Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Chapter 6.24 Picosun Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the ALD could be used for diffusion barriers and similar applications. 2.0 Materials Controls: Source/s used in the ALD machine contains the desired metal for deposition. This metal is bonded)3 is precursors used to deposit aluminum oxide. 4.5.2 TTIP: Titanium Tetrakis Isopropoxide, which supplies Ti

Healy, Kevin Edward

2

Ruthenium / aerogel nanocomposits via Atomic Layer Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a general approach to prepare metal/aerogel nanocomposites via template directed atomic layer deposition (ALD). In particular, we used a Ru ALD process consisting of alternating exposures to bis(cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium (RuCp{sub 2}) and air at 350 C to deposit metallic Ru nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of carbon and silica aerogels. The process does not affect the morphology of the aerogel template and offers excellent control over metal loading by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. We also discuss the limitations of our ALD approach, and suggest ways to overcome these.

Biener, J; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y; Nelson, E J; Kucheyev, S O; Hamza, A V; Kemell, M; Ritala, M; Leskela, M

2006-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

3

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE A thesis submitted deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide on crystalline silicon and anodized aluminum substrates. A homemade ALD system is used with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water as precursors to deposit uniform aluminum oxide

Belanger, David P.

4

Characterization of CZTSSe photovoltaic device with an atomic layer-deposited passivation layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a CZTSSe (Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub 1?x},Se{sub x}){sub 4}) photovoltaic (PV) device with an ALD (atomic layer deposition) coated buffer dielectric layer for CZTSSe surface passivation. An ALD buffer layer, such as TiO{sub 2}, can be applied in order to reduce the interface recombination and improve the device's open-circuit voltage. Detailed characterization data including current-voltage, admittance spectroscopy, and capacitance profiling are presented in order to compare the performance of PV devices with and without the ALD layer.

Wu, Wei, E-mail: wei.wu@dupont.com; Cao, Yanyan; Caspar, Jonathan V.; Guo, Qijie; Johnson, Lynda K.; Mclean, Robert S.; Malajovich, Irina; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy [DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, Delaware 19880 (United States)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

Growth mode evolution of hafnium oxide by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HfO{sub 2} thin films were deposited using tetrakis-ethylmethylamido hafnium and H{sub 2}O as precursors on silicon by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The morphology and microstructures at different ALD cycles were characterized by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Based on the height–height correlation function and power spectral density function, quantitative analysis of surface morphologies was performed. Three characteristic dimensions (?{sub 1}, ?{sub 2}, and ?{sub 3}) corresponding to three surface structures, islands, local and global fluctuations, were identified. The evolution of ALD growth mode at range of the three critical scales was investigated, respectively. It suggests the transformation of growth mode from quasi two-dimensional layer-by-layer to three-dimensional island for global fluctuations.

Nie, Xianglong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Dayan, E-mail: madayan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Xu, Kewei [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China and Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi'an University of Arts and Science, Xi'an 710065, Shaanxi (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

An atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray diffraction and scattering analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) will determine important performance properties such as conductivity, breakdown voltage, and catalytic activity. We report the design of an atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray analysis that can be used to monitor changes to the crystal structural during ALD. The application of the chamber is demonstrated for Pt ALD on amorphous SiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} (001) using synchrotron-based high resolution x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and grazing incidence small angle scattering.

Geyer, Scott M.; Methaapanon, Rungthiwa; Kim, Woo-Hee; Bent, Stacey F., E-mail: sbent@stanford.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Johnson, Richard W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Van Campen, Douglas G.; Metha, Apurva [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Biocompatibility of atomic layer-deposited alumina thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These results sug- gest that patterning a substrate with hydrophilic and hydro- phobic groups can control cell and excellent dielectric properties for bio- micro electro mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) in sensors, actuators of atomic layer-deposited (ALD) alumina (Al2O3) and hydro- phobic coatings. While these coatings

George, Steven M.

8

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Preparation of Noble Metal Catalysts - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program Cumulus Humilis Aerosol ProcessingPrograms |

9

Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

Lau, W. S., E-mail: liuweicheng@zju.edu.cn; Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, J. [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Luo, J. K. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB (United Kingdom)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

DOI 10.1155/JNM/2006/64501 Atomic Layer Deposition for the Conformal Coating of Nanoporous Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is ideal for applying precise and conformal coatings over nanoporous materials. We have recently used ALD to coat two nanoporous solids: anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and silica aerogels. AAO possesses hexagonally ordered pores with diameters d ? 40 nm and pore length L

unknown authors

11

Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition M. Scharrer, X. Wu, A method to fabricate so-called "inverted opal" structures which have the long-range order, high filling into opal or inverted opal backbones.3,5,13,14 Recently, atomic layer deposition ALD has been pro- posed

Cao, Hui

12

A non-destructive method for measuring the mechanical properties of ultrathin films prepared by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanical properties of ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are critical for the liability of their coated devices. However, it has been a challenge to reliably measure critical properties of ALD films due to the influence from the substrate. In this work, we use the laser acoustic wave (LAW) technique, a non-destructive method, to measure the elastic properties of ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by ALD. The measured properties are consistent with previous work using other approaches. The LAW method can be easily applied to measure the mechanical properties of various ALD thin films for multiple applications.

Zhang, Qinglin [General Motors Global Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046 (United States); Xiao, Xingcheng, E-mail: xingcheng.xiao@gm.com; Verbrugge, Mark W. [General Motors Global Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States); Cheng, Yang-Tse [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046 (United States)

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

13

Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition web coating with in situ monitoring of film thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spectral reflectometry was implemented as a method for in situ thickness monitoring in a spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown on a moving polymer web substrate at 100?°C using an atmospheric pressure ALD web coating system, with film growth of 0.11–0.13?nm/cycle. The modular coating head design and the in situ monitoring allowed for the characterization and optimization of the trimethylaluminum and water precursor exposures, purge flows, and web speed. A thickness uniformity of ±2% was achieved across the web. ALD cycle times as low as 76?ms were demonstrated with a web speed of 1?m/s and a vertical gap height of 0.5?mm. This atmospheric pressure ALD system with in situ process control demonstrates the feasibility of low-cost, high throughput roll-to-roll ALD.

Yersak, Alexander S.; Lee, Yung C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1045 Regent Drive, 422 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0422 (United States); Spencer, Joseph A.; Groner, Markus D., E-mail: mgroner@aldnanosolutions.com [ALD NanoSolutions, Inc., 580 Burbank Street, Unit 100, Broomfield, Colorado 80020 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

Grubbs, Robert K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bogart, Gregory R. (Corrales, NM); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

15

E-Print Network 3.0 - al2o3 metodom ald Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Characterization of WAl2O3 Nanolaminates Grown Using Atomic Layer Deposition Techniques Summary: 6 and Si2H6. ALD of Al2O3 was performed using alternating exposures of...

16

ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR to those measured on reference cells passivated by an aluminum-annealed thermal SiO2, while those of the Al of aluminum ox- ide (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) pro- vide an excellent level of sur

17

Gas phase reaction products during tungsten atomic layer deposition using WF6 and Si2H6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas phase reaction products during tungsten atomic layer deposition using WF6 and Si2H6 R. K; published 23 July 2004 The gas phase reaction products during tungsten W atomic layer deposition ALD using WF6 and Si2H6 were studied using quadrupole mass spectrometry. The gas phase reactions products were

George, Steven M.

18

Controlling Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 in Aerogels through Surface Functionalization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report demonstrates a chemical functionalization method for controlling atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO{sub 2} in low-density nanoporous materials. Functionalization of silica aerogel with trimethylsilane is shown to strongly suppress TiO{sub 2} growth via ALD. Subsequent modification of the functionalization through selective removal of the hydrocarbon groups reactivates the aerogel towards TiO{sub 2} deposition. These results demonstrate the potential use of ALD as a selective tool for creating novel nanoporous materials. Nanoporous materials present significant technological advantage for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, energy storage and conversion, nanoelectronics to name just a few (1-4). Hence, there is considerable interest in developing synthetic pathways for the fabrication of nanoporous materials with tailored properties. Aerogels (AGs) are unique low-density, open-cell porous materials consisting of submicrometer pores and ligaments that can be used as a robust material platform for designing novel nanoporous materials. In recent years, a synthetic approach based on ALD on AG templates has emerged as a promising method for the directed growth of nanoporous materials (5-11, 18). This approach has been used successfully to prepare millimeter-sized high aspect ratio aerogels coated uniformly with zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten (W) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) (10, 11). The ALD process utilizes two sequential, self-limiting surface reactions resulting in a layer-by-layer growth mode. The self limiting nature of the surface reactions makes ALD a particularly suitable technique for uniform deposition onto high aspect ratio porous substrates. Additionally, chemical specificity of the surface reactions in ALD enables one to control the deposition process through selective functionalization of the substrate surface. In fact the functionalization of planar substrates such as silicon wafers with organosilane groups (R{sub n}SiX{sub 4-n} (n = 1-3)) has been shown to deactivate the substrate towards ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, ZnO, and TiO{sub 2} ALD processes (12-16). A possible mechanism for the deactivation effect is the blocking of surface functional groups, such as hydroxyl (OH) moieties, which serve as chemisorption sites for the ALD precursors and hence are essential for nucleating the deposition process. Henceforth, we shall refer to these surface functional groups as nucleation sites for the ALD process.

Ghosal, S; Baumann, T F; King, J S; Kucheyev, S; Wang, Y; Worsley, M A; Biener, J; Bent, S F; Hamza, A V

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

19

Property transformation of graphene with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited directly by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are deposited directly onto graphene by H{sub 2}O-based atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the films are pinhole-free and continuously cover the graphene surface. The growth process of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films does not introduce any detective defects in graphene, suppresses the hysteresis effect and tunes the graphene doping to n-type. The self-cleaning of ALD growth process, together with the physically absorbed H{sub 2}O and oxygen-deficient ALD environment consumes OH{sup ?} bonds, suppresses the p-doping of graphene, shifts Dirac point to negative gate bias and enhances the electron mobility.

Zheng, Li; Cao, Duo; Wang, Zhongjian; Xia, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Xinhong, E-mail: xh-cheng@mail.sim.ac.cn; Yu, Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Dashen [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

20

Aligned Carbon Nanotube Array Functionalization for Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Platinum Electrocatalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uniform metal deposition onto high surface area supports is a key challenge of developing successful efficient catalyst materials. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) circumvents permeation difficulties, but relies on gas-surface reactions to initiate growth. Our work demonstrates that modified surfaces within vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays, from plasma and molecular precursor treatments, can lead to improved catalyst deposition. Gas phase functionalization influences the number of ALD nucleation sites and the onset of ALD growth and, in turn, affects the uniformity of the coating along the length of the CNTs within the aligned arrays. The induced chemical changes for each functionalization route are identified by X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. The most effective functionalization routes increase the prevalence of oxygen moieties at defect sites on the carbon surfaces. The striking effects of the functionalization are demonstrated with ALD Pt growth as a function of surface treatment and ALD cycles examined by electron microscopy of the arrays and the individual CNTs. Finally, we demonstrate applicability of these materials as fuel cell electrocatalysts and show that surface functionalization affects their performance towards oxygen reduction reaction.

