Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Velocity variances in the convective boundary layer are examined using data derived in PBL experiments over land (Minnesota) and ocean (the Coral Sea) supported by data from the Kansas study of the surface boundary layer. In the freely convective ...

B. B. Hicks

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

A “Balanced” Approach to Stable Boundary Layer Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Semiempirical arguments from Roach and Nieuwstadt concerning Richardson numbers Ri, Rf in stably stratified shear layers and boundary layers appear to bypass uncertainties of turbulence closures. Here it is shown that these arguments can be ...

S. H. Derbyshire

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Dynamical Adjustment of the Trade Wind Inversion Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In schematic north–south cross sections the trade inversion layer is often depicted as sloping upward as air flows toward the intertropical convergence zone. This conceptual view is consistent with purely thermodynamic boundary-layer models, ...

Wayne H. Schubert; Paul E. Ciesielski; Chungu Lu; Richard H. Johnson

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Water Vapor Layers in STORM-FEST Rawinsonde Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The STORM-FEST (Fronts Experiment Systems Test) rawinsonde data were analyzed to determine the abundance and characteristics of moist layers within the troposphere. A moist layer was defined as a local maximum in relative humidity with lower ...

John P. Iselin; William J. Gutowski Jr.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Temperature Fields in the Tropical Tropopause Transition Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been increasing recognition of the role of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) in determining stratospheric water vapor concentrations—the TTL being a layer of transition between air showing tropospheric properties below and ...

Xue Long Zhou; Marvin A. Geller; Minghua Zhang

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Single-Point Closures in a Neutrally Stratified Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Closure assumptions often employed in single-point closure models for boundary-layer applications are evaluated against a neutrally stratified planetary boundary-layer flow generated by large-eddy simulation. The contributions from slow and rapid ...

Anders Andrén; Chin-Hoh Moeng

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Autumnal Mixed-Phase Cloudy Boundary Layers in the Arctic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two mixed-phase cloudy boundary layer events observed over the Arctic ice pack in autumn are extensively analyzed. The local dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layers is determined from aircraft measurements including analysis of ...

James O. Pinto

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

The Boundary Layer of Tropical Cyclone Kerry (1979)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The boundary layer structure of Tropical Cyclone Kerry (1979) is investigated using composite analysis of research aircraft, surface ship, and automatic weather station observations. The boundary layer was moist, convective, and strongly ...

Peter G. Black; Greg J. Holland

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Choosing a Boundary Layer Parameterization for Tropical Cyclone Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The boundary layer in a tropical cyclone is in some respects unlike that elsewhere in the atmosphere. It is therefore necessary to evaluate boundary layer parameterizations for their suitability for use in tropical cyclone simulation. Previous ...

Jeffrey D. Kepert

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Water Uptake of Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Uptake of Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers Title Water Uptake of Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kusoglu, Ahmet, Anthony...

345

Mixing in the Transition Layer during Two Storm Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper-ocean dynamics analyzed from mooring-array observations are contrasted between two storms of comparable magnitude. Particular emphasis is put on the role of the transition layer, the strongly stratified layer between the well-mixed upper ...

Kathleen Dohan; Russ E. Davis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The Role of Boundary Layer Processes in Limiting PV Homogenization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A ?-plane multilevel quasigeostrophic channel model with interactive static stability and a simplified parameterization of atmospheric boundary layer physics is used to study the role of different boundary layer processes in eddy equilibration ...

Yang Zhang; Peter H. Stone; Amy Solomon

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

A Cloudiness Transition in a Marine Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ aircraft data and lidar data are used to analyze a transition in the boundary layer thermodynamic structure from a clear boundary layer through small cumulus and broken stratocumulus to a deck of solid stratocumulus. The data was ...

Alan K. Betts; Reinout Boers

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Entrainment into a Stratocumulus Layer with Distributed Radiative Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the radiative cooling of a cloud layer strongly influences the turbulent flux profiles and the entrainment rate, and that the radiative cooling should be modeled as acting inside the turbulent layer. Numerical experiments ...

David A. Randall

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Subwavelength image manipulation through an oblique layered system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show in this work an oblique layered system that is capable of manipulating two dimensional subwavelength images. Through properly designed planar layered system, we demonstrate analytically that lateral image shift ...

Fung, Kin Hung

350

BLIPS: A System for Studying Benthic Boundary Layer Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Boundary Layer Interaction Profiting System (BLIPS) has been developed to measure kinematic quantities necessary for verification of theoretical, two-phase boundary layer flow models. BLIPS sensors include electromagnetic current meters, ...

Charles E. Adams Jr.; Winfield Hill; Rodney Fredericks

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Cross-layer protocol interactions in heterogeneous data networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) TCP timeout backoff and MAC layer retransmissions, are studied in detail. The results show that the system performance is a balance of idle slots and collisions at the MAC layer, and a tradeoff between packet loss ...

Liu, Chunmei, 1970-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Alternative Nonlocal Descriptions of Boundary-Layer Evolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two alternative parameterizations for nonlocal turbulence mixing are tested in a 1D boundary-layer model against a dataset from the 1983 Boundary-Layer Experiment (BLX83) in Oklahoma. One method, proposed previously by Stull and Driedonks, is ...

Qing Zhang; Roland Stull

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Evaluation of Boundary Layer Depth Estimates at Summit Station, Greenland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boundary layer conditions in polar regions have been shown to have a significant impact on the levels of trace gases in the lower atmosphere. The ability to properly describe boundary layer characteristics (e.g., stability, depth, and variations ...

B. Van Dam; D. Helmig; W. Neff; L. Kramer

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Mixed Layer Restratification Due to a Horizontal Density Gradient  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The restratification in the surface mixed layer driven by a horizontal density gradient following a storm is examined. For a constant layer depth H and constant buoyancy gradient |bx| = M2, geostrophic adjustment leads to new stratification with ...

Amit Tandon; Chris Garrett

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Lateral Mixing in the Pycnocline by Baroclinic Mixed Layer Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a process study model, the effect of mixed layer submesoscale instabilities on the lateral mixing of passive tracers in the pycnocline is explored. Mixed layer eddies that are generated from the baroclinic instability of a front within the ...

Gualtiero Badin; Amit Tandon; Amala Mahadevan

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Boundary Layer Clouds and Vegetation–Atmosphere Feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of boundary layer cumulus clouds and their impact on land surface–atmosphere exchange is presented. Seasonal trends indicate that in response to increasing insolation and sensible heat flux, both the mixed-layer height (zi) and the ...

Jeffrey M. Freedman; David R. Fitzjarrald; Kathleen E. Moore; Ricardo K. Sakai

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

A Theory of Gravity Wave Absorption by a Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-layer model of the atmospheric boundary layer (BL) is proposed to explain the nature of lee-wave attenuation and gravity wave absorption seen in numerical simulations. Two complex coefficients are defined: the compliance coefficient and the ...

Ronald B. Smith; Qingfang Jiang; James D. Doyle

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Physical phenomena of thin surface layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(solid line in figure 2.3) long wavelength fluctuations with 0 < q < qc = ? ??hpex/? are amplified and the film will become unstable, while short wavelength fluctuations are damped. The fastest growing mode qmax is given by the maximum of equation 2.17, q... 2max = ?1 2? ?hpex (2.18) 13 Physical phenomena of thin surface layers qc 0 q ? -1 Ampli#30;ed Damped qmax Figure 2.3: Graphical representation of the dispersion relation. In the absence of an applied external field, all fluctuations are damped...

Thomas, Katherine Ruth

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

359

UFO: A Resilient Layered Routing Architecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom has held that routing protocols cannot achieve both scalability and high availability. Despite scaling relatively well, today’s Internet routing system does not react quickly to changing network conditions (e.g., link failures or excessive congestion). Overlay networks, on the other hand, can respond quickly to changing network conditions, but their reliance on aggressive probing does not scale to large topologies. The paper presents a layered routing architecture called UFO (Underlay Fused with Overlays), which achieves the best of both worlds by having the “underlay” provide explicit notification about network conditions to help improve the efficiency and scalability of routing overlays.

Yaping Zhu; Andy Bavier; Nick Feamster; Sampath Rangarajan; Jennifer Rexford

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results  

SciTech Connect

The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan to look more closely at Vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2-8(H2O)] and Siderite [FeCO3] in the next stage of the project.

Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The minisodar and planetary boundary layer studies  

SciTech Connect

The minisodar, in addition to being smaller than conventional sodar, operates at higher frequencies, obtains usable signal returns closer to the surface, and can use smaller range gates. Because the max range is generally limited to the lower 200 m above the surface, the minisodar is not able to interrogate the entire daytime atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL); however it can be a very useful tool for understanding the PBL. In concert with other instruments, the minisodar can add significant new insights to our understanding of the PBL. This paper gives examples of past and potential uses of minisodars in such situations.

Coulter, R.L.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

The Green Production of Hybrid Poly(lactide) / Layered ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Green Production of Hybrid Poly(lactide) / Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposites. ED McCarthy, JW Gilman, P ...

363

Observed physical processes in mechanical tests of PBX9501 and recomendations for experiments to explore a possible plasticity/damage threshold  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This memo discusses observations that have been made in regards to a series of monotonic and cyclic uniaxial experiments performed on PBX9501 by Darla Thompson under Enhanced Surveilance Campaign support. These observations discussed in Section Cyclic compression observations strongly suggest the presence of viscoelastic, plastic, and damage phenomena in the mechanical response of the material. In Secton Uniaxial data analysis and observations methods are discussed for separating out the viscoelastic effects. A crude application of those methods suggests the possibility of a critical stress below which plasticity and damage may be negligible. The threshold should be explored because if it exists it will be an important feature of any constitutive model. Additionally, if the threshold exists then modifications of experimental methods may be feasible which could potentially simplify future experiments or provide higher quality data from those experiments. A set of experiments to explore the threshold stress are proposed in Section Exploratory tests program for identifying threshold stress.

Buechler, Miles A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

364

Vertical Mixing and Transports through a Stratified Shear Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stratified shear layer was generated in the laboratory by driving a turbulent mixed layer of depth D over a quiescent, deep dense layer. As a result, a density interface of thickness ?b across which the buoyancy jump is ?b was formed between ...

E. J. Strang; H. J. S. Fernando

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Wind-Driven Mixing below the Oceanic Mixed Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study describes the turbulent processes in the upper ocean boundary layer forced by a constant surface stress in the absence of the Coriolis force using large-eddy simulation. The boundary layer that develops has a two-layer structure, a well-...

