National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for layer deposition ald

  1. Atomic Layer DepositionAtomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Conformality in(ALD) Conformality in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Atomic Layer DepositionAtomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Conformality in(ALD) Conformality in Nanopores, removal of template, and subsequent TEM analysis. Significance Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is widely in Nanopores Intellectual merit While atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables unprecedented control of atomic

  2. Surface Reactivity of Copper Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on Metal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MA, QIANG

    2010-01-01

    1 1.2. Atomic layer deposition………………………………………………..…. …2cell for atomic layer deposition……………………………26 2.8.Scheme process of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of copper(

  3. Surface preparation for ALD of High-k dielectrics on InGaAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melitz, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    As Arsenic ALD Atomic Layer Deposition AES Auger ElectronTMA), to replicate atomic layer deposition (ALD). The LL isgate oxides, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is employed to

  4. Atomic Layer Deposition Enabled Synthesis of Multiferroic Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Calvin Dinh-Tu

    2015-01-01

    Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition." Advanced FunctionalPlasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of HfO 2 and ZrO 2et al. (2003). "Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of Bismuth

  5. Ruthenium / aerogel nanocomposits via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, J; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y; Nelson, E J; Kucheyev, S O; Hamza, A V; Kemell, M; Ritala, M; Leskela, M

    2006-08-28

    We present a general approach to prepare metal/aerogel nanocomposites via template directed atomic layer deposition (ALD). In particular, we used a Ru ALD process consisting of alternating exposures to bis(cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium (RuCp{sub 2}) and air at 350 C to deposit metallic Ru nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of carbon and silica aerogels. The process does not affect the morphology of the aerogel template and offers excellent control over metal loading by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. We also discuss the limitations of our ALD approach, and suggest ways to overcome these.

  6. Atomic Layer Deposition of In2O3 Using Cyclopentadienyl Indium: A New Synthetic Route to Transparent Conducting Oxide Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition of In2O3 Using Cyclopentadienyl Indium: A New Synthetic Route we present a new method for depositing In2O3 thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using-15 and atomic layer deposition (ALD).16-20 Of these techniques, ALD shows significant promise as this method

  7. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide films using tetrakis,,dimethylamino... tin Jeffrey W. Elam,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide films using tetrakis,,dimethylamino... tin Jeffrey W. Elam for preparing thin films of SnO2 by atomic layer deposition ALD using alternating exposures to tetrakis sputtering,5 chemi- cal vapor deposition,15 spray pyrolysis,11 and atomic layer deposition ALD .16­18 ALD

  8. Numerical simulation of a single wafer atomic layer deposition process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, A. Andrew D., III (Akhenaton-Andrew Dhafir)

    2010-01-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a process used to deposit nanometer scale films for use in nano electronics. A typical experimental reactor consist of a warm wall horizontal flow tube, a single disc mounted halfway down ...

  9. Electrochemical Monitoring of TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition by Chronoamperometry and Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Electrochemical Monitoring of TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition by Chronoamperometry and Scanning) was used to characterize the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). KEYWORDS: atomic layer deposition (ALD), scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), nanoporous films

  10. In situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition atomic-layer deposition of aluminum oxide on GaAs using trimethyaluminum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition atomic-layer deposition of aluminum oxide on Ga 26 June 2008; published online 21 July 2008 In situ atomic-layer deposition ALD of Al2O3 on p­4 Recently, many ex situ methods such as atomic-layer deposition ALD of high-k on GaAs have achieved success

  11. Compositional characterization of atomic layer deposited alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Anu; Thomas, Subin; Kumar, K. Rajeev [Department of Instrumentation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    As the microelectronic industry demands feature size in the order of few and sub nanometer regime, the film composition and other film properties become critical issues and ALD has emerged as the choice of industry. Aluminum oxide is a material with wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and protective and ion barrier layers. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an excellent dielectric because of its large band gap (8.7eV), large band offsets with silicon. We have deposited thin layers of alumina on silicon wafer (p-type) for gate dielectric applications by ALD technique and compositional characterizations of the deposited thin films were done using EDS, XPS and FTIR spectra.

  12. Atomic Layer Deposition for the Conformal Coating of Nanoporous Materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Xiong, Guang; Han, Catherine Y.; Wang, H. Hau; Birrell, James P.; Welp, Ulrich; Hryn, John N.; Pellin, Michael J.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Poco, John F.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition ( ALD ) is ideal for applying precise and conformal coatings over nanoporous materials. We have recently used ALD to coat two nanoporous solids: anodic aluminum oxide ( AAO ) and silica aerogels. AAO possesses hexagonally ordered pores with diameters d ? 40 nm and pore length L ? 70 microns. The AAO membranes were coated by ALD to fabricatemore »catalytic membranes that demonstrate remarkable selectivity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane. Additional AAO membranes coated with ALD Pd films show promise as hydrogen sensors. Silica aerogels have the lowest density and highest surface area of any solid material. Consequently, these materials serve as an excellent substrate to fabricate novel catalytic materials and gas sensors by ALD . « less

  13. Surface Chemistry in Chemical Deposition of Manganese-Based Thin Films on Silicon Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Huaxing

    2013-01-01

    1.2  Atomic  layer  deposition……………………………………………………………………3  especially   atomic   layer   deposition,  to  deposit  Cu  CVD)   and   atomic  layer  deposition  (ALD)  from  the  

  14. Mechanism for zirconium oxide atomic layer deposition using bis,,methylcyclopentadienyl...methoxymethyl zirconium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanism for zirconium oxide atomic layer deposition using bis.1063/1.2824814 Atomic layer deposition ALD is a thin film growth method using alternating, self-limiting reactions between gaseous precursors and a solid surface to deposit materials in an atomic layer-by-layer fashion.1

  15. Characteristics of SiO2 Film Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition as the Gate Insulator of Low-Temperature Polysilicon Thin-Film Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Characteristics of SiO2 Film Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition as the Gate Insulator of Low a Corresponding author: skrha@hanbat.ac.kr Keywords: atomic layer deposition (ALD), silicon dioxide (SiO2), dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl2), ozone (O3) Abstract. SiO2 films were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD

  16. Systematic Modulation of Quantum (Electron) Tunneling Behavior by Atomic Layer Deposition on Nanoparticulate SnO2 and TiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Systematic Modulation of Quantum (Electron) Tunneling Behavior by Atomic Layer Deposition were conformally created on SnO2 and TiO2 photo- electrodes via atomic layer deposition (ALD undesired, additional conduits for ET.13 In contrast, atomic layer deposition (ALD),14-19 which typically

  17. SPATIALLY-SEPARATED ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF Al2O3, A NEW OPTION FOR HIGH-THROUGHPUT Si SOLAR CELL PASSIVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SPATIALLY-SEPARATED ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF Al2O3, A NEW OPTION FOR HIGH-THROUGHPUT Si SOLAR material for surface passivation of crystalline Si is atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3. However for the development of high-efficiency solar cells. It has been shown that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3

  18. Palladium catalysts synthesized by atomic layer deposition for methanol decomposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, J. W.; Feng, H.; Stair, P. C.; Libera, J. A.; Setthapun, W.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-05-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) palladium films were deposited at 200 C on various ALD metal oxide surfaces using sequential exposures to Pd(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)2) and formalin. In situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements as well as ex situ measurements performed on planar substrates revealed that the Pd growth begins with a relatively slow nucleation process and accelerates once an adequate amount of Pd has deposited on the surface. Furthermore, the Pd nucleation is faster on ALD ZnO surfaces compared to ALD Al2O3 surfaces. ALD was utilized to synthesize highly dispersed, uniform Pd nanoparticles (1 to 2 nm in diameter) on ALD ZnO and Al2O3 coated mesoporous silica gel, and the catalytic performances of these samples were compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The ALD Pd-Al2O3 showed high activity and hydrogen selectivity at relatively low temperatures while the ALD Pd-ZnO showed very low activity as well as quick deactivation. In situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurement revealed that the Pd supported on ZnO 'dissolves' into the substrate during the methanol decomposition reaction which accounts for the gradual disappearance of its catalytic activity. By applying one cycle of ALD Al2O3 on top of the Pd-ZnO catalyst, the activity was enhanced and the catalyst deactivation was mitigated. This Al2O3 overcoating method stabilizes the Pd-ZnO and effectively prevents the dissolution of Pd into the ZnO substrate.

  19. Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal-Organic Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal- Organic Framework Joseph E. Mondloch introduce a new synthetic strategy capable of metallating MOFs from the gas phase: atomic layer deposition and in some instances host- guest interactions may lead to unstable metal@MOFs. Atomic layer deposition (ALD

  20. Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamilov, Alexey

    Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition M. Scharrer, X. Wu, A templates using a low-temperature atomic layer deposition process. The polystyrene is removed by firing into opal or inverted opal backbones.3,5,13,14 Recently, atomic layer deposition ALD has been pro- posed

  1. DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606508 Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Palladium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606508 Full Paper Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Palladium, and Gwo-Ching Wang In this paper, a method for the plasma-enhanced (PE) atomic layer deposition (ALD is successfully deposited on PPX at 80 °C using a remote, in- ductively coupled, hydrogen/nitrogen plasma

  2. Scanning probe microscopy imaging before and after atomic layer oxide deposition on a compound semiconductor surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Scanning probe microscopy imaging before and after atomic layer oxide deposition on a compound fabricated using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water atomic layer deposition (ALD) for the Al2O3 gate oxide level (Fig 2) suggesting that an ordered monolayer layer might be a requirement for unpinning

  3. Arsenic decapping and half cycle reactions during atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on In0.53Ga0.47As,,001...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Arsenic decapping and half cycle reactions during atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on In0.53Ga0 of a protective As layer and subsequent atomic layer deposition ALD of Al2O3 on In0.53Ga0.47As 001 . H2O dosing such as InxGa1-xAs.1 Atomic layer deposition ALD has been the technique of choice for the deposition of high

  4. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, W. S. Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H.; Zhang, J.; Luo, J. K.; Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB

    2014-02-15

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  5. Real-Time Observation of Atomic Layer Deposition Inhibition: Metal Oxide Growth on Self-Assembled Alkanethiols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Real-Time Observation of Atomic Layer Deposition Inhibition: Metal Oxide Growth on Self each atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycle to an analytical island-growth model that enables moderately optimized conditions. KEYWORDS: atomic layer deposition, self-assembled monolayers, quartz crystal

  6. Directed inorganic modification of bi-component polymer fibers by selective vapor reaction and atomic layer deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    and atomic layer deposition Bo Gong, Joseph C. Spagnola, Sara A. Arvidson, Saad A. Khan, Gregory N. Parsons Accepted 8 August 2012 Available online 21 August 2012 Keywords: Atomic layer deposition Bi-controlled composition can be formed using vapor-phase atomic layer deposition (ALD) on bi-component polymer fibers

  7. Electron Microscopy Observation of TiO2 Nanocrystal Evolution in High-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xudong

    ABSTRACT: Understanding the evolution of amorphous and crystalline phases during atomic layer deposition nanorods via the principle of vapor-phase oriented attachment. KEYWORDS: TiO2, atomic layer deposition, Ostwald-Lussac law, oriented attachment Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a unique thin film growth

  8. Atomic Layer Deposition on Suspended Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and mechanical properties of the nanotubes. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) on single-walled carbon nanotubesAtomic Layer Deposition on Suspended Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via Gas-Phase Noncovalent, 2005; Revised Manuscript Received February 6, 2006 ABSTRACT Alternating exposures of nitrogen dioxide

  9. Chapter 6.24 Picosun Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    be reported on the WAND. 5.4 Emergency shutdown: In case of an emergency, shut down the whole system by pressing the red emergency button on the machine. 6.0 Process Data 6.1 Process Monitor (SPC): Available

  10. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Preparation of Noble Metal Catalysts - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomass and BiofuelsPhysicist47JulyInnovation Portal

  11. Fluorine contamination in yttrium-doped barium zirconate film deposited by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An Jihwan; Beom Kim, Young; Sun Park, Joong; Hyung Shim, Joon; Guer, Turgut M.; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2012-01-15

    The authors have investigated the change of chemical composition, crystallinity, and ionic conductivity in fluorine contaminated yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BYZ) fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). It has been identified that fluorine contamination can significantly affect the conductivity of the ALD BYZ. The authors have also successfully established the relationship between process temperature and contamination and the source of fluorine contamination, which was the perfluoroelastomer O-ring used for vacuum sealing. The total removal of fluorine contamination was achieved by using all-metal sealed chamber instead of O-ring seals.

  12. Reactor concepts for atomic layer deposition on agitated particles: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longrie, Delphine, E-mail: delphine.longrie@asm.com; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.detavernier@ugent.be [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2014-01-15

    The number of possible applications for nanoparticles has strongly increased in the last decade. For many applications, nanoparticles with different surface and bulk properties are necessary. A popular surface modification technique is coating the particle surface with a nanometer thick layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is known as a reliable method for depositing ultrathin and conformal coatings. In this article, agitation or fluidization of the particles is necessary for performing ALD on (nano)particles. The principles of gas fluidization of particles will be outlined, and a classification of the gas fluidization behavior of particles based on their size and density will be given. Following different reactor concepts that have been designed to conformally coat (nano)particles with ALD will be described, and a concise overview will be presented of the work that has been performed with each of them ending with a concept reactor for performing spatial ALD on fluidized particles.

  13. Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Robert K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bogart, Gregory R. (Corrales, NM); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL)

    2011-12-20

    Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of aluminum sulfide thin films using trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Soumyadeep; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-15

    Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide are used to deposit aluminum sulfide thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature ranging from 100 to 200?°C. Growth rate of 1.3 Å per ALD cycle is achieved by in-situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements. It is found that the growth rate per ALD cycle is highly dependent on the purging time between the two precursors. Increased purge time results in higher growth rate. Surface limited chemistry during each ALD half cycle is studied by in-situ Fourier transformed infrared vibration spectroscopy. Time of flight secondary ion-mass spectroscopy measurement is used to confirm elemental composition of the deposited films.

  15. A non-destructive method for measuring the mechanical properties of ultrathin films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qinglin; Xiao, Xingcheng Verbrugge, Mark W.; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2014-08-11

    The mechanical properties of ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are critical for the liability of their coated devices. However, it has been a challenge to reliably measure critical properties of ALD films due to the influence from the substrate. In this work, we use the laser acoustic wave (LAW) technique, a non-destructive method, to measure the elastic properties of ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by ALD. The measured properties are consistent with previous work using other approaches. The LAW method can be easily applied to measure the mechanical properties of various ALD thin films for multiple applications.

  16. Atomic Layer Deposition of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films Using Nonhalogenated Jeffrey W. Elam,*, David A. Baker, Alex B. F. Martinson,, Michael J. Pellin, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films Using Nonhalogenated Precursors Jeffrey W: NoVember 8, 2007 This article describes a new atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for preparing,2 sol-gel methods,3 chemical vapor deposition,4 pulsed laser deposition,5 and atomic layer

  17. Environmental Performance Characterization of Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Rahtu and R. Gordon. “Atomic layer deposition of transitionoxide films grown by atomic layer deposition from iodide andand S. M. George. “Atomic layer deposition of ultrathin and

  18. Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot, Alan J., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu; Malek, Gary A.; Lu, Rongtao; Han, Siyuan; Wu, Judy Z., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Yu, Haifeng; Zhao, Shiping [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a promising technique for growing ultrathin, pristine dielectrics on metal substrates, which is essential to many electronic devices. Tunnel junctions are an excellent example which require a leak-free, ultrathin dielectric tunnel barrier of typical thickness around 1 nm between two metal electrodes. A challenge in the development of ultrathin dielectric tunnel barriers using ALD is controlling the nucleation of dielectrics on metals with minimal formation of native oxides at the metal surface for high-quality interfaces between the tunnel barrier and metal electrodes. This poses a critical need for integrating ALD with ultra-high vacuum (UHV) physical vapor deposition. In order to address these challenges, a viscous-flow ALD chamber was designed and interfaced to an UHV magnetron sputtering chamber via a load lock. A sample transportation system was implemented for in situ sample transfer between the ALD, load lock, and sputtering chambers. Using this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system, superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Nb-Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions were fabricated with tunnel barriers of thickness varied from sub-nm to ?1 nm. The suitability of using an Al wetting layer for initiation of the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier was investigated with ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and electrical transport measurements. With optimized processing conditions, leak-free SIS tunnel junctions were obtained, demonstrating the viability of this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system for the fabrication of tunnel junctions and devices comprised of metal-dielectric-metal multilayers.

  19. Atomic imaging of the monolayer nucleation and unpinning of a compound semiconductor surface during atomic layer deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    atomic layer deposition Jonathon B. Clemens,1 Evgueni A. Chagarov,1 Martin Holland,2 Ravi Droopad,3 Jian American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3487737 Atomic layer deposition ALD has received attention dueAtomic imaging of the monolayer nucleation and unpinning of a compound semiconductor surface during

  20. InGaAs surface preparation for atomic layer deposition by hydrogen cleaning and improvement with high temperature anneal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    InGaAs surface preparation for atomic layer deposition by hydrogen cleaning and improvement channel III-V MOS devices can be fabricated with atomic layer deposition (ALD) high-K gate-first proc atomic scale imaging with scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, a combination of atomic hydrogen

  1. Controlling Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 in Aerogels through Surface Functionalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, S; Baumann, T F; King, J S; Kucheyev, S; Wang, Y; Worsley, M A; Biener, J; Bent, S F; Hamza, A V

    2009-03-09

    This report demonstrates a chemical functionalization method for controlling atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO{sub 2} in low-density nanoporous materials. Functionalization of silica aerogel with trimethylsilane is shown to strongly suppress TiO{sub 2} growth via ALD. Subsequent modification of the functionalization through selective removal of the hydrocarbon groups reactivates the aerogel towards TiO{sub 2} deposition. These results demonstrate the potential use of ALD as a selective tool for creating novel nanoporous materials. Nanoporous materials present significant technological advantage for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, energy storage and conversion, nanoelectronics to name just a few (1-4). Hence, there is considerable interest in developing synthetic pathways for the fabrication of nanoporous materials with tailored properties. Aerogels (AGs) are unique low-density, open-cell porous materials consisting of submicrometer pores and ligaments that can be used as a robust material platform for designing novel nanoporous materials. In recent years, a synthetic approach based on ALD on AG templates has emerged as a promising method for the directed growth of nanoporous materials (5-11, 18). This approach has been used successfully to prepare millimeter-sized high aspect ratio aerogels coated uniformly with zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten (W) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) (10, 11). The ALD process utilizes two sequential, self-limiting surface reactions resulting in a layer-by-layer growth mode. The self limiting nature of the surface reactions makes ALD a particularly suitable technique for uniform deposition onto high aspect ratio porous substrates. Additionally, chemical specificity of the surface reactions in ALD enables one to control the deposition process through selective functionalization of the substrate surface. In fact the functionalization of planar substrates such as silicon wafers with organosilane groups (R{sub n}SiX{sub 4-n} (n = 1-3)) has been shown to deactivate the substrate towards ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, ZnO, and TiO{sub 2} ALD processes (12-16). A possible mechanism for the deactivation effect is the blocking of surface functional groups, such as hydroxyl (OH) moieties, which serve as chemisorption sites for the ALD precursors and hence are essential for nucleating the deposition process. Henceforth, we shall refer to these surface functional groups as nucleation sites for the ALD process.

  2. Property transformation of graphene with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited directly by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Li; Cao, Duo; Wang, Zhongjian; Xia, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Xinhong, E-mail: xh-cheng@mail.sim.ac.cn; Yu, Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Dashen [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are deposited directly onto graphene by H{sub 2}O-based atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the films are pinhole-free and continuously cover the graphene surface. The growth process of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films does not introduce any detective defects in graphene, suppresses the hysteresis effect and tunes the graphene doping to n-type. The self-cleaning of ALD growth process, together with the physically absorbed H{sub 2}O and oxygen-deficient ALD environment consumes OH{sup ?} bonds, suppresses the p-doping of graphene, shifts Dirac point to negative gate bias and enhances the electron mobility.

  3. Impact of ALD Coating on Mn-rich Cathode Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, S.

    2013-06-01

    LG Chem Power Inc. (LGCPI) and NREL have collaborated to demonstrate the scalability of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating process over the last 6 months, and the benefits of ALD coatings for long-term cycling and calendar life are being quantified. The objectives of this work are two-fold: 1) to evaluate the scalability of the process to coat LGCPI cathodes with alumina using the ALD technique, and 2) to demonstrate improvements in rate capability and life of ALD-coated LGCPI electrodes. NREL received samples of baseline material to be coated from LGCPI. NREL carried out ALD coating of the samples with help from a subcontractor, ALD Nanosolutions. NREL fabricated cells from those samples for quick screening and feedback to ALD Nanosolutions. LGCPI is currently fabricating larger-format cells for further evaluation.

  4. Josephson Junctions with Tunnel Barriers Grown Via In Situ Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliot, Alan Jesson

    2014-12-31

    in the thermally oxidized tunnel barrier. In order to realize the full potential of JJ qubits, an alternative method to thermal oxidation must be found for tunnel barrier growth. This work explores using atomic layer deposition (ALD) for the growth of ultrathin...

  5. Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium and Zirconium Oxides Using Metal Amide Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium and Zirconium Oxides Using Metal Amide Precursors Dennis M (ALD) of smooth and highly conformal films of hafnium and zirconium oxides was studied using six metal alkylamide precursors for hafnium and zirconium. Water was used as an oxygen source during these experiments

  6. Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Palladium By Gregory A. Ten Eyck,* Jay J. Senkevich, Fu Tang, Deli Liu, Samuk Pimanpang, Tansel Karaback, Gwo-Ching Wang,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Full Paper Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Palladium By Gregory A. Ten Eyck,* Jay J Jezewski, and William A. Lanford A method is presented for the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of palladium, Plasma-assisted 1. Introduction Self-limiting chemistries that result in atomic layer control

  7. In situ study of atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on GaP (100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Qin, X.; Hinkle, C. L.; Kim, J.; Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2013-09-16

    The interfacial chemistry of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on chemically treated GaP (100) has been studied using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A “self-cleaning” effect for Ga-oxide upon exposure to trimethylaluminum is seen to be efficient on the native oxide and chemically treated surfaces. The phosphorus oxide chemical states are seen to change during the ALD process, but the total concentration of P-oxides is seen to remain constant throughout the ALD process.

  8. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  9. Modeling precursor diffusion and reaction of atomic layer deposition in porous structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keuter, Thomas, E-mail: t.keuter@fz-juelich.de; Menzler, Norbert Heribert; Mauer, Georg; Vondahlen, Frank; Vaßen, Robert; Buchkremer, Hans Peter [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1), 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for depositing thin films of materials with a precise thickness control and uniformity using the self-limitation of the underlying reactions. Usually, it is difficult to predict the result of the ALD process for given external parameters, e.g., the precursor exposure time or the size of the precursor molecules. Therefore, a deeper insight into ALD by modeling the process is needed to improve process control and to achieve more economical coatings. In this paper, a detailed, microscopic approach based on the model developed by Yanguas-Gil and Elam is presented and additionally compared with the experiment. Precursor diffusion and second-order reaction kinetics are combined to identify the influence of the porous substrate's microstructural parameters and the influence of precursor properties on the coating. The thickness of the deposited film is calculated for different depths inside the porous structure in relation to the precursor exposure time, the precursor vapor pressure, and other parameters. Good agreement with experimental results was obtained for ALD zirconiumdioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) films using the precursors tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)zirconium and O{sub 2}. The derivation can be adjusted to describe other features of ALD processes, e.g., precursor and reactive site losses, different growth modes, pore size reduction, and surface diffusion.

  10. High Gradient Accelerator Cavities Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Parsons, Gregory; Williams, Philip; Oldham, Christopher; Mundy, Zach; Dolgashev, Valery

    2014-12-09

    In the Phase I program, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR), in collaboration with North Carolina State University (NCSU), fabricated copper accelerator cavities and used Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to apply thin metal coatings of tungsten and platinum. It was hypothesized that a tungsten coating would provide a robust surface more resistant to arcing and arc damage. The platinum coating was predicted to reduce processing time by inhibiting oxides that form on copper surfaces soon after machining. Two sets of cavity parts were fabricated. One was coated with 35 nm of tungsten, and the other with approximately 10 nm of platinum. Only the platinum cavity parts could be high power tested during the Phase I program due to schedule and funding constraints. The platinum coated cavity exhibit poor performance when compared with pure copper cavities. Not only did arcing occur at lower power levels, but the processing time was actually longer. There were several issues that contributed to the poor performance. First, machining of the base copper cavity parts failed to achieve the quality and cleanliness standards specified to SLAC National Accelerator Center. Secondly, the ALD facilities were not configured to provide the high levels of cleanliness required. Finally, the nanometer coating applied was likely far too thin to provide the performance required. The coating was ablated or peeled from the surface in regions of high fields. It was concluded that the current ALD process could not provide improved performance over cavities produced at national laboratories using dedicated facilities.

  11. European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 2AO.1.6 INDUSTRIALLY RELEVANT Al2O3 DEPOSITION TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    confirmed efficiencies of 21.4% for PERC cells with plasma-assisted atom- ic-layer-deposited (plasma ALD) Al deposited by various techniques, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD), plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited by various deposition techniques. Atomic layer deposition performed in lab reactors (plasma

  12. Dispersion engineered high-Q silicon Nitride Ring-Resonators via Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riemensberger, Johann; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. All results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.

  13. In situ study of HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition on InP(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Kim, J.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2013-04-29

    The interfacial chemistry of the native oxide and chemically treated InP samples during atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfO{sub 2} growth at 250 Degree-Sign C has been studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The In-oxide concentration is seen to gradually decrease on the native oxide and acid etched samples. No significant changes of the P-oxide concentrations are detected, while the P-oxides chemical states are seen to change gradually during the initial cycles of ALD on the native oxide and the chemically treated samples. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S treatment strongly decreases In-oxide and P-oxide concentrations prior to ALD and maintains low concentrations during the ALD process.

  14. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?°C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  15. Enhanced photoresponse of conformal TiO{sub 2}/Ag nanorod array-based Schottky photodiodes fabricated via successive glancing angle and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi; Cansizoglu, Hilal; Cansizoglu, Mehmet Fatih; Karabacak, Tansel; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors demonstrate a proof of concept nanostructured photodiode fabrication method via successive glancing angle deposition (GLAD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The fabricated metal-semiconductor nanorod (NR) arrays offer enhanced photoresponse compared to conventional planar thin-film counterparts. Silver (Ag) metallic NR arrays were deposited on Ag-film/Si templates by utilizing GLAD. Subsequently, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was deposited conformally on Ag NRs via ALD. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed the successful formation of vertically aligned Ag NRs deposited via GLAD and conformal deposition of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs via ALD. Following the growth of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs, aluminum metallic top contacts were formed to complete the fabrication of NR-based Schottky photodiodes. Nanostructured devices exhibited a photo response enhancement factor of 1.49?×?10{sup 2} under a reverse bias of 3 V.

  16. Atomic Layer Deposition of ZnO on Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Its Use for Synthesis of CNT–ZnO Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-08-07

    Abstract In this article, direct coating of ZnO on PECVD-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Transmission electron microscopy investigation shows that the deposited ZnO shell is continuous...