Dameron, A. A.; Pylypenko, S.; Bult, J. B.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Engtrakul, C.; Bochert, C.; Leong, G. J.; Frisco, S. L.; Simpson, L.; Dinh, H. N.; Pivovar, B.

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Modeling precursor diffusion and reaction of atomic layer deposition in porous structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for depositing thin films of materials with a precise thickness control and uniformity using the self-limitation of the underlying reactions. Usually, it is difficult to predict the result of the ALD process for given external parameters, e.g., the precursor exposure time or the size of the precursor molecules. Therefore, a deeper insight into ALD by modeling the process is needed to improve process control and to achieve more economical coatings. In this paper, a detailed, microscopic approach based on the model developed by Yanguas-Gil and Elam is presented and additionally compared with the experiment. Precursor diffusion and second-order reaction kinetics are combined to identify the influence of the porous substrate's microstructural parameters and the influence of precursor properties on the coating. The thickness of the deposited film is calculated for different depths inside the porous structure in relation to the precursor exposure time, the precursor vapor pressure, and other parameters. Good agreement with experimental results was obtained for ALD zirconiumdioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) films using the precursors tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)zirconium and O{sub 2}. The derivation can be adjusted to describe other features of ALD processes, e.g., precursor and reactive site losses, different growth modes, pore size reduction, and surface diffusion.

Keuter, Thomas, E-mail: t.keuter@fz-juelich.de; Menzler, Norbert Heribert; Mauer, Georg; Vondahlen, Frank; Vaßen, Robert; Buchkremer, Hans Peter [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1), 52425 Jülich (Germany)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

In situ study of HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition on InP(100)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial chemistry of the native oxide and chemically treated InP samples during atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfO{sub 2} growth at 250 Degree-Sign C has been studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The In-oxide concentration is seen to gradually decrease on the native oxide and acid etched samples. No significant changes of the P-oxide concentrations are detected, while the P-oxides chemical states are seen to change gradually during the initial cycles of ALD on the native oxide and the chemically treated samples. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S treatment strongly decreases In-oxide and P-oxide concentrations prior to ALD and maintains low concentrations during the ALD process.

Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Kim, J.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

23

ALD Produced B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} Coatings on Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} Burnable Poison Nanoparticles and Carbonaceous TRISO Coating Layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will demonstrate the feasibility of using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to apply ultrathin neutron-absorbing, corrosion-resistant layers consisting of ceramics, metals, or combinations thereof, on particles for enhanced nuclear fuel pellets. Current pellet coating technology utilizes chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in a fluidized bed reactor to deposit thick, porous layers of C (or PyC) and SiC. These graphitic/carbide materials degrade over time owing to fission product bombardment, active oxidation, thermal management issues, and long-term irradiation effects. ALD can be used to deposit potential ceramic barrier materials of interest, including ZrO{sub 2}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and TiO{sub 2}, or neutron-absorbing materials, namely B (in BN or B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Gd (in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}). This project consists of a two-pronged approach to integrate ALD into the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) fuel pellet manufacturing process:

Alan Weimer

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

24

Metal deposition using seed layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

25

Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?°C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250?°C. GaN thin films are grown at 200?°C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3?nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3?V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250?°C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

Bolat, S., E-mail: bolat@ee.bilkent.edu.tr, E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N. [UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, A. K., E-mail: bolat@ee.bilkent.edu.tr, E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

27

Nucleation and growth of MgO atomic layer deposition: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of MgO thin films from bis(cyclopentadienyl) magnesium and H{sub 2}O was studied using in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. It is found that the initial growth is not linear during the first ten cycles, and magnesium silicate forms spontaneously on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at 250 °C. Submonolayer sensitivity of SE is demonstrated by the analysis of each half-cycle and self-limiting adsorption, revealing characteristic features of hetero- and homo-MgO ALD processes.

Wang, Han; Fu, Kan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269. (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269. (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Ultra-low loading Pt nanocatalysts prepared by atomic layer deposition on carbon aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using atomic layer deposition (ALD), we show that Pt nanoparticles can be deposited on the inner surfaces of carbon aerogels (CA). The resultant Pt-loaded materials exhibit high catalytic activity for the oxidation of CO even at loading levels as low as {approx}0.05 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}. We observe a conversion efficiency of nearly 100% in the temperatures range 150-250 C, and the total conversion rate seems to be only limited by the thermal stability of our CA support in ambient oxygen. Our ALD approach described here is universal in nature, and can be applied to the design of new catalytic materials for a variety of applications, including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, pollution control, green chemistry, and liquid fuel production.

King, J S; Wittstock, A; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S O; Wang, Y M; Baumann, T F; Giri, S; Hamza, A V; Baeumer, M; Bent, S F

2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

29

LDRD Project 52523 final report :Atomic layer deposition of highly conformal tribological coatings.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Friction and wear are major concerns in the performance and reliability of micromechanical (MEMS) devices. While a variety of lubricant and wear resistant coatings are known which we might consider for application to MEMS devices, the severe geometric constraints of many micromechanical systems (high aspect ratios, shadowed surfaces) make most deposition methods for friction and wear-resistance coatings impossible. In this program we have produced and evaluate highly conformal, tribological coatings, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), for use on surface micromachined (SMM) and LIGA structures. ALD is a chemical vapor deposition process using sequential exposure of reagents and self-limiting surface chemistry, saturating at a maximum of one monolayer per exposure cycle. The self-limiting chemistry results in conformal coating of high aspect ratio structures, with monolayer precision. ALD of a wide variety of materials is possible, but there have been no studies of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of these films. We have developed processes for depositing thin (<100 nm) conformal coatings of selected hard and lubricious films (Al2O3, ZnO, WS2, W, and W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminates), and measured their chemical, physical, mechanical and tribological properties. A significant challenge in this program was to develop instrumentation and quantitative test procedures, which did not exist, for friction, wear, film/substrate adhesion, elastic properties, stress, etc., of extremely thin films and nanolaminates. New scanning probe and nanoindentation techniques have been employed along with detailed mechanics-based models to evaluate these properties at small loads characteristic of microsystem operation. We emphasize deposition processes and fundamental properties of ALD materials, however we have also evaluated applications and film performance for model SMM and LIGA devices.

Jungk, John Michael (University of Minnesota); Dugger, Michael Thomas; George, Steve M. (University of Colorado); Prasad, Somuri V.; Grubbs, Robert K.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mayer, Thomas Michael; Scharf, Thomas W.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Gerberich, William W. (University of Minnesota)

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Low temperature hydrogen plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of copper studied using in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an ideal technique to deposit ultrathin, conformal, and continuous metal thin films. However, compared to the ALD of binary materials such as metal oxides and metal nitrides, the surface reaction mechanisms during metal ALD are not well understood. In this study, the authors have designed and implemented an in situ reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (IRAS) setup to study the surface reactions during the ALD of Cu on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using Cu hexafluoroacetylacetonate [Cu(hfac){sub 2}] and a remote H{sub 2} plasma. Our infrared data show that complete ligand-exchange reactions occur at a substrate temperature of 80?°C in the absence of surface hydroxyl groups. Based on infrared data and previous studies, the authors propose that Cu(hfac){sub 2} dissociatively chemisorbs on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface, where the Al-O-Al bridge acts as the surface reactive site, leading to surface O-Cu-hfac and O-Al-hfac species. Surface saturation during the Cu(hfac){sub 2} half-cycle occurs through blocking of the available chemisorption sites. In the next half-reaction cycle, H radicals from an H{sub 2} plasma completely remove these surface hfac ligands. Through this study, the authors have demonstrated the capability of in situ IRAS as a tool to study surface reactions during ALD of metals. While transmission and internal reflection infrared spectroscopy are limited to the first few ALD cycles, IRAS can be used to probe all stages of metal ALD starting from initial nucleation to the formation of a continuous film.

Chaukulkar, Rohan P.; Rai, Vikrant R.; Agarwal, Sumit, E-mail: sagarwal@mines.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Thissen, Nick F. W. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

In-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductor in MOCVD system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ deposition of high-k materials to passivate the GaAs in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system was well demonstrated. Both atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods ...

Cheng, Cheng-Wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fabrication of AlN/BN bishell hollow nanofibers by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum nitride (AlN)/boron nitride (BN) bishell hollow nanofibers (HNFs) have been fabricated by successive atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AlN and sequential chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BN on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous template. A four-step fabrication process was utilized: (i) fabrication of polymeric (nylon 6,6) nanofibers via electrospinning, (ii) hollow cathode plasma-assisted ALD of AlN at 100?°C onto electrospun polymeric nanofibers, (iii) calcination at 500?°C for 2 h in order to remove the polymeric template, and (iv) sequential CVD growth of BN at 450?°C. AlN/BN HNFs have been characterized for their chemical composition, surface morphology, crystal structure, and internal nanostructure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Measurements confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal BN and AlN within the three dimensional (3D) network of bishell HNFs with relatively low impurity content. In contrast to the smooth surface of the inner AlN layer, outer BN coating showed a highly rough 3D morphology in the form of BN nano-needle crystallites. It is shown that the combination of electrospinning and plasma-assisted low-temperature ALD/CVD can produce highly controlled multi-layered bishell nitride ceramic hollow nanostructures. While electrospinning enables easy fabrication of nanofibrous template, self-limiting reactions of plasma-assisted ALD and sequential CVD provide control over the wall thicknesses of AlN and BN layers with sub-nanometer accuracy.

Haider, Ali; Kayaci, Fatma; Uyar, Tamer; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, Ali Kemal [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30?nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup ¯}0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

Van Bui, Hao, E-mail: H.VanBui@utwente.nl; Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y., E-mail: A.Y.Kovalgin@utwente.nl [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

In situ study of the role of substrate temperature during atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on InP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dependence of the “self cleaning” effect of the substrate oxides on substrate temperature during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} on various chemically treated and native oxide InP (100) substrates is investigated using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The removal of In-oxide is found to be more efficient at higher ALD temperatures. The P oxidation states on native oxide and acid etched samples are seen to change, with the total P-oxide concentration remaining constant, after 10 cycles of ALD HfO{sub 2} at different temperatures. An (NH{sub 4}){sub 2} S treatment is seen to effectively remove native oxides and passivate the InP surfaces independent of substrate temperature studied (200 °C, 250 °C and 300 °C) before and after the ALD process. Density functional theory modeling provides insight into the mechanism of the changes in the P-oxide chemical states.