Alan L. M. Grant; Stephen E. Belcher

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Model of Trace Gas Flux in Boundary Layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mathematical model of the turbulent flux in the three-layer boundary system is presented. Turbulence is described as a presence of the nonzero vorticity. Generalized advection-diffusion-reaction equation is derived for arbitrary number components in the flux. The fluxes in the layers are objects for matching requirements on the boundaries between the layers.

I. I. Vasenev; I. S. Nurgaliev

2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

367

LYSINE, METHIONINE AND CYSTINE REQUIREMENTS OF SEMI-HEAVY LAYERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LYSINE, METHIONINE AND CYSTINE REQUIREMENTS OF SEMI-HEAVY LAYERS M. PICARD S. BERTRAND J. SALVERT Service zootechnique, A. E. C., 03600 Commentry Two different strains of commercial semi-heavy layers of lysine. This trial confirms our previous works. A semi-heavy layer is largely satisfied by a feed

Recanati, Catherine

368

Influence of sedimentary layering on tsunami generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present article is devoted to the influence of sediment layers on the process of tsunami generation. The main scope here is to demonstrate and especially quantify the effect of sedimentation on seabed vertical displacements due to an underwater earthquake. The fault is modelled as a Volterra-type dislocation in an elastic half-space. The elastodynamics equations are integrated with a finite element method. A comparison between two cases is performed. The first one corresponds to the classical situation of an elastic homogeneous and isotropic half-space, which is traditionally used for the generation of tsunamis. The second test case takes into account the presence of a sediment layer separating the oceanic column from the hard rock. Some important differences are revealed. The results of the present study may partially explain why the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 produced such a big tsunami. More precisely, we conjecture that the wave amplitude in the generation region may have bee...

Dutykh, Denys

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Soot profiles in boundary-layer flames  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon particulate volume fractions and approximate particle size distributions are measured in a free laminar combusting boundary layer for liquid hydrocarbon fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, toluene) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). A multiwavelength laser transmission technique determines a most probable radius and the total particle concentration, which are two parameters in an assumed form for the size distribution. In the combusting boundary layer, a sooting region exists between the pyrolyzing fuel surface and the flame zone. The liquid fuel soot volume fractions, f/sub v/, range from f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for n-heptane, a paraffin, to f/sub v approx. 10/sup -5/ for toluene, an aromatic. The PMMA volume fractions, f/sub v/ approx. 5 X 10/sup -7/, are approximately the same as the values previously reported for pool fires. The soot volume fractions increase with height; convection of carbon particles downstream widens the soot region with height. For all fuels tested, the most probable radius is between 20 nm and 50 nm, and it changes only slightly with height and distance from the fuel surface.

Beier, R.A.; Pagni, P.J.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Crystallographic Etching of Few-Layer Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a method by which few-layer graphene samples can be etched along crystallographic axes by thermally activated metallic nanoparticles. The technique results in long (>1 µm) crystallographic edges etched through to the insulating substrate, making the process potentially useful for atomically precise graphene device fabrication. This advance could enable atomically precise construction of integrated circuits from single graphene sheets with a wide range of technological applications. Due to its remarkable electronic properties, few layer graphene is emerging as a promising new material for use in a vast array of postsilicon nanoelectronic devices incorporating quantum size effects. 1,2 Of particular interest would be the construction of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons, in which charge carriers are confined in the lateral dimension whereby the electronic properties are controlled by the width and specific crystallographic orientation of the ribbon. 3?14 Such structures hold enormous promise as nanoscale devices similar to those recently developed using carbon nanotubes 2,11,15 with the added advantage that graphenes two-dimensionality lends itself to existing device architectures based on planar geometries. However, these structures have so far been impossible to achieve because of the rough noncrystalline edges of the graphene that result from current state-of-the-art nanolithography techniques. 2,16,17 These rough edges

Sujit S. Datta; Douglas R. Strachan; Samuel M. Khamis; A. T. Charlie Johnson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The Impact on Simulated Storm Structure and Intensity of Variations in the Mixed Layer and Moist Layer Depths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivities of convective storm structure and intensity to variations in the depths of the prestorm mixed layer, represented here by the environmental lifted condensation level (LCL), and moist layer, represented by the level of free ...

Eugene W. McCaul Jr.; Charles Cohen

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Layer-by-layer assembled carbon nanotube nanostructures for high-power and high-energy lithium storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic assembly technique is utilized to incorporate positively- and negatively-charged electroactive species in self-assembled electrodes that are binder- and additive- free. This work first ...

Gallant, Betar M. (Betar Maurkah)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Seasonal Simulations of the Planetary Boundary Layer and Boundary-Layer Stratocumulus Clouds with a General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The UCLA general circulation model (GCM) has been used to simulate the seasonally varying planetary boundary layer (PBL), as well as boundary-layer stratus and stratocumulus clouds. The PBL depth is a prognostic variable of the GCM, incorporated ...

David A. Randall; James A. Abeles; Thomas G. Corsetti

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Hadron Physics at the Charm and Bottom Thresholds and Other Novel QCD Physics Topics at the NICA Accelerator Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NICA collider project at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna will have the capability of colliding protons, polarized deuterons, and nuclei at an effective nucleon-nucleon center-of mass energy in the range {radical}s{sub NN} = 4 to 11 GeV. I briefly survey a number of novel hadron physics processes which can be investigated at the NICA collider. The topics include the formation of exotic heavy quark resonances near the charm and bottom thresholds, intrinsic strangeness, charm, and bottom phenomena, hidden-color degrees of freedom in nuclei, color transparency, single-spin asymmetries, the RHIC baryon anomaly, and non-universal antishadowing.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

Next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order soft-gluon corrections in hard-scattering processes near threshold  

SciTech Connect

I present a unified calculation of soft-gluon corrections to hard-scattering cross sections through next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (NNNLO). Master formulas are derived, from a threshold resummation formalism, that can be applied to total and differential cross sections for hard-scattering processes in hadron colliders. I also present numerical results for charged Higgs production at the LHC where these corrections are large, and for top quark production at the Tevatron where these corrections greatly reduce the scale dependence of the cross section.

Kidonakis, Nikolaos [Kennesaw State University, Physics 1202 1000 Chastain Road, Kennesaw, Georgia 30144-5591 (United States)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Fabrication of Ceramic Layer-by-Layer Infrared Wavelength Photonic Band Gap Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Photonic band gap (PBG) crystals, also known as photonic crystals, are periodic dielectric structures which form a photonic band gap that prohibit the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves of certain frequencies at any incident angles. Photonic crystals have several potential applications including zero-threshold semiconductor lasers, the inhibition of spontaneous emission, dielectric mirrors, and wavelength filters. If defect states are introduced in the crystals, light can be guided from one location to another or even a sharp bending of light in micron scale can be achieved. This generates the potential for optical waveguide and optical circuits, which will contribute to the improvement in the fiber-optic communications and the development of high-speed computers.

Henry Hao-Chuan Kang

2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

377

Similarity Equations for Wind and Temperature Profiles in the Radix Layer, at the Bottom of the Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the middle of the convective boundary layer, also known as the mixed layer, is a relatively thick region where wind speed and potential temperature are nearly uniform with height. Below this uniform layer (UL), wind speed decreases to zero at ...

Edi Santoso; Roland Stull

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Redox Active Layer-by-Layer Structures containing MnO2 Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoscale materials provide unique properties that will enable new technologies and enhance older ones. One area of intense activity in which nanoscale materials are being used is in the development of new functional materials for battery applications. This effort promises superior materials with properties that circumvent many of the problems associated with traditional battery materials. Previously we have worked on several approaches for using nanoscale materials for application as cathode materials in rechargeable Li batteries. Our recent work has focused on synthesizing MnO2 nanoparticles and using these in layer-by-layer (LbL) structures to probe the redox properties of the nanoparticles. We show that the aqueous colloidal nanoparticles produced by butanol reduction of tetramethylammonium permanganate can be trapped in thin films using a layer-by-layer deposition approach, and that these films are both redox active and exhibit kinetically facile electrochemical responses. We show cyclic voltammetry of MnO2 colloidal nanoparticles entrapped in a LbL thin film at an ITO electrode surface using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). CV experiments demonstrate that Li+ insertion accompanies Mn(IV) reduction in LiClO4 supporting electrolytes, and that reduction is hindered in supporting electrolytes containing only tetrabutylammonium cations. We also show that electron propagation through multilayer films is facile, suggesting that electrons percolate through the films via electron exchange between nanoparticles.

Bazito, Fernanda; O'Brien, Robert; Buttry, Daniel A.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

ARM - Field Campaign - Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsLower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment govCampaignsLower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment Campaign Links LABLE Website Related Campaigns 2013 Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment 2013.05.28, Turner, SGP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment 2012.09.17 - 2012.11.13 Lead Scientist : David Turner Description Boundary layer turbulence is an important process that is parameterized in most atmospheric numerical models. Turbulence redistributes energy and mass within the boundary layer. Many different characteristics can impact the character of turbulence in the boundary layer, including different surface types, horizontal wind speed and direction, and the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere. However, there have been few studies that have

380

Porosimetric study of catalyst layer of polymer electrolyte fuel cells.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The porosimetry of the catalyst layer made by the 'decal process' was studied using mercury porosirnetry. The comparison of the porosimetric profiles between the carbon powder and the catalyst supported on carbon suggests that the loading of the catalyst onto the Vulcan XC-72 carbon changes the porosimetry of the catalyst/carbon. The porosimetry of the catalyst layer depends on the catalyst used and the Nafion content. Boiling the catalyst layer effectively increases the pore area and the porosity of the catalyst layer. The correlation of porosimetric data with performance of catalyst layers suggests that the Nafion content in catalyst layers plays a vital role on the structure of catalyst layer such as pore size and pore distribution and further influences the performance of PE:FC.

Xie, J. (Jian); Wilson, K. V. (Kennard V.); Zawodzinski, T. A. (Thomas A.), Jr.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Combining multi-layered bitmap files using network specific hardware  

SciTech Connect

Images and video can be produced by compositing or alpha blending a group of image layers or video layers. Increasing resolution or the number of layers results in increased computational demands. As such, the available computational resources limit the images and videos that can be produced. A computational architecture in which the image layers are packetized and streamed through processors can be easily scaled so to handle many image layers and high resolutions. The image layers are packetized to produce packet streams. The packets in the streams are received, placed in queues, and processed. For alpha blending, ingress queues receive the packetized image layers which are then z sorted and sent to egress queues. The egress queue packets are alpha blended to produce an output image or video.