  17. ALD Produced B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} Coatings on Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} Burnable Poison Nanoparticles and Carbonaceous TRISO Coating Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Alan

    2012-11-26

    This project will demonstrate the feasibility of using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to apply ultrathin neutron-absorbing, corrosion-resistant layers consisting of ceramics, metals, or combinations thereof, on particles for enhanced nuclear fuel pellets. Current pellet coating technology utilizes chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in a fluidized bed reactor to deposit thick, porous layers of C (or PyC) and SiC. These graphitic/carbide materials degrade over time owing to fission product bombardment, active oxidation, thermal management issues, and long-term irradiation effects. ALD can be used to deposit potential ceramic barrier materials of interest, including ZrO{sub 2}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and TiO{sub 2}, or neutron-absorbing materials, namely B (in BN or B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Gd (in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}). This project consists of a two-pronged approach to integrate ALD into the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) fuel pellet manufacturing process:

  18. 21.7 % EFFICIENT PERC SOLAR CELLS WITH ALOX TUNNELING LAYER , J.H.Petermann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hanover, Germany ABSTRACT: A plasma-assisted atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide (Al. Keywords: contact, passivation, solar cell 1 INTRODUCTION Atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al-AlOx layer in a commercial ALD reactor (FlexALTM, Oxford Instruments) at 200 °C. The deposition of Al

  19. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, S. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B.; Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N.; Okyay, A. K. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2014-06-16

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250?°C. GaN thin films are grown at 200?°C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3?nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3?V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250?°C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  20. Ultra-low loading Pt nanocatalysts prepared by atomic layer deposition on carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J S; Wittstock, A; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S O; Wang, Y M; Baumann, T F; Giri, S; Hamza, A V; Baeumer, M; Bent, S F

    2008-04-21

    Using atomic layer deposition (ALD), we show that Pt nanoparticles can be deposited on the inner surfaces of carbon aerogels (CA). The resultant Pt-loaded materials exhibit high catalytic activity for the oxidation of CO even at loading levels as low as {approx}0.05 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}. We observe a conversion efficiency of nearly 100% in the temperatures range 150-250 C, and the total conversion rate seems to be only limited by the thermal stability of our CA support in ambient oxygen. Our ALD approach described here is universal in nature, and can be applied to the design of new catalytic materials for a variety of applications, including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, pollution control, green chemistry, and liquid fuel production.

  1. LDRD Project 52523 final report :Atomic layer deposition of highly conformal tribological coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungk, John Michael (University of Minnesota); Dugger, Michael Thomas; George, Steve M. (University of Colorado); Prasad, Somuri V.; Grubbs, Robert K.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mayer, Thomas Michael; Scharf, Thomas W.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Gerberich, William W. (University of Minnesota)

    2005-10-01

    Friction and wear are major concerns in the performance and reliability of micromechanical (MEMS) devices. While a variety of lubricant and wear resistant coatings are known which we might consider for application to MEMS devices, the severe geometric constraints of many micromechanical systems (high aspect ratios, shadowed surfaces) make most deposition methods for friction and wear-resistance coatings impossible. In this program we have produced and evaluate highly conformal, tribological coatings, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), for use on surface micromachined (SMM) and LIGA structures. ALD is a chemical vapor deposition process using sequential exposure of reagents and self-limiting surface chemistry, saturating at a maximum of one monolayer per exposure cycle. The self-limiting chemistry results in conformal coating of high aspect ratio structures, with monolayer precision. ALD of a wide variety of materials is possible, but there have been no studies of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of these films. We have developed processes for depositing thin (<100 nm) conformal coatings of selected hard and lubricious films (Al2O3, ZnO, WS2, W, and W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminates), and measured their chemical, physical, mechanical and tribological properties. A significant challenge in this program was to develop instrumentation and quantitative test procedures, which did not exist, for friction, wear, film/substrate adhesion, elastic properties, stress, etc., of extremely thin films and nanolaminates. New scanning probe and nanoindentation techniques have been employed along with detailed mechanics-based models to evaluate these properties at small loads characteristic of microsystem operation. We emphasize deposition processes and fundamental properties of ALD materials, however we have also evaluated applications and film performance for model SMM and LIGA devices.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of zinc sulfide with Zn(TMHD){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, Andrew; Jewell, Leila; Doshay, Sage; Church, Carena; Keiber, Trevor; Bridges, Frank; Carter, Sue; Alers, Glenn

    2013-01-15

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnS films with Zn(TMHD){sub 2} and in situ generated H{sub 2}S as precursors was investigated, over a temperature range of 150-375 Degree-Sign C. ALD behavior was confirmed by investigation of growth behavior and saturation curves. The properties of the films were studied with atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectroscopy, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure. The results demonstrate a film that can penetrate a porous matrix, with a local Zn structure of bulk ZnS, and a band gap between 3.5 and 3.6 eV. The ZnS film was used as a buffer layer in nanostructured PbS quantum dot solar cell devices.

  3. Nucleation and growth of MgO atomic layer deposition: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Han; Fu, Kan

    2013-11-15

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of MgO thin films from bis(cyclopentadienyl) magnesium and H{sub 2}O was studied using in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. It is found that the initial growth is not linear during the first ten cycles, and magnesium silicate forms spontaneously on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at 250 °C. Submonolayer sensitivity of SE is demonstrated by the analysis of each half-cycle and self-limiting adsorption, revealing characteristic features of hetero- and homo-MgO ALD processes.

  4. Fabrication of AlN/BN bishell hollow nanofibers by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Ali; Kayaci, Fatma; Uyar, Tamer; Biyikli, Necmi; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2014-09-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)/boron nitride (BN) bishell hollow nanofibers (HNFs) have been fabricated by successive atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AlN and sequential chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BN on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous template. A four-step fabrication process was utilized: (i) fabrication of polymeric (nylon 6,6) nanofibers via electrospinning, (ii) hollow cathode plasma-assisted ALD of AlN at 100?°C onto electrospun polymeric nanofibers, (iii) calcination at 500?°C for 2 h in order to remove the polymeric template, and (iv) sequential CVD growth of BN at 450?°C. AlN/BN HNFs have been characterized for their chemical composition, surface morphology, crystal structure, and internal nanostructure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Measurements confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal BN and AlN within the three dimensional (3D) network of bishell HNFs with relatively low impurity content. In contrast to the smooth surface of the inner AlN layer, outer BN coating showed a highly rough 3D morphology in the form of BN nano-needle crystallites. It is shown that the combination of electrospinning and plasma-assisted low-temperature ALD/CVD can produce highly controlled multi-layered bishell nitride ceramic hollow nanostructures. While electrospinning enables easy fabrication of nanofibrous template, self-limiting reactions of plasma-assisted ALD and sequential CVD provide control over the wall thicknesses of AlN and BN layers with sub-nanometer accuracy.

  5. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and etching of high-k gadolinium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, Steven A.; Wyatt, Peter W.; Hodson, Chris J.

    2012-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-quality gadolinium oxide thin films is achieved using Gd(iPrCp){sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth is observed from 150 to 350 deg. C, though the optical properties of the film improve at higher temperature. True layer-by-layer ALD growth of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred in a relatively narrow window of temperature and precursor dose. A saturated growth rate of 1.4 A/cycle was observed at 250 deg. C. As the temperature increases, high-quality films are deposited, but the growth mechanism appears to become CVD-like, indicating the onset of precursor decomposition. At 250 deg. C, the refractive index of the film is stable at {approx}1.80 regardless of other deposition conditions, and the measured dispersion characteristics are comparable to those of bulk Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. XPS data show that the O/Gd ratio is oxygen deficient at 1.3, and that it is also very hygroscopic. The plasma etching rate of the ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film in a high-density helicon reactor is very low. Little difference is observed in etching rate between Cl{sub 2} and pure Ar plasmas, suggesting that physical sputtering dominates the etching. A threshold bias power exists below which etching does not occur; thus it may be possible to etch a metal gate material and stop easily on the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film has a dielectric constant of about 16, exhibits low C-V hysteresis, and allows a 50 x reduction in gate leakage compared to SiO{sub 2}. However, the plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) process causes formation of an {approx}1.8 nm SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer, and generates a fixed charge of -1.21 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, both of which may limit use of PE-ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate dielectric.

  6. Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Bui, Hao, E-mail: H.VanBui@utwente.nl; Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y., E-mail: A.Y.Kovalgin@utwente.nl [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30?nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup ¯}0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

  7. In-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductor in MOCVD system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Cheng-Wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    In situ deposition of high-k materials to passivate the GaAs in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system was well demonstrated. Both atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods ...

  8. In situ study of the role of substrate temperature during atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on InP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, H.; Santosh, K.C.; Qin, X.; Brennan, B.; McDonnell, S.; Kim, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Hinkle, C. L.; Cho, K.; Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2013-10-21

    The dependence of the “self cleaning” effect of the substrate oxides on substrate temperature during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} on various chemically treated and native oxide InP (100) substrates is investigated using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The removal of In-oxide is found to be more efficient at higher ALD temperatures. The P oxidation states on native oxide and acid etched samples are seen to change, with the total P-oxide concentration remaining constant, after 10 cycles of ALD HfO{sub 2} at different temperatures. An (NH{sub 4}){sub 2} S treatment is seen to effectively remove native oxides and passivate the InP surfaces independent of substrate temperature studied (200 °C, 250 °C and 300 °C) before and after the ALD process. Density functional theory modeling provides insight into the mechanism of the changes in the P-oxide chemical states.

  9. Numerical modeling of carrier gas flow in atomic layer deposition vacuum reactor: A comparative study of lattice Boltzmann models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Li, Tao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yuan, Chris, E-mail: cyuan@uwm.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.

  10. Integrated Sustainability Analysis of Atomic Layer Deposition for Microelectronics Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris Yingchun; David Dornfeld

    2010-01-01

    E. , 2002, “Thin Film Atomic Layer Deposition Equipment forA. , 2000, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titanium Oxide FromHarsta, A. , 2001, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Zirco- nium

  11. Environmental Performance Characterization of Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    and data collection consume 20.79% of total energy. EnergyALD processes consume a total of 4.09 MJ energy, with 14%

  12. Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maydannik, Philipp S., E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi; Kääriäinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C. [Advanced Surface Technology Research Laboratory, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Söderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka [Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, 01511 Vantaa (Finland); Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui [Samsung Cheil Industries, San Jose R and D Center, 2186 Bering Drive, San Jose, California 95131 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20?nm thickness Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier layers on 500?mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105?°C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20?nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38?°C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostatic–isobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (<5?×?10{sup ?4}?g/m{sup 2} day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25?m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ?5?×?10{sup ?6} g/m{sup 2} day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate.

  13. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

  14. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using a modular rotating cylinder reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial atomic layer deposition on...

  15. Electroless Atomic Layer Deposition: A Scalable Approach to Surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electroless Atomic Layer Deposition: A Scalable Approach to Surface Modified Metal Powders. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electroless Atomic Layer Deposition: A...

  16. An electroless approach to atomic layer deposition on noble metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An electroless approach to atomic layer deposition on noble metal powders. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An electroless approach to atomic layer deposition on noble...

  17. Waterless TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition using titanium tetrachloride and titanium tetraisopropoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Virginia R.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Abdulagatov, Aziz I.; Gibbs, Zachary M.; George, Steven M.

    2014-01-15

    The surface chemistry for TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD) typically utilizes water or other oxidants that can oxidize underlying substrates such as magnetic disks or semiconductors. To avoid this oxidation, waterless or oxidant-free surface chemistry can be used that involves titanium halides and titanium alkoxides. In this study, waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD was accomplished using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). In situ transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were employed to study the surface species and the reactions during waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD. At low temperatures between 125 and 225??°C, the FTIR absorbance spectra revealed that the isopropoxide species remained on the surface after TTIP exposures. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then removed the isopropoxide species and deposited additional titanium species. At high temperatures between 250 and 300??°C, the isopropoxide species were converted to hydroxyl species by ?-hydride elimination. The observation of propene gaseous reaction product by quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) confirmed the ?-hydride elimination reaction pathway. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then easily reacted with the hydroxyl species. QMS studies also observed the 2-chloropropane and HCl gaseous reaction products and monitored the self-limiting nature of the TTIP reaction. Additional studies examined the waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD growth at low and high temperature. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements observed growth rates of ?3?ng/cm{sup 2} at a low temperature of 150??°C. Much higher growth rates of ?15?ng/cm{sup 2} were measured at a higher temperature of 250??°C under similar reaction conditions. X-ray reflectivity analysis measured a growth rate of 0.55 ± 0.05?Å/cycle at 250??°C. X-ray photoelectron depth-profile studies showed that the TiO{sub 2} films contained low Cl concentrations <1 at. %. This waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD process using TiCl{sub 4} and TTIP should be valuable to prevent substrate oxidation during TiO{sub 2} ALD on oxygen-sensitive substrates.

  18. Surface Reactivity of Copper Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on Metal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MA, QIANG

    2010-01-01

    is produced by its thermal activation, but the remainingthe surface upon thermal activation of the adsorbed copperfirst monolayer. After thermal activation of the precursor-

  19. Surface Reactivity of Copper Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on Metal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MA, QIANG

    2010-01-01

    110) surfaces is described; butane and a small amidine were110) surface. No butene is produced at lower butane, 3 L;only some butane is desorption observed (58 amu). However,

  20. High aspect ratio iridescent three-dimensional metal–insulator–metal capacitors using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Micheal, E-mail: micheal.burke@tyndall.ie; Blake, Alan; Djara, Vladimir; O'Connell, Dan; Povey, Ian M.; Cherkaoui, Karim; Monaghan, Scott; Scully, Jim; Murphy, Richard; Hurley, Paul K.; Pemble, Martyn E.; Quinn, Aidan J., E-mail: aidan.quinn@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the structural and electrical properties of TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiN metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitor structures in submicron three-dimensional (3D) trench geometries with an aspect ratio of ?30. A simplified process route was employed where the three layers for the MIM stack were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a single run at a process temperature of 250?°C. The TiN top and bottom electrodes were deposited via plasma-enhanced ALD using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor. 3D trench devices yielded capacitance densities of 36 fF/?m{sup 2} and quality factors >65 at low frequency (200?Hz), with low leakage current densities (<3 nA/cm{sup 2} at 1 V). These devices also show strong optical iridescence which, when combined with the covert embedded capacitance, show potential for system in package (SiP) anticounterfeiting applications.

  1. Atomic layer deposited lithium aluminum oxide: (In)dependency of film properties from pulsing sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miikkulainen, Ville Nilsen, Ola; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Li, Han; King, Sean W.; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) holds markedly high potential of becoming the enabling method for achieving the three-dimensional all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion battery (LiB). One of the most crucial components in such a battery is the electrolyte that needs to hold both low electronic conductivity and at least fair lithium ion conductivity being at the same time pinhole free. To obtain these desired properties in an electrolyte film, one necessarily has to have a good control over the elemental composition of the deposited material. The present study reports on the properties of ALD lithium aluminum oxide (Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z}) thin films. In addition to LiB electrolyte applications, Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} is also a candidate low dielectric constant (low-k) etch stop and diffusion barrier material in nanoelectronics applications. The Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films were deposited employing trimethylaluminum-O{sub 3} and lithium tert-butoxide-H{sub 2}O for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, respectively. The composition was aimed to be controlled by varying the pulsing ratio of those two binary oxide ALD cycles. The films were characterized by several methods for composition, crystallinity and phase, electrical properties, hardness, porosity, and chemical environment. Regardless of the applied pulsing ratio of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, all the studied ALD Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films of 200 and 400 nm in thickness were polycrystalline in the orthorhombic ?-LiAlO{sub 2} phase and also very similar to each other with respect to composition and other studied properties. The results are discussed in the context of both fundamental ALD chemistry and applicability of the films as thin-film LiB electrolytes and low-k etch stop and diffusion barriers.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of TiN for the fabrication of nanomechanical resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathan; Guthy, Csaba; Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Evoy, Stephane [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, 2nd Floor ECERF (9107-116 Street), Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4 (Canada); Finley, Eric; Harris, Kenneth D. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2M9 (Canada); Worfolk, Brian J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11227 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    Films of titanium nitride were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) over a range of temperatures from 120 Degree-Sign C to 300 Degree-Sign C, and their deposition rates were characterized by ellipsometry and reflectometry. The stress state of the films was evaluated by interferometry using a wafer bowing technique and varied from compressive (-18 MPa) to tensile (650 MPa). The crystal structure of the films was assessed by x-ray diffraction. The grain size varied with temperature in the range of 2-9 nm. The chemical composition of the films was ascertained by high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and showed the presence of O, Cl, and C contaminants. A mildly tensile (250 MPa) stressed film was employed for the fabrication (by electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching) of doubly clamped nanoresonator beams. The resonance frequency of resonators was assayed using an interferometric resonance testing apparatus. The devices exhibited sharp mechanical resonance peaks in the 17-25 MHz range. The uniformity and controllable deposition rate of ALD films make them ideal candidate materials for the fabrication of ultranarrow (<50 nm) nanobeam structures.

  3. Process for depositing Cr-bearing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Lograsso, T.A.; Eshelman, M.A.

    1995-05-09

    A method of applying a Cr-bearing layer to a substrate, comprises introducing an organometallic compound, in vapor or solid powder form entrained in a carrier gas to a plasma of an inductively coupled plasma torch or device to thermally decompose the organometallic compound and contacting the plasma and the substrate to be coated so as to deposit the Cr-bearing layer on the substrate. A metallic Cr, Cr alloy or Cr compound such as chromium oxide, nitride and carbide can be provided on the substrate. Typically, the organometallic compound is introduced to an inductively coupled plasma torch that is disposed in ambient air so to thermally decompose the organometallic compound in the plasma. The plasma is directed at the substrate to deposit the Cr-bearing layer or coating on the substrate. 7 figs.

  4. Low interface defect density of atomic layer deposition BeO with self-cleaning reaction for InGaAs metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H. S. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Yum, J. H. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States) [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Johnson, D. W. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States) [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Harris, H. R. [Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] [Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Hudnall, Todd W. [Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)] [Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States); Oh, J. [Yonsei University, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of)] [Yonsei University, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kirsch, P.; Wang, W.-E. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)] [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Bielawski, C. W.; Banerjee, S. K.; Lee, J. C. [The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)] [The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Lee, H. D. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-25

    In this paper, we discuss atomic configuration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) beryllium oxide (BeO) using the quantum chemistry to understand the theoretical origin. BeO has shorter bond length, higher reaction enthalpy, and larger bandgap energy compared with those of ALD aluminum oxide. It is shown that the excellent material properties of ALD BeO can reduce interface defect density due to the self-cleaning reaction and this contributes to the improvement of device performance of InGaAs MOSFETs. The low interface defect density and low leakage current of InGaAs MOSFET were demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the corresponding electrical results.

  5. Investigation of arsenic and antimony capping layers, and half cycle reactions during atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on GaSb(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhernokletov, Dmitry M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Dong, Hong; Brennan, Barry; Kim, Jiyoung; Wallace, Robert M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Yakimov, Michael; Tokranov, Vadim; Oktyabrsky, Serge [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany–SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)] [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany–SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    In-situ monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, ion scattering spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy are used to examine the GaSb(100) surfaces grown by molecular beam epitaxy after thermal desorption of a protective As or Sb layer and subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. An antimony protective layer is found to be more favorable compared to an arsenic capping layer as it prevents As alloys from forming with the GaSb substrate. The evolution of oxide free GaSb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface is investigated by “half-cycle” ALD reactions of trimethyl aluminum and deionized water.

  6. http://tinyurl.com/ald-michigan For more information, please email Dr. Khaled Mnaymneh at kmnay@lnf.umich.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daly, Samantha

    for numerous opportunities in the fields of semiconductor devices and memory, energy conversion and storage, and quantum confinement structures for energy conversion and storage devices. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD aspect ratios (above 2000:1), allowing for 3-dimensional engineering of complex nanostructured

  7. Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees; Feinerman, Alan; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2014-01-15

    In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1?±?0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300?°C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

  8. Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

    2012-08-20

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

  9. ALD Functionalized Nanoporous Gold: Thermal Stability, Mechanical Properties, and Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Wichmann, A; Wittstock, A; Baumann, T F; Baeumer, M; Hamza, A V

    2011-03-24

    Nanoporous metals have many technologically promising applications but their tendency to coarsen limits their long-term stability and excludes high temperature applications. Here, we demonstrate that atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to stabilize and functionalize nanoporous metals. Specifically, we studied the effect of nanometer-thick alumina and titania ALD films on thermal stability, mechanical properties, and catalytic activity of nanoporous gold (np-Au). Our results demonstrate that even only one-nm-thick oxide films can stabilize the nanoscale morphology of np-Au up to 1000 C, while simultaneously making the material stronger and stiffer. The catalytic activity of np-Au can be drastically increased by TiO{sub 2} ALD coatings. Our results open the door to high temperature sensor, actuator, and catalysis applications and functionalized electrodes for energy storage and harvesting applications.

  10. Influence of post-deposition annealing on interfacial properties between GaN and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Gang; Wang, Hong, E-mail: ewanghong@ntu.edu.sg; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Geok Ng, Serene Lay; Ji, Rong [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608 (Singapore); Liu, Zhi Hong [Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2014-10-13

    Influence of post-deposition annealing on interfacial properties related to the formation/annihilation of interfacial GaO{sub x} layer of ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on GaN is studied. ZrO{sub 2} films were annealed in N{sub 2} atmospheres in temperature range of 300?°C to 700?°C and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that Ga-O bond to Ga-N bond area ratio decreases in the samples annealed at temperatures lower than 500?°C, which could be attributed to the thinning of GaO{sub x} layer associated with low surface defect states due to “clean up” effect of ALD-ZrO{sub 2} on GaN. However, further increase in annealing temperature results in deterioration of interface quality, which is evidenced by increase in Ga-O bond to Ga-N bond area ratio and the reduction of Ga-N binding energy.

  11. ALDS 1980 panel review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D. L. [ed.] [ed.

    1981-11-01

    The overall goal of PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) Applied Mathematical Sciences Research is development of a DOE (Department of Energy) capability for Analysis of Large Data Sets (ALDS) and transfer of this capability to other DOE laboratories and contractors. This capability is needed to satisfy DOE's increasing requirements for handling and analyzing large volumes of diverse energy and environmental data. The integrated statistics and computer science research includes the development of improved methodologies in data definition, data management, data analysis, and visual display. The purpose of this document is three-fold. First, the document is the permanent record of the ALDS 1979 panel review. Second, the document provides the PNL staff with a benchmark of where we were at the end of the second year of ALDS. Third, the document is available to laboratories, universities, and DOE headquarters as detailed description of the ALDS project, as well as an example of the new direction of AMS-funded research.

  12. Inkjet Deposition of Layer-by-Layer Assembled Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, C. M.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2010-09-23

    Layer-by-layer assembly (LBL) can create advanced composites with exceptional properties unavailable by other means, but the laborious deposition process and multiple dipping cycles hamper their utilization in microtechnologies and electronics. Multiple rinse steps provide both structural control and thermodynamic stability to LBL multilayers, but they significantly limit their practical applications and contribute significantly to the processing time and waste. Here we demonstrate that by employing inkjet technology one can deliver the necessary quantities of LBL components required for film buildup without excess, eliminating the need for repetitive rinsing steps. This feature differentiates this approach from all other recognized LBL modalities. Using a model system of negatively charged gold nanoparticles and positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride, the material stability, nanoscale control over thickness, and particle coverage offered by the inkjet LBL technique are shown to be equal or better than the case of multilayers made with traditional dipping cycles. The opportunity for fast deposition of complex metallic patterns using a simple inkjet printer is also shown. The additive nature of LBL deposition based on the formation of insoluble nanoparticle-polyelectrolyte complexes of various compositions provides an excellent opportunity for versatile, multicomponent, and noncontact patterning for the simple production of stratified patterns that are much needed in advanced devices.

  13. Surface Preparation of Gallium Nitride for Atomic Layer Deposition of Aluminum Oxide /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Nitride for Atomic Layer Deposition of Aluminum Oxide AForce Microscopy Atomic Layer Deposition Capacitance-VoltageSurfaces for Atomic Layer Deposition of Aluminum Oxide” x

  14. Selective Chemistry of Metal Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition on Si Based Substrate Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Kolanek, K. , et al. , Atomic layer deposition reactor forconcepts for atomic layer deposition on agitated particles:W.M.M. Kessels, Atomic layer deposition for photovoltaics:

  15. Method for depositing layers of high quality semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI)

    2001-08-14

    Plasma deposition of substantially amorphous semiconductor materials is carried out under a set of deposition parameters which are selected so that the process operates near the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold. This threshold varies as a function of the thickness of the depositing semiconductor layer; and, deposition parameters, such as diluent gas concentrations, must be adjusted as a function of layer thickness. Also, this threshold varies as a function of the composition of the depositing layer, and in those instances where the layer composition is profiled throughout its thickness, deposition parameters must be adjusted accordingly so as to maintain the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold.

  16. Electrical behavior of atomic layer deposited high quality SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Tanyi, Ekembu K.; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Aswini K., E-mail: apradhan@nsu.edu [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Ave., Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and systematic electrical studies were performed on fabrication of high quality SiO{sub 2} thin films MOS capacitor using the robust, novel, and simple atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using highly reactive ozone and tris (dimethylamino) silane (TDMAS) precursors. Ideal capacitance–voltage curve exhibits a very small frequency dispersion and hysteresis behavior of the SiO{sub 2} MOS capacitor grown at 1?s TDMAS pulse, suggesting excellent interfacial quality and purity of the film as probed using x-ray photoelectron studies. The flat-band voltage of the device shifted from negative toward positive voltage axis with increase of TDMAS pulses from 0.2 to 2 s. Based on an equivalent oxide thickness point of view, all SiO{sub 2} films have gate leakage current density of (5.18?×?10{sup ?8} A/cm{sup 2}) as well as high dielectric break down fields of more than (?10 MV/cm), which is better and comparable to that of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} at temperatures above 800?°C. These appealing electrical properties of ALD grown SiO{sub 2} thin films enable its potential applications such as high-quality gate insulators for thin film MOS transistors, as well as insulators for sensor and nanostructures on nonsilicon substrates.

  17. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, Sami Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-15

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH{sub 3} PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} ambient.

  18. Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Silicon Anodes Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings...

  19. Radio frequency plasma power dependence of the moisture permeation barrier characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hyunsoo [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hagyoung; Lee, Sanghun [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-07

    In the present study, we investigated the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethersulfone films (PES) by capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) type Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition (RPALD) at Radio Frequency (RF) plasma powers ranging from 100 W to 400 W in 100 W increments using Trimethylaluminum [TMA, Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] as the Al source and O{sub 2} plasma as the reactant. To study the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of 100-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at various plasma powers, the Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) was measured using an electrical Ca degradation test. WVTR decreased as plasma power increased with WVTR values for 400 W and 100 W of 2.6 × 10{sup ?4} gm{sup ?2}day{sup ?1} and 1.2 × 10{sup ?3} gm{sup ?2}day{sup ?1}, respectively. The trends for life time, Al-O and O-H bond, density, and stoichiometry were similar to that of WVTR with improvement associated with increasing plasma power. Further, among plasma power ranging from 100 W to 400 W, the highest power of 400 W resulted in the best moisture permeation barrier properties. This result was attributed to differences in volume and amount of ion and radical fluxes, to join the ALD process, generated by O{sub 2} plasma as the plasma power changed during ALD process, which was determined using a plasma diagnosis technique called the Floating Harmonic Method (FHM). Plasma diagnosis by FHM revealed an increase in ion flux with increasing plasma power. With respect to the ALD process, our results indicated that higher plasma power generated increased ion and radical flux compared with lower plasma power. Thus, a higher plasma power provides the best gas and moisture permeation barrier properties.

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition of Insulating Hafnium and Zirconium Nitrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Insulating Hafnium and Zirconium Nitrides Jill S. Becker, Esther Kim, and conformal coatings of higher nitrides of hafnium and zirconium were produced by atomic layer deposition from-colored, and highly conducting. I. Introduction The mononitrides of hafnium and zirconium of stoi- chiometry MN (M

  1. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  2. Infrared study on room-temperature atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and remote plasma-excited oxidizing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanomata, Kensaku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510, Japan and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Ohba, Hisashi; Pungboon Pansila, P.; Ahmmad, Bashir; Kubota, Shigeru; Hirahara, Kazuhiro; Hirose, Fumihiko, E-mail: fhirose@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Room-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} was examined using tetrakis (ethylmethylamino)hafnium (TEMAH) and remote plasma-excited water and oxygen. A growth rate of 0.26?nm/cycle at room temperature was achieved, and the TEMAH adsorption and its oxidization on HfO{sub 2} were investigated by multiple internal reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy. It was observed that saturated adsorption of TEMAH occurs at exposures of ?1?×?10{sup 5}?L (1 L?=?1?×?10{sup ?6} Torr s) at room temperature, and the use of remote plasma-excited water and oxygen vapor is effective in oxidizing the TEMAH molecules on the HfO{sub 2} surface, to produce OH sites. The infrared study suggested that Hf–OH plays a role as an adsorption site for TEMAH. The reaction mechanism of room temperature HfO{sub 2} ALD is discussed in this paper.