Dong, H.; Santosh, K.C.; Qin, X.; Brennan, B.; McDonnell, S.; Kim, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Hinkle, C. L.; Cho, K.; Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

35

Tunneling spectroscopy of superconducting MoN and NbTiN grown by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A tunneling spectroscopy study is presented of superconducting MoN and Nb{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}N thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The films exhibited a superconducting gap of 2?meV and 2.4?meV, respectively, with a corresponding critical temperature of 11.5?K and 13.4?K, among the highest reported T{sub c} values achieved by the ALD technique. Tunnel junctions were obtained using a mechanical contact method with a Au tip. While the native oxides of these films provided poor tunnel barriers, high quality tunnel junctions with low zero bias conductance (below ?10%) were obtained using an artificial tunnel barrier of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the film's surface grown ex situ by ALD. We find a large critical current density on the order of 4?×?10{sup 6}?A/cm{sup 2} at T?=?0.8T{sub c} for a 60?nm MoN film and demonstrate conformal coating capabilities of ALD onto high aspect ratio geometries. These results suggest that the ALD technique offers significant promise for thin film superconducting device applications.

Groll, Nickolas R., E-mail: ngroll@anl.gov; Klug, Jeffrey A.; Claus, Helmut; Pellin, Michael J.; Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: proslier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Cao, Chaoyue; Becker, Nicholas G.; Zasadzinski, John F. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Altin, Serdar [Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Inonu Universitesi, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

36

Growth of controllable ZnO film by atomic layer deposition technique via inductively coupled plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inductively coupled plasma technique (ICP), namely, remote-plasma treatment was introduced to ionize the water molecules as the precursor for the deposition of ZnO film via the atomic layer deposition processes. Compared with the H{sub 2}O gas as the precursor for the ALD growth, the ionized water molecules can provide a lesser energy to uniformly stabilize oxidization processes, resulting in a better film quality with a higher resistivity owing to less formation of intrinsic defects at a lower growth temperature. The relationship between resistivity and formation mechanisms have been discussed and investigated through analyses of atomic force microscopy, photonluminescence, and absorption spectra, respectively. Findings indicate that the steric hindrance of the ligands plays an important rule for the ALD-ZnO film sample with the ICP treatment while the limited number of bonding sites will be dominant for the ALD-ZnO film without the ICP treatment owing to decreasing of the reactive sites via the ligand-exchange reaction during the dissociation process. Finally, the enhanced aspect-ratio into the anodic aluminum oxide with the better improved uniform coating of ZnO layer after the ICP treatment was demonstrated, providing an important information for a promising application in electronics based on ZnO ALD films.

Huang, Hsin-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chih; Lin, Su-Jien; Chueh, Yu-Lun [Department of Materials Science Engineering and Center For Nanotechnology, Material Science, and Microsystem, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Epitaxial strontium titanate films grown by atomic layer deposition on SrTiO{sub 3}-buffered Si(001) substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epitaxial strontium titanate (STO) films have been grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si(001) substrates with a thin STO buffer layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Four unit cells of STO grown by MBE serve as the surface template for ALD growth. The STO films grown by ALD are crystalline as-deposited with minimal, if any, amorphous SiO{sub x} layer at the STO-Si interface. The growth of STO was achieved using bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl)-strontium, titanium tetraisopropoxide, and water as the coreactants at a substrate temperature of 250 Degree-Sign C. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the ALD process did not induce additional Si-O bonding at the STO-Si interface. Postdeposition XPS analysis also revealed sporadic carbon incorporation in the as-deposited films. However, annealing at a temperature of 250 Degree-Sign C for 30 min in moderate to high vacuum (10{sup -6}-10{sup -9} Torr) removed the carbon species. Higher annealing temperatures (>275 Degree-Sign C) gave rise to a small increase in Si-O bonding, as indicated by XPS, but no reduced Ti species were observed. X-ray diffraction revealed that the as-deposited STO films were c-axis oriented and fully crystalline. A rocking curve around the STO(002) reflection gave a full width at half maximum of 0.30 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.06 Degree-Sign for film thicknesses ranging from 5 to 25 nm. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed that the STO films were continuous with conformal growth to the substrate and smooth interfaces between the ALD- and MBE-grown STO. Overall, the results indicate that thick, crystalline STO can be grown on Si(001) substrates by ALD with minimal formation of an amorphous SiO{sub x} layer using a four-unit-cell STO buffer layer grown by MBE to serve as the surface template.

McDaniel, Martin D.; Posadas, Agham; Ngo, Thong Q.; Dhamdhere, Ajit; Smith, David J.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20?nm thickness Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier layers on 500?mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105?°C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20?nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38?°C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostatic–isobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (<5?×?10{sup ?4}?g/m{sup 2} day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25?m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ?5?×?10{sup ?6} g/m{sup 2} day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate.

Maydannik, Philipp S., E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi; Kääriäinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C. [Advanced Surface Technology Research Laboratory, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Söderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka [Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, 01511 Vantaa (Finland); Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui [Samsung Cheil Industries, San Jose R and D Center, 2186 Bering Drive, San Jose, California 95131 (United States)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Waterless TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition using titanium tetrachloride and titanium tetraisopropoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface chemistry for TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD) typically utilizes water or other oxidants that can oxidize underlying substrates such as magnetic disks or semiconductors. To avoid this oxidation, waterless or oxidant-free surface chemistry can be used that involves titanium halides and titanium alkoxides. In this study, waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD was accomplished using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). In situ transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were employed to study the surface species and the reactions during waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD. At low temperatures between 125 and 225??°C, the FTIR absorbance spectra revealed that the isopropoxide species remained on the surface after TTIP exposures. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then removed the isopropoxide species and deposited additional titanium species. At high temperatures between 250 and 300??°C, the isopropoxide species were converted to hydroxyl species by ?-hydride elimination. The observation of propene gaseous reaction product by quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) confirmed the ?-hydride elimination reaction pathway. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then easily reacted with the hydroxyl species. QMS studies also observed the 2-chloropropane and HCl gaseous reaction products and monitored the self-limiting nature of the TTIP reaction. Additional studies examined the waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD growth at low and high temperature. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements observed growth rates of ?3?ng/cm{sup 2} at a low temperature of 150??°C. Much higher growth rates of ?15?ng/cm{sup 2} were measured at a higher temperature of 250??°C under similar reaction conditions. X-ray reflectivity analysis measured a growth rate of 0.55 ± 0.05?Å/cycle at 250??°C. X-ray photoelectron depth-profile studies showed that the TiO{sub 2} films contained low Cl concentrations <1 at. %. This waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD process using TiCl{sub 4} and TTIP should be valuable to prevent substrate oxidation during TiO{sub 2} ALD on oxygen-sensitive substrates.

Anderson, Virginia R.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Abdulagatov, Aziz I. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Gibbs, Zachary M. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424 (United States); George, Steven M., E-mail: Steven.George@Colorado.Edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0427. (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Capacitance and conductance versus voltage characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers prepared by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition at 25?°C??T???200?°C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited (PE-ALD) samples were prepared at substrate temperatures in the range between room temperature (RT) and 200?°C and investigated by capacitance–voltage and conductance–voltage recordings. The measurements are compared to standard thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) at 200?°C. Very low interface state density (D{sub it}) ?10{sup 11}?eV{sup ?1}?cm{sup ?2} could be achieved for the PE-ALD process at 200?°C substrate temperature after postdeposition anneal (PDA) in forming gas at 450?°C. The PDA works very effectively for both the PE-ALD and T-ALD at 200?°C substrate temperature delivering also similar values of negative fixed charge density (N{sub fix}) around ?2.5?×?10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2}. At the substrate temperature of 150?°C, highest N{sub fix} (?2.9?×?10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2}) and moderate D{sub it} (2.7?×?10{sup 11}?eV{sup ?1}?cm{sup ?2}) values were observed. The as deposited PE-ALD layer at RT shows both low D{sub it} in the range of (1 to 3)?×?10{sup 11}?eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?2} and low N{sub fix} (?4.4?×?10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}) at the same time. The dependencies of N{sub fix}, D{sub it}, and relative permittivity on the substrate temperatures and its adjustability are discussed.

Henkel, Karsten, E-mail: henkel@tu-cottbus.de; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeißer, Dieter [Applied Physics and Sensors, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, K.-Wachsmann-Allee 17, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); Gargouri, Hassan; Gruska, Bernd; Arens, Michael [Sentech Instruments GmbH, Schwarzschildstraße 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Atomic layer deposited lithium aluminum oxide: (In)dependency of film properties from pulsing sequence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) holds markedly high potential of becoming the enabling method for achieving the three-dimensional all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion battery (LiB). One of the most crucial components in such a battery is the electrolyte that needs to hold both low electronic conductivity and at least fair lithium ion conductivity being at the same time pinhole free. To obtain these desired properties in an electrolyte film, one necessarily has to have a good control over the elemental composition of the deposited material. The present study reports on the properties of ALD lithium aluminum oxide (Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z}) thin films. In addition to LiB electrolyte applications, Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} is also a candidate low dielectric constant (low-k) etch stop and diffusion barrier material in nanoelectronics applications. The Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films were deposited employing trimethylaluminum-O{sub 3} and lithium tert-butoxide-H{sub 2}O for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, respectively. The composition was aimed to be controlled by varying the pulsing ratio of those two binary oxide ALD cycles. The films were characterized by several methods for composition, crystallinity and phase, electrical properties, hardness, porosity, and chemical environment. Regardless of the applied pulsing ratio of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, all the studied ALD Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films of 200 and 400 nm in thickness were polycrystalline in the orthorhombic ?-LiAlO{sub 2} phase and also very similar to each other with respect to composition and other studied properties. The results are discussed in the context of both fundamental ALD chemistry and applicability of the films as thin-film LiB electrolytes and low-k etch stop and diffusion barriers.

Miikkulainen, Ville, E-mail: ville.miikkulainen@helsinki.fi; Nilsen, Ola; Fjellvåg, Helmer [Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1126 Blindern, NO-0318 Oslo (Norway); Li, Han; King, Sean W. [Intel Corporation, 5200 NE Elam Young Parkway, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Surface modification of Au/TiO2 catalysts by SiO2 via atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was utilized for the surface engineering of metallic nanoparticles to tame their sintering problems and catalytic activities. We chose the surface modification of gold nanocatalysts as an example to demonstrate the concept of this ALD-based approach. Herein, an active Au/TiO{sub 2} catalyst was modified by amorphous SiO{sub 2} via ALD, and the samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), scanning (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (TEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetry/differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), and the catalytic activities in CO oxidation and H{sub 2} oxidation were tested with respect to the pretreatment temperature and SiO{sub 2} content. A significant sintering resistance and changes in catalytic activities were observed. The difference between the SiO{sub 2}/Au/TiO{sub 2} samples prepared by gas-phase ALD and solution-phase chemical grafting was discussed.

Ma, Zhen [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Low interface defect density of atomic layer deposition BeO with self-cleaning reaction for InGaAs metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we discuss atomic configuration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) beryllium oxide (BeO) using the quantum chemistry to understand the theoretical origin. BeO has shorter bond length, higher reaction enthalpy, and larger bandgap energy compared with those of ALD aluminum oxide. It is shown that the excellent material properties of ALD BeO can reduce interface defect density due to the self-cleaning reaction and this contributes to the improvement of device performance of InGaAs MOSFETs. The low interface defect density and low leakage current of InGaAs MOSFET were demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the corresponding electrical results.