DuBois, David H. (Los Alamos, NM); DuBois, Andrew J. (Santa Fe, NM); Davenport, Carolyn Connor (Los Alamos, NM)

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

382

Near-threshold production of a0(980) mesons in the reaction pp -> d K^+ \\bar{K}^0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using an effective Lagrangian approach as well as the Quark-Gluon Strings Model we analyze near-threshold production of a0(980)-mesons in the reaction NN -> d K \\bar{K} as well as the background of non-resonant K\\bar{K}-pair production. We argue that the reaction pp -> d K^+ \\bar{K}^0 at an energy release Qproduction of the a0(980)-resonance. At larger energies the non-resonant K^+\\bar{K}^0-pair production - where the kaons are produced in a relative P-wave - becomes important. Then effects of final-state interactions are evaluated in a unitarized scattering-length approach and found to be in the order of a 20% suppression close to threshold. Thus in present experiments at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY-J\\"ulich for Q<=107 MeV the a_0^+ signal can reliably be separated from the non-resonant K^+\\bar{K^0} background.

V. Yu. Grishina; L. A. Kondratyuk; M. Buescher; W. Cassing

2004-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

383

Dressed-bound-state molecular strong-field approximation: Application to above-threshold ionization of heteronuclear diatomic molecules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The molecular strong-field approximation (MSFA), which includes dressing of the molecular bound state, is introduced and applied to above-threshold ionization of heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Expressions for the laser-induced molecular dipole and polarizability as functions of the laser parameters (intensity and frequency) and molecular parameters [molecular orientation, dipole, and parallel and perpendicular polarizabilities of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)] are presented. Our previous MSFA theory, which incorporates the rescattering effects, is generalized from homonuclear to heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Angle- and energy-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization spectra of oriented heteronuclear diatomic molecules, exemplified by the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule, exhibit pronounced minima, which can be related to the shape of their HOMO-electron-density distribution. For the CO molecule we have found an analytical condition for the positions of these minima. We have also shown that the effect of the dressing of the HOMO is twofold: (i) the laser-induced Stark shift decreases the ionization yield and (ii) the laser-induced time-dependent dipole and polarizability change the oscillatory structure of the spectra.

Hasovic, E. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, BA-71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, DE-12489 Berlin (Germany); Busuladzic, M. [Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Cekalusa 90, BA-71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Becker, W. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, DE-12489 Berlin (Germany); Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, BA-71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, DE-12489 Berlin (Germany); Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bistrik 7, BA-71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Sediment quality thresholds: Estimates from hockey stick regression of liver lesion prevalence in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comprehensive, integrative assessments of coastal sediment quality are best effected by using large, diverse data sets that include measures of biological dysfunction observed in association with chronic exposure to sediment contaminants. Under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s National Status and Trends Program, the National Benthic Surveillance Project accumulated a database of synoptic sediment contaminant concentrations and indices of biological effects that were measured in indigenous animals collected during field surveys conducted from 1984 to 1994. This compilation of data provided the opportunity to develop a new approach for determining sediment quality criteria to add to the current repertoire of environmental assessment tools. Using a two-segment hockey stick regression, statistically significant chemical thresholds of biological effects were estimated for hepatic lesion prevalences in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus, formerly Parophrys vetulus) in relation to sediment concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These threshold estimates are notably lower than many of those reported for other techniques. Application of this relatively simple dose-response model to subacute, chronic effects that are involved in pepatocarcinogenesis and associated with sediment toxicant content (1) reflects the link between toxicopathic disease progression and conditions observed in benthic fish exposed to contaminants and (2) provides endpoints for assessing sediment quality contaminant concentrations that are not necessarily acutely fatal but may have long-term health implications for populations that are chronically exposed.

Horness, B.H.; Lomax, D.P.; Johnson, L.L.; Myers, M.S.; Pierce, S.M.; Collier, T.K. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers  

SciTech Connect

Under sub-freezing conditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) drastically reducing cell performance. Although a number of strategies exist to prevent ice formation, there is little fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of freezing within PEMFC components. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to elucidate the effects of hydrophobicity (Teflon® loading) and water saturation on the rate of ice formation within three commercial GDLs. We find that as the Teflon® loading increases, the crystallization temperature decreases due to a change in internal ice/substrate contact angle, as well as the attainable level of water saturation. Classical nucleation theory predicts the correct trend in freezing temperature with Teflon® loading.

Dursch, Thomas; Radke, Clayton J.; Weber, Adam Z.

2010-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

386

Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL); Kahaian, Arthur J. (Chicago, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

An application reference model for layered manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

The Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) Test Case 6 project (Rapid Product Development) was set up to demonstrate rapid product development and 3D measurement techniques where the agencies performing the work were distributed over different countries. Test Case 6 provided a unique opportunity to examine the process by which an application protocol (AP) of the Standard for Exchange of Product Data is prepared. The test case had a well defined scope, the production of simple parts by means of layered manufacturing techniques. The information concerned with this manufacture was similarly well defined, due to the requirement that the information be transmitted among the organizations participating in the test case. STEP is an international standard specifying the data content and format for storage and exchange of product data throughout the product`s life cycle. STEP has been under development since 1984 and is just now emerging as an International Standard. STEP is specified as a series of information models using the EXPRESS computer language. For purposes of data exchange, a mapping to a physical file format is specified. Informally, product data can be defined as all the data about a product which one might wish to save. This definition implies some variation in the amount of data to be saved in any one instance. In the case of Test Case 6, one would certainly wish to save the IGES files describing the part. One may or may not wish to save the manufacturing parameters. While there are many parts of STEP with different purposes, the important series of parts for the purposes of standardizing product data are those dealing with application protocols. An application protocol specifies the details of product data within the context of a single application (in this case, layered manufacturing). Other APs deal with such subjects as configuration-managed solid parts and associated drafting.

Kennicott, P.R.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Hydrogen Diffusion through Multiple Packaging Layers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For this scenario, hydrogen is generated in a container that is eventually stored within a drum or some type of long range storage container. When preparing for long-term storage, the hydrogen container (HC) is placed in a plastic bag (PB1). The PB1 is then placed inside an inner drum (ID). The ID is placed inside a plastic bag (PB2) which is then placed within an outer drum (OD). One or more ODs are then storage is a large container (LC). Filtered vents or vent holes are located on all the container barriers to prevent pressurization and allow gases to flow in and out of the HC. The LC is vented to the atmosphere with four vent paths for this example. The source of hydrogen generation for this study is not important. Any source that generates hydrogen in elemental form (i.e., H{sub 2}) is a candidate for the purposes of this generic evaluation. The released hydrogen accumulates inside the waste packaging. Depending on the permeability of the packaging layers, some of the accumulated hydrogen may diffuse out of the packaging layers and into the space surrounding the drums. Since the drums are confined in the LC, the hydrogen accumulates in the LC as it did inside the drums if venting of the LC does not occur. If accumulation in the LC is allowed without venting, the confinement is eventually breached or the hydrogen is consumed by reaction with other chemical species. One possible reaction is combustion with oxygen. Such a reaction can be explosive, and from this possibility arises the safety concern.

McAllister, J.; Mohiuddin, A.

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

389

The crosswell electromagnetic response of layered media  

SciTech Connect

Crosswell electromagnetic measurements are a promising new geophysical technique for mapping subsurface electrical conductivity which can provide information about the subsurface distribution of water, oil or steam. In this work the fields from a low frequency vertical magnetic dipole have been examined from the specific point of view of their application to the determination of the conductivity of a layered medium. The source and the receiver were placed inside two separate boreholes. The range of penetration of such a crosswell system for typical earth resistivities and for currently available transmitter and receiver technologies was found to be up to 1,000 meters so problems in ground water and petroleum reservoir characteristics can be practically examined. An analysis of the behavior of the magnetic fields at the boundary between two half-spaces showed that the horizontal magnetic field component, H{rho}, and the vertical derivative of a vertical component, {delta}H{sub z}/{delta}z, are more sensitive to conductivity variations than H{sub z}. The analysis of derivatives led to the concept of measuring the conductivity directly using a second vertical derivative of H{sub z}. Conductivity profiles interpreted from field data using this technique reproduced accurately the electrical logs for a test site near Devine, Texas. It was found in this study that the inversion techniques are more stable when the first vertical derivative of H{sub z} is used rather than H{sub z} itself. Using data from a salt water injection experiment at the Richmond Field test site in Berkeley it was also found that these robust layer inversions were successful in identifying the preferential flow direction of the injected brine to four boreholes surrounding the injection well.

Deszcz-Pan, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Low-frequency linear-mode regimes in the tokamak scrape-off layer  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by the wide range of physical parameters characterizing the scrape-off layer (SOL) of existing tokamaks, the regimes of low-frequency linear instabilities in the SOL are identified by numerical and analytical calculations based on the linear, drift-reduced Braginskii equations, with cold ions. The focus is put on ballooning modes and drift wave instabilities, i.e., their resistive, inertial, and ideal branches. A systematic study of each instability is performed, and the parameter space region where they dominate is identified. It is found that the drift waves dominate at high R/L{sub n}, while the ballooning modes at low R/L{sub n}; the relative influence of resistive and inertial effects is discussed. Electromagnetic effects suppress the drift waves and, when the threshold for ideal stability is overcome, the ideal ballooning mode develops. Our analysis is a first stage tool for the understanding of turbulence in the tokamak SOL, necessary to interpret the results of non-linear simulations.

Mosetto, Annamaria; Halpern, Federico D.; Jolliet, Sebastien; Ricci, Paolo [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Effects of Membrane- and Catalyst-layer-thickness Nonuniformities in Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thicknesses for the membrane and catalyst layer. Figure 2.of dry membrane (a) and catalyst-layer (b) thickness (andhollow symbols) and catalyst-layer (filled symbols)

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Development, Kinetic Analysis and Applications of 2-D Nanostructured Layered Metal Hydroxides.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Nanodimensional layered metal hydroxides which include layered hydroxy salts (LHSs) and hydroxy double salts (HDSs) have the ability to accommodate species between the layers. The… (more)

Majoni, Stephen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Free Energy Relationships in the Electrical Double Layer over Single-Layer Graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid/solid interfaces containing singlelayer graphene are important in the areas of chemistry, physics, biology, and materials science, yet this environment is difficult to access with experimental methods, especially under flow conditions and in a label-free manner. Herein, we demonstrate the use of second harmonic generation to quantify the interfacial free energy at the fused silica/single-layer graphene/water interface at pH 7 and under conditions of flowing aqueous electrolyte solutions ranging in NaCl concentrations from 10 4 to 10 1 M. Our analysis reveals that single-layer graphene reduces the interfacial free energy density of the fused silica/water interface by a factor of up to 7, which is substantial given that many interfacial processes, including those that are electrochemical in nature, are exponentially sensitive to interfacial free energy density.