  3. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-05-19

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves the use of underpotential deposition of a first element to mediate the growth of a second material by overpotential deposition. Deposition occurs between a potential positive to the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element where a full monolayer of mediating element forms, and a potential which is less than, or only slightly greater than, the bulk deposition potential of the material to be deposited. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis. This process is especially suitable for the formation of a catalytically active layer on core-shell particles for use in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells.

  4. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0.04Co02O2 electrode containing 5 wt% single-walled carbon nanotubes as the conductive additive and demonstrated both high rate capability as well as the ability to cycle the cathode to 5 V vrs. Li/Li+. Finally, we coated a Celgard (TM) separator and enabled stable cycling in a high dielectric electrolyte. These results will be presented in detail.

  5. Integrated Sustainability Analysis of Atomic Layer Deposition for Microelectronics Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris Yingchun; David Dornfeld

    2010-01-01

    for improving the sustainability performance of the ALDimprove the sustainability performance of the ALD technologyperformance. In this pa- per, we present an integrated sustainability

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Copper(I) Amidinates as Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of Copper Metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Mater. Sci. 2000, 30, 229-262. (2) Ritala, M.; Leskela¨, M. In Handbook of Thin Film Materials; Nalwa, H. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 5548-5554. (9) International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors 2003

  7. Surface passivation of c-Si by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of Al2O3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    passivation has to date been mostly deposited by conventional atomic layer deposition (ALD), a technique-effect transistors subjected to on-state bias stress J. Appl. Phys. 111, 084504 (2012) Atomic imaging of atomic layerSurface passivation of c-Si by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of Al2O3 Lachlan E

  8. Method of depositing a high-emissivity layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickersham, Charles E. (Columbus, OH); Foster, Ellis L. (Powell, OH)

    1983-01-01

    A method of depositing a high-emissivity layer on a substrate comprising RF sputter deposition of a carbide-containing target in an atmosphere of a hydrocarbon gas and a noble gas. As the carbide is deposited on the substrate the hydrocarbon gas decomposes to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon deposits on the target and substrate causing a carbide/carbon composition gradient to form on the substrate. At a sufficiently high partial pressure of hydrocarbon gas, a film of high-emissivity pure carbon will eventually form over the substrate.

  9. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on blown polyethylene films with plasma-treated surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beom Lee, Gyeong; Sik Son, Kyung; Won Park, Suk; Hyung Shim, Joon; Choi, Byoung-Ho

    2013-01-15

    In this study, a layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on blown polyethylene films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low temperatures, and the surface characteristics of these Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated blown polyethylene films were analyzed. In order to examine the effects of the plasma treatment of the surfaces of the blown polyethylene films on the properties of the films, both untreated and plasma-treated film samples were prepared under various processing conditions. The surface characteristics of the samples were determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as by measuring their surface contact angles. It was confirmed that the surfaces of the plasma-treated samples contained a hydroxyl group, which helped the precursor and the polyethylene substrate to bind. ALD of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was performed through sequential exposures to trimethylaluminum and H{sub 2}O at 60 Degree-Sign C. The surface morphologies of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated blown polyethylene films were observed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Further, it was confirmed that after ALD, the surface of the plasma-treated film was covered with alumina grains more uniformly than was the case for the surface of the untreated polymer film. It was also confirmed via the focused ion beam technique that the layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} conformed to the surface of the blown polyethylene film.

  10. Pulsed Repetition Rate Nanosecond Laser Heating and Ablation of the Tokamak Graphite Tile Deposited Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulsed Repetition Rate Nanosecond Laser Heating and Ablation of the Tokamak Graphite Tile Deposited Layers

  11. Received 1 May 2013 | Accepted 26 Jul 2013 | Published 3 Sep 2013 Atomic layer lithography of wafer-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    and high throughput. Here we introduce a new patterning technology based on atomic layer deposition lithography, combines atomic layer deposition (ALD) with `plug-and-peel' metal patterning using adhesive tapeARTICLE Received 1 May 2013 | Accepted 26 Jul 2013 | Published 3 Sep 2013 Atomic layer lithography

  12. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  13. Atomic Layer Deposition | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomass and BiofuelsPhysicist47JulyInnovationAtomic Layer

  14. Substrate-assisted nucleation of ultra-thin dielectric layers on graphene by atomic layer deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dlubak, Bruno; Kidambi, Piran R.; Weatherup, Robert S.; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

    2012-04-26

    We report on a large improvement in the wetting of Al2O3 thin films grown by unseeded atomic layer deposition on monolayer graphene, without creating point defects. This enhanced wetting is achieved by greatly increasing the nucleation density...

  15. Epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO{sub 3} thin films on SrTiO{sub 3}-buffered Si(001) by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngo, Thong Q.; McDaniel, Martin D.; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@che.utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham B.; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Hu, Chengqing; Yu, Edward T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Bruley, John [IBM Research Division, Yorktown Heights, New York 10593 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) on Si(001) using a thin (1.6?nm) buffer layer of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The ALD growth of crystalline BTO films at 225??°C used barium bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl), titanium tetraisopropoxide, and water as co-reactants. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals a high degree of crystallinity and c-axis orientation of as-deposited BTO films. Crystallinity is improved after vacuum annealing at 600??°C. Two-dimensional XRD confirms the tetragonal structure and orientation of 7–20-nm thick films. The effect of the annealing process on the BTO structure is discussed. A clean STO/Si interface is found using in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confirmed by cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of 7–20?nm-thick BTO films are examined and show an effective dielectric constant of ?660 for the heterostructure.

  16. New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J. (UCB)

    2012-03-13

    Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution better than 25 nm. Limiting factors for Stardust STXM analyses were self-imposed limits of photon dose due to radiation damage concerns, and significant attenuation of <1500 eV X-rays by {approx}80{micro}m thick, {approx}25 mg/cm{sup 3} density silica aerogel capture medium. In practice, the ISPE team characterized the major, light elements using STXM (O, Mg, Al, Si) and the heavier minor and trace elements using SXRF. The two data sets overlapped only with minor Fe and Ni ({approx}1% mass abundance), providing few quantitative cross-checks. New improved standards for cross calibration are essential for consortium-based analyses of Stardust interstellar and cometary particles, IDPs. Indeed, they have far reaching application across the whole synchrotron-based analytical community. We have synthesized three ALD multilayers simultaneously on silicon nitride membranes and silicon and characterized them using RBS (on Si), XRF (on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and STXM/XAS (holey Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). The systems we have started to work with are Al-Zn-Fe and Y-Mg-Er. We have found these ALD multi-layers to be uniform at {micro}m- to nm scales, and have found excellent consistency between four analytical techniques so far. The ALD films can also be used as a standard for e-beam instruments, eg., TEM EELS or EDX. After some early issues with the consistency of coatings to the back-side of the membrane windows, we are confident to be able to show multi-analytical agreement to within 10%. As the precision improves, we can use the new standards to verify or improve the tabulated cross-sections.

  17. Deposition of polyaniline film onto porous silicon layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhutik, V.P.; Martinez-Duart, J.M. [Univ. of Madrid, (Spain); Callegja, R.D.; Matveeva, E.M. [Polytechnical Univ. of Valencia, (Spain)

    1993-12-31

    Presently porous silicon (PS) layers are being considered a promising visible light emitting sources. Current research concentrates on the understanding of the nature of the light emission and the development of practical luminescent devices. The last goal is to find an appropriate solid contact to the rough surface of PS layers to ensure high electric conductivity and transparency. The aim of this work is to study the deposition of polyaniline (PANI) films onto porous silicon layers as an alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) as the electrode.

  18. Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Rong, E-mail: rlongmech@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Dunn, Martin L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-06-21

    Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

  19. Development of Highly Selective Oxidation Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to use Atomic Layer Deposition to construct nanostructured catalysts to improve the effectiveness of oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes. More effective catalysts could enable higher specific conversion rates and result in drastic energy savings - up to 25 trillion Btu per year by 2020.

  20. Engineering Optical Antenna for Efficient Local Field Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seok, Tae Joon

    2012-01-01

    is deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), which hascan be deposited by atomic layer deposition. The materialdeposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In ALD process,

  1. Nanoscale interfacial structure for Novel Opto-electronic and Ion-trapping Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulin-Avila, Erick

    2013-01-01

    is deposited using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Graphenedeposited using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). This layeris deposited using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) process.

  2. Optofluidic Devices for Droplet and Cell Manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei, Shao Ning

    2015-01-01

    constant. Advances in atomic layer deposition (ALD), widelyis then deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) (Picosunlayer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) (Picosun

  3. Optical Properties of Zn(O,S) Thin Films Deposited by RF Sputtering, Atomic Layer Deposition, and Chemical Bath Deposition: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Mann, J.; To, B.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.; Furtak, T. E.; Levi, D.

    2012-06-01

    Zn(O,S) thin films 27 - 100 nm thick were deposited on glass or Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2/Molybdenum/glass with RF sputtering, atomic layer deposition, and chemical bath deposition.

  4. Molecular layer deposition of alucone films using trimethylaluminum and hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, Devika; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid organic–inorganic polymer film grown by molecular layer deposition (MLD) is demonstrated here. Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum [Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and hydroquinone [C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}] are used to deposit the polymeric films, which is a representative of a class of aluminum oxide polymers known as “alucones.” In-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies are employed to determine the growth characteristics. An average growth rate of 4.1 Å per cycle at 150?°C is obtained by QCM and subsequently verified with x-ray reflectivity measurements. Surface chemistry during each MLD-half cycle is studied in depth by in-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) vibration spectroscopy. Self limiting nature of the reaction is confirmed from both QCM and FTIR measurements. The conformal nature of the deposit, typical for atomic layer deposition and MLD, is verified with transmission electron microscopy imaging. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements confirm the uniform elemental distribution along the depth of the films.

  5. Optical properties of Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avrutsky, Ivan

    Optical properties of Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition Pradeep Kumar,1, * Monika K); published 25 September 2009 We employed the atomic layer deposition technique to grow Al2O3 films fabricated by atomic layer deposition. © 2009 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 310.6860, 310.2790, 160

  6. Atomic-layer-deposited zinc oxide as tunable uncooled infrared microbolometer material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akin, Tayfun

    Atomic-layer-deposited zinc oxide as tunable uncooled infrared microbolometer material Enes Battal1 May 2014, accepted 31 May 2014 Published online 7 July 2014 Keywords atomic layer deposition investigate the application potential of atomic-layer-deposited ZnO in uncooled micro- bolometers

  7. Atomic Layer Deposition to Fine-Tune the Surface Properties and Diameters of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition to Fine-Tune the Surface Properties and Diameters of Fabricated Nanopores 02138 Received April 23, 2004; Revised Manuscript Received May 12, 2004 ABSTRACT Atomic layer deposition. The control over the chemical and physical nature of the pore surface provided by atomic layer deposition

  8. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.

  9. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing,more »between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.« less

  10. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn Ren, Wei E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ye, Zuo-Guang E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-07

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7?nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210?K. After post-annealing in H{sub 2}/Ar at 400?°C, the as-grown ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample is reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications.

  11. Effects of Ar plasma treatment for deposition of ruthenium film by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Taeyong; Lee, Jaesang; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Lee, Ki-Hoon; Cho, Byung-Chul; Kim, Moo-Sung; Ahn, Heui-Bok

    2012-01-15

    Ruthenium thin films were deposited on argon plasma-treated SiO{sub 2} and untreated SiO{sub 2} substrates by remote plasma atomic layer deposition using bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium [Ru(EtCp){sub 2}] as a Ru precursor and ammonia plasma as a reactant. The results of in situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis indicate that the initial transient region of Ru deposition was decreased by Ar plasma treatment at 400 deg. C, but did not change significantly at 300 deg. C The deposition rate exhibited linearity after continuous film formation and the deposition rates were about 1.7 A/cycle and 0.4 A/cycle at 400 deg. C and 300 deg. C, respectively. Changes of surface energy and polar and dispersive components were measured by the sessile drop test. The quantity of surface amine groups was measured from the surface nitrogen concentration with AES. Furthermore, the Ar plasma-treated SiO{sub 2} contained more amine groups and less hydroxyl groups on the surface than on untreated SiO{sub 2}. Auger spectra exhibited chemical shifts by Ru-O bonding, and larger shifts were observed on untreated substrates due to the strong adhesion of Ru films.

  12. Metal Optics Based nanoLEDs: In Search of a Fast, Efficient, Nanoscale Light Emitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggleston, Michael Scott

    2015-01-01

    is loaded into an atomic layer deposition (ALD) machine andis loaded into an atomic layer deposition (ALD) machine andsample into an atomic layer deposition (ALD) machine (such

  13. Synergistic experimental and theoretical approach to atomic-level surface and interface science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grassman, Tyler J.

    2007-01-01

    usually grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Theseusually grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Theseconfiguration models atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth in

  14. Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition M. Alevli properties of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition have been studied. Raman, infrared at elevated temperatures, a high-pressure chemical vapor deposition HPCVD system has been established at GSU.6

  15. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenberg, DA; Yu, M; Lam, CW; Ogunseitan, OA; Schoenung, JM

    2013-01-01

    deposition; ALD, atomic layer deposition; ILGAR, ion layerdeposition; ALD, atomic layer deposition. D.A. Eisenberg et

  16. ALD Nanosolutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton JumpProgram |RecentSulfonateAFVAGO AG EnergieALD Nanosolutions

  17. High Voltage GaN-on-Si Field-Effect Transistors for Switching Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    layer quality, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is recentlyfollowed by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of Al 2 O 3 as the

  18. Process for ion-assisted laser deposition of biaxially textured layer on substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russo, R.E.; Reade, R.P.; Garrison, S.M.; Berdahl, P.

    1995-07-11

    A process for depositing a biaxially aligned intermediate layer over a non-single crystal substrate is disclosed which permits the subsequent deposition thereon of a biaxially oriented superconducting film. The process comprises depositing on a substrate by laser ablation a material capable of being biaxially oriented and also capable of inhibiting the migration of substrate materials through the intermediate layer into such a superconducting film, while simultaneously bombarding the substrate with an ion beam. In a preferred embodiment, the deposition is carried out in the same chamber used to subsequently deposit a superconducting film over the intermediate layer. In a further aspect of the invention, the deposition of the superconducting layer over the biaxially oriented intermediate layer is also carried out by laser ablation with optional additional bombardment of the coated substrate with an ion beam during the deposition of the superconducting film. 8 figs.

  19. Process for ion-assisted laser deposition of biaxially textured layer on substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA); Reade, Ronald P. (Berkeley, CA); Garrison, Stephen M. (Palo Alto, CA); Berdahl, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A process for depositing a biaxially aligned intermediate layer over a non-single crystal substrate is disclosed which permits the subsequent deposition thereon of a biaxially oriented superconducting film. The process comprises depositing on a substrate by laser ablation a material capable of being biaxially oriented and also capable of inhibiting the migration of substrate materials through the intermediate layer into such a superconducting film, while simultaneously bombarding the substrate with an ion beam. In a preferred embodiment, the deposition is carried out in the same chamber used to subsequently deposit a superconducting film over the intermediate layer. In a further aspect of the invention, the deposition of the superconducting layer over the biaxially oriented intermediate layer is also carried out by laser ablation with optional additional bombardment of the coated substrate with an ion beam during the deposition of the superconducting film.

  20. Oriented growth of pentacene films on vacuum-deposited polytetrafluoroethylene layers aligned by rubbing technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Prelipceanu; O. S. Prelipceanu; O. G. Tudose; K. Grytsenko; S. Schrader

    2007-04-04

    We investigated structure and morphology of PTFE layers deposited by vacuum process in dependence on deposition parameters: deposition rate, deposition temperature, electron activation energy and activation current. Pentacene (PnC) layers deposited on top of those PTFE films are used as a tool to demonstrate the orienting ability of the PTFE layers. The molecular structure of the PTFE films was investigated by use of infrared spectroscopy. By means of ellipsometry, values of refractive index between 1.33 and 1.36 have been obtained for PTFE films in dependence on deposition conditions. Using the cold friction technique orienting PTFE layers with unidirectional grooves are obtained. On top of these PTFE films oriented PnC layers were grown. The obtained order depends both on the PTFE layer thickness and on PnC growth temperature.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Silicon Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by NREL at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about atomic layer deposition for...

  2. Ozone-Based Atomic Layer Deposition of Crystalline V2O5Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ozone-Based Atomic Layer Deposition of Crystalline V2O5Films for High Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ozone-Based Atomic Layer...

  3. Atomic Layer Deposition Enabled Synthesis of Multiferroic Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Calvin Dinh-Tu

    2015-01-01

    deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Pt/M. and et al. (1993). "Chemical vapour deposition of high-Tand J. P. Chang (2012). "Chemical Processing of Materials on

  4. DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200506377 Atomic Layer Deposition of Praseodymium Aluminum Oxide for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and lutetium oxide,[8] the ALD of Pr2O3 presented some difficulties in achieving the excellent electrical

  5. Homogeneous, dual layer, solid state, thin film deposition for structural and/or electrochemical characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Li, Wenming

    2014-04-08

    Solid state, thin film, electrochemical devices (10) and methods of making the same are disclosed. An exemplary device 10 includes at least one electrode (14) and an electrolyte (16) deposited on the electrode (14). The electrolyte (16) includes at least two homogenous layers of discrete physical properties. The two homogenous layers comprise a first dense layer (15) and a second porous layer (16).

  6. On the reliability of nanoindentation hardness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown on Si-wafer by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xuwen, E-mail: xuwen.liu@aalto.fi; Haimi, Eero; Hannula, Simo-Pekka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Vuorimiehentie 2A, FI-00076 Espoo (Finland); Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, FI-02044 Espoo (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    The interest in applying thin films on Si-wafer substrate for microelectromechanical systems devices by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) has raised the demand on reliable mechanical property data of the films. This study aims to find a quick method for obtaining nanoindentation hardness of thin films on silicon with improved reliability. This is achieved by ensuring that the film hardness is determined under the condition that no plastic deformation occurs in the substrate. In the study, ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films having thickness varying from 10 to 600?nm were deposited on a single-side polished silicon wafer at 300?°C. A sharp cube-corner indenter was used for the nanoindentation measurements. A thorough study on the Si-wafer reference revealed that at a specific contact depth of about 8?nm the wafer deformation in loading transferred from elastic to elastic–plastic state. Furthermore, the occurrence of this transition was associated with a sharp increase of the power-law exponent, m, when the unloading data were fitted to a power-law relation. Since m is only slightly material dependent and should fall between 1.2 and 1.6 for different indenter geometry having elastic contact to common materials, it is proposed that the high m values are the results from the inelastic events during unloading. This inelasticity is linked to phase transformations during pressure releasing, a unique phenomenon widely observed in single crystal silicon. Therefore, it is concluded that m could be used to monitor the mechanical state of the Si substrate when the whole coating system is loaded. A suggested indentation depth range can then be assigned to each film thickness to provide guidelines for obtaining reliable property data. The results show good consistence for films thicker than 20?nm and the nanoindentation hardness is about 11?GPa independent of film thickness.

  7. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hyunsoo [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hagyoung; Ham, Giyul; Shin, Seokyoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-21

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition have been used for thin film encapsulation of organic light emitting diode. In this study, a multi-density layer structure consisting of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers with different densities are deposited with different deposition conditions of O{sub 2} plasma reactant time. This structure improves moisture permeation barrier characteristics, as confirmed by a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) test. The lowest WVTR of the multi-density layer structure was 4.7 × 10{sup ?5} gm{sup ?2} day{sup ?1}, which is one order of magnitude less than WVTR for the reference single-density Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. This improvement is attributed to the location mismatch of paths for atmospheric gases, such as O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, in the film due to different densities in the layers. This mechanism is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed that the multi-density layer structure exhibits very good characteristics as an encapsulation layer via location mismatch of paths for H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} between the two layers.

  8. Conduction mechanisms in thin atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spahr, Holger; Montzka, Sebastian; Reinker, Johannes; Hirschberg, Felix; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Johannes, Hans-Hermann, E-mail: h2.johannes@ihf.tu-bs.de [Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Schleinitzstraße 22, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-11-14

    Thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers of 2–135?nm thickness deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition at 80?°C were characterized regarding the current limiting mechanisms by increasing voltage ramp stress. By analyzing the j(U)-characteristics regarding ohmic injection, space charge limited current (SCLC), Schottky-emission, Fowler-Nordheim-tunneling, and Poole-Frenkel-emission, the limiting mechanisms were identified. This was performed by rearranging and plotting the data in a linear scale, such as Schottky-plot, Poole-Frenkel-plot, and Fowler-Nordheim-plot. Linear regression then was applied to the data to extract the values of relative permittivity from Schottky-plot slope and Poole-Frenkel-plot slope. From Fowler-Nordheim-plot slope, the Fowler-Nordheim-energy-barrier was extracted. Example measurements in addition to a statistical overview of the results of all investigated samples are provided. Linear regression was applied to the region of the data that matches the realistic values most. It is concluded that ohmic injection and therefore SCLC only occurs at thicknesses below 12?nm and that the Poole-Frenkel-effect is no significant current limiting process. The extracted Fowler-Nordheim-barriers vary in the range of up to approximately 4?eV but do not show a specific trend. It is discussed whether the negative slope in the Fowler-Nordheim-plot could in some cases be a misinterpreted trap filled limit in the case of space charge limited current.

  9. Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sunny, Steffi; Vogel, Nicolas; Howell, Caitlin; Vu, Thy L.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introducemore »sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. As a result, the LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.« less

  10. Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, Steffi; Vogel, Nicolas; Howell, Caitlin; Vu, Thy L.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introduce sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. As a result, the LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.

  11. Lubricant-Infused Nanoparticulate Coatings Assembled by Layer-by-Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, S; Vogel, N; Howell, C; Vu, TL; Aizenberg, J

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introduce sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. The LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.

  12. Stress reduction in sputter deposited films using nanostructured compliant layers by high working-gas pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Stress reduction in sputter deposited films using nanostructured compliant layers by high working October 2004; accepted 13 December 2004; published 27 June 2005 We present a strategy of stress reduction as a compliant layer to reduce the stress of the subsequently deposited continuous film grown under low gas

  13. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1999-08-10

    A novel field emitter device is disclosed for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials. 8 figs.

  14. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Friedmann, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

  15. RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THINFILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    THESIS RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Lei Chen LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS BE AC- CEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin­film solar cells are developing dramatically

  16. Density functional theory study of first-layer adsorption of ZrO2 and HfO2 on Ge(100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    in this manuscript), usually grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). These oxides, under normal Ge process- ingDensity functional theory study of first-layer adsorption of ZrO2 and HfO2 on Ge(100) T.J. Grassman

  17. ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR- contacted rear being either passivated by atomic-layer- deposited Al2O3 or by stacks consisting-Si passivation to thermal processes. ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED Al2O3 Recently, it was shown that thin films

  18. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide buffer layer on a textured substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.

    2003-09-09

    An article with an improved buffer layer architecture includes a substrate having a textured metal surface, and an electrically conductive lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The article can also include an epitaxial superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. An epitaxial capping layer can be placed between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article includes providing a substrate with a metal surface and depositing on the metal surface a lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer. The method can further include depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial buffer layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

  19. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide buffer layer on a textured substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.

    2005-10-18

    An article with an improved buffer layer architecture includes a substrate having a textured metal surface, and an electrically conductive lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The article can also include an epitaxial superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. An epitaxial capping layer can be placed between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article includes providing a substrate with a metal surface and depositing on the metal surface a lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer. The method can further include depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial buffer layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

  20. Detailed stratigraphy and bed thickness of the Mars north and south polar layered deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limaye, Ajay B. S.

    The Mars polar layered deposits (PLD) likely hold an extensive record of recent climate during a period of high-amplitude orbit and obliquity cycles. Previous work has detected limited evidence for orbital signatures within ...

  1. Microscopic Characterization of Individual Submicron Bubbles during the Layer-by-Layer Deposition: Towards Creating Smart Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riku Kato; Hiroshi Frusawa

    2015-07-11

    We investigated the individual properties of various polyion-coated bubbles with a mean diameter ranging from 300 to 500 nm. Dark field microscopy allows one to track the individual particles of the submicron bubbles (SBs) encapsulated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes (PEs). Our focus is on the two-step charge reversals of PE-SB complexes: the first is a reversal from negatively charged bare SBs with no PEs added to positive SBs encapsulated by polycations (monolayer deposition), and the second is overcharging into negatively charged PE-SB complexes due to the subsequent addition of polyanions (double-layer deposition). The details of these phenomena have been clarified through the analysis of a number of trajectories of various PE-SB complexes that experience either Brownian motion or electrophoresis. The contrasted results obtained from the analysis were as follows: an amount in excess of the stoichiometric ratio of the cationic polymers was required for the first charge-reversal, whereas the stoichiometric addition of the polyanions lead to the electrical neutralization of the PE-SB complex particles. The recovery of the stoichiometry in the double-layer deposition paves the way for fabricating multi-layered SBs encapsulated solely with anionic and cationic PEs, which provides a simple protocol to create smart agents for either drug delivery or ultrasound contrast imaging.

  2. Atomic imaging and modeling of passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition nucleation of the SiGe(001) surface via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Atomic imaging and modeling of passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition Atomic layer deposition X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer\\OH and Ge\\O bonds while annealing induces an atomic layer ex- change bringing Si to the surface to bond

  3. Fabrication of layered self-standing diamond film by dc arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. C.; Dai, F. W.; Li, B.; Lan, H.; Askari, J.; Tang, W. Z.; Lu, F. X.

    2007-01-15

    Layered self-standing diamond films, consisting of an upper layer, buffer layer, and a lower layer, were fabricated by fluctuating the ratio of methane to hydrogen in high power dc arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition. There were micrometer-sized columnar diamond crystalline grains in both upper layer and lower layer. The size of the columnar diamond crystalline grains was bigger in the upper layer than that in the lower layer. The orientation of the upper layer was (110), while it was (111) for the lower layer. Raman results showed that no sp{sup 3} peak shift was found in the upper layer, but it was found and blueshifted in the lower layer. This indicated that the internal stress within the film body could be tailored by this layered structure. The buffer layer with nanometer-sized diamond grains formed by secondary nucleation was necessary in order to form the layered film. Growth rate was over 10 {mu}m/h in layered self-standing diamond film fabrication.

  4. Method of deposition of silicon carbide layers on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelini, P.; DeVore, C.E.; Lackey, W.J.; Blanco, R.E.; Stinton, D.P.

    1982-03-19

    A method for direct chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide to substrates, especially nuclear waste particles, is provided by the thermal decomposition of methylsilane at 800 to 1050/sup 0/C when the substrates have been confined within a suitable coating environment.

  5. Effects of varying CoCrV seed layer deposition pressure on Ru crystallinity in perpendicular magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joost, W. [Heraeus Materials Technology, Chandler, Arizona 85226 (United States); School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Das, A. [Heraeus Materials Technology, Chandler, Arizona 85226 (United States); Alford, T. L. [School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The effects of varying deposition parameters of a CoCrV seed layer under Ru on the structural and interfacial properties of both layers were studied. While sputtering power showed little effect on film structure, sputtering pressure during deposition of the seed layer had a significant effect on the structural properties of the seed layer. In particular, the grain morphology and crystallinity of the seed layer varied considerably with deposition pressure. Deposition of Ru using a constant recipe for all samples demonstrated the effect of varying seed layer deposition pressure on the Ru layer. The strain energy of the Ru film, a measurement of contraction due to the registry with the seed layer, was greatest at moderate seed layer sputtering pressures, while the Ru(0002) peak area was greatest at low sputtering pressures. The competing contributions of interfacial energy and strain energy describe this effect, with interfacial energy dominating at low sputtering pressures.