Shin, H. S. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Yum, J. H. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States) [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Johnson, D. W. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States) [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Harris, H. R. [Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] [Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Hudnall, Todd W. [Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)] [Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States); Oh, J. [Yonsei University, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of)] [Yonsei University, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kirsch, P.; Wang, W.-E. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)] [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Bielawski, C. W.; Banerjee, S. K.; Lee, J. C. [The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)] [The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Lee, H. D. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

44

Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1?±?0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300?°C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Feinerman, Alan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

46

In Situ Synchrotron Based X-ray Fluorescence and Scattering Measurements During Atomic Layer Deposition: Initial Growth of HfO2 on Si and Ge Substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial growth of HfO{sub 2} was studied by means of synchrotron based in situ x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). HfO{sub 2} was deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and H{sub 2}O on both oxidized and H-terminated Si and Ge surfaces. XRF quantifies the amount of deposited material during each ALD cycle and shows an inhibition period on H-terminated substrates. No inhibition period is observed on oxidized substrates. The evolution of film roughness was monitored using GISAXS. A correlation is found between the inhibition period and the onset of surface roughness.

K Devloo-Casier; J Dendooven; K Ludwig; G Lekens; J DHaen; C Detavernier

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Sandia National Laboratories: ALD  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 ResourceAwardsSafeguardsEngineers Wind Energy SymposiumALD

48

Genesis and evolution of surface species during Pt atomic layer deposition on oxide supports characterized by in-situ XAFS analysis and water-gas shift reaction.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Platinum atomic layer deposition (ALD) using MeCpPtMe{sub 3} was employed to prepare high loadings of uniform-sized, 1-2 nm Pt nanoparticles on high surface area Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, and SrTiO{sub 3} supports. X-ray absorption fine structure was utilized to monitor the changes in the Pt species during each step of the synthesis. The temperature, precursor exposure time, treatment gas, and number of ALD cycles were found to affect the Pt particle size and density. Lower-temperature MeCpPtMe{sub 3} adsorption yielded smaller particles due to reduced thermal decomposition. A 300 C air treatment of the adsorbed MeCpPtMe{sub 3} leads to PtO. In subsequent ALD cycles, the MeCpPtMe{sub 3} reduces the PtO to metallic Pt in the ratio of one precursor molecule per PtO. A 200 C H{sub 2} treatment of the adsorbed MeCpPtMe{sub 3} leads to the formation of 1-2 nm, metallic Pt nanoparticles. During subsequent ALD cycles, MeCpPtMe{sub 3} adsorbs on the support, which, upon reduction, yields additional Pt nanoparticles with a minimal increase in size of the previously formed nanoparticles. The catalysts produced by ALD had identical water-gas shift reaction rates and reaction kinetics to those of Pt catalysts prepared by standard solution methods. ALD synthesis of catalytic nanoparticles is an attractive method for preparing novel model and practical catalysts.

Setthapun, W.; Williams, W.; Kim, S.; Feng, H.; Elam, J.; Rabuffetti, F.; Poeppelmeier, K.; Stair, P.; Stach, E.; Ribeiro, F.; Miller, J.; Marshall, C.; Northwestern Univ.; Purdue Univ.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

49

Monday, March 12, 2007 MARS POLAR LAYERED DEPOSITS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acquired a unique dataset over the north polar layered deposits and residual ices. Here, we reviewMonday, March 12, 2007 MARS POLAR LAYERED DEPOSITS 2:30 p.m. Marina Plaza Ballroom Chairs: R. J. Phillips J. J. Plaut 2:30 p.m. Tanaka K. L. * North Polar Layered Deposits on Mars as Revealed by Hi

Rathbun, Julie A.

50

Atomic layer deposition of photoactive CoO/SrTiO{sub 3} and CoO/TiO{sub 2} on Si(001) for visible light driven photoelectrochemical water oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cobalt oxide (CoO) films are grown epitaxially on Si(001) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using a thin (1.6 nm) buffer layer of strontium titanate (STO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The ALD growth of CoO films is done at low temperature (170–180 °C), using cobalt bis(diisopropylacetamidinate) and water as co-reactants. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy are performed to characterize the crystalline structure of the films. The CoO films are found to be crystalline as-deposited even at the low growth temperature with no evidence of Co diffusion into Si. The STO-buffered Si (001) is used as a template for ALD growth of relatively thicker epitaxial STO and TiO{sub 2} films. Epitaxial and polycrystalline CoO films are then grown by ALD on the STO and TiO{sub 2} layers, respectively, creating thin-film heterostructures for photoelectrochemical testing. Both types of heterostructures, CoO/STO/Si and CoO/TiO{sub 2}/STO/Si, demonstrate water photooxidation activity under visible light illumination. In-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to measure the band alignment of the two heterojunctions, CoO/STO and CoO/TiO{sub 2}. The experimental band alignment is compared to electronic structure calculations using density functional theory.

Ngo, Thong Q.; Hoang, Son; McDaniel, Martin D.; Buddie Mullins, C.; Ekerdt, John G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham; Seo, Hosung; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Utess, Dirk; Triyoso, Dina H. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden, Wilschdorfer Landstrasse 101, Dresden DE-01109 (Germany)] [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden, Wilschdorfer Landstrasse 101, Dresden DE-01109 (Germany)

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

51

Radio frequency plasma power dependence of the moisture permeation barrier characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study, we investigated the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethersulfone films (PES) by capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) type Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition (RPALD) at Radio Frequency (RF) plasma powers ranging from 100 W to 400 W in 100 W increments using Trimethylaluminum [TMA, Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] as the Al source and O{sub 2} plasma as the reactant. To study the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of 100-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at various plasma powers, the Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) was measured using an electrical Ca degradation test. WVTR decreased as plasma power increased with WVTR values for 400 W and 100 W of 2.6 × 10{sup ?4} gm{sup ?2}day{sup ?1} and 1.2 × 10{sup ?3} gm{sup ?2}day{sup ?1}, respectively. The trends for life time, Al-O and O-H bond, density, and stoichiometry were similar to that of WVTR with improvement associated with increasing plasma power. Further, among plasma power ranging from 100 W to 400 W, the highest power of 400 W resulted in the best moisture permeation barrier properties. This result was attributed to differences in volume and amount of ion and radical fluxes, to join the ALD process, generated by O{sub 2} plasma as the plasma power changed during ALD process, which was determined using a plasma diagnosis technique called the Floating Harmonic Method (FHM). Plasma diagnosis by FHM revealed an increase in ion flux with increasing plasma power. With respect to the ALD process, our results indicated that higher plasma power generated increased ion and radical flux compared with lower plasma power. Thus, a higher plasma power provides the best gas and moisture permeation barrier properties.

Jung, Hyunsoo [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hagyoung; Lee, Sanghun [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

Sandia National Laboratories: atomic layer deposition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia, NREL Release Wavearc-fault circuitatomic layer deposition

53

High-reliability passivation of hydrogen-terminated diamond surface by atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) of a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface provides a unique p-type conducting layer for high-performance transistors, the conductivity is highly sensitive to its environment. Therefore, the surface must be passivated to preserve the 2DHG, especially at high temperature. We passivated the surface at high temperature (450?°C) without the loss of C-H surface bonds by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and investigated the thermal reliability of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. As a result, C-H bonds were preserved, and the hole accumulation effect appeared after the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition by ALD with H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The sheet resistivity and hole density were almost constant between room temperature and 500?°C by the passivation with thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film thicker than 38?nm deposited by ALD at 450?°C. After the annealing at 550?°C in air The sheet resistivity and hole density were preserved. These results indicate the possibility of high-temperature application of the C-H surface diamond device in air. In the case of lower deposition temperatures, the sheet resistivity increased after air annealing, suggesting an insufficient protection capability of these films. Given the result of sheet resistivity after annealing, the increase in the sheet resistivity of these samples was not greatly significant. However, bubble like patterns were observed in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films formed from 200 to 400?°C by air annealing at 550?°C for 1 h. On the other hand, the patterns were no longer observed at 450?°C deposition. Thus, this 450?°C deposition is the sole solution to enabling power device application, which requires high reliability at high temperatures.

Daicho, Akira, E-mail: notevayas-tales@ruri.waseda.jp; Saito, Tatsuya; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi, E-mail: kawarada@waseda.jp [School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hiraiwa, Atsushi [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

54

Infrared study on room-temperature atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and remote plasma-excited oxidizing agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} was examined using tetrakis (ethylmethylamino)hafnium (TEMAH) and remote plasma-excited water and oxygen. A growth rate of 0.26?nm/cycle at room temperature was achieved, and the TEMAH adsorption and its oxidization on HfO{sub 2} were investigated by multiple internal reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy. It was observed that saturated adsorption of TEMAH occurs at exposures of ?1?×?10{sup 5}?L (1 L?=?1?×?10{sup ?6} Torr s) at room temperature, and the use of remote plasma-excited water and oxygen vapor is effective in oxidizing the TEMAH molecules on the HfO{sub 2} surface, to produce OH sites. The infrared study suggested that Hf–OH plays a role as an adsorption site for TEMAH. The reaction mechanism of room temperature HfO{sub 2} ALD is discussed in this paper.

Kanomata, Kensaku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510, Japan and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Ohba, Hisashi; Pungboon Pansila, P.; Ahmmad, Bashir; Kubota, Shigeru; Hirahara, Kazuhiro; Hirose, Fumihiko, E-mail: fhirose@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Laser damage properties of TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research on thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for laser damage resistance is rare. In this paper, it has been used to deposit TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films at 110 deg. C and 280 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates. Microstructure of the thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of samples was measured by a damage test system. Damage morphology was studied under a Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope and further checked under an atomic force microscope. Multilayers deposited at different temperatures were compared. The results show that the films deposited by ALD had better uniformity and transmission; in this paper, the uniformity is better than 99% over 100 mm {Phi} samples, and the transmission is more than 99.8% at 1064 nm. Deposition temperature affects the deposition rate and the thin film microstructure and further influences the LIDT of the thin films. As to the TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, the LIDTs were 6.73{+-}0.47 J/cm{sup 2} and 6.5{+-}0.46 J/cm{sup 2} at 110 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates, respectively. The LIDTs at 110 deg. C are notably better than 280 deg. C.

Wei Yaowei; Liu Hao; Sheng Ouyang; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Yang Liming

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

56

Exploring the effect of Al2O3 ALD coating on a high gradient ILC single-cell cavity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Encouraged by work at Argonne National Lab, we investigated atomic layer deposition technique (ALD) for high gradient superconducting RF cavities at JLab with an ALD coating system of Old Dominion University located on the JLab site. The goal of this study was to look into the possibility of coating a dielectric layer on top of RF niobium surface at a lower temperature of 120 C as compared to ANL coatings at 200 C to preserve niobium pentoxide on niobium surface. The initial coatings showed complete, but non-uniform coatings of the surface with several areas exhibiting discoloration, which was probably due to the temperature variation across the cavity surface. The initial coating showed a high RF losses, which were improved after discolored areas on the beam tubes were removed with HF rinse of the beam tubes only. The best result was 2 109 low field Q0 and Eacc = 18 MV/m limited by available power.