Achtyl, Jennifer L. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Vlassiouk, Ivan V [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Geiger, Franz M. [Northwestern University, Evanston

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Ordered Layered Organic-Inorganic of 4-Chlorophenoxyacetate-Zinc Layered Hydroxide Nanohybrid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ordered layered organic-inorganic nanostructure composed of zinc layered hydroxide-4-chlorophenoxy acetate (ZLH-4CPA) was prepared by reaction of an organic anion, 4-chlorophenoxy acetate (4CPA) with ZnO under aqueous environment. The concentration of 4CPA was found to be a controlling factor in determining the formation of phase pure, well ordered nanolayered hybrid material. At lower concentration of 4CPA (0.05 M), a mixed phase was observed in which ZnO co-existed with the nanohybrid. At 0.01 M, a pure phase is obtained with high crystallinity but a well ordered nanolayered structure is lacking. A pure phase, well ordered nanolayered hybrid can be clearly observed at 0.2 M 4CPA. ZnO shows well defined grain structure of various sizes at nanometer scale range. Direct reaction between ZnO and 4CPA under aqueous environment resulted in the formation of 4CPA-ZLH nanohybrid with flake-like fibrous structure. On heating at 500 deg. C for 5 h under atmospheric condition, the nanohybrid was transformed back to well defined grain structure, as previously observed for the starting materials, ZnO. This shows that the nanohybrid has ''memory effect'' property. Well ordered nanolayered hybrid with up to 5 harmonics, from which the average basal spacing of 19.03 A of the material was deduced, showing long range order of the layer packing.

Hussein, Mohd Zobir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Nazarudin, Nor Farhana binti [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sarijo, Siti Halimah [Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Yarmo, Mohd Ambar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

395

Effect of temperature on layer separation by plasma-hydrogenation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have studied hydrogen diffusion in plasma hydrogenated Si/SiGe/Si heterostructure at different temperatures. At low temperature, intrinsic point defects in the molecular beam epitaxy grown Si capping layer are found to compete with the buried strain SiGe layer for hydrogen trapping. The interaction of hydrogen with point defects affects the hydrogen long-range diffusion, and restricts the amount of hydrogen available for trapping by the SiGe layer. However, hydrogen trapping by the capping layer is attenuated with increasing hydrogenation temperature allowing more hydrogen to be trapped in the strain SiGe layer with subsequent surface blister formation. A potential temperature window for plasma hydrogenation induced layer separation is identified based on the combined considerations of trap-limited diffusion at low temperature and outdiffusion of H{sub 2} molecule together with the dissociation of Si-H bonds inside of H platelet at high temperature.

Di, Zengfeng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michael, Nastasi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Threshold levels for toxic effects of sediment-associated PAHs on marine biota from urban and nonurban embayments of the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Conservation Division of the National Marine Fisheries Service has been conducting studies investigating the effects of marine pollution on the health of benthic fish since 1979. A large amount of data relating biological effects to exposure to sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exists as a result of the many field and laboratory studies conducted since this time. These effects include the presence of hepatic lesions, high biliary levels of PAH metabolites, elevated activity of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and include the presence of hepatic lesions, high biliary levels of PAH metabolites, elevated activity of hepatic xenobotic metabolizing enzymes and impaired reproductive success. A comprehensive analysis of these data was undertaken in an effort to estimate thresholds for concentrations of PAHs in sediment below which the effects previously describe did not occur. Our primary objectives were to determine: (1) at what levels of chemical contamination are thresholds observed for those species examined and (2) how our findings compare with the sediment quality standards of other agencies. Thresholds were determined with the Hockey Stick regression model. Our results show that most effects exhibit thresholds at 500-1000 ng/g, with slight variances among species due to differences in sensitivity. These values are considerably lower than standards derived from the Apparent Effects Threshold and other similar methods used for evaluating sediment toxicity. This approach yields significant insight into the impact of low level contamination and may provide a useful alternative for evaluating sediment quality within urban areas.

Lomax, D.P.; Horness, B.H.; Johnson, L.L.; Landahl, J.T.; Varanasi, U. (Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA (United States))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Methods for making thin layers of crystalline materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for making growth templates for the epitaxial growth of compound semiconductors and other materials are provided. The growth templates are thin layers of single-crystalline materials that are themselves grown epitaxially on a substrate that includes a thin layer of sacrificial material. The thin layer of sacrificial material, which creates a coherent strain in the single-crystalline material as it is grown thereon, includes one or more suspended sections and one or more supported sections.

Lagally, Max G; Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Tanto, Boy

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

398

Corrosion protected, multi-layer fuel cell interface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. The multi-layer configuration for the interface comprises a non-cupreous metal-coated metallic element to which is film-bonded a conductive layer by hot pressing a resin therebetween. The multi-layer arrangement provides bridging electrical contact.

Feigenbaum, Haim (Ramat Ilan, IL); Pudick, Sheldon (Sayreville, NJ); Wang, Chiu L. (Edison, NJ)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Free-standing luminescent layers of porous silicon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Free-standing layers of porous silicon with a thickness ranging from 50 to 200 {mu}m have been fabricated using an electrolyte composed of HF and acetic acid. Chemical aspects of the etching process associated with the evolution of gases that favor detachment of layers from substrates are considered. The layers exhibit stable photoluminescence in the visible spectral region observed from both of their sides.

Goryachev, D. N., E-mail: Dmitri.Goryachev@mail.ioffe.ru; Belyakov, L. V.; Sreseli, O. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Encapsulation methods and dielectric layers for organic electrical devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers and dielectric layers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device with a dielectric layer comprising alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

Blum, Yigal D; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijan

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

Wang, Qingwu (Chelmsford, MA); Li, Wenguang (Andover, MA); Jiang, Hua (Methuen, MA)

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

402

Surface Properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The wetting properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs) were quantified by surface characterization measurements and modeling of material properties. Single-fiber contact-angle and surface energy (both Zisman and Owens-Wendt) data of a wide spectrum of GDL types is presented to delineate the effects of hydrophobic post-processing treatments. Modeling of the basic sessile-drop contact angle demonstrates that this value only gives a fraction of the total picture of interfacial wetting physics. Polar forces are shown to contribute 10-20 less than dispersive forces to the composite wetting of GDLs. Internal water contact angles obtained from Owens-Wendt analysis were measured at 13-19 higher than their single-fiber counterparts. An inverse relationship was found between internal contact angle and both Owens-Wendt surface energy and % polarity of the GDL. The most sophisticated PEMFC mathematical models use either experimentally measured capillary pressures or the standard Young-Laplace capillary-pressure equation. Based on the results of the Owens-Wendt analysis, an advancement to the Young-Laplace equation is proposed for use in these mathematical models, which utilizes only solid surface energies and fractional surface coverage of fluoropolymer. Capillary constants for the spectrum of analyzed GDLs are presented for the same purpose.

WoodIII, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rulison, Christopher [Augustine Scientific; Borup, Rodney [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

The multi layered approach for AGM separators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present absorbent glass mat separate is an offspring of the filtration medium and special paper industries. In these industries, the traditional method of manufacturing micro-glass mats, was to blend two or more types of fibers together in an aqueous acidic solution and deposit this blend onto a moving endless wire or onto a roto-former, another version of an endless wire. The sheet acquires consistency as the water is withdrawn, it is then pressed and dried against heated drums. The methods of fiber dispersion and deposition can be changed so that the different constituent fiber types of an AGM separator are processed separately in distinct and separate layers. This fiber segregation results in changes to some key characteristics of the separator and brings some very definite advantages to the VRLA battery performance. Various key characteristics of the battery are enhanced, such as its ability to deliver higher currents at the higher discharge rates. This paper sets out some basic principles for the manufacturer of wet laid microglass fiber mats. Also important AGM characteristics, such as wicking, porosity/pore size and stratification are analyzed in light of the multilayered AGM design. These characteristics are radically modified and as a consequence the VRLA battery high rate and cycling performances are equally affected.

Ferreira, A.L. [AMER-SIL S.A., Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Scrape-off layer tokamak plasma turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-dimensional (2D) interchange turbulence in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas and their subsequent contribution to anomalous plasma transport has been studied in recent years using electron continuity, current balance, and electron energy equations. In this paper, numerically it is demonstrated that the inclusion of ion energy equation in the simulation changes the nature of plasma turbulence. Finite ion temperature reduces floating potential by about 15% compared with the cold ion temperature approximation and also reduces the radial electric field. Rotation of plasma blobs at an angular velocity about 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} rad/s has been observed. It is found that blob rotation keeps plasma blob charge separation at an angular position with respect to the vertical direction that gives a generation of radial electric field. Plasma blobs with high electron temperature gradients can align the charge separation almost in the radial direction. Influence of high ion temperature and its gradient has been presented.

Bisai, N.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Near-threshold absolute angle-differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of argon and xenon  

SciTech Connect

Absolute angle-differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of argon and xenon atoms to the lowest four np{sup 5}(n+1)s levels, and the 5p{sup 5}5d[7/2]{sub 3} level in xenon, have been measured and calculated as a function of electron energy up to a few eV above threshold at a fixed scattering angle of 135 degree sign . For argon, very good agreement is observed between the experimental data and predictions from a Breit-Pauli B-spline R-matrix (BSR) method, in which nonorthogonal orbital sets are used to optimize the target description. The agreement is still satisfactory for the more complex xenon target, suggesting that predictions from the BSR model should already be sufficiently accurate for many modeling applications. Nevertheless, the remaining discrepancies indicate the need for further refinement of the theoretical model.

Allan, M.; Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, Fribourg (Switzerland); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States)

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d {sup 1}F{sup o} autoionizing state in magnesium  

SciTech Connect

Two-photon above-threshold ionization (ATI) relative cross sections from the 3 {sup 1}P state of Mg have been measured using two-color ionization in the focus of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and have been calculated using the Green's-function method in the Feshbach formalism and an L{sup 2}-integrable close-coupling approach, with a basis of L{sup 2}-integrable B-spline functions. We report these cross sections in the region of 3d4p {sup 1}F{sup o} autoionizing state, with photon energies of 3.3-3.6 eV. This is one of the few direct comparisons between ab initio theory and experiments in ATI in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found in the relative total cross sections.