  6. Passivation layer on polyimide deposited by combined plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition and cathodic vacuum arc technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Z. J.; Tay, B. K.; Sze, J. Y.; Ha, P. C. T.

    2007-05-15

    A thin passivation layer of aluminum oxide was deposited on polyimide by using the combined plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D) and cathodic vacuum arc technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy C 1s spectra showed that the carbonyl bond (C=O) and ether group (C-O-C and C-N-C) presented in pristine polyimide were damaged by implantation of aluminum ions and deposition of an aluminum oxide passivation layer. O 1s and Al 2p spectra confirmed the formation of a thin aluminum oxide passivation layer. This passivation layer can be implemented in aerospace engineering where polyimide may suffer degradation from fast atomic oxygen in the low-earth-orbit environment. To test the protection of this passivation layer to energetic oxygen ions, a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system was used to simulate the oxygen-ion irradiation, and the results showed that a higher weight occurred for passivated samples compared to pristine ones. X-ray diffraction showed that Al peaks were presented on the surface region, but no aluminum oxide peak was detected. The authors then concluded that Al clusters were formed in polyimide besides aluminum oxide, which was in an x-ray amorphous state. Furthermore, contact-angle measurements showed a reduced contact angle for passivated polyimide from a pristine value of 78 deg. to 20 deg. by using deionized water. Several discussions have been made on the surface chemical and structural property changes by using the combined PIII and D and cathodic vacuum arc technique.

  7. Impact of composition and crystallization behavior of atomic layer deposited strontium titanate films on the resistive switching of Pt/STO/TiN devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aslam, N.; Rodenbücher, C.; Szot, K.; Waser, R.; Hoffmann-Eifert, S., E-mail: su.hoffmann@fz-juelich.de [Peter-Grünberg Institute (PGI-7), Forschungszentrum Jülich and JARA-FIT, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Longo, V.; Roozeboom, F.; Kessels, W. M. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-08-14

    The resistive switching (RS) properties of strontium titanate (Sr{sub 1+x}Ti{sub 1+y}O{sub 3+(x+2y)}, STO) based metal-oxide-metal structures prepared from industrial compatible processes have been investigated focusing on the effects of composition, microstructure, and device size. Metastable perovskite STO films were prepared on Pt-coated Si substrates utilizing plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) from cyclopentadienyl-based metal precursors and oxygen plasma at 350?°C, and a subsequent annealing at 600?°C in nitrogen. Films of 15?nm and 12?nm thickness with three different compositions [Sr]/([Sr]?+?[Ti]) of 0.57 (Sr-rich STO), 0.50 (stoichiometric STO), and 0.46 (Ti-rich STO) were integrated into Pt/STO/TiN crossbar structures with sizes ranging from 100??m{sup 2} to 0.01??m{sup 2}. Nano-structural characterizations revealed a clear effect of the composition of the as-deposited STO films on their crystallization behavior and thus on the final microstructures. Local current maps obtained by local-conductivity atomic force microscopy were in good agreement with local changes of the films' microstructures. Correspondingly, also the initial leakage currents of the Pt/STO/TiN devices were affected by the STO compositions and by the films' microstructures. An electroforming process set the Pt/STO/TiN devices into the ON-state, while the forming voltage decreased with increasing initial leakage current. After a RESET process under opposite voltage has been performed, the Pt/STO/TiN devices showed a stable bipolar RS behavior with non-linear current-voltage characteristics for the high (HRS) and the low (LRS) resistance states. The obtained switching polarity and nearly area independent LRS values agree with a filamentary character of the RS behavior according to the valence change mechanism. The devices of 0.01??m{sup 2} size with a 12?nm polycrystalline stoichiometric STO film were switched at a current compliance of 50??A with voltages of about ±1.0?V between resistance states of about 40?k? (LRS) and 1 M? (HRS). After identification of the influences of the films' microstructures, i.e., grain boundaries and small cracks, the remaining RS properties could be ascribed to the effect of the [Sr]/([Sr]?+?[Ti]) composition of the ALD STO thin films.

  8. Cathode encapsulation of organic light emitting diodes by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keuning, W.; Weijer, P. van de; Lifka, H.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, P.O. Box WAG12, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films synthesized by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) at room temperature (25 deg. C) have been tested as water vapor permeation barriers for organic light emitting diode devices. Silicon nitride films (a-SiN{sub x}:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition served as reference and were used to develop Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks. On the basis of Ca test measurements, a very low intrinsic water vapor transmission rate of {<=} 2 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} and 4 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} (20 deg. C/50% relative humidity) were found for 20-40 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 300 nm a-SiN{sub x}:H films, respectively. The cathode particle coverage was a factor of 4 better for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films compared to the a-SiN{sub x}:H films and an average of 0.12 defects per cm{sup 2} was obtained for a stack consisting of three barrier layers (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}).

  9. ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

    2009-11-03

    The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

  10. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study of copper selective-area atomic layer deposition on palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Han; Qi, Jie; Willis, Brian G.

    2014-07-01

    Selective area copper atomic layer deposition on palladium seed layers has been investigated with in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry to probe the adsorption/desorption and reaction characteristics of individual deposition cycles. The reactants are copper bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate) vapor and hydrogen gas. Self-limiting atomic layer deposition was observed in the temperature range of 135–230?°C in a low pressure reactor. Under optimal conditions, growth occurs selectively on palladium and not on silicon dioxide or silicon nitride layers. Based on in-situ ellipsometry data and supporting experiments, a new mechanism for growth is proposed. In the proposed mechanism, precursor adsorption is reversible, and dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen are the stable surface intermediates between growth cycles. The mechanism is enabled by continuous diffusion of palladium from the seed layer into the deposited copper film and strong H* binding to palladium sites. Less intermixing can be obtained at low growth temperatures and short cycle times by minimizing Cu/Pd inter-diffusion.

  11. Selective Chemistry of Metal Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition on Si Based Substrate Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    treatment of the silylated IBM 2 and 4 wafers returns theirCHAPTER 4. SELECTIVE ALD ON IBM WAFERS SURFACE BY COMBINING71 FIGURE 4.1 ATR trace for native IBM 1, 2, 3 and 4

  12. Selective Chemistry of Metal Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition on Si Based Substrate Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    and M. Ritala, ALD precursor chemistry: Evolution and futureCells. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2009. 113(31): p.Cells. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2010. 114(21): p.

  13. Process Improvements for Gas Barrier Thin Films Deposited Via Layer-By-Layer Assembly 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagen, David Austin

    2015-05-04

    Thin layers of aluminum have provided good oxygen barrier for food packaging for many years, but aluminum coatings can easily crack, are completely opaque, and are not environmentally friendly. One gas barrier solution for food, to flexible...

  14. Detecting sub-glacial aquifers in the north polar layered deposits with Mars Express/MARSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    effects, local geothermal hot spots, or heat-generating glacial sliding. Ice cap basal melting mayDetecting sub-glacial aquifers in the north polar layered deposits with Mars Express/MARSIS W. M into the polar ice mass is modeled to determine the capability of the instrument to locate sub-glacial aquifers

  15. Reading the climate record of the martian polar layered deposits C.S. Hvidberg a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Shane

    . The stratigraphy of these deposits is exposed within scarps and trough walls and is thought to have formed due to reproduce complex layer sequences. The comparison with observations cannot uniquely constrain the PLD stratigraphy. This model dates the top 500 m of the NPLD back to $1 million years with an average net

  16. Resuspension of Small Particles from Multilayer Deposits in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Zhang; M. Reeks; M. Kissane; R. J. Perkins

    2012-06-09

    We present a hybrid stochastic model for the resuspension of micron-size particles from multilayer deposits in a fully-developed turbulent boundary layer. The rate of removal of particles from any given layer depends upon the rate of removal of particles from the layer above which acts as a source of uncovering and exposure of particles to the resuspending flow. The primary resuspension rate constant for an individual particle within a layer is based on the Rock'n'Roll (R'n'R) model using non-Gaussian statistics for the aerodynamic forces acting on the particles (Zhang et al., 2012). The coupled layer equations that describe multilayer resuspension of all the particles in each layer are based on the generic lattice model of Friess & Yadigaroglu (2001) which is extended here to include the influence of layer coverage and particle size distribution. We consider the influence of layer thickness on the resuspension along with the spread of adhesion within layers, and the statistics of non-Gaussian versus Gaussian removal forces including their timescale. Unlike its weak influence on long-term resuspension rates for monolayers, this timescale plays a crucial and influential role in multilayer resuspension. Finally we compare model predictions with those of a large-scale and a mesoscale resuspension test, STORM (Castelo et al., 1999) and BISE (Alloul-Marmor, 2002).

  17. Fabricating amorphous silicon solar cells by varying the temperature _of the substrate during deposition of the amorphous silicon layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA)

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for fabricating amorphous silicon solar cells in which the temperature of the substrate is varied during the deposition of the amorphous silicon layer is described. Solar cells manufactured in accordance with this process are shown to have increased efficiencies and fill factors when compared to solar cells manufactured with a constant substrate temperature during deposition of the amorphous silicon layer.

  18. Effects of Adsorbed Pyridine Derivatives and Ultrathin Atomic-Layer-Deposited Alumina Coatings on the Conduction Band-Edge Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of Adsorbed Pyridine Derivatives and Ultrathin Atomic-Layer- Deposited Alumina Coatings the adsorption of t-butylpyridine and the atomic- layer deposition of ultrathin conformal coatings of insulators and the concomitant suppression of dark current does not require the coordination of surface Ti(IV) or Al(III) atoms

  19. Fracture properties of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide free-standing membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdova, Maria, E-mail: maria.berdova@aalto.fi; Rontu, Ville; Franssila, Sami [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044VTT (Finland); Törmä, Pekka T. [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2015-01-01

    The fracture strength of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes deposited by atomic layer deposition at 110, 150, 200, and 300?°C was investigated. The fracture strength was found to be in the range of 2.25–3.00?GPa using Weibull statistics and nearly constant as a function of deposition temperature. This strength is superior to common microelectromechanical systems materials such as diamondlike carbon, SiO{sub 2}, or SiC. As-deposited membranes sustained high cycling pressure loads >10 bar/s without fracture. Films featured, however, significant reduction in the resistance to failure after annealing (800?°C) or high humidity (95%, 60?°C) treatments.

  20. Method of depositing a protective layer over a biaxially textured alloy substrate and composition therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Feenstra, Roeland (Knoxville, TN); Norton, David P. (Gainesville, FL)

    2002-01-01

    A laminate article consists of a substrate and a biaxially textured protective layer over the substrate. The substrate can be biaxially textured and also have reduced magnetism over the magnetism of Ni. The substrate can be selected from the group consisting of nickel, copper, iron, aluminum, silver and alloys containing any of the foregoing. The protective layer can be selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and nickel and alloys containing any of the foregoing. The protective layer is also non-oxidizable under conditions employed to deposit a desired, subsequent oxide buffer layer. Layers of YBCO, CeO.sub.2, YSZ, LaAlO.sub.3, SrTiO.sub.3, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrRuO.sub.3, LaNiO.sub.3 and La.sub.2 ZrO.sub.3 can be deposited over the protective layer. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  1. High-performance self-aligned inversion-channel In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors by in-situ atomic-layer-deposited HfO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, T. D.; Chang, W. H.; Chang, Y. C.; Hong, M., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chu, R. L.; Chang, Y. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lee, M. Y.; Hong, P. F.; Chen, Min-Cheng [National Nano Device Laboratories, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)] [National Nano Device Laboratories, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Kwo, J., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-16

    Self-aligned inversion-channel In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) have been fabricated using the gate dielectrics of in-situ directly atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) HfO{sub 2} followed by ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. There were no surface pretreatments and no interfacial passivation/barrier layers prior to the ALD. TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (4?nm)/HfO{sub 2} (1?nm)/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/InP MOS capacitors exhibited well-behaved capacitance-voltage characteristics with true inversion behavior, low leakage current densities of ?10{sup ?8}?A/cm{sup 2} at ±1?MV/cm, and thermodynamic stability at high temperatures. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3?nm)/HfO{sub 2} (1?nm)/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As MOSFETs of 1 ?m gate length, with 700?°C–800?°C rapid thermal annealing in source/drain activation, have exhibited high extrinsic drain current (I{sub D}) of 1.5?mA/?m, transconductance (G{sub m}) of 0.84 mS/?m, I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} of ?10{sup 4}, low sub-threshold swing of 103?mV/decade, and field-effect electron mobility of 1100 cm{sup 2}/V?·?s. The devices have also achieved very high intrinsic I{sub D} and G{sub m} of 2?mA/?m and 1.2?mS/?m, respectively.

  2. Atomic layer deposition growth of a novel mixed-phase barrier for seedless copper electroplating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sumit; Greenslit, Daniel; Chakraborty, Tonmoy; Eisenbraun, Eric T. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 251 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    A novel plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition-grown mixed-phase/nanolaminate Ru-TaN barrier has been investigated, and it was confirmed that the copper diffusion barrier and direct-plate characteristics of the mixed-phase barrier can be modulated by varying the metal ratio in the film. This liner was subsequently optimized to yield a composition that combines the robust barrier properties of TaN with direct-plate characteristics of Ru. It was found that the deposited multicomponent system consists of individual crystalline and amorphous phase regions distributed across the barrier. The resulting optimized mixed-phase barrier was found to exhibit excellent copper diffusion barrier characteristics in layers as thin as 2 nm. A high degree of (111) texture (>84%) was observed for the direct-plated copper on this Ru-TaN barrier, which was very similar to the electroplated Cu deposited on a physical vapor deposition copper-seed control sample. Additionally, the filling characteristics in sub-50-nm features were found to be equivalent to those of conventionally copper-seeded interconnect structures.

  3. Conductance Quantization of Massless Dirac Fermions and the Synthesis, Characterization, and Manipulation of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girit, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    bilayer graphene by atomic layer deposition (ALD) (a,b) andfilm deposition is atomic-layer deposition (ALD), which isbilayer graphene by atomic layer deposition (ALD) (a,b) and

  4. Development of ZnO Based Light Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Jieying

    2012-01-01

    PLD), [54-57] atomic layer deposition, [58,59] reactiveALD deposition Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a self-transferred on the atomic layer deposition ( ALD) furnace

  5. Niobium boride layers deposition on the surface AISI D2 steel by a duplex treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kon, O.; Pazarlioglu, S.

    2015-03-30

    In this paper, we investigated the possibility of deposition of niobium boride layers on the surface of AISI D2 steel by a duplex treatment. At the first step of duplex treatment, boronizing was performed on AISI D2 steel samples at 1000{sup o}C for 2h and then pre-boronized samples niobized at 850°C, 900°C and 950°C using thermo-reactive deposition method for 1–4 h. The presence of the niobium boride layers such as NbB, NbB{sub 2} and Nb{sub 3}B{sub 4} and also iron boride phases such as FeB, Fe{sub 2}B were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-hardness measurements were realized. Experimental studies showed that the depth of the coating layers increased with increasing temperature and times and also ranged from 0.42 µm to 2.43 µm, depending on treatment time and temperature. The hardness of the niobium boride layer was 2620±180 HV{sub 0.005}.

  6. Mechanisms of Atomic Layer Deposition on Substrates with Ultrahigh Aspect Ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a very promising method for controlled coating of the inner surfaces of monolithic nanoporous aerogel (AG suited for coating substrates with ultrahigh aspect ratios (J103), including nanoporous solids. Here, we study the ALD of Cu and Cu3N on the inner surfaces of low-density nanoporous silica aerogel monoliths

  7. Graphene layer growth on silicon substrates with nickel film by pulse arc plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, K.; Banno, K.; Aryal, H. R.; Egawa, T.

    2012-10-15

    Carbon layer has been grown on a Ni/SiO{sub 2}/Si(111) substrate under high vacuum pressure by pulse arc plasma deposition. From the results of Raman spectroscopy for the sample, it is found that graphene was formed by ex-situ annealing of sample grown at room temperature. Furthermore, for the sample grown at high temperature, graphene formation was shown and optimum temperature was around 1000 Degree-Sign C. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the sample suggests that the graphene was grown from step site caused by grain of Ni film. The results show that the pulse arc plasma technique has the possibility for acquiring homogenous graphene layer with controlled layer thickness.

  8. Arsenic decapping and pre-atomic layer deposition trimethylaluminum passivation of Al2O3/InGaAs(100) interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Arsenic decapping and pre-atomic layer deposition trimethylaluminum passivation of Al2O3/InGaAs(100 traps in atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/GaAs (001) metal-oxide- semiconductor capacitors using atmospheric of atomic layer deposition temperature on HfO2/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor interface properties J. Appl

  9. Atomic imaging and modeling of H2O2(g) surface passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition nucleation on the Ge(100) surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    and unpinning of a compound semiconductor surface during atomic layer deposition J. Chem. Phys. 133, 154704 and modeling of H2O2(g) surface passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition nucleation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition nucleation via H2O2(g) and trimethylalu- minum (TMA) dosing

  10. Current transport mechanisms in plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited AlN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altuntas, Halit E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-04-21

    Here, we report on the current transport mechanisms in AlN thin films deposited at a low temperature (i.e., 200?°C) on p-type Si substrates by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. Structural characterization of the deposited AlN was carried out using grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, revealing polycrystalline films with a wurtzite (hexagonal) structure. Al/AlN/ p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor structures were fabricated and investigated under negative bias by performing current-voltage measurements. As a function of the applied electric field, different types of current transport mechanisms were observed; i.e., ohmic conduction (15.2–21.5 MV/m), Schottky emission (23.6–39.5 MV/m), Frenkel-Poole emission (63.8–211.8 MV/m), trap-assisted tunneling (226–280 MV/m), and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (290–447 MV/m). Electrical properties of the insulating AlN layer and the fabricated Al/AlN/p-Si MIS capacitor structure such as dielectric constant, flat-band voltage, effective charge density, and threshold voltage were also determined from the capacitance-voltage measurements.

  11. MoS{sub 2} functionalization for ultra-thin atomic layer deposited dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azcatl, Angelica; McDonnell, Stephen; Santosh, K.C.; Peng, Xin; Dong, Hong; Qin, Xiaoye; Addou, Rafik; Lu, Ning; Kim, Moon J.; Cho, Kyeongjae; Wallace, Robert M., E-mail: rmwallace@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Mordi, Greg I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Kim, Jiyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-03-17

    The effect of room temperature ultraviolet-ozone (UV-O{sub 3}) exposure of MoS{sub 2} on the uniformity of subsequent atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is investigated. It is found that a UV-O{sub 3} pre-treatment removes adsorbed carbon contamination from the MoS{sub 2} surface and also functionalizes the MoS{sub 2} surface through the formation of a weak sulfur-oxygen bond without any evidence of molybdenum-sulfur bond disruption. This is supported by first principles density functional theory calculations which show that oxygen bonded to a surface sulfur atom while the sulfur is simultaneously back-bonded to three molybdenum atoms is a thermodynamically favorable configuration. The adsorbed oxygen increases the reactivity of MoS{sub 2} surface and provides nucleation sites for atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The enhanced nucleation is found to be dependent on the thin film deposition temperature.

  12. Synthesis of multiferroic Er-Fe-O thin films by atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.imm.cnr.it; Vangelista, S.; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y. [GEMaC, Université de Versailles St. Quentin en Yvelines-CNRS, Versailles (France); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2014-05-07

    R-Fe-O (R?=?rare earth) compounds have recently attracted high interest as potential new multiferroic materials. Here, we report a method based on the solid-state reaction between Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe layers, respectively grown by atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition, to synthesize Er-Fe-O thin films. The reaction is induced by thermal annealing and evolution of the formed phases is followed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Dominant ErFeO{sub 3} and ErFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases develop following subsequent thermal annealing processes at 850?°C in air and N{sub 2}. Structural, chemical, and morphological characterization of the layers are conducted through X-ray diffraction and reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties are evaluated by magnetic force microscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer, being consistent with the presence of the phases identified by X-ray diffraction. Our results constitute a first step toward the use of cost-effective chemical methods for the synthesis of this class of multiferroic thin films.

  13. Carrier concentration and surface electron accumulation in indium nitride layers grown by high pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    pressure chemical vapor deposition R. P. Bhatta, B. D. Thoms,a A. Weerasekera, A. G. U. Perera, M. Alevli properties of InN layer grown by high pressure chemical vapor deposition have been studied by high-nitride alloys is challenging under low pressure process conditions due to higher equilibrium vapor pressure

  14. SnO2 atomic layer deposition on ZrO2 and Al nanoparticles: Pathway to enhanced thermite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven M.

    SnO2 atomic layer deposition on ZrO2 and Al nanoparticles: Pathway to enhanced thermite materials J of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0414, United States Available online 1 June 2005 Abstract Thermite mixtures with traditional thermite mixtures. One technique to create thermite mixtures with improved contact is to deposit

  15. High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen, E-mail: hfxie@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Feng [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2014-07-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5?nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36?s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductive graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.

  16. Growth mechanism of atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide: A density functional theory approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afshar, Amir; Cadien, Kenneth C., E-mail: kcadien@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

    2013-12-16

    Atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water is studied using density functional theory. The reaction pathways between the precursors and ZnO surface sites are discussed. Both reactions proceed by the formation of intermediate complexes on the surface. The Gibbs free energy of the formation of these complexes is positive at temperatures above ?120?°C and ?200?°C for DEZ and water half-reactions, respectively. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results show that the growth per cycle changes at approximately the same temperatures.

  17. Improved oxidation resistance of organic/inorganic composite atomic layer deposition coated cellulose nanocrystal aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Sean W.; Matthews, David J.; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1148 Kelley Engineering Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Buesch, Christian; Simonsen, John [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels are coated with thin conformal layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using atomic layer deposition to form hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites. Electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} penetrated more than 1500??m into the aerogel for extended precursor pulse and exposure/purge times. The measured profile of coated fiber radius versus depth from the aerogel surface agrees well with simulations of precursor penetration depth in modeled aerogel structures. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CNC aerogel nanocomposites do not show significant thermal degradation below 295?°C as compared with 175?°C for uncoated CNC aerogels, an improvement of over 100?°C.

  18. Stratigraphy and structure of interior layered deposits in west Candor Chasma, Mars, from High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) stereo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Stratigraphy and structure of interior layered deposits in west Candor Chasma, Mars, from High the stratigraphy of two adjacent mounds. Layering tends to dip in the same direction as the local topographic slope rotations. The stratigraphy of two adjacent mounds correlates, but the thicknesses of the units differ. Most

  19. Resistive switching phenomena in TiO{sub x} nanoparticle layers for memory applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goren, Emanuelle; Tsur, Yoed; Ungureanu, Mariana; Zazpe, Raul; Rozenberg, Marcelo; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Fèlix; Stoliar, Pablo

    2014-10-06

    Electrical characteristics of a Co/ TiO{sub x}/Co resistive memory device, fabricated by two different methods, are reported. In addition to crystalline TiO{sub 2} layers fabricated via conventional atomic layer deposition (ALD), an alternative method has been examined, where TiO{sub x} nanoparticle layers were fabricated via sol-gel. The different devices have shown different hysteresis loops with a unique crossing point for the sol-gel devices. A simple qualitative model is introduced to describe the different current-voltage behaviours by suggesting only one active metal-oxide interface for the ALD devices and two active metal-oxide interfaces for the sol-gel devices. Furthermore, we show that the resistive switching behaviour could be easily tuned by proper interface engineering and that despite having a similar active material, different fabrication methods can lead to dissimilar resistive switching properties.

  20. Monolayer passivation of semiconductor surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joon Sung

    2011-01-01

    spectroscopy ALD atomic layer deposition o degree Celsius CBsurface prior to the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al 2 Oof nitridation (e.g. atomic layer deposition (ALD)) would be

  1. ALD: Adaptive Layer Distribution for Scalable Video Jason J. Quinlan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreenan, Cormac J.

    University College Cork, Ireland j.quinlan@cs.ucc.ie Ahmed H. Zahran Electronics and Electrical Communications Department Cairo University, Egypt azahran@eece.cu.edu.eg Cormac J. Sreenan Department of Computer

  2. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2014-10-15

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

  3. Low temperature atomic layer deposited ZnO photo thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oruc, Feyza B.; Aygun, Levent E.; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali K.; Yu, Hyun Yong

    2015-01-01

    ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) are fabricated on Si substrates using atomic layer deposition technique. The growth temperature of ZnO channel layers are selected as 80, 100, 120, 130, and 250?°C. Material characteristics of ZnO films are examined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction methods. Stoichiometry analyses showed that the amount of both oxygen vacancies and interstitial zinc decrease with decreasing growth temperature. Electrical characteristics improve with decreasing growth temperature. Best results are obtained with ZnO channels deposited at 80?°C; I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio is extracted as 7.8 × 10{sup 9} and subthreshold slope is extracted as 0.116 V/dec. Flexible ZnO TFT devices are also fabricated using films grown at 80?°C. I{sub D}–V{sub GS} characterization results showed that devices fabricated on different substrates (Si and polyethylene terephthalate) show similar electrical characteristics. Sub-bandgap photo sensing properties of ZnO based TFTs are investigated; it is shown that visible light absorption of ZnO based TFTs can be actively controlled by external gate bias.

  4. ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.

    2009-05-05

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  5. Thermal chemistry of the Cu-KI5 atomic layer deposition precursor on a copper surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Qiang; Zaera, Francisco, E-mail: zaera@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The thermal chemistry of a Cu(I) ketoiminate complex, Cu-KI5, resulting from the modification of the known Air Products CupraSelect{sup ®} copper CVD precursor Cu(hfac)(tmvs) designed to tether the two ligands via an isopropoxide linker, was studied under ultrahigh vacuum on a Cu(110) single-crystal surface by using a combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption at low temperatures was determined to take place via the displacement of the vinyl ligand by the surface. Molecular desorption was seen at 210?K, and the evolution of Cu(II)-KI5{sub 2} was established to take place at 280?K, presumably from a disproportionation reaction that also leads to the deposition of Cu(0). Other sets of desorption products were seen at 150, 250, and 430?K, all containing copper atoms and small organic moieties with molecular masses below 100 amu. The latter TPD peak in particular indicates significant fragmentation of the ligands, likely at the C–N bond that holds the vinylsilane-isopropoxide moiety tethered to the ketoimine fragment, and possibly also at the union between the vinylsilane and the alkoxide linker. The 430?K temperature measured for this chemistry may set an upper limit for clean Cu film deposition, but since reactivity on the surface was also found to be inhibited at higher surface coverages, it may be delayed to higher temperatures under atomic layer deposition conditions.

  6. Atomic layer deposition and superconducting properties of NbSi films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proslier, Thomas; Elam, Jeffrey W; Claus, Helmut; Becker, Nicholas G; Pellin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition was used to synthesize niobium silicide (NbSi) films with a 1:1 stoichiometry, using NbF5 and Si2H6 as precursors. The growth mechanism at 200oC was examined by in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). This study revealed a self-limiting reaction with a growth rate of 4.5 {\\AA}/cycle. NbSi was found to grow only on oxide-free films prepared using halogenated precursors. The electronic properties, growth rate, chemical composition, and structure of the films were studied over the deposition temperature range 150-400oC. For all temperatures, the films are found to be stoichiometric NbSi (1:1) with no detectable fluorine impurities, amorphous with a density of 6.65g/cm3, and metallic with a resistivity {\\rho}=150 {\\mu}{\\Omega}.cm at 300K for films thicker than 35 nm. The growth rate was nearly constant for deposition temperatures between 150-275oC, but increases above 300oC suggesting the onset of non-self limiting growth. The electronic properties...