Grigory Eremeev, Anne-Marie Valente, Andy Wu, Diefeng Gu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Atomic layer deposition of Hf{sub x}Al{sub y}C{sub z} as a work function material in metal gate MOS devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As advanced silicon semiconductor devices are transitioning from planar to 3D structures, new materials and processes are needed to control the device characteristics. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Hf{sub x}Al{sub y}C{sub z} films using hafnium chloride and trimethylaluminum precursors was combined with postdeposition anneals and ALD liners to control the device characteristics in high-k metal-gate devices. Combinatorial process methods and technologies were employed for rapid electrical and materials characterization of various materials stacks. The effective work function in metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor devices with the Hf{sub x}Al{sub y}C{sub z} layer coupled with an ALD HfO{sub 2} dielectric was quantified to be mid-gap at ?4.6?eV. Thus, Hf{sub x}Al{sub y}C{sub z} is a promising metal gate work function material that allows for the tuning of device threshold voltages (V{sub th}) for anticipated multi-V{sub th} integrated circuit devices.

Lee, Albert, E-mail: alee@intermolecular.com; Fuchigami, Nobi; Pisharoty, Divya; Hong, Zhendong; Haywood, Ed; Joshi, Amol; Mujumdar, Salil; Bodke, Ashish; Karlsson, Olov [Intermolecular, 3011 North First Street, San Jose, California 95134 (United States); Kim, Hoon; Choi, Kisik [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Technology Research Group, 257 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12309 (United States); Besser, Paul [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, 1050 East Arques, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Effective passivation of In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As by HfO{sub 2} surpassing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via in-situ atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High {kappa} gate dielectrics of HfO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were deposited on molecular beam epitaxy-grown In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As pristine surface using in-situ atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) without any surface treatment or passivation layer. The ALD-HfO{sub 2}/p-In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface showed notable reduction in the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}), deduced from quasi-static capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage (G-V) at room temperature and 100 Degree-Sign C. More significantly, the midgap peak commonly observed in the D{sub it}(E) of ALD-oxides/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As is now greatly diminished. The midgap D{sub it} value decreases from {>=}15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to {approx}2-4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for ALD-HfO{sub 2}. Further, thermal stability at 850 Degree-Sign C was achieved in the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As, whereas C-V characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As degraded after the high temperature annealing. From in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectra, the AsO{sub x}, which is not the oxidized state from the native oxide, but is an induced state from adsorption of trimethylaluminum and H{sub 2}O, was found at the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface, while that was not detected at the ALD-HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface.

Chang, Y. H.; Chiang, T. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, C. A.; Liu, Y. T.; Lin, H. Y.; Huang, M. L.; Kwo, J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, T. D.; Hong, M. [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Pi, T. W. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

59

New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution better than 25 nm. Limiting factors for Stardust STXM analyses were self-imposed limits of photon dose due to radiation damage concerns, and significant attenuation of <1500 eV X-rays by {approx}80{micro}m thick, {approx}25 mg/cm{sup 3} density silica aerogel capture medium. In practice, the ISPE team characterized the major, light elements using STXM (O, Mg, Al, Si) and the heavier minor and trace elements using SXRF. The two data sets overlapped only with minor Fe and Ni ({approx}1% mass abundance), providing few quantitative cross-checks. New improved standards for cross calibration are essential for consortium-based analyses of Stardust interstellar and cometary particles, IDPs. Indeed, they have far reaching application across the whole synchrotron-based analytical community. We have synthesized three ALD multilayers simultaneously on silicon nitride membranes and silicon and characterized them using RBS (on Si), XRF (on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and STXM/XAS (holey Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). The systems we have started to work with are Al-Zn-Fe and Y-Mg-Er. We have found these ALD multi-layers to be uniform at {micro}m- to nm scales, and have found excellent consistency between four analytical techniques so far. The ALD films can also be used as a standard for e-beam instruments, eg., TEM EELS or EDX. After some early issues with the consistency of coatings to the back-side of the membrane windows, we are confident to be able to show multi-analytical agreement to within 10%. As the precision improves, we can use the new standards to verify or improve the tabulated cross-sections.

Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J. (UCB)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

60

ALD Nanosolutions | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 SouthWater Rights,Information OfOpen EnergyEnergyAGEInformationALD

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High performance organic field-effect transistors with ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly onto the organic semiconductor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have produced stable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with an ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly on top of rubrene single crystals by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We find that ALD is a gentle deposition process to grow thin films without damaging rubrene single crystals, as results these devices have a negligibly small threshold voltage and are very stable against gate-bias-stress, and the mobility exceeds 1 cm{sup 2}/V s. Moreover, the devices show very little degradation even when kept in air for more than 2 months. These results demonstrate thin HfO{sub 2} layers deposited by ALD to be well suited as high capacitance gate dielectrics in OFETs operating at small gate voltage. In addition, the dielectric layer acts as an effective passivation layer to protect the organic semiconductor.

Ono, S., E-mail: shimpei@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Häusermann, R. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan) [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Chiba, D. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 322-0012 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimamura, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Batlogg, B. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)] [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

62

Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

Long, Rong, E-mail: rlongmech@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Dunn, Martin L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

63

Development of Highly Selective Oxidation Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to use Atomic Layer Deposition to construct nanostructured catalysts to improve the effectiveness of oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes. More effective catalysts could enable higher specific conversion rates and result in drastic energy savings - up to 25 trillion Btu per year by 2020.

64

Optical Properties of Zn(O,S) Thin Films Deposited by RF Sputtering, Atomic Layer Deposition, and Chemical Bath Deposition: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zn(O,S) thin films 27 - 100 nm thick were deposited on glass or Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2/Molybdenum/glass with RF sputtering, atomic layer deposition, and chemical bath deposition.

Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Mann, J.; To, B.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.; Furtak, T. E.; Levi, D.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Deposition of thin silicon layers on transferred large area graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Physical vapor deposition of Si onto transferred graphene is investigated. At elevated temperatures, Si nucleates preferably on wrinkles and multilayer graphene islands. In some cases, however, Si can be quasi-selectively grown only on the monolayer graphene regions while the multilayer islands remain uncovered. Experimental insights and ab initio calculations show that variations in the removal efficiency of carbon residuals after the transfer process can be responsible for this behavior. Low-temperature Si seed layer results in improved wetting and enables homogeneous growth. This is an important step towards realization of electronic devices in which graphene is embedded between two Si layers.

Lupina, Grzegorz, E-mail: lupina@ihp-microelectronics.com; Kitzmann, Julia; Lukosius, Mindaugas; Dabrowski, Jarek; Wolff, Andre; Mehr, Wolfgang [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)] [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

66

Substrate-assisted nucleation of ultra-thin dielectric layers on graphene by atomic layer deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Published as: Applied Physics Letters 100, 173113 (2012) DOI: 10.1063/1.4707376 Substrate-assisted nucleation of ultra-thin dielectric layers on graphene by atomic layer deposition Bruno Dlubak, Piran R. Kidambi, Robert S... on monolayer graphene, without creating point defects. This enhanced wetting is achieved by greatly increasing the nucleation density through the use of polar traps induced on the graphene surface by an underlying metallic substrate. The resulting Al2O3...

Dlubak, Bruno; Kidambi, Piran R.; Weatherup, Robert S.; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

67

Atomic layer deposition of TiN films Growth and electrical behavior down to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic layer deposition of TiN films Growth and electrical behavior down to sub-nanometer scale Hao Van Bui #12;ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TiN FILMS GROWTH AND ELECTRICAL BEHAVIOR DOWN TO SUBD. Thesis - University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands Title: Atomic layer deposition of TiN films

68

Development of an Electroless Method to Deposit Corrosion-Resistant Silicate Layers on Metallic Substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of an Electroless Method to Deposit Corrosion-Resistant Silicate Layers on Metallic, USA A novel electroless method for depositing corrosion-resistant silicate layers on metallic substrates from aqueous solutions has been developed. The silicate layer was deposited from an aqueous

Popov, Branko N.

69

On the reliability of nanoindentation hardness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown on Si-wafer by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interest in applying thin films on Si-wafer substrate for microelectromechanical systems devices by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) has raised the demand on reliable mechanical property data of the films. This study aims to find a quick method for obtaining nanoindentation hardness of thin films on silicon with improved reliability. This is achieved by ensuring that the film hardness is determined under the condition that no plastic deformation occurs in the substrate. In the study, ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films having thickness varying from 10 to 600?nm were deposited on a single-side polished silicon wafer at 300?°C. A sharp cube-corner indenter was used for the nanoindentation measurements. A thorough study on the Si-wafer reference revealed that at a specific contact depth of about 8?nm the wafer deformation in loading transferred from elastic to elastic–plastic state. Furthermore, the occurrence of this transition was associated with a sharp increase of the power-law exponent, m, when the unloading data were fitted to a power-law relation. Since m is only slightly material dependent and should fall between 1.2 and 1.6 for different indenter geometry having elastic contact to common materials, it is proposed that the high m values are the results from the inelastic events during unloading. This inelasticity is linked to phase transformations during pressure releasing, a unique phenomenon widely observed in single crystal silicon. Therefore, it is concluded that m could be used to monitor the mechanical state of the Si substrate when the whole coating system is loaded. A suggested indentation depth range can then be assigned to each film thickness to provide guidelines for obtaining reliable property data. The results show good consistence for films thicker than 20?nm and the nanoindentation hardness is about 11?GPa independent of film thickness.

Liu, Xuwen, E-mail: xuwen.liu@aalto.fi; Haimi, Eero; Hannula, Simo-Pekka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Vuorimiehentie 2A, FI-00076 Espoo (Finland); Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, FI-02044 Espoo (Finland)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Process for ion-assisted laser deposition of biaxially textured layer on substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for depositing a biaxially aligned intermediate layer over a non-single crystal substrate is disclosed which permits the subsequent deposition thereon of a biaxially oriented superconducting film. The process comprises depositing on a substrate by laser ablation a material capable of being biaxially oriented and also capable of inhibiting the migration of substrate materials through the intermediate layer into such a superconducting film, while simultaneously bombarding the substrate with an ion beam. In a preferred embodiment, the deposition is carried out in the same chamber used to subsequently deposit a superconducting film over the intermediate layer. In a further aspect of the invention, the deposition of the superconducting layer over the biaxially oriented intermediate layer is also carried out by laser ablation with optional additional bombardment of the coated substrate with an ion beam during the deposition of the superconducting film.

Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA); Reade, Ronald P. (Berkeley, CA); Garrison, Stephen M. (Palo Alto, CA); Berdahl, Paul (Oakland, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Silicon Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by NREL at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about atomic layer deposition for...