Reber, A.; Baynard, T.; Berry, R.S. [Department of Chemistry and The James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Martin, F. [Departamento de Quimica C-9, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bachau, H. [Centre des Lasers Intenses et Applications, UMR 5107 du CNRS-CEA-Universite de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, F-33405 Talence (France)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Electrodeposition of biaxially textured layers on a substrate ...  

Methods of producing one or more biaxially textured layer on a substrate, and articles produced by the methods, are disclosed. An exemplary method may ...

408

Battery Electrode Materials Based on Layered Sodium Titanates  

Berkeley Lab researcher Marca Doeff and colleagues have developed a new electrode material based on a layered sodium titanate compound that can be ...

409

A Rate Equation for the Nocturnal Boundary-Layer Height  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rate equation is derived which describes the development of the boundary-layer height under stable conditions as a function of time.

F. T. M. Nieuwstadt; H. Tennekes

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Boundary Layer Flame Spread over PMMA within the Initial ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... INTRODUCTION Boundary layer-type flames are prevalent in wall fires, ceiling fires, and wind-driven fires on flat surfaces such as floors and roofs. ...

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

411

Few-Layer Graphene as a Dry Lubricant  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

graphene layer is providing protection from high wear and steel corrosion. Scanning electron microscope image of as deposited graphene flakes (a) and Raman spectrum of one of...

412

ELLIPSOMETRY OF SURFACE LAYERS ON LEAD AND LITHIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface Layers on Lead and Lithium By Richard Dudley Peterssulfuric acid and and lithium to water, Acid concentrationsbeen observed in the reaction of lithium with water vapor. i

Peters, Richard Dudley

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Secular Instability and Planetesimal Formation in the Dust Layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Late in the gaseous phase of a protostellar disk, centimeter-sized bodies probably settle into a thin ``dust layer'' at the midplane. A velocity difference between the dust layer and the gas gives rise to turbulence, which prevents further settling and direct gravitational instability of the layer. The associated drag on the surface of the layer causes orbital decay in a few thousand years---as opposed to a few hundred years for an isolated meter-sized body. Within this widely-accepted theoretical framework, we show that the turbulent drag causes radial instabilities even if the selfgravity of the layer is negligible. We formulate axisymmetric, height-integrated dynamical equations for the layer that incorporate turbulent diffusion of mass and momentum in radius and height, vertical settling, selfgravity, and resistance to compression due to gas entrained within the dust layer. In steady-state, the equations describe the inward radial drift of a uniform dust layer. In perturbation, overdense rings form on an orbital timescale with widths comparable to the dust-layer thickness. Selfgravity is almost irrelevant to the linear growth rate but will eventually fragment and collapse the rings into planetesimals larger than a kilometer. We estimate that the drag instability is most efficient at 1 AU when most of the ``dust'' mass lies in the size range 0.1-10 meters.

J. Goodman; B. Pindor

1999-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

414

Two Graphene Layers May Be Better Than One  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two Graphene Layers May Be Better Than One. From NIST Tech Beat: April 26, 2011. ... Microscopic polarization in bilayer graphene. Nature Physics. ...

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

415

Method of Rapidly Screening Buffer Layers in Photovoltaics  

ORNL 2010-G0647/jcn UT-B ID 200902275 Method of Rapidly Screening Buffer Layers in Photovoltaics Technology Summary This ORNL invention offers a new method to ...

416

An Analytical Study Of A 2-Layer Transient Thermal Conduction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

more complicated two-layer problem that can be computed using inexpensive personal computers and spreadsheet software. The most demanding mathematical requirement is the ability...

417

A Parameter Study of Interactions Between Convective Clouds, the Convective Boundary Layer, and a Forested Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical model was developed which included cloud parameterizations, a convective boundary layer, solar and longwave radiation, a soil layer and a parameterized forest layer. The model simulated the growth of the convective boundary layer and ...

Alfred J. Garrett

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

The Role of Finite Mixed-Layer Thickness in the Structure of the Ventilated Thermocline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model of the ventilated thermocline consisting of three adiabatic layers surmounted by a mixed layer of finite thickness is presented. The mixed-layer depth density increase continuously northward, and these attributes of the mixed layer are ...

Joseph Pedlosky; Paul Robbins

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Improved current saturation and shifted switching threshold voltage in In2O3 nanowire based, fully transparent NMOS inverters via femtosecond laser annealing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transistors based on various types of non-silicon nanowires have shown great potential for a variety of applications, especially for those require transparency and low-temperature substrates. However, critical requirements for circuit functionality such as saturated source-drain current, and matched threshold voltages of individual nanowire transistors in a way that is compatible with low temperature substrates, have not been achieved. Here we show that femtosecond laser pulses can anneal individual transistors based on In2O3 nanowires, improve the saturation of the source-drain current, and permanently shift the threshold voltage to the positive direction. We applied this technique and successfully shifted the switching threshold voltages of NMOS based inverters and improved their noise margin, in both depletion and enhancement modes. Our demonstration provides a method to trim the parameters of individual nanowire transistors, and suggests potential for large-scale integration of nanowire-based circuit bloc...

Lee, Chunghun; Srisungsitthisunti, Pornsak; Kim, Seongmin; Zhou, Chongwu; Janes, David B; Xu, Xianfan; Roy, Kaushik; Ju, Sanghyun; Qi, Minghao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Photovoltaic Cell Having A P-Type Polycrystalline Layer With Large Crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic cell has an n-type polycrystalline layer and a p-type polycrystalline layer adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer to form a photovoltaic junction. The p-type polycrystalline layer comprises a substantially planar layer portion having relatively large crystals adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer. The planar layer portion includes oxidized impurities which contribute to obtainment of p-type electrical properties in the planar layer portion.

Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX)

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

CNST-led Team Calculates the Role of Buried Layers in Few ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CNST-led Team Calculates the Role of Buried Layers in Few-Layer Epitaxial Graphene. June 8, 2011. ...

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

422

Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer  

SciTech Connect

Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David; Waldhauer, Ann

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

423

Evaluate Si Layers: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-255  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evaluate Si layers based on heteroepitaxial Si growth on RABITS textured metal substrates coated with textured buffer layers.

Teplin, C.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Photo- and electroproduction of K{sup 0{Lambda}} near threshold and effects of the K{sup 0} electromagnetic form factor  

SciTech Connect

By extending our previous isobar model to the K{sup 0{Lambda}} isospin channel, we investigate the properties of the K{sup 0{Lambda}} photo- and electroproduction at energies near threshold. It is found that the pseudovector coupling yields significantly larger cross sections. Variation of the K{sub 1} coupling constants has significant effect only on the pseudovector model. The electromagnetic form factor of the neutral kaon K{sup 0} is found to have a sizable effect on the longitudinal cross section of the K{sup 0{Lambda}} electroproduction near the threshold.

Mart, T. [Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Organic photosensitive optoelectronic device having a phenanthroline exciton blocking layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having an anode, a cathode, and an organic blocking layer between the anode and the cathode is described, wherein the blocking layer comprises a phenanthroline derivative, and at least partially blocks at least one of excitons, electrons, and holes.

Thompson, Mark E. (Anaheim Hills, CA); Li, Jian (Los Angeles, CA); Forrest, Stephen (Princeton, NJ); Rand, Barry (Princeton, NJ)

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

426

PROVISIONAL AGENDA Forum on Modeling the Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

turbulence, surface layer turbulence, surface heat and moisture representations, heterogenous sub-grid scale-0915 Coordinate System ­ Roger Pielke, Sr., Chair (generalized vertical coordinate, horizontal spatial grid (on your own) 1400-1545 Sub-Grid Scale Fluxes ­ Jon Mercurio, Chair (planetary boundary layer

427

Effects of Velocity Shear in Advective Mixed-Layer Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general multidimensional model of the upper mixed layer of oceans and lakes is presented. The density profile is approximated as uniform over the depth of the layer. Such an assumption is not made for the distribution of the horizontal velocity ...

Will P. M. de Ruijter

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Evolution of a Marine Boundary-Layer Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution profiles of temperature and wind-speed measurements were made with a tethered baloon in and above the marine boundary layer at San Nicolas Island (SNI) during a period when the cloud-free boundary layer grew from near the sea ...

H. Gerber; Simon Chang; Teddy Holt

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Multi-layer laminate structure and manufacturing method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is premised upon a multi-layer laminate structure and method of manufacture, more particularly to a method of constructing the multi-layer laminate structure utilizing a laminate frame and at least one energy activated flowable polymer.

Keenihan, James R.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Eurich, Gerald; Graham, Andrew T.; Langmaid, Joe A.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

430

Steady water waves with multiple critical layers: interior dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study small-amplitude steady water waves with multiple critical layers. Those are rotational two-dimensional gravity-waves propagating over a perfect fluid of finite depth. It is found that arbitrarily many critical layers with cat's-eye vortices are possible, with different structure at different levels within the fluid. The corresponding vorticity depends linearly on the stream function.

Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Gabriele Villari

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

431

The Shear Layer above and in Urban Canopies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nature and role of the shear layer, which occurs at the level of the average building height in urban canopies, are poorly understood. Velocity data are analyzed to determine the characteristics of the shear layer of the urban canopy, defined ...

Pablo Huq; Louis A. White; Alejandro Carrillo; Jose Redondo; Seshu Dharmavaram; Steven R. Hanna

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells comprise a plurality of first and second lattices of amorphous silicon alternatingly formed on one another. Each of the first lattices has a first optical bandgap and each of the second lattices has a second optical bandgap different from the first optical bandgap. A method of fabricating the superlattice doped layers also is disclosed.

Arya, Rajeewa R. (Doylestown, PA)

1988-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

433

Multi-layer laminate structure and manufacturing method  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is premised upon a multi-layer laminate structure and method of manufacture, more particularly to a method of constructing the multi-layer laminate structure utilizing a laminate frame and at least one energy activated flowable polymer.

Keenihan, James R. (Midland, MI); Cleereman, Robert J. (Midland, MI); Eurich, Gerald (Merrill, MI); Graham, Andrew T. (Midland, MI); Langmaid, Joe A. (Caro, MI)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

434

Electroluminescent apparatus having a structured luminescence conversion layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains color-changing and non-color-changing regions arranged in a particular pattern.