  7. Atomic layer deposited zinc tin oxide channel for amorphous oxide thin film transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methods, such as pulsed laser deposition,10 solution deposition,11 inkjet printing12 and combustion13 have

  8. Growth optimization and structural analysis for ferromagnetic Mn-doped ZnO layers deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abouzaid, M.; Ruterana, P.; Liu, C.; Morkoc, H. [SIFCOM UMR 6176 CNRS-ENSICAEN, 6 Boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Department of Electrical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond Virginia 23284 (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The effect of the deposition temperature on the crystalline quality of (Zn,Mn)O is investigated in thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on c-plane sapphire and GaN substrates. The layers are made of a 0.5 {mu}m Mn-doped layer towards the surface on top of a 150 nm pure ZnO buffer. Depending on the deposition temperature, the layers can exhibit a columnar structure; the adjacent domains are rotated from one another by 90 deg. , putting [1010] and [1120] directions face to face. At high Mn concentration the columnar structure is blurred by the formation of Mn rich precipitates. Only one variety of domains is observed at an optimal deposition temperature of 500 deg. C: they are slightly rotated around the [0001] axis (mosaic growth) and bounded by threading dislocations.

  9. Building a Better Capacitor with Thin-Film Atomic Layer Deposition Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, Christopher

    2015-08-28

    The goal of this research is to determine procedures for creating ultra-high capacity supercapacitors by using nanofabrication techniques and high k-value dielectrics. One way to potentially solve the problem of climate change is to switch the source of energy to a source that doesn’t release many tons of greenhouse gases, gases which cause global warming, into the Earth’s atmosphere. These trap in more heat from the Sun’s solar energy and cause global temperatures to rise. Atomic layer deposition will be used to create a uniform thin-film of dielectric to greatly enhance the abilities of our capacitors and will build them on the nanoscale.

  10. Novel Volatile Precursors of Palladium For ALD and CVD Deo V. Shenai,1 Qing Min Wang,1 Jean-Sbastien Lehn,1 and Roy G. Gordon2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel Volatile Precursors of Palladium For ALD and CVD Deo V. Shenai,1 Qing Min Wang,1 Jean@dow.com Introduction Homoleptic Palladium Amidinate (Pd-3) Vapor Pressure of Pd-3 Deposition of Palladium Thin FilmsAccelerated Rate Calorimetry (ARC) Study on Pd-3 Conclusions Heteroleptic Palladium Amidinate and Formamidinate (Pd

  11. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-29

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  12. III-V Multigate Non-Planar Channel Transistor Simulations and Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Kun-Huan

    2012-01-01

    layer deposited by atomic layer deposition for graphene-R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition on suspended single-of Acronyms ALD Atomic layer deposition AM Accumulation mode

  13. Surface Passivation of Nanoporous TiO2 via Atomic Layer Deposition of ZrO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface Passivation of Nanoporous TiO2 via Atomic Layer Deposition of ZrO2 for Solid-State Dye; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: August 22, 2009 We report here the utilization of atomic layer deposition to passivate surface trap states in mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles for solid-state dye

  14. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar; Okyay, Ali K.; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  15. Electrical properties of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide on gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esposto, Michele; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Bajaj, Sanyam; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Rajan, Siddharth

    2011-09-26

    We report on our investigation of the electrical properties of metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors. We determined the conduction band offset and interface charge density of the alumina/GaN interface by analyzing the capacitance-voltage characteristics of atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on GaN substrates. The conduction band offset at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN interface was calculated to be 2.13 eV, in agreement with theoretical predications. A non-zero field of 0.93 MV/cm in the oxide under flat-band conditions in the GaN was inferred, which we attribute to a fixed net positive charge density of magnitude 4.60 x 10{sup 12 }cm{sup -2} at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN interface. We provide hypotheses to explain the origin of this charge by analyzing the energy band line-up.

  16. Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide A. J. Kerr, E. Chagarov, S. Gu, T. Kaufman-Osborn, S. Madisetti, J. Wu, P. M. Asbeck, S. Oktyabrsky, and A. C.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide A. J. Kerr, E of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectrics on Ga- and N- face gallium nitride J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123702 (2014); 10.1063/1.4895985 Atomic layer deposited passivation layers for superlattice

  17. 100GHz Integrated All-Optical Switch Enabled by ALD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moille, Gregory; Morgenroth, Laurence; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Neuilly, François; Hu, Bowen; Decoster, Didier; de Rossi, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The carrier lifetime of a photonic crystal all-optical switch is optimized by controlling the surface of GaAs by Atomic Layer Deposition. We demonstrate an all optical modulation capability up to 100GHz at Telecom wavelengths, with a contrast as high as 7dB. Wavelength conversion has also been demonstrated at a repetition rate of 2.5GHz with average pump power of about 0.5mW

  18. Novel Nanocrystal Floating Gate Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Huimei

    2012-01-01

    were formed using atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 beforewere deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as shell of2 layer by ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition). An ultra-thin (~

  19. Atomic layer deposited second order nonlinear optical metamaterial for back-end integration with CMOS-compatible nanophotonic circuitry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemmen, StÉphane; Solano, Eduardo; Dendooven, Jolien; Koskinen, Kalle; Kauranen, Martti; Brainis, Edouard; Detavernier, Christophe; Baets, Roel

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of artificial unidimensional crystals exhibiting an effective bulk second-order nonlinearity. The crystals are created by cycling atomic layer deposition of three dielectric materials such that the resulting metamaterial is non-centrosymmetric in the direction of the deposition. Characterization of the structures by second-harmonic generation Maker-fringe measurements shows that the main component of their nonlinear susceptibility tensor is about 5 pm/V which is comparable to well-established materials and more than an order of magnitude greater than reported for a similar crystal [1-Alloatti et al, arXiv:1504.00101[cond-mat.mtrl- sci

  20. Usage Policies Notebook for Cambridge Nanotech ALD System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    of the system for which they have been trained. Training The users must have received direct training from of the tool to avoid the direct touch of the high-temperature ALD lid. #12;5 Standard equipment and materials Please clean substrates prior to use Waste disposal Dispose of broken glass and broken wafers

  1. Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical...

  2. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ip, Alexander H.; Labelle, André J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2013-12-23

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells.

  3. Study of Nickel Oxide Composites as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Photoanodic Water Splitting /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Justin S.

    2013-01-01

    Ritala, M. Atomic layer deposition (ALD): from precursors tosputtering 19 , and atomic layer deposition 20 . These are

  4. Low-temperature ({<=}200 Degree-Sign C) plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of dense titanium nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samal, Nigamananda; Du Hui; Luberoff, Russell; Chetry, Krishna; Bubber, Randhir; Hayes, Alan; Devasahayam, Adrian [Veeco Instruments, 1 Terminal Drive, Plainview, New York 11803 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry for its diffusion barrier and seed layer properties. However, it has seen limited adoption in other industries in which low temperature (<200 Degree-Sign C) deposition is a requirement. Examples of applications which require low temperature deposition are seed layers for magnetic materials in the data storage (DS) industry and seed and diffusion barrier layers for through-silicon-vias (TSV) in the MEMS industry. This paper describes a low temperature TiN process with appropriate electrical, chemical, and structural properties based on plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition method that is suitable for the DS and MEMS industries. It uses tetrakis-(dimethylamino)-titanium as an organometallic precursor and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as co-reactant. This process was developed in a Veeco NEXUS Trade-Mark-Sign chemical vapor deposition tool. The tool uses a substrate rf-biased configuration with a grounded gas shower head. In this paper, the complimentary and self-limiting character of this process is demonstrated. The effects of key processing parameters including temperature, pulse time, and plasma power are investigated in terms of growth rate, stress, crystal morphology, chemical, electrical, and optical properties. Stoichiometric thin films with growth rates of 0.4-0.5 A/cycle were achieved. Low electrical resistivity (<300 {mu}{Omega} cm), high mass density (>4 g/cm{sup 3}), low stress (<250 MPa), and >85% step coverage for aspect ratio of 10:1 were realized. Wet chemical etch data show robust chemical stability of the film. The properties of the film have been optimized to satisfy industrial viability as a Ruthenium (Ru) preseed liner in potential data storage and TSV applications.

  5. Band alignment between GaN and ZrO{sub 2} formed by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Gang; Wang, Hong, E-mail: ewanghong@ntu.edu.sg; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Zhi Hong [Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2014-07-14

    The band alignment between Ga-face GaN and atomic-layer-deposited ZrO{sub 2} was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The dependence of Ga 3d and Zr 3d core-level positions on the take-off angles indicated upward band bending at GaN surface and potential gradient in ZrO{sub 2} layer. Based on angle-resolved XPS measurements combined with numerical calculations, valence band discontinuity ?E{sub V} of 1?±?0.2?eV and conduction band discontinuity ?E{sub C} of 1.2?±?0.2?eV at ZrO{sub 2}/GaN interface were determined by taking GaN surface band bending and potential gradient in ZrO{sub 2} layer into account.

  6. Optical characteristics of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N thin films deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldenberg, Eda; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Kemal Okyay, Ali

    2014-05-15

    Gallium nitride (GaN), aluminum nitride (AlN), and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N films have been deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition at 200?°C on c-plane sapphire and Si substrates. The dependence of film structure, absorption edge, and refractive index on postdeposition annealing were examined by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, respectively. Well-adhered, uniform, and polycrystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) GaN, AlN, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N films were prepared at low deposition temperature. As revealed by the x-ray diffraction analyses, crystallite sizes of the films were between 11.7 and 25.2?nm. The crystallite size of as-deposited GaN film increased from 11.7 to 12.1 and 14.4?nm when the annealing duration increased from 30?min to 2?h (800?°C). For all films, the average optical transmission was ?85% in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectrum. The refractive indices of AlN and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N were lower compared to GaN thin films. The refractive index of as-deposited films decreased from 2.33 to 2.02 (??=?550?nm) with the increased Al content x (0???x???1), while the extinction coefficients (k) were approximately zero in the VIS spectrum (>400?nm). Postdeposition annealing at 900?°C for 2?h considerably lowered the refractive index value of GaN films (2.33–1.92), indicating a significant phase change. The optical bandgap of as-deposited GaN film was found to be 3.95?eV, and it decreased to 3.90?eV for films annealed at 800?°C for 30?min and 2?h. On the other hand, this value increased to 4.1?eV for GaN films annealed at 900?°C for 2?h. This might be caused by Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation and following phase change. The optical bandgap value of as-deposited Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N films decreased from 5.75 to 5.25?eV when the x values decreased from 1 to 0.68. Furthermore, postdeposition annealing did not affect the bandgap of Al-rich films.

  7. Microlattices as architected thin films: Analysis of mechanical properties and high strain elastic recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maloney, Kevin J; Roper, Christopher S; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2013-01-01

    synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of amorphousvapor deposition Atomic layer deposition Chemical vaporm MPa kg 2 /m 6 Atomic layer deposition 5 mm Polymer etch

  8. Atomic imaging of atomic layer deposition oxide nucleation with trimethylaluminum on As-rich InGaAs(001) 2 4 vs Ga/In-rich InGaAs(001) 4 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Atomic imaging of atomic layer deposition oxide nucleation with trimethylaluminum on As-rich In atomic layer deposition Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 042904 (2014); 10.1063/1.4863440 Effective passivation of In0.2Ga0.8As by HfO2 surpassing Al2O3 via in-situ atomic layer deposition Appl. Phys. Lett. 101

  9. Physical Mechanism and Fundamental Performance Limits on Graphene Non-Volatile Memory Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Emil Beom

    2012-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 by atomic layer deposition (Cambridge Nanotech).deposition by atomic layer deposition (ALD) (e) Electrodeof Al 2 O 3 by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Finally, an Al

  10. Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relay Devices and Technology for Ultra-Low Energy Digital Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathanael, Rhesa

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature atomic layer deposition of titania thin2 O 3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used asSUNALE R150 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) tool provided the

  11. Study of Nanocrystal Structures and Their Memory Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olmedo, Mario Jesus

    2012-01-01

    for Ultrathin Atomic Layer Deposition of High K DielectricsThin Films Grown by Atomic-Layer Deposition. J. Appl. Phys.ALD deposition Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a self-

  12. Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

  13. Conformal Coating of Three-Dimensional Nanostructures via Atomic Layer Deposition for Development of Advanced Energy Storage Devices and Plasmonic Transparent Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malek, Gary Anthony

    2015-08-31

    arrays into core-shell structures via atomic layer deposition as well as into a mesoporous manganese oxide coated supercapacitor electrode are given. Another unique type of three-dimensional nanostructured substrate is nanotextured glass, which...

  14. Improved heterojunction quality in Cu2O-based solar cells through the optimization of atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposited Zn1-xMgxO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ievskaya, Yulia; Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Musselman, Kevin P.; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD) was used to deposit n-type ZnO and Zn1-xMgxO thin films onto p-type thermally oxidized Cu2O substrates outside vacuum at low temperature. The performance of photovoltaic devices...

  15. Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruffner, J.A.

    1999-06-15

    A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet (DUV) and Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10 [micro]m for the shortest wavelength (13.4 nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R[sup 2] factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates. 15 figs.

  16. Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruffner, Judith Alison (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet ("DUV") and Extreme Ultra-Violet ("EUV") wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10-.mu.m for the shortest wavelength (13.4-nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R.sup.2 factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates.

  17. Selective Chemistry of Metal Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition on Si Based Substrate Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    of the solar cells. In CIGS solar cells, the buffer layers,encapsulation of CIGS and OPV solar cells[24, 25], barrierof flexible CIGS and OPV solar cells, robust, transparent

  18. Integrating radar stratigraphy with high resolution visible stratigraphy of the north polar layered deposits, Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Shane

    Integrating radar stratigraphy with high resolution visible stratigraphy of the north polar layered that radar reflectors can be used as geometric prox- ies for visible stratigraphy. Furthermore in the stratigraphy of the pola

  19. The Effect of High Temperature Annealing on the Grain Characteristics of a Thin Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Carbide Layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isabella J van Rooyen; Philippus M van Rooyen; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2013-08-01

    The unique combination of thermo-mechanical and physiochemical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) provides interest and opportunity for its use in nuclear applications. One of the applications of SiC is as a very thin layer in the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This SiC layer, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is designed to withstand the pressures of fission and transmutation product gases in a high temperature, radiation environment. Various researchers have demonstrated that macroscopic properties can be affected by changes in the distribution of grain boundary plane orientations and misorientations [1 - 3]. Additionally, various researchers have attributed the release behavior of Ag through the SiC layer as a grain boundary diffusion phenomenon [4 - 6]; further highlighting the importance of understanding the actual grain characteristics of the SiC layer. Both historic HTGR fission product release studies and recent experiments at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [7] have shown that the release of Ag-110m is strongly temperature dependent. Although the maximum normal operating fuel temperature of a HTGR design is in the range of 1000-1250°C, the temperature may reach 1600°C under postulated accident conditions. The aim of this specific study is therefore to determine the magnitude of temperature dependence on SiC grain characteristics, expanding upon initial studies by Van Rooyen et al, [8; 9].

  20. Method of deposition of silicon carbide layers on substrates and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelini, Peter (Oak Ridge, TN); DeVore, Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blanco, Raymond E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A method for direct chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide to substrates, especially nuclear waste particles, is provided by the thermal decomposition of methylsilane at about 800.degree. C. to 1050.degree. C. when the substrates have been confined within a suitable coating environment.

  1. Cite this: RSC Advances, 2013, 3, Deposition of few-layered graphene in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on copper and nickel substrates Received 5th February 2013, Accepted 28th February 2013 DOI: 10.1039/c3ra-purity copper and nickel wires in a microchannel within an alumina microcombustor with a methane/oxygen edge, such as using flame deposition of carbon materials. Flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes has been demonstrated

  2. Air-stable ink for scalable, high-throughput layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Benjamin D; Connor, Stephen T; Cui, Yi

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing and depositing air-stable, easily decomposable, vulcanized ink on any of a wide range of substrates is disclosed. The ink enables high-volume production of optoelectronic and/or electronic devices using scalable production methods, such as roll-to-roll transfer, fast rolling processes, and the like.

  3. ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton JumpProgram |RecentSulfonateAFVAGO AG EnergieALD

  4. Final Report: Novel ALD-Coated Nanoparticle Anodes for Enhanced Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groner, Markus

    2009-04-16

    The Phase I effort is described in detail in the Phase I report given below. The key accomplishments of the Phase I project were (1) the demonstration of high stability LiCoO2 cathodes using ALD-coated LiCoO2 particles, as well as on ALD-coated LiCoO2 electrodes and (2) the demonstration of high stability of graphite anodes using ALD-coated graphite electrodes.

  5. Energy band alignment of atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} oxide film on epitaxial (100)Ge, (110)Ge, and (111)Ge layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudait, Mantu K.; Zhu Yan [Advanced Devices and Sustainable Energy Laboratory (ADSEL), Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2013-03-21

    Crystallographically oriented epitaxial Ge layers were grown on (100), (110), and (111)A GaAs substrates by in situ growth process using two separate molecular beam epitaxy chambers. The band alignment properties of atomic layer hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) film deposited on crystallographically oriented epitaxial Ge were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Valence band offset, {Delta}E{sub v} values of HfO{sub 2} relative to (100)Ge, (110)Ge, and (111)Ge orientations were 2.8 eV, 2.28 eV, and 2.5 eV, respectively. Using XPS data, variation in valence band offset, {Delta}E{sub V}(100)Ge>{Delta}E{sub V}(111)Ge>{Delta}E{sub V}(110)Ge, was obtained related to Ge orientation. Also, the conduction band offset, {Delta}E{sub c} relation, {Delta}E{sub c}(110)Ge>{Delta}E{sub c}(111)Ge>{Delta}E{sub c}(100)Ge related to Ge orientations was obtained using the measured bandgap of HfO{sub 2} on each orientation and with the Ge bandgap of 0.67 eV. These band offset parameters for carrier confinement would offer an important guidance to design Ge-based p- and n-channel metal-oxide field-effect transistor for low-power application.

  6. Atomic Layer Deposition of Ultrathin Copper Metal Films from a Liquid Copper(I) Amidinate Precursor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for electroplating Cu interconnect wires. © 2006 The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/1.2338632 All rights copper circuits are faster and last longer. The copper is electroplated inside trenches and holes in insulators.1 A thin continu- ous copper seed layer is needed before electroplating Cu. In current technology

  7. R&D PROPOSAL FOR THE NATIONAL MUON ACCELERATOR PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    surface treatments (i.e. , atomic layer deposition, ALD) arecopper cavities using atomic layer deposition or Be walls toInitial tests of atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques 14

  8. To be the leader in research, development, and education, concentrating on laser and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stack engineering; atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology of electronic thin film materials FABRICATION · Atomic layer deposition (ALD) · Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) · Pulsed laser deposition (PLD deposition; semiconductor surface preparation and characterization; electron emitters and electron gun design

  9. Fabrication of Sr silicate buffer layer on Si(100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition using a SrO target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imanaka, Atsuhiro; Sasaki, Tsubasa; Hotta, Yasushi Satoh, Shin-ichi

    2014-09-01

    The authors fabricated 2?×?1 Sr-reconstructed Si(100) substrates using thin SrO layers, and used them to direct growth of crystalline perovskite oxide on Si. The SrO layers used to reconstruct the Si(100) substrates were grown by pulsed laser deposition from a SrO single crystal target, followed by postdeposition-annealing (PDA) of the SrO/Si(100) structure. In situ observations of reflective high-energy electron diffraction during PDA confirmed a 2?×?1 reconstruction of the Si surface and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy of the annealed samples confirmed the existence of Sr atoms in a silicate phase, which indicated that a 2?×?1 Sr-reconstructed Si surface was achieved. The optimal fabrication conditions were annealing at 720?°C for 1?min and an equivalent SrO layer thickness (ML{sub eq}) of 2.5 ML{sub eq}. The temperature condition was very narrow, at 720?±?20?°C, for an acceptable product. Subsequently, the authors demonstrated the growth of crystalline SrTiO{sub 3} films on the 2?×?1 Sr-reconstructed Si(100) surfaces.

  10. Performance of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with Thin Bi-Layer Electrolyte by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zigui; Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Fisher, Daniel; Wu, Naijuan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2012-07-15

    Anode-supported yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/samaria doped ceria (SDC) bi-layer electrolytes with uniform thickness and high density were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition at 1000 degrees C. Fuel cells with such bi-layer electrolytes were fabricated and tested, yielding open circuit voltages from 0.94 to 1.0 V at 600-700 degrees C. Power densities from 0.4 to 1.0 W cm{sup -2} at 0.7 V were achieved in air at temperatures of 600-700 degrees C. Cell performance was improved in flowing oxygen, with an estimated peak power density of over 2 W cm{sup -2} at 650 degrees C, assuming the same overall resistance over the entire range of current density. The high cell performance was attributed to the very low ohmic resistance of the fuel cell, owing to the small thickness of the electrolyte. Stable performance was also demonstrated in that the voltage of the fuel cell showed very little change at a constant current density of 1 A cm{sup -2} during more than 400 hours of operation at 650 degrees C in flowing oxygen. SEM analysis of the fuel cell after testing showed that the bi-layer electrolyte had retained its chemical and mechanical integrity.

  11. Greatly improved interfacial passivation of in-situ high ? dielectric deposition on freshly grown molecule beam epitaxy Ge epitaxial layer on Ge(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, R. L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liu, Y. C.; Lee, W. C.; Huang, M. L.; Kwo, J., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, T. D.; Hong, M., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Pi, T. W. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-19

    A high-quality high-?/Ge interface has been achieved by combining molecule beam epitaxy grown Ge epitaxial layer and in-situ deposited high ? dielectric. The employment of Ge epitaxial layer has sucessfully buried and/or removed the residue of unfavorable carbon and native oxides on the chemically cleaned and ultra-high vacuum annealed Ge(100) wafer surface, as studied using angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Moreover, the scanning tunneling microscopy analyses showed the significant improvements in Ge surface roughness from 3.5?Å to 1?Å with the epi-layer growth. Thus, chemically cleaner, atomically more ordered, and morphologically smoother Ge surfaces were obtained for the subsquent deposition of high ? dielectrics, comparing with those substrates without Ge epi-layer. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and low extracted interfacial trap density (D{sub it}) reveal the improved high-?/Ge interface using the Ge epi-layer approach.

  12. Advanced Relay Design and Technology for Energy-Efficient Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Jaeseok

    2011-01-01

    Surface Chemistry of Atomic Layer Deposition: a Case Study2 O 3 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition on Silicon anddeposited using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor (

  13. Using Solution Phase Self-Assembly to Control the Properties of Magnetic and Magnetoelectric Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schelhas, Laura Theresa

    2013-01-01

    lithography and atomic layer deposition. Nanotechnology 22,dimensions via atomic layer deposition on block copolymers.ion etching, atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina is

  14. Plasmon Enhanced Photoemission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polyakov, Aleksandr N.

    2012-01-01

    ALD Atomic Layer Deposition . . . . . . . . . . . . .Temperature Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition. Chem. Mater. 16,Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition: Basics, Opportunities, and

  15. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    12] Short et al. , Atomic Layer Deposition of Zinc SulfideAlannah Myers, On Atomic Layer Deposition: Tin Sulfide fordepositing CZTS. Atomic layer deposition (known as ALD, a

  16. Fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition facility for hybrid surface modification layer fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Langping; Huang Lei; Xie Zhiwen; Wang Xiaofeng; Tang Baoyin

    2008-02-15

    The fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) facility for hybrid and batch treatment was built in our laboratory recently. Comparing with our previous PIIID facilities, several novel designs are utilized. Two multicathode pulsed cathodic arc plasma sources are fixed on the chamber wall symmetrically, which can increase the steady working time from 6 h (the single cathode source in our previous facilities) to about 18 h. Meanwhile, the inner diameter of the pulsed cathodic arc plasma source is increased from the previous 80 to 209 mm, thus, large area metal plasma can be obtained by the source. Instead of the simple sample holder in our previous facility, a complex revolution-rotation sample holder composed of 24 shafts, which can rotate around its axis and adjust its position through revolving around the center axis of the vacuum chamber, is fixed in the center of the vacuum chamber. In addition, one magnetron sputtering source is set on the chamber wall instead of the top cover in the previous facility. Because of the above characteristic, the PIIID hybrid process involving ion implantation, vacuum arc, and magnetron sputtering deposition can be acquired without breaking vacuum. In addition, the PIIID batch treatment of cylinderlike components can be finished by installing these components on the rotating shafts on the sample holder.

  17. Instabilities of layers of deposited molecules on chemically stripe patterned substrates: Ridges vs. drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph Honisch; Te-Sheng Lin; Andreas Heuer; Uwe Thiele; Svetlana Gurevich

    2015-06-30

    A mesoscopic continuum model is employed to analyse the transport mechanisms and structure formation during the redistribution stage of deposition experiments where organic molecules are deposited on a solid substrate with periodic stripe-like wettability patterns. Transversally invariant ridges located on the more wettable stripes are identified as very important transient states and their linear stability is analysed. It is found that there exist two different instability modes that result (i) at large ridge volume in the formation of bulges that spill from the more wettable stripes onto the less wettable bare substrate and (ii) at small ridge volume in the formation of small droplets located on the more wettable stripes. These predictions are confirmed by direct numerical simulations of the fully nonlinear evolution equation for two-dimensional substrates. In addition, the influence of different transport mechanisms during redistribution is investigated focusing on the cases of convective transport with no-slip at the substrate, transport via diffusion in the film bulk and via diffusion at the film surface. In particular, it is shown that the transport process does neither influence the linear stability thresholds nor the sequence of morphologies observed in the time simulation, but only the ratio of the time scales of the different process phases.

  18. Investigation on dielectric properties of atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y?ld?z, Dilber Esra; Y?ld?r?m, Mert; Gökçen, Muharrem

    2014-05-15

    Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were fabricated using atomic layer deposition technique in order to investigate dielectric properties of SBDs. For this purpose, admittance measurements were conducted at room temperature between ?1?V and 3?V in the frequency range of 10 kHz and 1?MHz. In addition to the investigation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphology using atomic force microscope, dielectric parameters; such as dielectric constant (??), dielectric loss (??), dielectric loss tangent (tan??), and real and imaginary parts of dielectric modulus (M? and M?, respectively), were calculated and effect of frequency on these parameters of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-Si SBDs was discussed. Variations in these parameters at low frequencies were associated with the effect of interface states in low frequency region. Besides dielectric parameters, ac electrical conductivity of these SBDs was also investigated.

  19. Self-aligned process for forming microlenses at the tips of vertical silicon nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, Yaping, E-mail: yaping.dan@sjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Kaixiang [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Crozier, Kenneth B. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The microlens is a key enabling technology in optoelectronics, permitting light to be efficiently coupled to and from devices such as image sensors and light-emitting diodes. Their ubiquitous nature motivates the development of new fabrication techniques, since existing methods face challenges as microlenses are scaled to smaller dimensions. Here, the authors demonstrate the formation of microlenses at the tips of vertically oriented silicon nanowires via a rapid atomic layer deposition process. The nature of the process is such that the microlenses are centered on the nanowires, and there is a self-limiting effect on the final sizes of the microlenses arising from the nanowire spacing. Finite difference time domain electromagnetic simulations are performed of microlens focusing properties, including showing their ability to enhance visible-wavelength absorption in silicon nanowires.

  20. Schottky barrier source-gated ZnO thin film transistors by low temperature atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Alex M.; Gupta, Manisha; Shoute, Gem; Tsui, Ying Y.; Barlage, Douglas W., E-mail: barlage@ualberta.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Afshar, Amir; Cadien, Kenneth C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

    2013-12-16

    We have fabricated ZnO source-gated thin film transistors (SGTFTs) with a buried TiW source Schottky barrier and a top gate contact. The ZnO active channel and thin high-? HfO{sub 2} dielectric utilized are both grown by atomic layer deposition at temperatures less than 130?°C, and their material and electronic properties are characterized. These SGTFTs demonstrate enhancement-mode operation with a threshold voltage of 0.91?V, electron mobility of 3.9 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}, and low subthreshold swing of 192?mV/decade. The devices also exhibit a unique combination of high breakdown voltages (>20?V) with low output conductances.