72

CO-CATALYTIC ABSORPTION LAYERS FOR CONTROLLED LASER-INDUCED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF CARBON NANOTUBES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The concept of co-catalytic layer structures for controlled laser-induced chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes is established, in which a thin Ta support layer chemically aids the initial Fe catalyst reduction. This enables a significant...

Michaelis, F.B.; Weatherup, R.S.; Bayer, B.C.; Bock, M.C.D; Sugime, H.; Caneva, S.; Robertson, J.; Baumberg, J.J.; Hofmann, S.

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

73

Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : atomic layer deposition of active catalytic metals. Activity report : January 1, 2005 - September 30, 2005.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry - specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. The broad goal is to produce diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Originally the goal was to prepare shape-selective catalysts that would limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. We are currently awaiting follow-up experiments to determine the attrition strength of these catalysts. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide surfaces. The first series of experiments using coated membranes demonstrated that the technology needed further improvement. Specifically, observed catalytic FT activity was low. This low activity appeared to be due to: (1) low available surface area, (2) atomic deposition techniques that needed improvements, and (3) insufficient preconditioning of the catalyst surface prior to FT testing. Therefore, experimentation was expanded to the use of particulate silica supports having defined channels and reasonably high surface area. This later experimentation will be discussed in the next progress report. Subsequently, we plan to evaluate membranes after the ALD techniques are improved with a careful study to control and quantify the Fe and Ru loadings. The preconditioning of these surfaces will also be further developed. (A number of improvements have been made with particulate supports; they will be discussed in the subsequent report.) In support of the above, there was an opportunity to undertake a short study of cobalt/promoter/support interaction using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne. Five catalysts and a reference cobalt oxide were characterized during a temperature programmed EXAFS/XANES experimental study with the combined effort of Argonne and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) of the University of Kentucky. This project was completed, and it resulted in an extensive understanding of the preconditioning step of reducing Co-containing FT catalysts. A copy of the resulting manuscript has been submitted and accepted for publication. A similar project was undertaken with iron-containing FT catalysts; the data is currently being studied.

Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Homogeneous, dual layer, solid state, thin film deposition for structural and/or electrochemical characteristics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid state, thin film, electrochemical devices (10) and methods of making the same are disclosed. An exemplary device 10 includes at least one electrode (14) and an electrolyte (16) deposited on the electrode (14). The electrolyte (16) includes at least two homogenous layers of discrete physical properties. The two homogenous layers comprise a first dense layer (15) and a second porous layer (16).

Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Li, Wenming

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

75

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition have been used for thin film encapsulation of organic light emitting diode. In this study, a multi-density layer structure consisting of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers with different densities are deposited with different deposition conditions of O{sub 2} plasma reactant time. This structure improves moisture permeation barrier characteristics, as confirmed by a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) test. The lowest WVTR of the multi-density layer structure was 4.7 × 10{sup ?5} gm{sup ?2} day{sup ?1}, which is one order of magnitude less than WVTR for the reference single-density Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. This improvement is attributed to the location mismatch of paths for atmospheric gases, such as O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, in the film due to different densities in the layers. This mechanism is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed that the multi-density layer structure exhibits very good characteristics as an encapsulation layer via location mismatch of paths for H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} between the two layers.

Jung, Hyunsoo [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hagyoung; Ham, Giyul; Shin, Seokyoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

76

Thermodynamic properties and interfacial layer characteristics of HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic properties and interfacial characteristics of HfO{sub 2} thin films that were deposited by the direct plasma atomic layer deposition (DPALD) method are investigated. The as-deposited HfO{sub 2} films that were deposited by the DPALD method show crystallization of the HfO{sub 2} layers, which initiates at approximately the 35th cycle (about 2.8 nm) of the DPALD process. Medium-energy ion scattering analysis reveals that the direct O{sub 2} plasma causes a compositional change in the interfacial layer as the process progresses. With an increase in the number of process cycles, the Si content decreases and the O content increases at that position, so that the HfO{sub 2}-like Hf-silicate layer is formed on top of the interfacial layer. The enhanced physical reactivity of the oxygen ions in the direct plasma and the Hf-silicate layer may be the driving forces that accelerate the early crystallization of the HfO{sub 2} layer in the DPALD process in the as-deposited state.

Kim, Inhoe; Kuk, Seoungwoo; Kim, Seokhoon; Kim, Jinwoo; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Cho, M.-H.; Chung, K.-B. [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

77

Development of a Novel Electrochemical Method to Deposit High Corrosion Resistant Silicate Layers on Metal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of a Novel Electrochemical Method to Deposit High Corrosion Resistant Silicate Layers LLC, Moberly, Missouri 65270, USA A novel method for electrodepositing silicates on metallic on galvanized steel. The silicate layer was deposited cathodically from a bath containing PQ Corporation N

Popov, Branko N.

78

Heteroepitaxy of group IV-VI nitrides by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heteroepitaxial growth of selected group IV-VI nitrides on various orientations of sapphire (?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is demonstrated using atomic layer deposition. High quality, epitaxial films are produced at significantly lower temperatures than required by conventional deposition methods. Characterization of electrical and superconducting properties of epitaxial films reveals a reduced room temperature resistivity and increased residual resistance ratio for films deposited on sapphire compared to polycrystalline samples deposited concurrently on fused quartz substrates.

Klug, Jeffrey A., E-mail: jklug@anl.gov; Groll, Nickolas R.; Pellin, Michael J.; Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: prolier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Becker, Nicholas G.; Cao, Chaoyue; Zasadzinski, John F. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Weimer, Matthew S. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

79

Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

Sullivan, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Friedmann, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THINFILM SOLAR CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THESIS RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Lei Chen LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS BE AC- CEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin­film solar cells are developing dramatically

Sites, James R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Title of Document: SENSOR BASED ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION FOR RAPID PROCESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes. A novel wafer scale ALD reactor, which features fast gas switching, good process sensing manufacturability, we have explored new reactor designs and applied in-situ process sensing to W and HfO2 ALD compatibility and significant similarity to the real manufacturing environment, is constructed. The reactor has

Anlage, Steven

82

In situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition atomic-layer deposition of aluminum oxide on GaAs using trimethyaluminum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IPA is chosen as the oxygen source for the ALD in the MOCVD. Second, IPA will not react precursor pulse time. b Dependence of ALD Al2O3 growth rate on temperature. The pulse time for TMA and IPA

83

Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide buffer layer on a textured substrate and articles formed therefrom  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article with an improved buffer layer architecture includes a substrate having a textured metal surface, and an electrically conductive lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The article can also include an epitaxial superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. An epitaxial capping layer can be placed between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article includes providing a substrate with a metal surface and depositing on the metal surface a lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer. The method can further include depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial buffer layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

Paranthaman, M. Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.

2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

84

Impact of composition and crystallization behavior of atomic layer deposited strontium titanate films on the resistive switching of Pt/STO/TiN devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The resistive switching (RS) properties of strontium titanate (Sr{sub 1+x}Ti{sub 1+y}O{sub 3+(x+2y)}, STO) based metal-oxide-metal structures prepared from industrial compatible processes have been investigated focusing on the effects of composition, microstructure, and device size. Metastable perovskite STO films were prepared on Pt-coated Si substrates utilizing plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) from cyclopentadienyl-based metal precursors and oxygen plasma at 350?°C, and a subsequent annealing at 600?°C in nitrogen. Films of 15?nm and 12?nm thickness with three different compositions [Sr]/([Sr]?+?[Ti]) of 0.57 (Sr-rich STO), 0.50 (stoichiometric STO), and 0.46 (Ti-rich STO) were integrated into Pt/STO/TiN crossbar structures with sizes ranging from 100??m{sup 2} to 0.01??m{sup 2}. Nano-structural characterizations revealed a clear effect of the composition of the as-deposited STO films on their crystallization behavior and thus on the final microstructures. Local current maps obtained by local-conductivity atomic force microscopy were in good agreement with local changes of the films' microstructures. Correspondingly, also the initial leakage currents of the Pt/STO/TiN devices were affected by the STO compositions and by the films' microstructures. An electroforming process set the Pt/STO/TiN devices into the ON-state, while the forming voltage decreased with increasing initial leakage current. After a RESET process under opposite voltage has been performed, the Pt/STO/TiN devices showed a stable bipolar RS behavior with non-linear current-voltage characteristics for the high (HRS) and the low (LRS) resistance states. The obtained switching polarity and nearly area independent LRS values agree with a filamentary character of the RS behavior according to the valence change mechanism. The devices of 0.01??m{sup 2} size with a 12?nm polycrystalline stoichiometric STO film were switched at a current compliance of 50??A with voltages of about ±1.0?V between resistance states of about 40?k? (LRS) and 1 M? (HRS). After identification of the influences of the films' microstructures, i.e., grain boundaries and small cracks, the remaining RS properties could be ascribed to the effect of the [Sr]/([Sr]?+?[Ti]) composition of the ALD STO thin films.

Aslam, N.; Rodenbücher, C.; Szot, K.; Waser, R.; Hoffmann-Eifert, S., E-mail: su.hoffmann@fz-juelich.de [Peter-Grünberg Institute (PGI-7), Forschungszentrum Jülich and JARA-FIT, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Longo, V.; Roozeboom, F.; Kessels, W. M. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

85

Impact of surface morphology of Si substrate on performance of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices grown by atomic layer deposition technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the authors have investigated the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of silicon nanowire (SiNW)/zinc oxide (ZnO) core–shell nanostructure heterojunctions and compared their characteristics with Si/ZnO planar heterojunctions to investigate the effect of surface morphology of Si substrate in the characteristics of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices. In this work, ZnO thin film was conformally deposited on both p-type ?100? planar Si substrate and substrate with vertically aligned SiNW arrays by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The x-ray diffraction spectra show that the crystalline structures of Si/ZnO heterojunctions are having (101) preferred orientation, whereas vertically oriented SiNW/ZnO core–shell heterojunctions are having (002)-oriented wurtzite crystalline structures. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Si/ZnO heterojunctions show a very sharp single peak at 377?nm, corresponding to the bandgap of ZnO material with no other defect peaks in visible region; hence, these devices can have applications only in UV region. On the other hand, SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are having band-edge peak at 378?nm along with a broad emission band, spreading almost throughout the entire visible region with a peak around 550?nm. Therefore, ALD-grown SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions can emit green and red light simultaneously. Reflectivity measurement of the heterojunctions further confirms the enhancement of visible region peak in the PL spectra of SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions, as the surface of the SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions exhibits extremely low reflectance (<3%) in the visible wavelength region compared to Si/ZnO heterojunctions (>20%). The current–voltage characteristics of both Si/ZnO and SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are measured with large area ohmic contacts on top and bottom of the structure to compare the electrical characteristics of the devices. Due to large surface to-volume ratio of SiNW/ZnO core–shell heterojunction devices, the output current rating is about 130 times larger compared to their planar version at 2 V forward bias voltage. This higher output current rating can be exploited for fabricating high-performance nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices in near future.