Krummacher, Benjamin Claus (Sunnyvale, CA)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

435

Stable model implementation of layer supported models by program transformation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For practical applications, the use of top-down query-driven proof-procedures is convenient for an efficient use and computation of answers using Logic Programs as knowledge bases. A 2-valued semantics for Normal Logic Programs (NLPs) allowing for top-down ... Keywords: layer supported models, layering, program transformation, relevance, stable models

Luís Moniz Pereira; Alexandre Miguel Pinto

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Deep Stable Layers in the Intermountain Western United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A deep stable layer (DSL) is a layer much deeper than a typical nocturnal inversion with stabilities not frequently found over a sizable portion of the lowest 1.5 km. They have traits that can cause the stagnation of cold air in basins, i.e., ...

Paul G. Wolyn; Thomas B. McKee

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissipative layer of silicon nitride between a silicon substrate and the active device. Free carriers generated in the substrate are dissipated by the layer before they can build up charge on the active device. 1 fig.

Myers, D.R.

1988-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

438

Time Scales of the Trade Wind Boundary Layer Adjustment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The adjustment of the trade wind atmospheric boundary layer to an abrupt sea surface warming is investigated using a large-eddy simulation (LES) and two simple bulk models: a mixed-layer model (MLM), and a model based on the mixing-line hypothesis ...

Gilles Bellon; Bjorn Stevens

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Engineering Seismic Base Layer for Defining Design Earthquake Motion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Engineer's common sense that incident wave is common in a widespread area at the engineering seismic base layer is shown not to be correct. An exhibiting example is first shown, which indicates that earthquake motion at the ground surface evaluated by the analysis considering the ground from a seismic bedrock to a ground surface simultaneously (continuous analysis) is different from the one by the analysis in which the ground is separated at the engineering seismic base layer and analyzed separately (separate analysis). The reason is investigated by several approaches. Investigation based on eigen value problem indicates that the first predominant period in the continuous analysis cannot be found in the separate analysis, and predominant period at higher order does not match in the upper and lower ground in the separate analysis. The earthquake response analysis indicates that reflected wave at the engineering seismic base layer is not zero, which indicates that conventional engineering seismic base layer does not work as expected by the term 'base'. All these results indicate that wave that goes down to the deep depths after reflecting in the surface layer and again reflects at the seismic bedrock cannot be neglected in evaluating the response at the ground surface. In other words, interaction between the surface layer and/or layers between seismic bedrock and engineering seismic base layer cannot be neglected in evaluating the earthquake motion at the ground surface.

Yoshida, Nozomu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University, Tagajo 1-13-1, Miyagi (Japan)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

440

Layered Binary-Dielectrics for Energy Applications: Limitations and Potentials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this Letter, an attempt is made to illustrate how performance of an electrically insulating material, a dielectric, can be improved by constructing a layered binary-dielectric structure that employs a weak insulator with high dielectric permittivity. It is shown that layered binary-dielectrics could have a signicant impact on energy storage and electrical insulation.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

OPTIMIZATION OF LAYER DENSITIES FOR MULTILAYERED INSULATION SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous tests of various multilayer insulation systems have indicated that there are optimal densities for these systems. However, the only method of calculating this optimal density was by a complex physics based algorithm developed by McIntosh. In the 1970's much data were collected on the performance of these insulation systems with many different variables analyzed. All formulas generated included number of layers and layer density as geometric variables in solving for the heat flux, none of them was in a differentiable form for a single geometric variable. It was recently discovered that by converting the equations from heat flux to thermal conductivity using Fourier's Law, the equations became functions of layer density, temperatures, and material properties only. The thickness and number of layers of the blanket were merged into a layer density. These equations were then differentiated with respect to layer density. By setting the first derivative equal to zero, and solving for the layer density, the critical layer density was determined. This method was checked and validated using test data from the Multipurpose Hydrogen Testbed which was designed using Mcintosh's algorithm.

Johnson, W. L. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, KT-E Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899 (United States)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

442

Organic thin film transistors with double insulator layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated a double-layer structured gate dielectric for the organic thin films transistor (OTFT) with the purpose of improving the performance of the SiO"2 gate insulator. A 50nm PMMA layer was coated on top of the SiO"2 gate insulator as ... Keywords: Mobility, On/off ratio, Organic thin film transistor, PMMA

X. Liu; Y. Bai; L. Chen; F. X. Wei; X. B. Zhang; X. Y. Jiang; Zh. L. Zhang

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

444

Heuristics for estimating contact area of supports in layered manufacturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Layered manufacturing is a technology that allows physical prototypes of three-dimensional(3D) models to be built directly from their digital representation, as a stack of two-dimensional(2D) layers. A key design problem here is the choice of a suitable ... Keywords: Computational geometry, algorithm implementation and testing

Ivayio Ilinkin; Ravi Janardan; Michiel Smid; Eric Johnson; Paul Castillo; Jörg Schwerdt

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Current isolating epitaxial buffer layers for high voltage photodiode array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An array of photodiodes in series on a common semi-insulating substrate has a non-conductive buffer layer between the photodiodes and the semi-insulating substrate. The buffer layer reduces current injection leakage between the photodiodes of the array and allows optical energy to be converted to high voltage electrical energy.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Cooper, Gregory A. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

IOFSL: I/O Forwarding Scalability Layer | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IOFSL: I/O Forwarding Scalability Layer IOFSL: I/O Forwarding Scalability Layer IOFSL is used to aggregate I/O operations, enabling large-scale application tracing for performance analysis of file systems IOFSL is used to aggregate I/O operations, enabling large-scale application tracing for performance analysis of file systems The IOFSL (I/O Forwarding Scalability Layer) project will design, build, and distribute a scalable, unified high-end computing I/O forwarding software layer that will be adopted and supported by DOE Office of Science and NNSA. This software layer will Provide function shipping at the file system interface level (without requiring middleware) that enables asynchronous coalescing and I/O without jeopardizing determinism for computation; Offload file system function from simple or full OS client processes

447

Kinetic Alfven double layer formed by electron viscosity  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the electron viscosity on the kinetic Alfven solitary wave is investigated. It is found that small electron viscosity changes the electron motion along the magnetic field producing a boundary layer, and thus that in a low beta electron-ion plasma({beta} Much-Less-Than m{sub e}/m{sub i}), an obliquely propagating kinetic solitary Alfven wave can become a double layer. This double layer can exist in the sub-Alfvenic and super-Alfvenic regimes. The length scale of density drop for this double layer is on the order of that of the conventional kinetic solitary Alfven wave, and thus this double layer can accelerate electrons on a very short length scale.

Woo, M. H.; Ryu, C.-M. [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. R. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as Al, Ti, Ta or stainless steel. The composition comprises Sn and Zn; Ge as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of Cu and Sb; and a grit, such as SiC. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the Ge penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The Ge comprises less than 10 wt.% of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so that the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

449

PASSIVATION LAYER STABILITY OF A METALLIC ALLOY WASTE FORM  

SciTech Connect

Alloy waste form development under the Waste Forms Campaign of the DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research & Development program includes the process development and characterization of an alloy system to incorporate metal species from the waste streams generated during nuclear fuel recycling. This report describes the tests and results from the FY10 activities to further investigate an Fe-based waste form that uses 300-series stainless steel as the base alloy in an induction furnace melt process to incorporate the waste species from a closed nuclear fuel recycle separations scheme. This report is focused on the initial activities to investigate the formation of oxyhydroxide layer(s) that would be expected to develop on the Fe-based waste form as it corrodes under aqueous repository conditions. Corrosion tests were used to evaluate the stability of the layer(s) that can act as a passivation layer against further corrosion and would affect waste form durability in a disposal environment.

Williamson, M.; Mickalonis, J.; Fisher, D.; Sindelar, R.

2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

450

Ion Beam Layer Separation of Cadmium Zinc Telluride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the approach of ion induced layer separation process for layer splitting from Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) bulk single crystal and transferring and bonding the separated layers with Silicon (Si) wafers. Layer separation experiments have been carried out at UES using 1 MeV H{sup +} ions from the high energy accelerator (1.7 MV Tandetron). Ion dose and annealing temperature for complete separation of 1 cmx1 cm size layers have been optimized. Bonding of CZT with Si was accomplished using various IR transmitting chalcogenide glasses. Cracking of separated CZT films was occurring for chalcogenide glass bonded films. Optimization of thermal treatment has led to the minimization of such cracks. Detailed characterizations of the separated films will be presented.

Bhattacharya, Rabi S.; He, P.; Xu, Y. [UES, Inc. 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, OH 45432 (United States); Goorsky, M. [University of California at Los Angeles, 10920 Wilshire Blvd, Suite 107, Los Angeles CA 90024 (United States)

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

451

Dusty boundary layer in a surface-burst explosion  

SciTech Connect

Dusty boundary layers are an inherent feature of explosions over ground surfaces. Detailed knowledge of dusty boundary layer characteristics is needed in explosion safety analysis (e.g., to calculate the drag loads on structures). Also, to predicct the amount of dust in the rising fireball of an explsion, one must know the dusty boundary layer swept up during the positive and negative phases of the blast wave and how much of this boundary layer dust is entrained into the stem of the dust cloud. This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of the dusty boundary layer created by a surface burst explosion. The evolution of the flow was calculated by a high-order Godunov code that solves the nonsteady conservation laws.

Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States); Ferguson, R.E.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Determination of HEat Capacity of Yucca Mountain Strtigraphic Layers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The heat generated from the radioactive waste to be placed in the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, will affect the thermal-hydrology of the Yucca Mountain stratigraphic layers. In order to assess the effect of the movement of repository heat into the fractured rocks accurate determination of thermodynamic and hydraulic properties is important. Heat capacity is one of the properties that are required to evaluate energy storage in the fractured rock. Rock-grain heat capacity, the subject of this study, is the heat capacity of the solid part of the rock. Yucca Mountain consists of alternating lithostratigraphic units of welded and non-welded ash-flow tuff, mainly rhyolitic in composition and displaying varying degrees of vitrification and alteration. A number of methods exist that can be used to evaluate heat capacity of the stratigraphic layers that consist of different compositions. In this study, the mineral summation method has been used to quantify the heat capacity of the stratigraphic layers based on Kopp's rule. The mineral summation method is an addition of the weighted heat capacity of each mineral found in a specific layer. For this study the weighting was done based on the mass percentage of each mineral in the layer. The method utilized a mineralogic map of the rocks at the Yucca Mountain repository site. The Calico Hills formation and adjacent bedded tuff layers display a bimodal mineral distribution of vitric and zeolitic zones with differing mineralogies. Based on this bimodal distribution in zeolite abundance, the boundary between the vitric and zeolitic zones was selected to be 15% zeolitic abundance. Thus, based on the zeolite abundance, subdivisions have been introduced to these layers into ''vitric'' and ''zeolitic'' zones. Heat capacity values have been calculated for these layers both as ''layer average'' and ''zone average''. The heat capacity determination method presented in this report did not account for spatial variability in the horizontal direction within each layer.