  1. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com SiliconPV: 17-20 April 2011, Freiburg, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    passivated with plasma-assisted and thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminium oxide (Al2O3) films (Al2O3) deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown to provide an outstanding level passivation layer deposited by ALD and a SiNx capping layer deposited by PECVD. Our experiments show

  2. Estimation of atmospheric deposition velocities and fluxes from weather and ambient pollutant concentration conditions. Part 1: Application of a multi-layer dry deposition model to measurements at a north central Florida site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.K. [Inje Univ., Kimhae (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Allen, E.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The harmful effects of dry acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems could be as significant as those from wet acid deposition. Dry deposition involves removal of air pollutants to surfaces by sedimentation, impaction, interception and diffusion. Dry deposition velocities and fluxes of air pollutants, such as SO{sub 2}(g), O{sub 3}(g), HNO{sub 3}(g), submicron particulates, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}(s), and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}(s), have been estimated according to local meteorological elements in the boundary layer. The model that was used for these calculations is the multiple layer resistance model developed by Hicks. It consists of multiple layered resistances including an aerodynamic resistance, a boundary layer resistance, and a surface resistance. Meteorological data were recorded on an hourly basis from July, 1990 to June, 1991 at the Austin Cary forest site, near Gainesville FL. Weekly integrated samples of ambient dry deposition species were collected at the site using triple filter packs and chemically analyzed. For the study period at this site annual average dry deposition velocities were estimated to be : 0.87--0.07 [cm/s] for SO{sub 2}(g), 0.65--0.11 [cm/s] for O{sub 3}(g), 1.20--0.14 [cm/s] for HNO{sub 3}(g), 0.0045--0.0006 [cm/s] for submicron particulates, and 0.089--0.014 [cm/s] for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}(s) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}(s). Trends observed in daily mean deposition velocities are largely seasonal, indicated by larger deposition velocities for the summer season and smaller deposition velocities for the winter season. Note that the summer season at this southern US site extends from April through October (7 months) and the winter season extends from December through February. Monthly and weekly averaged values for deposition velocities do not show large differences over the year but do show a tendency for increased deposition velocities in summer and decreased values in winter.

  3. Method of making dense, conformal, ultra-thin cap layers for nanoporous low-k ILD by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing (Albuquerque, NM); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-24

    Barrier layers and methods for forming barrier layers on a porous layer are provided. The methods can include chemically adsorbing a plurality of first molecules on a surface of the porous layer in a chamber and forming a first layer of the first molecules on the surface of the porous layer. A plasma can then be used to react a plurality of second molecules with the first layer of first molecules to form a first layer of a barrier layer. The barrier layers can seal the pores of the porous material, function as a diffusion barrier, be conformal, and/or have a negligible impact on the overall ILD k value of the porous material.

  4. MAPPING STRATIGRAPHIC DISCONTINUITIES IN WEST CANDOR LAYERED DEPOSITS AND THE POTENTIAL FOR SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS. K. Thaisen, and J. Schieber, Depart-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schieber, Juergen

    FOR SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS. K. Thaisen, and J. Schieber, Depart- ment of Geological Sciences, Indiana the out- lined methodology to study the stratigraphy of Older Interior Deposits [1], in order to develop provided numerous examples of layered rock sequences in better detail than anything previously collected

  5. The influence of substrate polarity on the structural quality of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    the growth temperatures to below 650 °C for low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor depo- sition MOCVDThe influence of substrate polarity on the structural quality of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition N. Dietz,1,a M. Alevli,1 R. Atalay,1 G. Durkaya,1 R. Collazo,2 J. Tweedie,2 S

  6. Deterministic tuning of slow-light in photonic-crystal waveguides through the C and L bands by atomic layer deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Charlton J; Meric, Inanc; Shepard, Ken L; Wong, Chee Wei; Green, William M J; Vlasov, Yurii A; Assefa, Solomon

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate digital tuning of the slow-light regime in silicon photonic-crystal waveguides by performing atomic layer deposition of hafnium oxide. The high group-index regime was deterministically controlled (red-shift of 140 +/- 10 pm per atomic layer) without affecting the group-velocity dispersion and third-order dispersion. Additionally, differential tuning of 110 +/- 30 pm per monolayer of the slow-light TE-like and TM-like modes was observed. This passive post-fabrication process has potential applications including the tuning of chip-scale optical interconnects, as well as Raman and parametric amplification.

  7. High spatial resolution mapping of deposition layers on plasma facing materials by laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Qingmei; Li, Cong; Hai, Ran; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Chunlei; Ding, Hongbin, E-mail: hding@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhou, Yan; Yan, Longwen; Duan, Xuru [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, No. 3 South Section 3, Circle Road 2, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China)

    2014-05-15

    A laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LAM-TOF-MS) system with high spatial resolution, ?20 nm in depth and ?500 ?m or better on the surface, is developed to analyze the composition distributions of deposition layers on the first wall materials or first mirrors in tokamak. The LAM-TOF-MS system consists of a laser ablation microprobe combined with a TOF-MS and a data acquisition system based on a LabVIEW program software package. Laser induced ablation combined with TOF-MS is an attractive method to analyze the depth profile of deposited layer with successive laser shots, therefore, it can provide information for composition reconstruction of the plasma wall interaction process. In this work, we demonstrate that the LAM-TOF-MS system is capable of characterizing the depth profile as well as mapping 2D composition of deposited film on the molybdenum first mirror retrieved from HL-2A tokamak, with particular emphasis on some of the species produced during the ablation process. The presented LAM-TOF-MS system provides not only the 3D characterization of deposition but also the removal efficiency of species of concern.

  8. DOI: 10.1002/ente.201((will be filled in by the editorial staff)) Ultrathin surface modification by atomic layer deposition on high voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    , lithium ion batteries have been widely recognized as highly efficient power source and energy storage of developing high energy and long life lithium ion batteries with highly scalable LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 preparation and broadly applicable ALD process. Introduction Since first commercialized by Sony in the early 1990s

  9. Nitrogen-passivated dielectric/InGaAs interfaces with sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness and low interface trap densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Son, Junwoo; Law, Jeremy; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Huang, Cheng-Ying; Stemmer, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As by atomic layer deposition, after in-situmethods other than atomic layer deposition (ALD) have shown

  10. Influence of plasma-based in-situ surface cleaning procedures on HfO2/In0.53Ga0.47As gate stack properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Mates, Thomas E.; Mitchell, William J.; Zhang, Jack Y.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    0.53 Ga 0.47 As by atomic layer deposition. We discuss thetreatment prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) of gate

  11. High-performance pentacene field-effect transistors using Al2O3 gate dielectrics prepared by atomic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    fabricated using Al2O3 as a gate dielectric material grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Hole mobility is also desirable to allow for fabri- cation on plastic substrates. Atomic layer deposition (ALD layer deposition (ALD) Xiao-Hong Zhang a , Benoit Domercq a , Xudong Wang b , Seunghyup Yoo a , Takeshi

  12. Density dependence of the room temperature thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorham, Caroline S.; Gaskins, John T.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Parsons, Gregory N.; Losego, Mark D.

    2014-06-23

    We report on the thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina thin films as a function of atomic density. Using time domain thermoreflectance, we measure the thermal conductivity of the thin alumina films at room temperature. The thermal conductivities vary ?35% for a nearly 15% change in atomic density and are substrate independent. No density dependence of the longitudinal sound speeds is observed with picosecond acoustics. The density dependence of the thermal conductivity agrees well with a minimum limit to thermal conductivity model that is modified with a differential effective-medium approximation.

  13. Engineer Nanocrystal Floating Gate Memory Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Jingjian

    2012-01-01

    deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Fig. 3.1(a)XPS). By employing atomic layer deposition, 36nm Al 2 O 3was deposited by atomic layer deposition to cover the nano-

  14. L{sub g}?=?100?nm In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As quantum well metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with atomic layer deposited beryllium oxide as interfacial layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, D., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kwon, H. M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.-W., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org; Veksler, D.; Gilmer, D.; Kirsch, P. D. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kim, D.-H. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Hudnall, Todd W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, 78666 (United States); Bielawski, Christopher W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Maszara, W. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Banerjee, S. K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    In this study, we have fabricated nanometer-scale channel length quantum-well (QW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) incorporating beryllium oxide (BeO) as an interfacial layer. BeO has high thermal stability, excellent electrical insulating characteristics, and a large band-gap, which make it an attractive candidate for use as a gate dielectric in making MOSFETs. BeO can also act as a good diffusion barrier to oxygen owing to its small atomic bonding length. In this work, we have fabricated In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As MOS capacitors with BeO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and compared their electrical characteristics. As interface passivation layer, BeO/HfO{sub 2} bilayer gate stack presented effective oxide thickness less 1 nm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As QW MOSFETs with a BeO/HfO{sub 2} dielectric, showing a sub-threshold slope of 100?mV/dec, and a transconductance (g{sub m,max}) of 1.1 mS/?m, while displaying low values of gate leakage current. These results highlight the potential of atomic layer deposited BeO for use as a gate dielectric or interface passivation layer for III–V MOSFETs at the 7?nm technology node and/or beyond.

  15. Nanomaterials processing toward large-scale flexible/stretchable electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Toshitake

    2013-01-01

    formed, followed by atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 (~8layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) sandwichedand lift-off. Atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 (~70 nm)

  16. Deposition temperature dependence of material and Si surface passivation properties of O{sub 3}-based atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based films and stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordihn, Stefan, E-mail: s.bordihn2@q-cells.com [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands and Hanwha Q CELLS GmbH, Sonnenallee 17-21, 06766 Bitterfeld-Wolfen (Germany); Mertens, Verena; Müller, Jörg W. [Hanwha Q CELLS GmbH, Sonnenallee 17-21, 06766 Bitterfeld-Wolfen (Germany); Kessels, W. M. M., E-mail: w.m.m.kessels@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15

    The material composition and the Si surface passivation of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films prepared by atomic layer deposition using Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} and O{sub 3} as precursors were investigated for deposition temperatures (T{sub Dep}) between 200?°C and 500?°C. The growth per cycle decreased with increasing deposition temperature due to a lower Al deposition rate. In contrast the material composition was hardly affected except for the hydrogen concentration, which decreased from [H]?=?3 at. % at 200?°C to [H]?layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, both for the chemical and field-effect passivation. The fixed charge density in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub x} stacks, reflecting the field-effect passivation, was reduced by one order of magnitude from 3·10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} to 3·10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2} when T{sub Dep} was increased from 300?°C to 500?°C. The level of the chemical passivation changed as well, but the total level of the surface passivation was hardly affected by the value of T{sub Dep}. When firing films prepared at of low T{sub Dep}, blistering of the films occurred and this strongly reduced the surface passivation. These results presented in this work demonstrate that a high level of surface passivation can be achieved for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based films and stacks over a wide range of conditions when the combination of deposition temperature and annealing or firing temperature is carefully chosen.

  17. Light-induced charge separation in thin tetraphenyl-porphyrin layers deposited on Au Y. Zidon and Yoram Shapira*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapira, Yoram

    for applications in opto- electronics, such as organic light-emitting diodes or organic solar cells. Interfaces-phenylene vinylene coated Au or GaAs surfaces.11 However, none of the past SPS studies recognized internal processes, taking place in thin organic films deposited on Au. In t

  18. Surface and sub-surface reactions during low temperature aluminium oxide atomic layer deposition on fiber-forming polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    of organic polymer film and fiber materials are expanding the need for well defined and controlled inorganic and longevity to polymer films and fibers include passivation and encapsulation layers for organic photovoltaics and light emitting diodes,1 food and medical packaging barriers,2 nanofiber coatings for chemical

  19. Atomic layer deposition of Zn(O,S) thin films with tunable electrical properties by oxygen annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    properties to further improve the performance of thin-film solar cells using earth- abundant and non) is one of the most reliable materials used in thin-film solar cells, but currently the most efficient CIGS-based solar cells use CdS,1,2 a toxic material, as an n-type buffer layer between the p-type CIGS

  20. Energy Procedia 27 (2012) 379 384 1876-6102 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of the Centro de Micro Anlisis de Materiales,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    The deposition rate of the standard (i.e. sequential) atomic layer deposition (ALD) process is very low compared layer consisting of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) has shown/min. In order to implement the Al2O3 layer into an industrial process, higher deposition rates are required

  1. Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M.; Ouerghi, A.; Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T.

    2010-10-25

    We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

  2. Time-resolved surface infrared spectroscopy during atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sperling, Brent A. Hoang, John; Kimes, William A.; Maslar, James E.; Steffens, Kristen L.; Nguyen, Nhan V.

    2014-05-15

    Atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (TDMAT) and water vapor is studied by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) with a time resolution of 120?ms. At 190?°C and 240?°C, a decrease in the absorption from adsorbed TDMAT is observed without any evidence of an adsorbed product. Ex situ measurements indicate that this behavior is not associated with an increase in the impurity concentration or a dramatic change in the growth rate. A desorbing decomposition product is consistent with these observations. RAIRS also indicates that dehydroxylation of the growth surface occurs only among one type of surface hydroxyl groups. Molecular water is observed to remain on the surface and participates in reactions even at a relatively high temperature (110?°C) and with long purge times (30?s)

  3. Surface and interfacial reaction study of half cycle atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} on chemically treated GaSb surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhernokletov, D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Kim, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Yakimov, M.; Tokranov, V.; Oktyabrsky, S. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany - SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)] [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany - SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Wallace, R. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    An in situ half-cycle atomic layer deposition/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study was conducted in order to investigate the evolution of the HfO{sub 2} dielectric interface with GaSb(100) surfaces after sulfur passivation and HCl etching, designed to remove the native oxides. With the first pulses of tetrakis(dimethylamido)hafnium(IV) and water, a decrease in the concentration of antimony oxide states present on the HCl-etched surface is observed, while antimony sulfur states diminished below the XPS detection limit on sulfur passivated surface. An increase in the amount of gallium oxide/sulfide is seen, suggesting oxygen or sulfur transfers from antimony to gallium during antimony oxides/sulfides decomposition.

  4. Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penchev, Miroslav Valentinov

    2012-01-01

    2 O 3 deposited by atomic layer deposition. Source and drainthe nanowire by atomic layer deposition (ALD), followed bydevices, by atomic layer deposition carried at 250 ºC. The

  5. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    deposited by atomic layer deposition ALD: a structural,Paul C. McIntyre, "Atomic Layer Deposition of Y 2 O 3 /ZrO 2rate-determining step Atomic layer Deposition Ammonium

  6. Atomic imaging and modeling of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g) surface passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition nucleation on the Ge(100) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman-Osborn, Tobin [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Chagarov, Evgueni A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Kummel, Andrew C., E-mail: akummel@ucsd.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition nucleation via H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g) and trimethylaluminum (TMA) dosing was studied on the clean Ge(100) surface at the atomic level using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Chemical analysis of the surface was performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while the bonding of the precursors to the substrate was modeled with density functional theory (DFT). At room temperature, a saturation dose of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g) produces a monolayer of a mixture of –OH or –O species bonded to the surface. STS confirms that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g) dosing eliminates half-filled dangling bonds on the clean Ge(100) surface. Saturation of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g) dosed Ge(100) surface with TMA followed by a 200?°C anneal produces an ordered monolayer of thermally stable Ge–O–Al bonds. DFT models and STM simulations provide a consistent model of the bonding configuration of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g) and TMA dosed surfaces. STS verifies the TMA/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Ge surface has an unpinned Fermi level with no states in the bandgap demonstrating the ability of a Ge–O–Al monolayer to serve as an ideal template for further high-k deposition.

  7. Influence of dosing sequence and film thickness on structure and resistivity of Al-ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Evan B. Lad, Robert J.

    2014-07-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were deposited onto amorphous silica substrates using an atomic layer deposition process with diethyl zinc (DEZ), trimethyl aluminum (TMA), and deionized water at 200?°C. Three different Al doping sequences were used at a ZnO:Al ratio of 11:1 within the films. A minimum film resistivity of 1.6?×?10{sup ?3}?? cm was produced using sequential dosing of DEZ, TMA, DEZ, followed by H{sub 2}O for the Al doping step. This “ZAZW” sequence yielded an AZO film resistivity that is independent of film thickness, crystallographic texture, and grain size, as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD). A pseudo-Voigt analysis method yields values for grain sizes that are smaller than those calculated using other XRD methods. Anisotropic grain sizes or variations in crystallographic texture have minimal influence on film resistivity, which suggests that factors other than film texture, such as intragrain scattering, may be important in influencing film resistivity.

  8. Strong electroluminescence from SiO{sub 2}-Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixed layers fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebohle, L., E-mail: l.rebohle@hzdr.de; Braun, M.; Wutzler, R.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Liu, B.; Sun, J. M. [Key Laboratory of Weak Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-06-23

    We report on the bright green electroluminescence (EL) with power efficiencies up to 0.15% of SiO{sub 2}-Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-mixed layers fabricated by atomic layer deposition and partly co-doped with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The electrical, EL, and breakdown behavior is investigated as a function of the Tb and the Al concentration. Special attention has been paid to the beneficial role of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} co-doping which improves important device parameters. In detail, it increases the maximum EL power efficiency and EL decay time, it nearly doubles the fraction of excitable Tb{sup 3+} ions, it shifts the region of high EL power efficiencies to higher injection currents, and it reduces the EL quenching over the device lifetime by an approximate factor of two. It is assumed that the presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interferes the formation of Tb clusters and related defects. Therefore, the system SiO{sub 2}-Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents a promising alternative for integrated, Si-based light emitters.

  9. Spatially DistributedSpatially Distributed Experimentation toExperimentation to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    : Spatially distributed atomic layer deposition Spatially Distributed Atomic LayerSpatially Distributed Atomic properties Significance Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is widely sought for its atomic-scale thickness control, MKS Instruments #12;Rubloff: Spatially distributed atomic layer deposition Spatially Distributed

  10. Method for depositing a uniform layer of particulate material on the surface of an article having interconnected porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    1982-09-29

    The invention is a method for depositing liquid-suspended particles on an immersed porous article characterized by interconnected porosity. In one form of the invention, coating is conducted in a vessel containing an organic liquid supporting a colloidal dispersion of graphite sized to lodge in surface pores of the article. The liquid comprises a first volatile component (e.g., acetone) and a second less-volatile component (e.g., toluene) containing a dissolved organic graphite-bonding agent. The liquid also contains an organic agent (e.g., cellulose gum) for maintaining the particles in suspension. A porous carbon article to be coated is immersed in the liquid so that it is permeated therewith. While the liquid is stirred to maintain a uniform blend, the vessel headspace is evacuated to effect flashing-off of the first component from the interior of the article. This causes particle-laden liquid exterior of the article to flow inwardly through its surface pores, lodging particles in these pores and forming a continuous graphite coating. The coated article is retrieved and heated to resin-bond the graphite. The method can be used to form a smooth, adherent, continuous coating of various materials on various porous articles. The method is rapid and reproducible.

  11. Atomic-Layer-Deposited High-k Dielectric Integration on Epitaxial Graphene P.D. Ye, A.T. Neal, T. Shen, J.J. Gu, M.L. Bolen, and M. A. Capano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Peide "Peter"

    for suspended CNT and graphene. There are three main preparation strategies for graphene, resulting in differentAtomic-Layer-Deposited High-k Dielectric Integration on Epitaxial Graphene P.D. Ye, A.T. Neal, T, III-V semiconductors, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene. Perfect top-gate dielectric stacks

  12. Triple-Junction a-Si Solar Cells Deposited With Improved Intrinsic Layers X. Deng, W. Wang, X.B. Liao, S. Han, H. Povolny, X.B. Xiang, and W. Du

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    Triple-Junction a-Si Solar Cells Deposited With Improved Intrinsic Layers X. Deng, W. Wang, X of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 ABSTRACT Triple-junction a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe solar cells are fabricated in our-efficiency triple-junction solar cells. The general approach and experimental details were described in an earlier

  13. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (TCO) coatings are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Provides uniform coating of complex, 3D nanostructures such as electrodes for next-generation PV cells...

  14. Energy band alignment of atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} on epitaxial (110)Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudait, M. K.; Zhu, Y. [Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Maurya, D.; Priya, S. [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2013-03-04

    The band alignment properties of atomic layer HfO{sub 2} film deposited on epitaxial (110)Ge, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy exhibited a sharp interface between the (110)Ge epilayer and the HfO{sub 2} film. The measured valence band offset value of HfO{sub 2} relative to (110)Ge was 2.28 {+-} 0.05 eV. The extracted conduction band offset value was 2.66 {+-} 0.1 eV using the bandgaps of HfO{sub 2} of 5.61 eV and Ge bandgap of 0.67 eV. These band offset parameters and the interface chemical properties of HfO{sub 2}/(110)Ge system are of tremendous importance for the design of future high hole mobility and low-power Ge-based metal-oxide transistor devices.

  15. Aspects of the SrO-CuO-TiO2 Ternary System Related to the Deposition of SrTiO3 and Copper-Doped SrTiO3 Thin-Film Buffer Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Ayala

    2004-12-20

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) coated conductors are promising materials for large-scale superconductivity applications. One version of a YBCO coated conductor is based on ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of magnesium oxide (MgO) onto polycrystalline metal substrates. SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) is often deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods as a buffer layer between the YBCO and IBAD MgO due to its chemical stability and lattice mismatch of only {approx}1.5% with YBCO. In this work, some aspects of the stability of STO with respect to copper (Cu) and chemical solution deposition of STO on IBAD MgO templates were examined. Solubility limits of Cu in STO were established by processing Cu-doped STO powders by conventional bulk preparation techniques. The maximum solubility of Cu in STO was {approx}1% as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction (XRD) data. XRD analysis, performed in collaboration with NIST, on powder compositions on the STO/SrCuO{sub 2} tie line did not identify any ternary phases. SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer layers were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and CSD on IBAD MgO flexible metallic textured tapes. TEM analysis of a {approx}100 nm thick SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer layer deposited by PLD showed a smooth Cu-doped STO/MgO interface. A {approx}600 nm thick YBCO film, deposited onto the SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer by PLD, exhibited a T{sub c} of 87 K and critical current density (J{sub c}) of {approx}1 MA/cm{sup 2}. STO and Cu-doped STO thin films by CSD were {approx}30 nm thick. The in plane alignment (FWHM) after deposition of the STO improved by {approx}1{sup o} while it degraded by {approx}2{sup o} with the SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffer. YBCO was deposited by PLD on the STO and SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffers. The in plane alignment (FWHM) of the YBCO with the STO buffer layer slightly improved while that of the YBCO with the SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffer layer remained constant. A goal of the CSD approach to fabrication of coated conductors is process simplicity. In this study, single layer textured films were obtained without a nucleating seed layer that has been deemed necessary by several investigators. These results indicate that Cu-doped STO buffer layers deposited by PLD or CSD are compatible with IBAD MgO and YBCO and that CSD is a viable approach to coated conductor fabrication.

  16. Semiconductor Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HWANG, YUN JEONG

    2012-01-01

    Dependence of Length and Atomic Layer Deposition Coating 2.1grains of rutile atomic layer deposition (ALD) shell on TiOon the Dependence of Length and Atomic Layer Deposition

  17. Artificial Photosynthesis on TiO2-Passivated InP Nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    of TiO 2 by atomic layer deposition. The role of theseof TiO 2 by atomic layer deposition. Plane wave-densitycontaminants. 8 Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO 2 was

  18. Sensitive Detection of CMB B-Mode Polarization : : Instrumentation and Systematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moyerman, Stephanie

    pt electrodes for atomic layer deposition of ultrathin high-M. Ritala. Atomic layer deposition (ald): from precursors toS. M. George. Atomic layer deposition: An overview. Chem.

  19. Flexible and Transparent Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KIM, SUNG MIN

    2012-01-01

    for subsequent atomic-layer deposition (ALD) of the oxidedeposited through atomic layer deposition and transparent15-nm-thick Al 2 O 3 by atomic-layer-deposition, oxygen ion-

  20. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com SiliconPV: 17-20 April 2011, Freiburg, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -rate atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 for the surface passivation of Si solar cells Florian Wernera *, Walter Hannover, Germany Abstract High-rate spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables an industrially relevant) deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides an outstanding level of surface passivation on both n

  1. Theoretical analysis of initial adsorption of high-metal oxides on InxGa1-xAs,,0 0 1...-,,42... surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    are molecular beam deposition MBE and atomic layer deposition ALD . The importance of the struc- ture of the first oxide layer has been demonstrated for both MBE and ALD gate oxides deposition. For example, Hale et al. showed that the first layer of Ga2O deposition is critical in unpinning the oxide

  2. Beyond A/B/A/B... Unorthodox Pulse Sequences in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition Group Develop ALD technology Apply ALD to emerging applications: ­ Solar Cells Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Heaters Flow Tube N2 Flow H2OTMA Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS

  3. Cite this: RSC Advances, 2013, 3, Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghodssi, Reza

    storage come into sight. Introduction Electrochemical energy storage devices with simultaneously high nanostructures.5 As a result, there has been fast growing interest in using ALD materials for energy storage energy storage3 Received 23rd November 2012, Accepted 21st January 2013 DOI: 10.1039/c3ra23031g www

  4. Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Self--Aligned Processing,Aligned Processing, and Atomic Layerand Atomic Layerand Atomic Layerand Atomic Layer Deposition synthesis by atomic layer deposition (ALD) Significance Realizing nanotechnology benefits requires new combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

  5. Fabrication of Transparent-Conducting-Oxide-Coated Inverse Opals as Mesostructured Architectures for Electrocatalysis Applications: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -doped indium oxide (ITO) via atomic layer deposition (ALD). We demonstrate the utility of the resulting, photocatalysis, and dye- sensitized solar cells. KEYWORDS: nickel oxide, water oxidation, atomic-layer deposition- layer deposition (ALD); the advantage of this protocol is that it is not necessary to devise ways

  6. Thermal Transitions in Layer-By-Layer Assemblies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Choonghyun

    2014-10-13

    Thermal transitions in layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies were investigated under dry and hydrated conditions. In the dry state, the effects of film thickness and the film deposition method on the glass transition temperature (Tg) were studied...

  7. Experimental Studies of Oxide Magnetic Tunnel Junctions and Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xinfei

    2012-01-01

    grown ex-situ by Atomic Layer Deposition as well as LSMO/40 III-2-2 Atomic Layer Depositionand PLD etc Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is well-known

  8. 196 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 34, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2013 High-Speed E-Mode InAs QW MOSFETs With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    -frequency and logic performance. These devices feature a 3-nm Al2O3 layer grown by atomic layer deposition Identifier 10.1109/LED.2012.2229107 atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been dramatically im- proved [5

  9. Modeling and Thermal Performance Evaluation of Porous Curd Layers in Sub-Cooled Boiling Region of PWRs and Effects of Sub-Cooled Nucleate Boiling on Anomalous Porous Crud Deposition on Fuel Pin Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barclay Jones

    2005-06-27

    A significant number of current PWRs around the world are experiencing anomalous crud deposition in the sub-cooled region of the core, resulting in an axial power shift or Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA), a condition that continues to elude prediction of occurrence and thermal/neutronic performance. This creates an operational difficulty of not being able to accurately determine power safety margin. In some cases this condition has required power ''down rating'' by as much as thirty percent and the concomitant considerable loss of revenue for the utility. This study examines two aspects of the issue: thermal performance of crud layer and effect of sub-cooled nucleate boiling on the solute concentration and its influence on initiation of crud deposition/formation on fuel pin surface.

  10. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations - Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of which are crucial for evaluating performance in the proverbial vacuum. Using atomic layer deposition (ALD), researchers can create highly specific nanobowls, controlling...

  11. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were created by combining evaporation-induced self- assembly of nanopores with atomic layer deposition (ALD), allowing specific tuning of both pore size and surface chemistry. By...