Hazra, Purnima; Singh, Satyendra Kumar [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Motilal Neheru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Jit, Satyabrata, E-mail: sjit.ece@itbhu.ac.in [Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Single- and few-layer graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition on nickel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process is used to fabricate graphene based films consisting of one to several graphene layers across their area. Polycrystalline Ni thin films are used and the graphene ...

Reina Ceeco, Alfonso

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Functional Nano-Structures Using Atomic Layer Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, in particular Suresh Mistry, Pete Bone, Owen Dunn, Ian Ganney, Sue Murkett, Sue Gymer and Tom Mitchell. Special thanks go to Tom for his extensive knowledge and for making the many hours spent in the cleanroom more enjoyable. I also wish to thank Prof. Sir Mark... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 5.3.1 Principles of electrochemical deposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 5.3.2 Deposition of metals and metal oxides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5.4 Solar cell fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 5.4.1 Dye...

Salgård Cunha, Pedro

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

88

Fermi level de-pinning of aluminium contacts to n-type germanium using thin atomic layer deposited layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fermi-level pinning of aluminium on n-type germanium (n-Ge) was reduced by insertion of a thin interfacial dielectric by atomic layer deposition. The barrier height for aluminium contacts on n-Ge was reduced from 0.7?eV to a value of 0.28?eV for a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layer (?2.8?nm). For diodes with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layer, the contact resistance started to increase for layer thicknesses above 2.8?nm. For diodes with a HfO{sub 2} interfacial layer, the barrier height was also reduced but the contact resistance increased dramatically for layer thicknesses above 1.5?nm.

Gajula, D. R., E-mail: dgajula01@qub.ac.uk; Baine, P.; Armstrong, B. M.; McNeill, D. W. [School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queen's University Belfast, Ashby Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)] [School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queen's University Belfast, Ashby Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AH (United Kingdom); Modreanu, M.; Hurley, P. K. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)] [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

89

Cathode encapsulation of organic light emitting diodes by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films synthesized by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) at room temperature (25 deg. C) have been tested as water vapor permeation barriers for organic light emitting diode devices. Silicon nitride films (a-SiN{sub x}:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition served as reference and were used to develop Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks. On the basis of Ca test measurements, a very low intrinsic water vapor transmission rate of {<=} 2 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} and 4 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} (20 deg. C/50% relative humidity) were found for 20-40 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 300 nm a-SiN{sub x}:H films, respectively. The cathode particle coverage was a factor of 4 better for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films compared to the a-SiN{sub x}:H films and an average of 0.12 defects per cm{sup 2} was obtained for a stack consisting of three barrier layers (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}).

Keuning, W.; Weijer, P. van de; Lifka, H.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, P.O. Box WAG12, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayer film deposition on cotton fabrics by layer-by-layer deposition method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: {yields} Cationic charges were created on the cotton fibre surfaces with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride. {yields} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were deposited on the cotton fabrics by layer-by-layer deposition. {yields} The fabrics deposited with the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibit better UV-protection and significant flame retardancy properties. {yields} The mechanical properties were improved after surface film deposition. -- Abstract: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were used for fabrication of multilayer nanocomposite film deposition on cationic cotton fabrics by electrostatic self-assembly to improve the mechanical, UV-protection and flame retardancy properties of cotton fabrics. Cotton fabric surface was modified with a chemical reaction to build-up cationic charge known as cationization. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to verify the presence of deposited nanolayers. Air permeability, whiteness value, tensile strength, UV-transmittance and Limited Oxygen Index properties of cotton fabrics were analyzed before and after the treatment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles by electrostatic self-assemblies. It was proved that the flame retardancy, tensile strength and UV-transmittance of cotton fabrics can be improved by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle additive through electrostatic self-assembly process.

Ugur, Sule S., E-mail: sule@mmf.sdu.edu.tr [Department of Textile Engineering, Sueleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260 (Turkey); Sariisik, Merih [Department of Textile Engineering, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir 35160 (Turkey)] [Department of Textile Engineering, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir 35160 (Turkey); Aktas, A. Hakan [Department of Chemistry, Sueleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260 (Turkey)] [Department of Chemistry, Sueleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260 (Turkey)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

High-performance self-aligned inversion-channel In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors by in-situ atomic-layer-deposited HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-aligned inversion-channel In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) have been fabricated using the gate dielectrics of in-situ directly atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) HfO{sub 2} followed by ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. There were no surface pretreatments and no interfacial passivation/barrier layers prior to the ALD. TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (4?nm)/HfO{sub 2} (1?nm)/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/InP MOS capacitors exhibited well-behaved capacitance-voltage characteristics with true inversion behavior, low leakage current densities of ?10{sup ?8}?A/cm{sup 2} at ±1?MV/cm, and thermodynamic stability at high temperatures. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3?nm)/HfO{sub 2} (1?nm)/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As MOSFETs of 1 ?m gate length, with 700?°C–800?°C rapid thermal annealing in source/drain activation, have exhibited high extrinsic drain current (I{sub D}) of 1.5?mA/?m, transconductance (G{sub m}) of 0.84 mS/?m, I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} of ?10{sup 4}, low sub-threshold swing of 103?mV/decade, and field-effect electron mobility of 1100 cm{sup 2}/V?·?s. The devices have also achieved very high intrinsic I{sub D} and G{sub m} of 2?mA/?m and 1.2?mS/?m, respectively.

Lin, T. D.; Chang, W. H.; Chang, Y. C.; Hong, M., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chu, R. L.; Chang, Y. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lee, M. Y.; Hong, P. F.; Chen, Min-Cheng [National Nano Device Laboratories, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)] [National Nano Device Laboratories, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Kwo, J., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

92

ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

93

Alumina atomic layer deposition nanocoatings on primary diamond particles using a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/high-temperature (HP/HT) synthesis methods [4­7] led to the discovery of polycrystalline diamond grit and the manufacture of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) materials [8]. PDC cutters are well known and widely usedAlumina atomic layer deposition nanocoatings on primary diamond particles using a fluidized bed

George, Steven M.

94

Novel Processing to Produce Polymer/Ceramic Nanocomposites by Atomic Layer Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- scale ceramic inclusions within a polymer matrix was demon- strated. Micron-sized high density scale, but ceramics are not homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix at a nanoscopic level7Novel Processing to Produce Polymer/Ceramic Nanocomposites by Atomic Layer Deposition Xinhua Liang

George, Steven M.

95

Reduction of magnetostatic interactions in self-organized arrays of nickel nanowires using atomic layer deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduction of magnetostatic interactions in self-organized arrays of nickel nanowires using atomic of magnetic nanowires are commonly synthesized by electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina templates. Due atomic layer deposition we reduce the diameter of the pores prior to electrodeposition. This reduces

Boyer, Edmond

96

Detecting sub-glacial aquifers in the north polar layered deposits with Mars Express/MARSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water ice cap and underlying dusty-ice polar layered deposits or PLD) via melting from ice insulation effects, local geothermal hot spots, or heat-generating glacial sliding. Ice cap basal melting may at the ice/rock interface under the Antarctic ice cap [Oswald and Robin, 1973]. Clifford [1987, 1993] has

Gurnett, Donald A.

97

Fracture properties of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide free-standing membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fracture strength of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes deposited by atomic layer deposition at 110, 150, 200, and 300?°C was investigated. The fracture strength was found to be in the range of 2.25–3.00?GPa using Weibull statistics and nearly constant as a function of deposition temperature. This strength is superior to common microelectromechanical systems materials such as diamondlike carbon, SiO{sub 2}, or SiC. As-deposited membranes sustained high cycling pressure loads >10 bar/s without fracture. Films featured, however, significant reduction in the resistance to failure after annealing (800?°C) or high humidity (95%, 60?°C) treatments.

Berdova, Maria, E-mail: maria.berdova@aalto.fi; Rontu, Ville; Franssila, Sami [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044VTT (Finland); Törmä, Pekka T. [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Fabricating amorphous silicon solar cells by varying the temperature _of the substrate during deposition of the amorphous silicon layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for fabricating amorphous silicon solar cells in which the temperature of the substrate is varied during the deposition of the amorphous silicon layer is described. Solar cells manufactured in accordance with this process are shown to have increased efficiencies and fill factors when compared to solar cells manufactured with a constant substrate temperature during deposition of the amorphous silicon layer.

Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Method of depositing a protective layer over a biaxially textured alloy substrate and composition therefrom  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laminate article consists of a substrate and a biaxially textured protective layer over the substrate. The substrate can be biaxially textured and also have reduced magnetism over the magnetism of Ni. The substrate can be selected from the group consisting of nickel, copper, iron, aluminum, silver and alloys containing any of the foregoing. The protective layer can be selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and nickel and alloys containing any of the foregoing. The protective layer is also non-oxidizable under conditions employed to deposit a desired, subsequent oxide buffer layer. Layers of YBCO, CeO.sub.2, YSZ, LaAlO.sub.3, SrTiO.sub.3, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrRuO.sub.3, LaNiO.sub.3 and La.sub.2 ZrO.sub.3 can be deposited over the protective layer. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Feenstra, Roeland (Knoxville, TN); Norton, David P. (Gainesville, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Mechanisms of Atomic Layer Deposition on Substrates with Ultrahigh Aspect Ratios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a very promising method for controlled coating of the inner surfaces of monolithic nanoporous aerogel (AG suited for coating substrates with ultrahigh aspect ratios (J103), including nanoporous solids. Here, we study the ALD of Cu and Cu3N on the inner surfaces of low-density nanoporous silica aerogel monoliths

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic solar cells require suitable anode surface modifiers in order to selectively collect positive charge carriers and improve device performance. We employ a nickel metal organic ink precursor to fabricate NiO hole transport layers on indium tin oxide anodes. This solution deposited NiO annealed at 250 °C and plasma treated, achieves similar OPV device results reported with NiO films from PLD as well as PEDOT:PSS. We demonstrate a tunable work function by post-processing the NiO with an O{sub 2}-plasma surface treatment of varied power and time. We find that plasma treatment is necessary for optimal device performance. Optimal devices utilizing a solution deposited NiO hole transport layer show lower series resistance and increased fill factor when compared to solar cells with PEDOT:PSS.

Steirer, K. Xerxes [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Chesin, Jordan P. [Division of Engineering, Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Widjonarko, N. Edwin [University of Colorado, Dept of Physics, Boulder, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miedaner, Alexander [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ginley, David S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olson, Dana C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Novel Reactor Design and Metrology Study for Tungsten ALD process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

species Viscous flow condition Short gas residence time Fast gas switching Reactant + carrier gas Multiple Operation Modes Exposure Purge Small reactor volume Throttle Valve 5 torr 10-5 Torr carrier gas 5 torr 10Novel Reactor Design and Metrology Study for Tungsten ALD process Laurent Henn-Lecordier, Wei Lei

Rubloff, Gary W.