T. Hadgu; C. Lum; J.E. Bean

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

453

Low energy threshold analysis of the phase I and phase II data sets of the Sudbury neutrino observatory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are reported from a joint analysis of Phase I and Phase II data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The effective electron kinetic energy threshold used is T{sub eff} = 3.5 MeV, the lowest analysis threshold yet achieved with water Cherenkov detector data. In units of 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} s{sup =1}, the total flux of active-flavor neutrinos from {sup 8}B decay in the Sun measured using the neutral current (NC) reaction of neutrinos on deuterons, with no constraint on the {sup 8}B neutrino energy spectrum, is found to be {Phi}{sub NC} = 5.140{sub -0.158}{sup +0.160}(stat){sub -0.117}{sup +0.132}(syst). These uncertainties are more than a factor of two smaller than previously published results. Also presented are the spectra of recoil electrons from the charged current reaction of neutrinos on deuterons and the elastic scattering of electrons. A fit to the SNO data in which the free parameters directly describe the total {sup 8}B neutrino flux and the energy-dependent Ve survival probability provides a measure of the total {sup 8}B neutrino flux {Phi}{sub 8{sub B}} = 5.046{sub -0.152}{sup +0.159}(stat){sub -0.123}{sup +0.107}(syst). Combining these new results with results of all other solar experiments and the KamLAND reactor experiment yields best-fit values of the mixing parameters of {theta}{sub 12} = 34.06{sub -0.84}{sup +1.16} degrees and {Delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} = 7.59{sub -0.21}{sup +0.20} x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2}. The global value of {Phi}{sub 8{sub B}} is extracted to a precision of {sub -2.95}{sup +2.38}%. In a three-flavor analysis the best fit value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 13} is 2.00{sub -1.63}{sup +2.09} x 10{sup -2}. Interpreting this as a limit implies an upper bound of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 13} < 0.057 (95% C. L.).

Seibert, S R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, S R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rielage, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

RAINSAT. A One Year Evaluation of a Bispectral Method for the Analysis and Short-Range Forecasting of Precipitation Areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RAINSAT uses under data to calibrate GOES visible and infra data in terms of probability of rain. It produces probability of rain maps and 3 h forecast probability of rain maps by extrapolation.

Patrick King; Tsoi-Ching Yip; J. David Steenbergen

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Physics of low energy pion production. [Threshold and 3-3 regions, cross sections, off-shell T matrix and interaction range  

SciTech Connect

Current thoughts about pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions at threshold and into the energy region corresponding to production in the 3-3 region are briefly presented. Special emphasis is placed on the relation between the range of the interactions and the range of the off-shell t-matrix. Comparison is made between recent calculations and polarization asymmetry data.

Gibbs, W.R.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Components of an algebraic solution of the multichannel problem of low-energy n-${}^{12}$C scattering plus sub-threshold (${}^{13}$C) states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of components in an assumed model interaction potential, as well as of the order to which its deformation is taken, upon resonances in the low-energy cross sections and upon sub-threshold bound states of the compound nucleus (${}^{13}$C) are discussed.

K Amos; L. Canton; G. Pisent; J. P. Svenne; D van der Knijff

2004-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

457

Performance criteria for center layer of triple glazing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance criteria for center layer of triple glazing Performance criteria for center layer of triple glazing Traditional highly insulating windows are made of three pieces of glass. Alternatively, the center layer can be a thin layer of coated plastic. (See Figure 1). In both cases, the center layer is sealed between two spacers, creating two completely separate spaces, and extending through the edge of the insulating glass unit. Recent research has shown that a simple "convection" barrier, as shown in Figure 2, which does not extend through the edge of the insulating glass unit, is as effective an insulator as traditional designs. Advantages include a simpler and more reliable edge design and potentially reduced manufacturing costs. We have investigated various plastics and edge constraint designs and are now focused on the use of an acrylic layer, between 1mm and 3mm thick. Bent edges will help keep the layer in place (see Figure 3a,b,c). In order to commercialize such a product, several issues remain to be addressed. These issues, as they relate to acrylic, are defined below. Other plastics and designs can still be explored.

458

Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification  

SciTech Connect

Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

459

NMR of thin layers using a meanderline surface coil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature meanderline sensor coil which extends the capabilities of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to provide analysis of thin planar samples and surface layer geometries. The sensor coil allows standard NMR techniques to be used to examine thin planar (or curved) layers, extending NMRs utility to many problems of modern interest. This technique can be used to examine contact layers, non-destructively depth profile into films, or image multiple layers in a 3-dimensional sense. It lends itself to high resolution NMR techniques of magic angle spinning and thus can be used to examine the bonding and electronic structure in layered materials or to observe the chemistry associated with aging coatings. Coupling this sensor coil technology with an arrangement of small magnets will produce a penetrator probe for remote in-situ chemical analysis of groundwater or contaminant sediments. Alternatively, the sensor coil can be further miniaturized to provide sub-micron depth resolution within thin films or to orthoscopically examine living tissue. This thin-layer NMR technique using a stationary meanderline coil in a series-resonant circuit has been demonstrated and it has been determined that the flat meanderline geometry has about he same detection sensitivity as a solenoidal coil, but is specifically tailored to examine planar material layers, while avoiding signals from the bulk.

Cowgill, Donald F. (San Ramon, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Antimicrobial Activity of Cationic Antiseptics in Layer-by-Layer Thin Film Assemblies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has proven to be a powerful technique for assembling thin films with a variety of properties including electrochromic, molecular sensing, oxygen barrier, and antimicrobial. LbL involves the deposition of alternating cationic and anionic ingredients from solution, utilizing the electrostatic charges to develop multilayer films. The present work incorporates cationic antimicrobial agents into the positively-charged layers of LbL assemblies. When these thin films are exposed to a humid environment, the antimicrobial molecules readily diffuse out and prevent bacterial growth. The influence of exposure time, testing temperature, secondary ingredients and number of bilayers on antimicrobial efficacy is evaluated here. Additionally, film growth and microstructure are analyzed to better understand the behavior of these films. The antimicrobial used here is a positively-charged quaternary ammonium molecule (e.g. cetyltrimethylammonium bromide [CTAB]) that allow assemblies to be made with or without an additional polycation like polydiallyldimethylamine. While films without this additional polymer are effective, they do not have the longevity or uniformity of films prepared with its addition. All of the recipes studied show linear growth as a function of the number of bilayers deposited and this growth is relatively thick (i.e. > 100 nm per bilayer). In general, 10-bilayer films prepared with CTAB and poly(acrylic acid) are able to achieve a 2.3 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus bacteria and 1.3 mm against E. coli when test are conducted at body temperature (i.e. 37oC). Fewer bilayers reduces efficacy, but lower test temperatures improve zones of inhibition. As long as they are stored in a dry atmosphere, antimicrobial efficacy was found to persist even when films were used four weeks after being prepared. The best films remain effective (i.e. antimicrobially active) for 4-6 days of constant exposure to bacteria-swabbed plates. This technology holds promise for use in transparent wound bandages and temporary surface sterilization.

Dvoracek, Charlene M.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Measurements of threshold behavior for one- and two-electron photodetachment from the H/sup -/ ion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One and two-electron photodetachment from the H/sup -/ ion by a single photon has been studied using a crossed beam apparatus. A Q-switched laser beam was directed across the 800 MeV H/sup -/ beam at LAMPF (..beta..=0.842) resulting in Doppler-shifted photon energies in the H/sup -/ barycentric frame, which were tunable from 0.4 eV to 15.5 eV by changing the intersection angle. The particles (e/sup -/, H/sup 0/, H/sup +/) resulting from photodetachment reactions were magnetically deflected into scintillation detectors allowing the total and partial cross sections for 1e/sup -/ and 2e/sup -/ processes to be separately measured. The 2e/sup -/ signal (H/sup +/) was produced by two different mechanisms, the true signal ..gamma.. + H/sup -/ ..-->.. H/sup +/ + 2e/sup -/ and the background process ..gamma.. + H/sup -/ ..-->.. H/sup 0/(n), followed by motional electric field ionization of excited H/sup 0/. Two-electron photodetachment which had been predicted theoretically was observed for the first time, and the relative cross section was measured from threshold to 15.5 eV.

Frost, C.A.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Quantum interferences in the $?N \\to e^+e^- N$ reaction close to the vector meson production threshold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The exclusive photoproduction of $e^+e^-$ pairs from nucleons close to the vector meson production threshold ($1.4electromagnetic and reflect mostly the nucleon magnetic structure. The $\\gamma N\\to e^+e^- N$ amplitudes arising from vector meson production and decay are derived from $\\gamma N\\to \\rho^0 N$ and $\\gamma N \\to \\omega N$ amplitudes supplemented by the Vector Meson Dominance assumption. The vector meson photoproduction amplitudes are calculated using a relativistic and unitary coupled-channel approach to meson-nucleon scattering. They depend sensitively on the coupling of vector fields to baryon resonances. The $\\gamma N \\to e^+e^- N$ differential cross sections display interference patterns. The interference of Bethe-Heitler pair production with vector meson $e^+e^-$ decay is quite small in the domain of validity of our model for all angles of the emitted $e^+e^-$ pair. The interference of $\\rho^0$- and $\\omega$-mesons in the $e^+e^-$ channel can be large. It is constructive for the $\\gamma p \\to e^+e^- p$ reaction and destructive for the $\\gamma n \\to e^+e^- n$ reaction. We discuss the shape and magnitude of the $e^+e^-$ pair spectra produced in the $\\gamma p \\to e^+e^- p$ and $\\gamma n \\to e^+e^- n$ reactions as functions of the pair emission angle and of the total center of mass energy $\\sqrt s$.