  12. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  13. Effect of postdeposition annealing on the electrical properties of ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown on p-Si by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altuntas, Halit; Donmez, Inci; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi

    2014-07-01

    Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric thin films were deposited on (111)-oriented p-type silicon wafers by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium and oxygen plasma. Structural analysis of the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films was carried out using grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. As-deposited films were amorphous. Upon postdeposition annealing at 700, 800, and 900?°C for 30?min under N{sub 2} ambient, films crystallized into ?-form monoclinic structure. Electrical properties of the ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were then investigated by fabricating and characterizing Al/?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-Si metal–oxide-semiconductor capacitors. The effect of postdeposition annealing on the leakage current densities, leakage current conduction mechanisms, dielectric constants, flat-band voltages, reverse breakdown voltages, threshold voltages, and effective oxide charges of the capacitors were presented. The effective oxide charges (Q{sub eff}) were calculated from the capacitance–voltage (C-V) curves using the flat-band voltage shift and were found as 2.6?×?10{sup 12}, 1.9?×?10{sup 12}, and 2.5?×?10{sup 12} cm{sup ?2} for samples annealed at 700, 800, and 900?°C, respectively. Effective dielectric constants of the films decreased with increasing annealing temperature. This situation was attributed to the formation of an interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer during annealing process. Leakage mechanisms in the regions where current increases gradually with voltage were well fitted by the Schottky emission model for films annealed at 700 and 900?°C, and by the Frenkel–Poole emission model for film annealed at 800?°C. Leakage current density was found to improve with annealing temperature. ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film annealed at 800?°C exhibited the highest reverse breakdown field value.

  14. Published: February 22, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 4333 dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp110203x |J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 43334339

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 4333­4339 ARTICLE pubs.acs.org/JPCC Atomic Layer Deposition of Fe2O3 Using relevant temperature range of 170-350 °C. Here, we elucidate a self-limiting atomic layer deposition (ALD-limiting surface reactions, atomic layer deposi- tion (ALD) offers a general route to thin films that is uniquely

  15. SILICON SURFACE PASSIVATION BY ULTRATHIN Al2O3 FILMS AND Al2O3/SiNx STACKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by thermal as well as by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) are very well suited for the effec, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been identified as a di- electric Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal, Germany ABSTRACT We show that aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layers depo- sited

  16. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2015-08-04

    A method of fabricating a tandem organic photosensitive device involves depositing a first layer of an organic electron donor type material film by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a first solvent; depositing a first layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the first layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process; depositing a conductive layer over the interim stack by a dry deposition process; depositing a second layer of the organic electron donor type material over the conductive layer by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a second solvent, wherein the organic electron acceptor type material and the conductive layer are insoluble in the second solvent; depositing a second layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the second layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process, resulting in a stack.

  17. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  18. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

    1989-10-17

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  19. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

    1989-06-27

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  20. 3>2>1: Investigation of Single Particle Particle and Many Body Physics in Dual-Gated 1,2,3 Layers of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velasco, Jairo

    2012-01-01

    were grown by atomic layer deposition, image from . Fig 3.3:HfO 2 was grown by atomic layer deposition, image from c.HfO 2 was grown by atomic layer deposition, image from c.

  1. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH)

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  2. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-10-04

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  3. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-02-01

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  4. Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time. 9 figures.

  5. Phase Behavior and Electrophoretic Deposition of LPEI-PAA Polyelectrolyte Complexes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ryan

    2013-05-03

    This project aims to discover a new means of overcoming the drawbacks of traditional layer-by-layer dip coating through the use of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) and electrophoretic deposition. The layer-by-layer process, by which oppositely...

  6. Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-10-30

    A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

  7. Published on Web Date: May 04, 2010 r 2010 American Chemical Society 1611 DOI: 10.1021/jz100361f |J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 16111615

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Significant Improvements in Photovoltage via Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition of ultrathin layers of Al2O3 deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) on SnO2 photoanodes used in dye, as well as pinholes that reach the surface of the semiconductor.15 In contrast, atomic layer deposition

  8. Energy Procedia 27 (2012) 319 324 1876-6102 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of the Centro de Micro Anlisis de Materiales,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    oxide (Al2O3) surface passivation layer deposited by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD section; inversion layer solar cell 1. Introduction Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) deposited by atomic layer passivation by Al2O3: Recombination parameters and inversion layer solar cells F. Wernera *, A. Cosceevb

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Cationic Antiseptics in Layer-by-Layer Thin Film Assemblies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2010-07-14

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has proven to be a powerful technique for assembling thin films with a variety of properties including electrochromic, molecular sensing, oxygen barrier, and antimicrobial. LbL involves the deposition of alternating...

  10. ARGONNE'S ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION Customized Nanoengineered Coatings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity and Stability 16-17 Thin Films Open Up New Opportunities for Advanced Photovoltaics 18 Working with Argonne Argonne's advanced materials capabilities and intellectual...

  11. Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.

    1998-04-28

    An aspheric optical element is disclosed formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin ({approx}100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application. 4 figs.

  12. Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA)

    1998-01-01

    An aspheric optical element formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin (.about.100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application.

  13. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  14. Reversible and irreversible reactions of three oxygen precursors on InAs(0 0 1)-(42)/c(82)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    area of research [1­8]. Of the many thin film deposition techniques, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has substrate oxidation and disruption of the (4×2)/c(8×2) surface of InAs(0 0 1). Atomic layer deposition layer deposition Oxidants The substrate reactions of three common oxygen sources for gate oxide

  15. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  16. Layer-by-layer assembly of electrically conductive polymer thin films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan, Chien Sy Jason

    2007-09-17

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly was used to produce highly conductive thin films with carbon black (CB) and polyelectrolytes. The effects of sonication and pHadjustment of the deposition mixtures on the conductivity and transparency of deposited films...

  17. Biaxially textured metal substrate with palladium layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robbins, William B. (Maplewood, MN)

    2002-12-31

    Described is an article comprising a biaxially textured metal substrate and a layer of palladium deposited on at least one major surface of the metal substrate; wherein the palladium layer has desired in-plane and out-of-plane crystallographic orientations, which allow subsequent layers that are applied on the article to also have the desired orientations.

  18. Published: August 31, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 4134 dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl2019068 |Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 41344137

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    , Al2O3, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). When the top gate inverts the carrier type under electron beam lithography, and a functionalization layer based on NO2 was deposited by atomic layer demonstrated photo- response near metallic contacts,4À8 at the interface between single- layer and bilayer

  19. Atomically abrupt and unpinned Al2O3/In0.53Ga0.47As interfaces: Experiment and simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    an In0.53Ga0.47As 100 channel and an Al2O3 dielectric layer grown by atomic layer deposition ALD when at the end of epitaxial growth of the channel was thermally desorbed in situ in an atomic layer deposition 100 channel from oxidation and contamina- tion during exposure to air. An As2 capping layer deposited

  20. Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templated Channel Electrodes via Atomic Layer A. B. F. Martinsona,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templated Channel Electrodes via Atomic Layer Deposition A. B. F. Martinsona of transparent, semiconducting oxides via atomic layer deposition may allow for significantly faster charge aluminum oxide membranes via atomic layer deposition. Introduction Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs

  1. Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic Layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic Layer Deposition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic...

  2. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

  3. Resistive switching characteristics of polycrystalline SrTiO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong Choi, Hyung; Won Park, Suk; Deok Han, Gwon; Hyung Shim, Joon; Na, Junhong; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2014-06-16

    Strontium titanate (STO) thin films 90?nm in thickness were grown on a Pt substrate through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The as-deposited ALD STO grown with an ALD cycle ratio of 1:1 (Sr:Ti) was in an amorphous phase, and annealing at 800?°C in air crystallized the films into the perovskite phase. This phase change was confirmed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The as-deposited ALD STO exhibited no discernible switching mechanism, whereas unipolar switching behavior was reproducibly observed with a high resistance ratio (10{sup 8}–10{sup 9}) and strict separation of the set/reset voltages and currents in the annealed ALD STO. Mechanisms for charge transport in both the low- and high-resistance states and for resistive switching in the annealed ALD STO are also proposed.

  4. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  5. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, James M. (Lisle, IL); Lepetre, Yves J. (Lauris, FR); Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  6. The following contribution was presented at the 28. European PV Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) deposited by various deposition techniques, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) [1], plasma ALUMINUM-OXIDE-BASED INVERSION LAYER SOLAR CELLS ON N-TYPE C-SI F. Werner,1 Y. Larionova,1 D. Zielke,1 T introduce a rear-emitter inversion layer (IL) solar cell on n-type crystalline silicon (n-Si). The hole IL

  7. Subscriber access provided by Northwestern Univ. Library The Journal of Physical Chemistry C is published by the American Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modification via Atomic Layer Deposition Thomas W. Hamann, Omar K. Farha, and Joseph T. Hupp J. Phys. Chem. C Based on Photoelectrode Modification via Atomic Layer Deposition Thomas W. Hamann, Omar K. FarhaVised Manuscript ReceiVed: October 10, 2008 Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been used to create conformal TiO2

  8. Molecular Caulk: A Pore Sealing Technology for Ultra-low k Dielectrics Jay J. Senkevich1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    chemical vapor (CVD) or atomic layer (ALD) deposition of the barrier layer, the gas-phase precursors have issues of the barrier layer/dielectric interface. Molecular Caulk is deposited via chemical vapor Caulk deposition on surface topology was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experimental

  9. TRANSIENT ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION IN MICRON SCALE FEATURES Matthias K. Gobbert*, Samuel G. Webster*, and Timothy S. Cale y1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markowich, Peter A.

    are related to those that might occur during the adsorption and purge steps in an atomic layer deposition estimates for processing times. 1 #12; INTRODUCTION In an ideal atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, the deposition of solid material on the substrate is accomplished one atomic or molecular layer at a time

  10. TRANSIENT ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION IN MICRON SCALE FEATURES Matthias K. Gobbert*, Samuel G. Webster*, and Timothy S. Cale1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markowich, Peter A.

    are related to those that might occur during the adsorption and purge steps in an atomic layer deposition estimates for processing times. 1 #12;INTRODUCTION In an ideal atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, the deposition of solid material on the substrate is accomplished one atomic or molecular layer at a time

  11. Nanoscale NMR Spectroscopy and Imaging of Multiple Nuclear Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    /v) for more than 1 hour. Using atomic layer deposition (ALD, Savannah Atomic Layer Deposition S200), a 3 nm.999% 12 C high-purity chemical vapor deposition (CVD) chip from Element 6 with an unpolished surface.999% 12 C high-purity chemical vapor deposition (CVD) chip from Element 6 with an unpolished surface

  12. Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muruska, H. Paul (East Windsor, NJ); Sansregret, Joseph L. (Scotch Plains, NJ); Young, Archie R. (Montclair, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

  13. Layered CU-based electrode for high-dielectric constant oxide thin film-based devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Auciello, Orlando

    2010-05-11

    A layered device including a substrate; an adhering layer thereon. An electrical conducting layer such as copper is deposited on the adhering layer and then a barrier layer of an amorphous oxide of TiAl followed by a high dielectric layer are deposited to form one or more of an electrical device such as a capacitor or a transistor or MEMS and/or a magnetic device.

  14. Metallapyrimidines and Metallapyrimidiniums from Oxidative Addition of Pyrazolate N-N Bonds to Niobium(III), Niobium(IV), and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    of tetranuclear uranium complexes that were obtained upon treatment of UI3(THF)4 with potassium 3,5-dimethylpyrazolate (KMe2pz).6 These uranium clusters contain Me2pz and 4- ketimidopent-2-en-2-imide ligands to atomic layer deposition (ALD) film growth precursors containing pyrazolate ligands7 and the ALD growth

  15. Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

    2014-04-29

    A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

  16. Method of adhesion between an oxide layer and a metal layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jennison, Dwight R.; Bogicevic, Alexander; Kelber, Jeffry A.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2004-09-14

    A method of controlling the wetting characteristics and increasing the adhesion between a metal and an oxide layer. By introducing a negatively-charged species to the surface of an oxide layer, layer-by-layer growth of metal deposited onto the oxide surface is promoted, increasing the adhesion strength of the metal-oxide interface. The negatively-charged species can either be deposited onto the oxide surface or a compound can be deposited that dissociates on, or reacts with, the surface to form the negatively-charged species. The deposited metal adatoms can thereby bond laterally to the negatively-charged species as well as vertically to the oxide surface as well as react with the negatively charged species, be oxidized, and incorporated on or into the surface of the oxide.

  17. Method for making photovoltaic devices using oxygenated semiconductor thin film layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James Neil; Albin, David Scott; Feldman-Peabody, Scott; Pavol, Mark Jeffrey; Gossman, Robert Dwayne

    2014-12-16

    A method for making a photovoltaic device is presented. The method includes steps of disposing a window layer on a substrate and disposing an absorber layer on the window layer. Disposing the window layer, the absorber layer, or both layers includes introducing a source material into a deposition zone, wherein the source material comprises oxygen and a constituent of the window layer, of the absorber layer or of both layers. The method further includes step of depositing a film that comprises the constituent and oxygen.

  18. Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Greenbelt, MD); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure.

  19. Uranium deposits of Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include: the history, early Aphebian conglomerate-hosted deposits; proterozoic deposits hosted by folded, metamorphosed rocks; Hudsonion classical vein deposits, Saskatchewan unconformity-associated and sedimentary-hosted deposits of Helikian age; other Helikian unconformity-associated and sedimentary-hosted rocks; and Phanerozoic deposits.

  20. Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Yan, Baojie (Rochester Hills, MI)

    2011-03-08

    A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of Al-incorporated Zn(O,S) thin films with tunable electrical Helen Hejin Park, Ashwin Jayaraman, Rachel Heasley, Chuanxi Yang, Lauren Hartle, Ravin Mankad, Richard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    absorber materials, such as Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS),1,2 Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 (CZTS),3­5 and SnS.6­9 Compared for SnS/Zn(O,S) heterojunc- tions in Fig. S1 (see Ref. 14). If the conduction band energy of the buffer deposition of Al-doped ZnO thin films J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31, 01A109 (2013); 10.1116/1.4757764 Low

  2. RIPPLED DEPOSITS PART IV --RIPPLED DEPOSITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    . The conditions existing at the interface between a deposit surface and a flowing fluid will therefore fluids. It results in changes in the flow and pressure drop character istics of tubes subjected of deposit roughness are much more uncertain. Deposition on a clean surface, with commercial roughness say

  3. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-11-09

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of standard polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  4. Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Xiaogan (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-11-15

    An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

  5. Perspectives on Deposition Velocity

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    direction, and stability. Dispersion and Deposition Dispersion is dependent on Wind speed Stability Deposition is dependent on Wind speed Stability 95 th...

  6. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sankar, Sambasivan; Goyal, Amit; Barnett, Scott A.; Kim, Ilwon; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-08-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metal and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layers. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may be super conducting properties.

  7. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-03-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  8. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1998-10-13

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications is disclosed. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. 8 figs.

  9. Carbon Nanosheets and Nanostructured Electrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon nanosheet thin films were employed as nanostructured electrodes in organic solar cells. Due to the nanostructured texture of the carbon nanosheet electrodes, there was an increase in performance over standard ITO electrodes with very thick active layers. ZnO deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used as a hole blocking layer to provide for carrier selectivity of the carbon nanosheets.

  10. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  11. PARTICULATE DEPOSITION OF MAGNETITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    PART V PARTICULATE DEPOSITION OF MAGNETITE #12;- 75 - PART V - DEPOSITION OF PARTICULATE MAGNETITE conduits and equipment in conventional boilers and nuclear reactors, the particulate corrosion products tend to deposit at heated and unheated surfaces. The deposition affects the thermohydraulic performance

  12. Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission Spectroscopic Study of Band Offsets and Interface Self-cleaning by Atomic Layer Deposited HfO2 on In0.53Ga0.47As and In0.52Al0.48As

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu; /SLAC, SSRL; Chen, P.T.; Sun, Y.; Goel, N.; Majhi, P.; Garner, M; Tsai, W.; Pianetta, P.; Nishi, Y.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2008-10-31

    The Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission Spectroscopic (SRPES) study was conducted to (a) investigate the surface chemistry of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As post chemical and thermal treatments, (b) construct band diagram and (c) investigate the interface property of HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As. Dilute HCl and HF etch remove native oxides on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.47}As, whereas in-situ vacuum annealing removes surface arsenic pile-up. After the atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2}, native oxides were considerably reduced compared to that in as-received epi-layers, strongly suggesting the self-clean mechanism. Valence and conduction band offsets are measured to be 3.37 {+-} 0.1eV, 1.80 {+-} 0.3eV for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and 3.00 {+-} 0.1eV, 1.47 {+-} 0.3eV for In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.47}As, respectively.

  13. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  14. Instrument Series: Deposition and Microfabrication Sputter Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and solid oxide fuel cells and solar cells for energy generation Microfabrication ­ deposition offers operational flexibility, efficiency, and control, allowing a range of applications and materials

  15. Electro-deposition of superconductor oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The superconducting precursor is then formed by electrodepositing a first electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the substrate electrode, followed by depositing a layer of silver onto the first electrodeposited (ED) layer, and then electrodepositing a second electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the Ag layer. The multilayered superconducting precursor is suitable for oxidation at a sufficient annealing temperature in air or an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form a crystalline superconducting oxide film.

  16. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hampden-Smith, M. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Kodas, T. T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto.

  17. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, R.R.; Ricco, A.J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto. 5 figures.

  18. Chapter 3--Lahar Deposits Lahar Deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Moral, Roger

    with snow and ice, the rapid melting causes lahars that flow down canyons. Slurries entrain soil, rocks above the deposit (July 1980). 27 #12;Chapter 3--Lahar Deposits out. Glaciers and snow fields melt rapidly and small block- ing dams (often glacial moraines) collapse to produce mas- sive surges

  19. Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

    2013-11-26

    A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

  20. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2011-10-11

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  1. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2012-08-07

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  2. Mathematical formulation and numerical modeling of wax deposition in pipelines from enthalpyporosity approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Mathematical formulation and numerical modeling of wax deposition in pipelines from enthalpy in the layer composed of the two-phase wax and oil (that is the gel layer), and (3) use Fick's law to describe to temperature gradient. In this work, a rigorous math- ematical model for the prediction of wax deposition

  3. Low temperature junction growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Page, Matthew; Iwaniczko, Eugene; Wang, Tihu; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-02-04

    A system and a process for forming a semi-conductor device, and solar cells (10) formed thereby. The process includes preparing a substrate (12) for deposition of a junction layer (14); forming the junction layer (14) on the substrate (12) using hot wire chemical vapor deposition; and, finishing the semi-conductor device.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of atomic layer etching of silicon Satish D. Athavale and Demetre J. Economoua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economou, Demetre J.

    one layer at a time. Much attention has been paid to deposition, but etching with atomic layerMolecular dynamics simulation of atomic layer etching of silicon Satish D. Athavale and Demetre J atomic layer etching ALET of Si. The total reaction yield Si atoms removed per ion was 0.172; 84

  5. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  6. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R. (Plainfield, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Cary, NC)

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

  7. Deposition and atomic force microscopy of individual phthalocyanine polymers between nanofabricated electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Deposition and atomic force microscopy of individual phthalocyanine polymers between nanofabricated of cellulose using the Langmuir­Blodgett deposition technique. Atomic force microscopy was used to study- layer of an insulating molecule.6 We show that this method leads to a controlled deposition and strong

  8. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  9. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Jose, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Malahide, IE)

    2008-01-01

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  10. Mitigation of substrate defects in reticles using multilayer buffer layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirkarimi, Paul B. (Sunol, CA); Bajt, Sasa (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A multilayer film is used as a buffer layer to minimize the size of defects on a reticle substrate prior to deposition of a reflective coating on the substrate. The multilayer buffer layer deposited intermediate the reticle substrate and the reflective coating produces a smoothing of small particles and other defects on the reticle substrate. The reduction in defect size is controlled by surface relaxation during the buffer layer growth process and by the degree of intermixing and volume contraction of the materials at the multilayer interfaces. The buffer layers are deposited at near-normal incidence via a low particulate ion beam sputtering process. The growth surface of the buffer layer may also be heated by a secondary ion source to increase the degree of intermixing and improve the mitigation of defects.

  11. Transport Layer Cornell University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    Transport Layer Ao Tang Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 Lachlan L. H. Andrew California. Low California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 I. INTRODUCTION The Internet has evolved of the physical layer, the link layer, the network layer, the transport layer and the application layer1 . See

  12. Method for forming a barrier layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  13. Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

    1993-11-16

    A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure. 7 figures.

  14. Fabrication of ZnO/Cu2O heterojunctions in atmospheric conditions: improved interface quality and solar cell performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ievskaya, Y.; Hoye, R. L. Z.; Sadhanala, A.; Musselman, K.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    ZnO/Cu2O 1.46 0.49 AALD ITO/Zn0.79Mg0.21O/Cu2O 2.2 0.65 AALD PLD – pulsed laser deposition, ALD – atomic layer deposition, ECD – electrochemi- cal deposition, IBS – ion beam sputtering, VAPE – vacuum arc plasma evaporation, dc-MSP – direct current...

  15. Multilayer moisture barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  16. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  17. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1988-02-12

    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  18. MgO buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); List, III, Frederic A. (Andersonville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled-Ni and/or Cu substrates for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as MgO/Ag/Pt/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Ni, MgO/Ag/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Cu, MgO/Ag/Pt/Cu, and MgO/Ag/Cu. Techniques used to deposit these buffer layers include electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), combustion CVD, and spray pyrolysis.

  19. Method for making MgO buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); List, III, Frederic A. (Andersonville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled-Ni and/or Cu substrates for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as MgO/Ag/Pt/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Ni, MgO/Ag/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Cu, MgO/Ag/Pt/Cu, and MgO/Ag/Cu. Techniques used to deposit these buffer layers include electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), combustion CVD, and spray pyrolysis.

  20. Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    1998-12-02

    Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of January I to March 31, 1998. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was completed. Variations of particle trajectories are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity for irregular fibrous particles is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data for glass fibers and discussed. Additional progress on the sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition and resuspension in turbulent flows was made.

  1. Buffer layers for REBCO films for use in superconducting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A superconducting article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface. A biaxially textured buffer layer, which can be a cap layer, is supported by the substrate. The buffer layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different transition metal cations. A biaxially textured superconductor layer is deposited so as to be supported by the buffer layer. A method of making a superconducting article is also disclosed.

  2. Building biomedical materials layer-by-layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammond, Paula T.

    In this materials perspective, the promise of water based layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly as a means of generating drug-releasing surfaces for biomedical applications, from small molecule therapeutics to biologic drugs and ...

  3. Atomic Layer Deposition and in Situ Characterization of Ultraclean...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxide and Lithium Hydroxide Authors: Kozen, Alexander C ; Pearse, Alexander J ; Lin, Chuan Fu ; Schroeder, Marshall A ; Noked, Malachi ; Lee, Sang Bok ; Rubloff, Gary W...

  4. Functional Nano-Structures Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salgård Cunha, Pedro

    2014-05-27

    to develop new systems for renewable energy. Together with geothermal energy, solar energy is one of the few re- newable energy sources that can have a significant impact on the world’s energy supply in the foreseeable future. However solar energy has two... level, the production costs are consid- ered relatively high. The use of silicon and other materials such as silver for electrical contacts also imposes limits on their future use due tp the limited amount of these resources available on earth. As such a...

  5. Atomic Layer Deposition Enabled Synthesis of Multiferroic Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Calvin Dinh-Tu

    2015-01-01

    Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering 3(1): 235-of Philosophy in Chemical Engineering by Calvin Dinh-Tu PhamDoctor of Philosophy in Chemical Engineering University of

  6. Deposition and characterisation of bismuth layer-structured ferroelectric films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Xiaobing

    the fabrication temperature of 750 ºC. Dense ceramic samples of Nd- and Sm-doped BiT (BNdT and BSmT) were successfully fabricated for PLD targets by solid state processing. Highly epitaxially (001)-, (118)-, and (104)-oriented Nd-doped bismuth titanate (BNd...

  7. Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Silicon Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  8. Atomic Layer Deposition Enabled Synthesis of Multiferroic Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Calvin Dinh-Tu

    2015-01-01

    and Modeling. Metallic Spintronic Devices, CRC Press: 21-70.exchange bias for spintronic applications." Journal ofMemory Devices. Metallic Spintronic Devices, CRC Press: 197-

  9. Integrated Sustainability Analysis of Atomic Layer Deposition for Microelectronics Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris Yingchun; David Dornfeld

    2010-01-01

    and the Environment. Journal of Manufacturing Science andthe Environmental Impact of Manufacturing and Sustainabilityfor Microelectronics Manufacturing Chris Y. Yuan e-mail:

  10. Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomass and BiofuelsPhysicist47JulyInnovation

  11. Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon Anodes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research atDepartment ofAtlanta Community Leaders'ofAtomic

  12. Atomic Layer Deposition and in Situ Characterization of Ultraclean Lithium

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  13. Electroless Atomic Layer Deposition: A Scalable Approach to Surface

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  14. Dual Layer Solid State Thin Film Deposition - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  15. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performedValley |SolarSoleSolving

  16. Surface roughness and interface width scaling of magnetron sputter deposited Ni/Ti multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maidul Haque, S.; Biswas, A.; Tokas, R. B.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Bhattacharya, Debarati

    2013-09-14

    Using an indigenously built r.f. magnetron sputtering system, several single layer Ti and Ni films have been deposited at varying deposition conditions. All the samples have been characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Reflectivity (GIXR) and Atomic Force Microscopy to estimate their thickness, density, and roughness and a power law dependence of the surface roughness on the film thickness has been established. Subsequently, at optimized deposition condition of Ti and Ni, four Ni/Ti multilayers of 11-layer, 21-layer, 31-layer, and 51-layer having different bilayer thickness have been deposited. The multilayer samples have been characterized by GIXR and neutron reflectivity measurements and the experimental data have been fitted assuming an appropriate sample structure. A power law correlation between the interface width and bilayer thickness has been observed for the multilayer samples, which was explained in the light of alternate roughening/smoothening of multilayers and assuming that at the interface the growth “restarts” every time.

  17. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  18. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  19. Solution deposition assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  20. IMPROVED pc-Si p-LAYER AND a-Si i-LAYER MATERIALS USING VHF PLASMA X. Deng, S. J. Jones, T. Liu, M. Izu and S. R. Ovshinsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    IMPROVED pc-Si p-LAYER AND a-Si i-LAYER MATERIALS USING VHF PLASMA DEPOSITION X. Deng, S. J. Jones, Michigan 48084 ABSTRACT Microcrystalline Si p-layers have been widely used in a-Si solar cell technology of high quality pc-Si p-layer material using a modified very high frequency (VHF) plasma enhanced CVD

  1. 2446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 46, NO. 6, JUNE 2010 Buffer Layers for Highly Ordered L10 FePt-Oxide Thin Film Granular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    at moderate depo- sition temperatures. In most previous studies, a FePt-Oxide layer is directly deposited on a (001) textured MgO layer. By introducing a buffer layer in between the FePt-oxide layer and the MgO underlayer, we are able to substantially enhance the L10 ordering of the FePt-oxide layer while lowering

  2. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  3. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  4. Atomic layer structure of manganese atoms on wurtzite gallium nitride Abhijit Chinchore, Kangkang Wang, Wenzhi Lin, Jeongihm Pak, and Arthur R. Smitha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This surface forms the starting point for Mn deposition. The Mn atomic layer was prepared by depositing MnAtomic layer structure of manganese atoms on wurtzite gallium nitride ,,0001¯... Abhijit Chinchore stage of growth. Certainly, a thin well-ordered layer of Mn atoms on GaN could be of great interest

  5. Thick adherent dielectric films on plastic substrates and method for depositing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA); Theiss, Steven D. (Woodbury, MN); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Thick adherent dielectric films deposited on plastic substrates for use as a thermal barrier layer to protect the plastic substrates from high temperatures which, for example, occur during laser annealing of layers subsequently deposited on the dielectric films. It is desirable that the barrier layer has properties including: a thickness of 1 .mu.m or greater, adheres to a plastic substrate, does not lift-off when cycled in temperature, has few or no cracks and does not crack when subjected to bending, resistant to lift-off when submersed in fluids, electrically insulating and preferably transparent. The thick barrier layer may be composed, for example, of a variety of dielectrics and certain metal oxides, and may be deposited on a variety of plastic substrates by various known deposition techniques. The key to the method of forming the thick barrier layer on the plastic substrate is maintaining the substrate cool during deposition of the barrier layer. Cooling of the substrate maybe accomplished by the use of a cooling chuck on which the plastic substrate is positioned, and by directing cooling gas, such as He, Ar and N.sub.2, between the plastic substrate and the cooling chucks. Thick adherent dielectric films up to about 5 .mu.m have been deposited on plastic substrates which include the above-referenced properties, and which enable the plastic substrates to withstand laser processing temperatures applied to materials deposited on the dielectric films.