Matthias F. M. Lutz; Madeleine Soyeur

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

463

Investigation of stimulated raman scattering using short-pulse diffraction limited laser beam near the instability threshold  

SciTech Connect

Short pulse laser plasma interaction experiments using diffraction limited beams provide an excellent platform to investigate the fundamental physics of Stimulated Raman Scattering. Detailed understanding of these laser plasma instabilities impacts the current inertial confinement fusion ignition designs and could potentially impact fast ignition when higher energy lasers are used with longer pulse durations ( > 1 kJ and> 1 ps). Using short laser pulses, experiments can be modeled over the entire interaction time of the laser using particle-in-cell codes to validate our understanding quantitatively. Experiments have been conducted at the Trident laser facility and the LULI (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses) to investigate stimulated Raman scattering near the threshold of the instability using 527 nm and 1059 nm laser light respectively with 1.5-3.0 ps pulses. In both experiments, the interaction beam was focused into a pre-ionized He gas-jet plasma. Measurements of the reflectivity as a function of intensity and k{lambda}{sub D} were completed at the Trident laser facility. At LULI, a 300 fs Thomson scattering probe is used to directly measure the density fluctuations of the driven electron plasma and ion acoustic waves. Work is currently underway comparing the results of the experiments with simulations using the VPIC [K. J. Bowers, et at., Phys. Plasmas, 15 055703 (2008)] particle-in-cell code. Details of the experimental results are presented in this manuscript.

Kline, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montgomery, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rose, Harvey A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, B J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, R P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shimada, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bowers, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousseaux, C [CEA; Tassin, V [CEA; Baton, S D [FRANCE; Amiranoff, F [FRANCE; Hardin, R A [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser-induced-damage characteristics of commercial indium-tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering deposition on K9 glass substrates as a function of the film thickness have been studied at 1064 nm with a 10 ns laser pulse in the 1-on-1 mode, and the various mechanisms for thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold (LIDT) of the film have been discussed in detail. It is observed that laser-damage-resistance of ITO film shows dramatic thickness effect with the LIDT of the 50-nm ITO film 7.6 times as large as the value of 300 nm film, and the effect of depressed carrier density by decreasing the film thickness is demonstrated to be the primary reason. Our experiment findings indicate that searching transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film with low carrier density and high carrier mobility is an efficient technique to improve the laser-damage-resistance of TCO films based on maintaining their well electric conductivity.

Wang Haifeng; Huang Zhimeng; Zhang Dayong; Luo Fei; Huang Lixian; Li Yanglong; Luo Yongquan; Wang Weiping; Zhao Xiangjie [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

High-energy threshold reaction rates on 0.8 GeV proton-irradiated thick Pb-target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This works presents results of activation-aided determination of threshold reaction rates in 92 209Bi, natPb, 197Au, 181Ta, 169Tm, natIn, 93Nb, 64Zn, 65Cu, 63Cu, 59Co, 19F, and 12C samples and in 121 27Al samples. All the samples were aligned with the proton beam axis inside and outside the demountable 92-cm thick Pb target of 15-cm diameter assembled of 23 4-cm thick discs. The samples were placed on 12 target disks to reproduce the long axis distribution of protons and neutrons. In June 2006, the target was exposed for 18 hours to a 800-MeV proton beam extracted from the ITEP U-10 accelerator. The proton fluence and the proton beam shape were determined using the 27Al(p,x)7Be monitor reaction. The reaction rates were determined by the direct gamma-spectrometry techniques. In total, 1196 gamma-spectra have been measured, and about 1500 reaction rates determined. The measured reaction rates were simulated by the MCNPX code using the following databases: ENDF/B6 for neutrons below 20 MeV, MENDL2 for 20-100 MeV neutrons, and MENDL2P for proton cross sections up to 200 MeV. An acceptable agreement of simulations with experimental data has been found.

Yu. E. Titarenko; V. F. Batyaev; A. Yu. Titarenko; M. A. Butko; K. V. Pavlov; R. S. Tikhonov; S. N. Florya; S. G. Mashnik; W. Gudowski

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

466

USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

467

Steamdrive performance in a layered reservoir - A simulation sensitivity study  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the use of a thermal reservoir simulator to study steamdrive in a reservoir consisting of noncommunicating sand layers. The simulator was used to determine basic design parameters for steamdrive operations in the South Belridge field, Kern County, CA. Sensitivity runs were made to investigate the effect of various parameters -such as spacing, steam quality, and steam injection rate - on performance. Comparisons were made of the performance of a layered system with no communication between layers and that of an identical system with vertical communication.

Spivak, A.; Muscatello, J.A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Enhanced adhesion for LIGA microfabrication by using a buffer layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an improvement on the LIGA microfabrication process wherein a buffer layer is applied to the upper or working surface of a substrate prior to the placement of a resist onto the surface of the substrate. The buffer layer is made from an inert low-Z material (low atomic weight), a material that absorbs secondary X-rays emissions from the substrate that are generated from the substrate upon exposure to a primary X-rays source. Suitable materials for the buffer layer include polyamides and polyimide. The preferred polyimide is synthesized from pyromellitic anhydride and oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA).

Bajikar, Sateesh S.; DeCarlo, Francesco; Song, Joshua J.

1998-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

469

Direct numerical simulations and hydrodynamic stability problems in the upper oceanic mixed layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Langmuir circulations are longitudinal rolls driven by the wind and appear beneath the surface of the ocean. The author models these as an instability of the mean current due to its interaction with averaged effect of the surface waves. Perturbations are allowed for in three dimensions for a layer of finite depth. Linear stability analysis shows that two-dimensional rolls are most unstable for unstratified flow as in previous two-dimensional studies. In presence of stratification three-dimensional modes are most unstable. At low and high values of the Reynolds number, the most unstable modes are nearly two-dimensional. At intermediate values, three dimensionality is important. The angular deviation from the wind direction of the most unstable modes increases with stratification in the range considered. Two-dimensional simulations are done at different values of stratification for unconstrained and constrained sidewall boundary conditions. These show good agreement qualitatively and quantitatively with the weakly nonlinear dynamics of the governing equations in two-dimensions. A secondary stability (Floquet) analysis is performed to determine the range of stability of unstratified steady Langmuir rolls and elicit the streamwise length scales when rolls become unstable. Eckhaus and Oscillatory mechanisms of instability are found to be important at a moderate value of Reynolds number. Subsequent direct numerical simulations are performed for corresponding instabilities. Oscillatory instability sets in as streamwise traveling waves. As one of the destabilizing parameters is increased, quasi-periodic motion is observed, with a low frequency vacillating mode. At lower values of Reynolds number, the secondary instability thresholds for the forcing are higher and steady rolls are stable in a large domain of parameter space. Simulations at high forcing at low Reynolds number show defect traveling wave solutions.

Tandon, A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

W Mass - Threshold Momenta  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"transverse" plane"). References Assignments: Identifying W Project Contact: Thomas Jordan - jordant@fnal.gov Web Maintainer: qnet-webmaster@fnal.gov Last Update: January 10,...

471

SWERA/Climate Layers Information | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Layers Information Climate Layers Information < SWERA Jump to: navigation, search SWERA logo.png Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) Interactive Web PortalPowered by OpenEI Getting Started Data Sets Analysis Tools About SWERA Climate Layers The climate layers are derived from data provided by NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project derived from NASA's climate research to support renewable energy industries. The Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set contains solar parameters principally derived from satellite observations and meteorology parameters from an atmospheric model constrained to satellite and sounding observations. It is a 22-year climatology (July 1983- June 2005) on a one-degree latitude by one-degree longitude grid. The global coverage of the SSE data set fills

472

Convective Boundary Layers Driven by Nonstationary Surface Heat Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the response of dry convective boundary layers to nonstationary surface heat fluxes is systematically investigated. This is relevant not only during sunset and sunrise but also, for example, when clouds modulate incoming solar ...

Robert van Driel; Harm J. J. Jonker

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Radar Observations and Simulation of the Melting Layer of Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The melting layer in precipitation is physically modeled and compared with high resolution Doppler radar data. The model includes a new formulation of the dielectric properties and can handle all ice particles with densities ranging from pure ...

Wim Klaassen

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Composite Structure of Plumes in Stratus-topped Boundary Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of convective plumes within the clear convective boundary layer (CBL) is quite advanced owing to direct measurements, tank experiments, and large-eddy simulation studies. As a result, modeling of the CBL is relatively successful. ...

Chin-Hoh Moeng; Ulrich Schumann

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Two-Layer Geostrophic Dynamics. Part II: Geostrophic Turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Part I of this series, generalized geostrophic equations were formulated for the two-layer system on a beta plane and over a flat bottom. Here numerical experiments with these equations are carried out to study freely evolving geostrophic ...

Benyang Tang; Benoit Cushman-Roisin

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Lidar Observation of Elevated Pollution Layers over Los Angeles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elevated pollution layers are observed over Los Angeles with an aircraft equipped with a downward-looking lidar. For the first time, detailed ancillary upper-air kinematic and thermodynamic data were collected simultaneously to aid in the ...

Roger M. Wakimoto; James L. McElroy

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Measurements of Boundary Layer Profiles in an Urban Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boundary layer profiles of mean temperature, velocity, and small-scale turbulence from in situ sensors, Doppler lidar, sodar, and rawinsondes are intercompared for an urban environment. A new Doppler lidar algorithm is presented to produce high-...

Rod Frehlich; Yannick Meillier; Michael L. Jensen; Ben Balsley; Robert Sharman

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Mesoscale Modeling of Boundary Layer Refractivity and Atmospheric Ducting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study four mesoscale forecasting systems were used to investigate the four-dimensional structure of atmospheric refractivity and ducting layers that occur within evolving synoptic conditions over the eastern seaboard of the United States. ...

Tracy Haack; Changgui Wang; Sally Garrett; Anna Glazer; Jocelyn Mailhot; Robert Marshall

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Coastal Boundary Layer Characteristics during Summer Stratification in Lake Ontario  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of Eulerian and Lagrangian currents along the north shore of Lake Ontario are analyzed to provide the mean flow properties and horizontal turbulent exchange characteristics in the coastal boundary layer (CBL). The summer ...

Y. R. Rao; C. R. Murthy

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Observed Diurnal Cycle Climatology of Planetary Boundary Layer Height  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An observational climatology of the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) diurnal cycle, specific to surface characteristics, is derived from 58 286 fine-resolution soundings collected in 14 major field campaigns around the world. An objective ...

Shuyan Liu; Xin-Zhong Liang

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layered bispectral threshold" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Supercritical Marine-Layer Flow along a Smoothly Varying Coastline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for hydraulically supercritical atmospheric marine-layer flow along a smoothly varying coastline is formulated and solved numerically. The model is motivated by a recent comparison of CODE observations to a simple hydraulic theory, which ...

R. M. Samelson

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z