  6. Nanostaircases: An atomic shadowing instability during epitaxial CrN,,001... layer growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Daniel

    Nanostaircases: An atomic shadowing instability during epitaxial CrN,,001... layer growth J. R the effect of atomic shadowing on surface morphological and microstructural evolution. The layers are single deposition flux than the surrounding layer. This leads to both vertical and lateral growth and the formation

  7. Deposition of Dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garmestani, Hamid

    Deposition of Dielectrics Benjamin A. Small Cleanroom Technical Staff September 26th, 2000 #12 of Microelectronic Fabrication. 1996. MiRC cleanroom users PlasmaTherm, Inc. Surface Technology Systems, Inc. #12;

  8. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide film on a textured metallic substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christen, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); He, Qing (Bloomington, MN)

    2003-04-29

    The present invention provides a biaxially textured laminate article having a polycrystalline biaxially textured metallic substrate with an electrically conductive oxide layer epitaxially deposited thereon and methods for producing same. In one embodiment a biaxially texture Ni substrate has a layer of LaNiO.sub.3 deposited thereon. An initial layer of electrically conductive oxide buffer is epitaxially deposited using a sputtering technique using a sputtering gas which is an inert or forming gas. A subsequent layer of an electrically conductive oxide layer is then epitaxially deposited onto the initial layer using a sputtering gas comprising oxygen. The present invention will enable the formation of biaxially textured devices which include HTS wires and interconnects, large area or long length ferromagnetic and/or ferroelectric memory devices, large area or long length, flexible light emitting semiconductors, ferroelectric tapes, and electrodes.

  9. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide film on a textured metallic substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christen, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); He, Qing (Bloomington, MN)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a biaxially textured laminate article having a polycrystalline biaxially textured metallic substrate with an electrically conductive oxide layer epitaxially deposited thereon and methods for producing same. In one embodiment a biaxially texture Ni substrate has a layer of LaNiO.sub.3 deposited thereon. An initial layer of electrically conductive oxide buffer is epitaxially deposited using a sputtering technique using a sputtering gas which is an inert or forming gas. A subsequent layer of an electrically conductive oxide layer is then epitaxially deposited onto the initial layer using a sputtering gas comprising oxygen. The present invention will enable the formation of biaxially textured devices which include HTS wires and interconnects, large area or long length ferromagnetic and/or ferroelectric memory devices, large area or long length, flexible light emitting semiconductors, ferroelectric tapes, and electrodes.

  10. Analysis of the effects of energy deposition on shock-driven turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haines, Brian M.; Grinstein, Fernando F.; Welser-Sherrill, Leslie; Fincke, James R.; Doss, Forrest W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS T087, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS T087, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We perform simulations of laser-driven turbulence experiments with energy deposition, modeling situations where energy is deposited in a mixing layer before or after it is reshocked. Such situations are experienced in, e.g., inertial confinement fusion capsules. We show that the timing of the energy deposition has a significant impact on the development of turbulent flow and corresponding turbulent material mixing. In particular, if the energy is deposited before the shock wave begins interacting with the mixing layer, the development of turbulence and turbulent mixing are inhibited. If, however, the energy is deposited after the shock wave has interacted with a portion of the mixing layer, turbulence generation and turbulent mixing are enhanced.

  11. Chemical solution deposition method of fabricating highly aligned MgO templates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans (Knoxville, TN); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan (Knoxville, TN); Aytug, Tolga (Knoxville, TN); Arendt, Paul N (Los Alamos, NM); Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-01-03

    A superconducting article includes a substrate having an untextured metal surface; an untextured barrier layer of La.sub.2Zr.sub.2O.sub.7 or Gd.sub.2Zr.sub.2O.sub.7 supported by and in contact with the surface of the substrate; a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the untextured barrier layer; and a biaxially textured superconducting layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer. Moreover, a method of forming a buffer layer on a metal substrate includes the steps of: providing a substrate having an untextured metal surface; coating the surface of the substrate with a barrier layer precursor; converting the precursor to an untextured barrier layer; and depositing a biaxially textured buffer layer above and supported by the untextured barrier layer.

  12. Underpotential Deposition-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Growth of Thin Films -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  13. Compositional Variations in Vapor Deposited Samarium Zirconate Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Compositional Variations in Vapor Deposited Samarium Zirconate Coatings A Thesis Presented temperatures instead have relied on the development of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The thermal barrier coating systems applied to superalloys consist of three layers: (i) an aluminum rich metallic bond

  14. Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic AU/AG layers for nitride light-emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tansu, Nelson; Zhao, Hongping; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Guangyu

    2014-04-01

    A double-metallic deposition process is used whereby adjacent layers of different metals are deposited on a substrate. The surface plasmon frequency of a base layer of a first metal is tuned by the surface plasmon frequency of a second layer of a second metal formed thereon. The amount of tuning is dependent upon the thickness of the metallic layers, and thus tuning can be achieved by varying the thicknesses of one or both of the metallic layers. In a preferred embodiment directed to enhanced LED technology in the green spectrum regime, a double-metallic Au/Ag layer comprising a base layer of gold (Au) followed by a second layer of silver (Ag) formed thereon is deposited on top of InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) on a sapphire/GaN substrate.

  15. Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

    2010-06-22

    Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  16. Alcohol chemical vapor deposition growth of millimeter-sized single-crystal of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Alcohol chemical vapor deposition growth of millimeter-sized single-crystal of graphene Sungjin Kim@photon,t,u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract: The growth of large-sized single crystalline graphene with mono layer is necessary for large-scale integration of graphene devices. Ethanol as a precursor has proven effective in the chemical vapor deposition

  17. Energy deposition by Alfven waves into the dayside auroral oval: Cluster and FAST observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Charles W.

    Energy deposition by Alfve´n waves into the dayside auroral oval: Cluster and FAST observations C observations from the Cluster and FAST spacecraft showing the deposition of energy into the auroral ionosphere from broadband ULF waves in the cusp and low-latitude boundary layer. A comparison of the wave Poynting

  18. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2001-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  19. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2000-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  20. Photonic layered media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

  1. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, Alison (Fremont, CA); Michel, Richard P. (Bloomington, MN)

    1998-01-01

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bia layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200.degree. C., the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 .ANG./sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous.

  2. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1998-07-21

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bias layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200 C, the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 {angstrom}/sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous. 4 figs.

  3. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yun, Jae-Chul (Naperville, IL); Para, Adam (St. Charles, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  4. High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    of narrow bandgap a-SiGe and µc-SiGe films deposited using different hydrogen dilution Section 3 Triple-junction a-Si Solar Cells with Heavily Doped Thin Interface Layers at the Tunnel Junctions Section 4 High 3-1 I-V performance of triple cell having heavily doped tunnel-junction interface layers

  5. Method of making a layered composite electrode/electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2005-01-25

    An electrode/electrolyte structure is prepared by a plurality of methods. An unsintered (possibly bisque fired) moderately catalytic electronically-conductive or homogeneous mixed ionic electronic conductive electrode material is deposited on a layer composed of a sintered or unsintered ionically-conductive electrolyte material prior to being sintered. A layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on an unsintered ("green") layer of electrolyte material and the electrode and electrolyte layers are sintered simultaneously, sometimes referred to as "co-firing," under conditions suitable to fully densify the electrolyte while the electrode retains porosity. Or, the layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on a previously sintered layer of electrolyte, and then sintered. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of an electrolcatalyst precursor (e.g., a metal salt such as a transition metal nitrate). This may be followed by low temperature firing to convert the precursor to catalyst. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in an ionic (electrochemical) device such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  6. Long-Term Passivation of Strongly Interacting Metals with Single-Layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weatherup, Robert S.; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Caneva, Sabina; Blume, Raoul; Robertson, John; Schlögl, Robert; Hofmann, Stephan

    2015-10-24

    The long-term (>18 months) protection of Ni surfaces against oxidation under atmospheric conditions is demonstrated by coverage with single-layer graphene, formed by chemical vapor deposition. In situ, depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  7. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  8. Formation of MnSb during the growth of MnSi layers in the presence of an Sb flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Epitaxial growth of silicide layers on Si substrates has attracted much attention due to their technologicalFormation of MnSb during the growth of MnSi layers in the presence of an Sb flux K. Matsuda, Y have been performed to elucidate the growth mechanism. The MnSi layer was grown by reactive deposition

  9. Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of multi-layer Cr/Cr2O3 coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    ) coated tool cutting performance and resistance to abrasive and erosive wear [15]. Graded systems haveInvestigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of multi-layer Cr/Cr2O3 coatings Xiaolu-layer Microstructure Fracture toughness Adhesion Single and multi-layer Cr/Cr2O3 coatings were deposited by reactive

  10. Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    1998-12-02

    Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of October I to December 31, 1997. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was continued. Variations of vorticity contours which are averaged over a short time duration are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. The sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition in turbulent flows was extended to include the effect of particle rebound. A new more advance flow model for the near wall vortices is also used in these analysis. Sample particle trajectories are obtained and discussed. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data and discussed. Particle resuspension process in turbulent flows are studied. The model is compared with the experimental data. It is shown that when the effects of the near wall flow structure, as well as the surface roughness are included the model agrees with the available experimental data.

  11. Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    1998-12-02

    Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of July 1 to September 30, 1997. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was continued. Variations of vorticity contours which are averaged over a short time duration are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. The sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition in turbulent flows was extended to include the effect of particle rebound. A new more advance flow model for the near wall vortices is also used in these analysis. Sample particle trajectories are obtained and discussed. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data and discussed. Particle resuspension process in turbulent flows are studied. The model is compared with the experimental data. It is shown that when the effects of the near wall flow structure, as well as the surface roughness are included the model agrees with the available experimental data.

  12. Double dielectric passivation layer on InAs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egley, James Lee

    1985-01-01

    quality and the dielectric layer of an InAs sample with an anodic oxide/SiOz passivation layer. KOH was the electrolyte used for anodization and the SiOz was deposited by RF sputtering. The equipment that was built for testing of the samples at 77K... is briefly described. The processing steps required for the fabrication of a MOSFET and a mobility measurement device utilizing an anodic oxide/SisNq dielectric layer are explained. The anodic oxides grown here are shown to be semiconductors. Methods...

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANARIZING LAYERS IN TANDEM SOLAR CELLS Hamed Achour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candea, George

    °C H2 and CO2 Plasma treatment of deposited films Characterization: Transmittance, FTIR, SEM properties were found to be dependent on temperature. Good top cell surface planarization was observed temperature for application as an intermediate reflector (ZIR) in micromorph solar cells The ZIR layer should

  14. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Chirayil, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Feenstra, Roeland (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0layer can be deposited using sol-gel or metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  15. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  16. Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaghy, R. E.; Sherman, A. H.

    1981-08-18

    A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer. 1 fig.

  17. Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaghy, Robert E. (Wilmington, NC); Sherman, Anna H. (Wilmington, NC)

    1981-01-01

    A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer.

  18. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  19. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  20. Cleaning graphene with a titanium sacrificial layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joiner, C. A., E-mail: cjoiner3@gatech.edu; Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Graphene is a promising material for future electronic applications and chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper is a promising method for synthesizing graphene on the wafer scale. The processing of such graphene films into electronic devices introduces a variety of contaminants which can be difficult to remove. An approach to cleaning residues from the graphene channel is presented in which a thin layer of titanium is deposited via thermal e-beam evaporation and immediately removed. This procedure does not damage the graphene as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy, greatly enhances the electrical performance of the fabricated graphene field effect transistors, and completely removes the chemical residues from the surface of the graphene channel as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  1. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  2. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1991-07-30

    A process is disclosed for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900--1500 C and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  3. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod K. (Lexington, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900.degree.-1500.degree. C. and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  4. Fretting wear and electrochemical corrosion of well-adhered CVD diamond films deposited on steel substrates with a WCCo interlayer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    -filament chemical vapour deposition methods. A Co-containing tungsten-carbide (WC­Co) coating prepared by high velocity oxy-fuel spraying was used as an intermediate layer on the steel substrates to minimize the early

  5. Simulating cold season snowpack: Impacts of snow albedo and multi-layer snow physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Yongkang

    Simulating cold season snowpack: Impacts of snow albedo and multi-layer snow physics D. Waliser & J of the alterations of snow albedo due to anthropogenic aerosol deposition on snowpack and the treatment of snow physics using a multi-layer snow model. The snow albedo component considered qualitatively future changes

  6. Graphene and SWNT film as Hole Transport Layer and Electrode for Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Graphene and SWNT film as Hole Transport Layer and Electrode for Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama], dry-deposited SWNTs-Si solar cell [4], graphene-Si solar cells, organic solar cell (OSC) and perovskite-type solar cells. Using millimeter-scale monocrystalline single-layer graphene and honeycomb

  7. COUPLING BETWEEN MICROSTRIP LINES EMBEDDED IN POLYIMIDE LAYERS FOR 3D-MMICs ON Si

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    COUPLING BETWEEN MICROSTRIP LINES EMBEDDED IN POLYIMIDE LAYERS FOR 3D-MMICs ON Si George E. Ponchak layers of polyimide are required for constructing Si/SiGe monolithic microwave/millimeter-wave integrated necessitates novel transmission line structures [1] that are typically embedded in polyimide that is deposited

  8. Coupling Between Microstrip Lines Embedded in Polyimide Layers for 3D-MMICs on Si

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Coupling Between Microstrip Lines Embedded in Polyimide Layers for 3D-MMICs on Si George E. Ponchak Abstract -- Three-dimensional circuits built upon multiple layers of polyimide are required line structures [1] that are typically embedded in polyimide that is deposited over the Si substrate

  9. Oxidation preventative capping layer for deep-ultra-violet and soft x-ray multilayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prisbrey, Shon T.

    2004-07-06

    The invention uses iridium and iridium compounds as a protective capping layer on multilayers having reflectivity in the deep ultra-violet to soft x-ray regime. The iridium compounds can be formed in one of two ways: by direct deposition of the iridium compound from a prepared target or by depositing a thin layer (e.g., 5-50 angstroms) of iridium directly onto an element. The deposition energy of the incoming iridium is sufficient to activate the formation of the desired iridium compound. The compounds of most interest are iridium silicide (IrSi.sub.x) and iridium molybdenide (IrMo.sub.x).

  10. Systems having optical absorption layer for mid and long wave infrared and methods for making the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J

    2013-10-01

    An optical system according to one embodiment includes a substrate; and an optical absorption layer coupled to the substrate, wherein the optical absorption layer comprises a layer of diamond-like carbon, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). A method for applying an optical absorption layer to an optical system according to another embodiment includes depositing a layer of diamond-like carbon of an optical absorption layer above a substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  11. PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is focused on novel approaches to remove risk related to the development of hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). Researchers will synthesize a new and chemically stable hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite that eliminates decomposition of the absorber layer upon exposure to water vapor, which is a chief obstacle to widespread use of HPSC technology. They will also demonstrate a unique and industrially-scalable chemical vapor deposition method without halides or iodine, which are the main contributors to perovskite degradation.

  12. Graphene-based textured surface by pulsed laser deposition as a robust platform for surface enhanced Raman scattering applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Graphene-based textured surface by pulsed laser deposition as a robust platform for surface scattering (SERS)-active substrate based on gold nanoparticles-decorated few-layer (fl) graphene grown by pulsed laser deposition. Diamond-Like Carbon film has been converted to fl-graphene after thermal

  13. The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Biancarosa, J.; Shen, Q.; Boas, L.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

    2009-08-02

    The NSLS-II[1] program has a requirement for an unprecedented level of x-ray nanofocusing and has selected the wedged multilayer Laue lens[2,3] (MLL) as the optic of choice to meet this goal. In order to fabricate the MLL a deposition system is required that is capable of depositing depth-graded and laterally-graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, with total film growth in one run up to 100?m thick or greater. This machine design expounds on the positive features of a rotary deposition system[4] constructed previously for MLLs and will contain multiple stationary, horizontally-oriented magnetron sources where a transport will move a substrate back and forth in a linear fashion over shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating.

  14. Method and apparatus for the evaluation of a depth profile of thermo-mechanical properties of layered and graded materials and coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finot, Marc (Somerville, MA); Kesler, Olivera (Cambridge, MA); Suresh, Subra (Wellesley, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A technique for determining properties such as Young's modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, and residual stress of individual layers within a multi-layered sample is presented. The technique involves preparation of a series of samples, each including one additional layer relative to the preceding sample. By comparison of each sample to a preceding sample, properties of the topmost layer can be determined, and residual stress at any depth in each sample, resulting from deposition of the top layer, can be determined.

  15. Buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled substrates of nickel and/or copper and their alloys for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Ni, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni (RE=Rare Earth), and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Ni, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Cu. Deposition methods include physical vapor deposition techniques which include electron-beam evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, thermal evaporation, and solution precursor approach, which includes chemical vapor deposition, combustion CVD, metal-organic decomposition, sol-gel processing, and plasma spray.

  16. Layered electrode for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Mikhail, Youssef M. (Sterling Heights, MI)

    2001-01-01

    There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

  17. Surface and interfacial reaction study of InAs(100)-crystalline oxide interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhernokletov, D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Laukkanen, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku FI-20014 (Finland)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku FI-20014 (Finland); Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Kim, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Galatage, R. V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Yakimov, M.; Tokranov, V.; Oktyabrsky, S. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)] [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Wallace, R. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2013-05-27

    A crystalline oxide film on InAs(100) is investigated with in situ monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction before and after in situ deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as well as upon air exposure. The oxidation process leads to arsenic and indium trivalent oxidation state formation. The grown epitaxial oxide-InAs interface is stable upon ALD reactor exposure; however, trimethyl aluminum decreases oxidation states resulting in an unreconstructed surface. An increase in oxide concentration is also observed upon air exposure suggesting the crystalline oxide surface is unstable.

  18. OCTOBER 1990 DEPOSITION AND REMOVAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , shielding, resuspension, indoor deposition, the relative airborne con- centrations indoors and outdoors RESUSPENSION; PLANTS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTION; REMEDIAL ACTION; SHIELDING; SURFACE CONTAMINATION; URBAN effected by road traffic, and street cleaning the degree of resuspension, i.e. the return of deposited

  19. PARAFFIN WAX DEPOSITION AND FOULING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    hydrocarbons are cooled in heat exchangers they tend to deposit and cause fouling; increasing the overall heat by proper design and operation of pipelines and heat exchangers. This requires knowledge of the deposition at standard conditions. The crystalline nature of paraffin wax has been investigated by a number of workers(9

  20. MODELING OF THERMOPHORETIC SOOT DEPOSITION ANDHYDROCARBON CONDENSATION IN EGR COOLERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abarham, Mehdi; Hoard, John W.; Assanis, Dennis; Styles, Dan; Curtis, Eric W.; Ramesh, Nitia; Sluder, Scott; Storey, John Morse

    2009-01-01

    EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40-90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature. Thermal properties of fouled layer are calculated based on mass fraction of deposited soot and hydrocarbons. The experiments with the same conditions ran to validate the model. Hot EGR gases flow through the inner pipe and the coolant circulates around it in the outer pipe to keep a constant wall temperature. Effectiveness, deposited soot mass, condensed hydrocarbon mass, and pressure drop across the cooler are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a reasonably good agreement with the experimental results although there are some fields that need to be studied in future to improve the model.

  1. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

    2003-10-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two-Phase Studies, with a focus on heat transfer and paraffin deposition at various pipe inclinations, which will be used to enhance the paraffin deposition code for gas-liquid flow in pipes. (3) Deposition Physics and Water Impact Studies, which will address the aging process, improve our ability to characterize paraffin deposits and enhance our understanding of the role water plays in paraffin deposition in deepwater pipelines. As in the previous two studies, knowledge gained in this suite of studies will be integrated into a state-of-the-art three-phase paraffin deposition computer program.

  2. Nanoscale compositional analysis of NiTi shape memory alloy films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S. K.; Mohan, S.; Bysakh, S.; Kumar, A.; Kamat, S. V.

    2013-11-15

    The formation of surface oxide layer as well as compositional changes along the thickness for NiTi shape memory alloy thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at substrate temperature of 300 °C in the as-deposited condition as well as in the postannealed (at 600 °C) condition have been thoroughly studied by using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Formation of titanium oxide (predominantly titanium dioxide) layer was observed in both as-deposited and postannealed NiTi films, although the oxide layer was much thinner (8 nm) in as-deposited condition. The depletion of Ti and enrichment of Ni below the oxide layer in postannealed films also resulted in the formation of a graded microstructure consisting of titanium oxide, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and B2 NiTi. A uniform composition of B2 NiTi was obtained in the postannealed film only below a depth of 200–250 nm from the surface. Postannealed film also exhibited formation of a ternary silicide (Ni{sub x}Ti{sub y}Si) at the film–substrate interface, whereas no silicide was seen in the as-deposited film. The formation of silicide also caused a depletion of Ni in the film in a region ?250–300 nm just above the film substrate interface.

  3. Unexpected behaviour of one Pb monolayer deposited on aluminum oxide thin film grown on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vizzini, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.vizzini@im2np.fr; Bertoglio, M. [IM2NP CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13397 Marseille (France)] [IM2NP CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13397 Marseille (France); Oughaddou, Hamid [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d'Orsay, ISMO CNRS, Université de Paris, F-91405 Orsay, France and Deptartamento de Physique, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France)] [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d'Orsay, ISMO CNRS, Université de Paris, F-91405 Orsay, France and Deptartamento de Physique, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Hoarau, J. Y.; Biberian, J. P.; Aufray, B. [CINaM CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13288 Marseille (France)] [CINaM CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13288 Marseille (France)

    2013-12-23

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Auger electron spectroscopy, and low energy electron diffraction, we have observed a surprising complete dissolution at room temperature of one lead monolayer deposited by evaporation on an aluminum oxide thin film (?0.8?nm thick) previously grown on Ag (111). We have observed the quasi-instantaneous diffusion of the lead deposit through the oxide layer to the silver/oxide interface. After the diffusion process, lead atoms form a Moiré superstructure, which is characterized by STM through the oxide layer. This unexpected behavior puts in light the very weak interaction between the aluminum oxide and the silver substrate.

  4. Method of deforming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a textured metallic substrate and articles therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and biaxially textured articles having a deformed epitaxial layer formed therefrom for use with high temperature superconductors, photovoltaic, ferroelectric, or optical devices. A buffer layer is epitaxially deposited onto biaxially-textured substrates and then mechanically deformed. The deformation process minimizes or eliminates grooves, or other irregularities, formed on the buffer layer while maintaining the biaxial texture of the buffer layer. Advantageously, the biaxial texture of the buffer layer is not altered during subsequent heat treatments of the deformed buffer. The present invention provides mechanical densification procedures which can be incorporated into the processing of superconducting films through the powder deposit or precursor approaches without incurring unfavorable high-angle grain boundaries.

  5. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  6. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  7. Use of separate ZnTe interface layers to form ohmic contacts to p-CdTe films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, T.A.

    1999-06-01

    A method of is disclosed improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising: depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor, but thin enough to minimize affects of series resistance; depositing a second heavy doped p-type ZnTe layer to the first layer using an appropriate dopant; and depositing an appropriate metal onto the outer-most surface of the doped ZnTe layer for connecting an external electrical conductor to an ohmic contact. 11 figs.

  8. Use of separate ZnTe interface layers to form OHMIC contacts to p-CdTe films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A method of improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising: depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurim-containing II-VI semiconductor, but thin enough to minimize affects of series resistance; depositing a second heavy doped p-type ZnTe layer to the first layer using an appropriate dopant; and depositing an appropriate metal onto the outer-most surface of the doped ZnTe layer for connecting an external electrical conductor to an ohmic contact.

  9. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  10. Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuskus, Alexander J. (West Hartford, CT); Cowher, Melvyn E. (East Brookfield, MA)

    1985-08-27

    A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

  11. Adhesion layer for etching of tracks in nuclear trackable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

    2001-01-01

    A method for forming nuclear tracks having a width on the order of 100-200 nm in nuclear trackable materials, such as polycarbonate (LEXAN) without causing delamination of the LEXAN. The method utilizes an adhesion film having a inert oxide which allows the track to be sufficiently widened to >200 nm without delamination of the nuclear trackable materials. The adhesion film may be composed of a metal such as Cr, Ni, Au, Pt, or Ti, or composed of a dielectric having a stable surface, such as silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), silicon nitride (SiN.sub.x), and aluminum oxide (AlO). The adhesion film can either be deposited on top of the gate metal layer, or if the properties of the adhesion film are adequate, it can be used as the gate layer. Deposition of the adhesion film is achieved by standard techniques, such as sputtering or evaporation.

  12. Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozer, N.

    2010-01-01

    Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer and Carl M.the Optical Interference Coatings Topical Meeting, Tucson,Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer and Carl M.

  13. Atomic scale heating in energetic plasma deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2001-01-01

    equation (2), for cathodic arc plasmas. The kinetic energiesscale heating in cathodic arc plasma deposition André Andersscale heating in cathodic arc plasma deposition André Anders

  14. Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

  15. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    were observed to lead to resuspension of particles in thethe nozzles may lead to resuspension of deposited particles.resuspension, the decreased response to turbulent velocity fluctuations of the very large particles should lead

  16. MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy’s Chief of Nuclear Safety hosted a MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop on June 5-6, 2012, in Germantown, Maryland. Approximately 70 participants attended. The purpose of...

  17. Aerosol Deposition in Transport Lines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muyshondt, Arnoldo

    1995-01-01

    Particle deposition in contraction fittings with half-angles of 12 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees; expansion fittings with half-angles of 3 degrees, 6 degrees, 12 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees; and ...

  18. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

  19. Method of forming a dense, high temperature electronically conductive composite layer on a porous ceramic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1992-04-21

    An electrochemical device, containing a solid oxide electrolyte material and an electrically conductive composite layer, has the composite layer attached by: (A) applying a layer of LaCrO[sub 3], YCrO[sub 3] or LaMnO[sub 3] particles, on a portion of a porous ceramic substrate, (B) heating to sinter bond the particles to the substrate, (C) depositing a dense filler structure between the doped particles, (D) shaving off the top of the particles, and (E) applying an electronically conductive layer over the particles as a contact. 7 figs.

  20. Redox Active Layer-by-Layer Structures containing MnO2 Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazito, Fernanda; O'Brien, Robert; Buttry, Daniel A.

    2005-02-01

    Nanoscale materials provide unique properties that will enable new technologies and enhance older ones. One area of intense activity in which nanoscale materials are being used is in the development of new functional materials for battery applications. This effort promises superior materials with properties that circumvent many of the problems associated with traditional battery materials. Previously we have worked on several approaches for using nanoscale materials for application as cathode materials in rechargeable Li batteries. Our recent work has focused on synthesizing MnO2 nanoparticles and using these in layer-by-layer (LbL) structures to probe the redox properties of the nanoparticles. We show that the aqueous colloidal nanoparticles produced by butanol reduction of tetramethylammonium permanganate can be trapped in thin films using a layer-by-layer deposition approach, and that these films are both redox active and exhibit kinetically facile electrochemical responses. We show cyclic voltammetry of MnO2 colloidal nanoparticles entrapped in a LbL thin film at an ITO electrode surface using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). CV experiments demonstrate that Li+ insertion accompanies Mn(IV) reduction in LiClO4 supporting electrolytes, and that reduction is hindered in supporting electrolytes containing only tetrabutylammonium cations. We also show that electron propagation through multilayer films is facile, suggesting that electrons percolate through the films via electron exchange between nanoparticles.