103

Chapter 6.25 Cambridge Fiji F200 Plasma ALD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system supports metal ALD primarily and has a remote inductively coupled plasma source to allow for low to keep electromagnetically sensitive devices such as cell phones away from the ICP coil. 4.2 Heating 4.2.1 Heater : The PEALD system includes several heating elements to bring various components to temperature

Healy, Kevin Edward

104

Synthesis of multiferroic Er-Fe-O thin films by atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

R-Fe-O (R?=?rare earth) compounds have recently attracted high interest as potential new multiferroic materials. Here, we report a method based on the solid-state reaction between Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe layers, respectively grown by atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition, to synthesize Er-Fe-O thin films. The reaction is induced by thermal annealing and evolution of the formed phases is followed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Dominant ErFeO{sub 3} and ErFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases develop following subsequent thermal annealing processes at 850?°C in air and N{sub 2}. Structural, chemical, and morphological characterization of the layers are conducted through X-ray diffraction and reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties are evaluated by magnetic force microscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer, being consistent with the presence of the phases identified by X-ray diffraction. Our results constitute a first step toward the use of cost-effective chemical methods for the synthesis of this class of multiferroic thin films.

Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.imm.cnr.it; Vangelista, S.; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y. [GEMaC, Université de Versailles St. Quentin en Yvelines-CNRS, Versailles (France); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

105

Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide films using tetrakis,,dimethylamino... tin Jeffrey W. Elam,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide films using tetrakis,,dimethylamino... tin Jeffrey W. Elam dimethylamino tin and hydrogen peroxide. This method avoids problems of corrosion and agglomeration associated with the halogenated compound, SnCl4. Tin oxide films were successfully deposited on a variety of substrates using

106

High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5?nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36?s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductive graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.

Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen, E-mail: hfxie@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Feng [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

107

Impact of titanium addition on film characteristics of HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics deposited by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of 8-to 45-at. % Ti on physical and electrical characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited and annealed hafnium dioxide was studied using vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray reflectometry. The role of Ti addition on the electrical performance is investigated using molybdenum (Mo)-gated capacitors. The film density decreases with increasing Ti addition. Ti addition stabilizes the amorphous phase of HfO{sub 2}, resulting in amorphous films as deposited. After a high-temperature annealing, the films transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline phase. Orthorhombic Hf-Ti-O peaks are detected in polycrystalline films containing 33-at. % or higher Ti content. As Ti content is decreased, monoclinic HfO{sub 2} becomes the predominant microstructure. No TiSi is formed at the dielectric/Si interface, indicating films with good thermal stability. The band gap of Hf-Ti-O was found to be lower than that of HfO{sub 2}. Well-behaved capacitance-voltage and leakage current density-voltage characteristics were obtained for Hf-Ti-O. However, an increased leakage current density was observed with Ti addition. The data from capacitance-voltage stressing indicate a smaller flatband voltage (V{sub fb}) shift in the HfO{sub 2} films with low Ti content when compared with the HfO{sub 2} films. This indicates less charge trapping with a small amount of Ti addition.

Triyoso, D.H.; Hegde, R.I.; Zollner, S.; Ramon, M.E.; Kalpat, S.; Gregory, R.; Wang, X.-D.; Jiang, J.; Raymond, M.; Rai, R.; Werho, D.; Roan, D.; White, B.E. Jr.; Tobin, P.J. [Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Advanced Products Research and Development Laboratory, 3501 Ed Bluestein Boulevard, Austin, Texas 78721 (United States)

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Growth mechanism of atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide: A density functional theory approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water is studied using density functional theory. The reaction pathways between the precursors and ZnO surface sites are discussed. Both reactions proceed by the formation of intermediate complexes on the surface. The Gibbs free energy of the formation of these complexes is positive at temperatures above ?120?°C and ?200?°C for DEZ and water half-reactions, respectively. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results show that the growth per cycle changes at approximately the same temperatures.

Afshar, Amir; Cadien, Kenneth C., E-mail: kcadien@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

109

Improved oxidation resistance of organic/inorganic composite atomic layer deposition coated cellulose nanocrystal aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels are coated with thin conformal layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using atomic layer deposition to form hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites. Electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} penetrated more than 1500??m into the aerogel for extended precursor pulse and exposure/purge times. The measured profile of coated fiber radius versus depth from the aerogel surface agrees well with simulations of precursor penetration depth in modeled aerogel structures. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CNC aerogel nanocomposites do not show significant thermal degradation below 295?°C as compared with 175?°C for uncoated CNC aerogels, an improvement of over 100?°C.

Smith, Sean W.; Matthews, David J.; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1148 Kelley Engineering Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Buesch, Christian; Simonsen, John [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

Brigmon, R.

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

111

Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

Dechana, A. [Program of Physics and General Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Songkhla Rajabhat University, Songkhla 90000 (Thailand); Thamboon, P. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D., E-mail: dheerawan.b@cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Low temperature atomic layer deposited ZnO photo thin film transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) are fabricated on Si substrates using atomic layer deposition technique. The growth temperature of ZnO channel layers are selected as 80, 100, 120, 130, and 250?°C. Material characteristics of ZnO films are examined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction methods. Stoichiometry analyses showed that the amount of both oxygen vacancies and interstitial zinc decrease with decreasing growth temperature. Electrical characteristics improve with decreasing growth temperature. Best results are obtained with ZnO channels deposited at 80?°C; I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio is extracted as 7.8 × 10{sup 9} and subthreshold slope is extracted as 0.116 V/dec. Flexible ZnO TFT devices are also fabricated using films grown at 80?°C. I{sub D}–V{sub GS} characterization results showed that devices fabricated on different substrates (Si and polyethylene terephthalate) show similar electrical characteristics. Sub-bandgap photo sensing properties of ZnO based TFTs are investigated; it is shown that visible light absorption of ZnO based TFTs can be actively controlled by external gate bias.

Oruc, Feyza B.; Aygun, Levent E.; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali K., E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); UNAM—National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Yu, Hyun Yong [The School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Thermal chemistry of the Cu-KI5 atomic layer deposition precursor on a copper surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal chemistry of a Cu(I) ketoiminate complex, Cu-KI5, resulting from the modification of the known Air Products CupraSelect{sup ®} copper CVD precursor Cu(hfac)(tmvs) designed to tether the two ligands via an isopropoxide linker, was studied under ultrahigh vacuum on a Cu(110) single-crystal surface by using a combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption at low temperatures was determined to take place via the displacement of the vinyl ligand by the surface. Molecular desorption was seen at 210?K, and the evolution of Cu(II)-KI5{sub 2} was established to take place at 280?K, presumably from a disproportionation reaction that also leads to the deposition of Cu(0). Other sets of desorption products were seen at 150, 250, and 430?K, all containing copper atoms and small organic moieties with molecular masses below 100 amu. The latter TPD peak in particular indicates significant fragmentation of the ligands, likely at the C–N bond that holds the vinylsilane-isopropoxide moiety tethered to the ketoimine fragment, and possibly also at the union between the vinylsilane and the alkoxide linker. The 430?K temperature measured for this chemistry may set an upper limit for clean Cu film deposition, but since reactivity on the surface was also found to be inhibited at higher surface coverages, it may be delayed to higher temperatures under atomic layer deposition conditions.

Ma, Qiang; Zaera, Francisco, E-mail: zaera@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Characteristics of Hf-silicate thin films synthesized by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hafnium silicate films were grown by alternating the deposition cycles of hafnium oxide and silicon oxide using a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process. The as-deposited and 900 deg. C annealed hafnium silicate films were determined to be amorphous using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. This suggested that the formation of hafnium silicate suppressed the crystallization of HfO{sub 2} at high temperatures. The dielectric constants increased from {approx}5 to {approx}17 as the hafnium content increased from 9 to 17 at. % in the hafnium silicate films. The leakage currents through the Hf-rich Hf-silicate films were two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of SiO{sub 2} with the same equivalent oxide thickness in the range of 1.6-2.3 nm. The estimated band gap of Hf-silicate films from the O 1s plasma loss spectra increased with the increasing Si content due to the higher band gap of SiO{sub 2} than that of HfO{sub 2}.

Liu Jiurong; Martin, Ryan M.; Chang, Jane P. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Rapid SiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition Using Tris(tert-pentoxy)silanol B. B. Burton,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures and higher TPS pressures. SiO2 ALD thicknesses of 125-140 � were observed at the highest TPS requires high temperatures of >325 °C and large reactant exposure of >109 L (1 L ) 10-6 Torr s).4-7 However ALD films using liquid tris(tert-pentoxy)silanol (TPS). The SiO2 film thicknesses were determined

George, Steven M.

116

Barrier performance optimization of atomic layer deposited diffusion barriers for organic light emitting diodes using x-ray reflectivity investigations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of O{sub 3} pulse duration for encapsulation of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with ultra thin inorganic atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers is demonstrated for deposition temperatures of 50 °C. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements show that O{sub 3} pulse durations longer than 15?s produce dense and thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Correspondingly, black spot growth is not observed in OLEDs encapsulated with such layers during 91 days of aging under ambient conditions. This implies that XRR can be used as a tool for process optimization of OLED encapsulation layers leading to devices with long lifetimes.

Singh, Aarti, E-mail: aarti.singh@namlab.com; Schröder, Uwe [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Klumbies, Hannes; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl [Dresden Innovation Center Energy Efficiency, Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Dresden Innovation Center Energy Efficiency, Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Geidel, Marion; Knaut, Martin; Hoßbach, Christoph; Albert, Matthias [Institute of Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany) [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

117

An atomic layer deposition reactor with dose quantification for precursor adsorption and reactivity studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An atomic layer deposition reactor has been constructed with quantitative, precision dose control for studying precursor adsorption characteristics and to relate dose quantity and exposure dynamics to fluid flow in both the viscous and molecular flow regimes. A fixed volume of gas, held at a controlled temperature and measured pressure, is dosed into the reaction chamber by computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Dual in situ quartz crystal microbalances provide parallel mass measurement onto two differently coated substrates, which allows adsorption coverage and relative sticking coefficients to be determined. Gas composition in the reaction chamber was analyzed in situ by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Absolute reactant exposure is unambiguously calculated from the impingement flux, and is related to dose, surface area, and growth rates. A range of control over the dose amount is demonstrated and consequences for film growth control are demonstrated and proposed.

Larrabee, T. J.; Mallouk, T. E.; Allara, D. L. [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Electronic passivation of silicon surfaces by thin films of atomic layer deposited gallium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper proposes the application of gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films to crystalline silicon solar cells. Effective passivation of n- and p-type crystalline silicon surfaces has been achieved by the application of very thin Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ozone (O{sub 3}) as the reactants. Surface recombination velocities as low as 6.1?cm/s have been recorded with films less than 4.5?nm thick. A range of deposition parameters has been explored, with growth rates of approximately 0.2?Å/cycle providing optimum passivation. The thermal activation energy for passivation of the Si-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface has been found to be approximately 0.5?eV. Depassivation of the interface was observed for prolonged annealing at increased temperatures. The activation energy for depassivation was measured to be 1.9?eV.

Allen, T. G., E-mail: thomas.allen@anu.edu.au; Cuevas, A. [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

119

Final Report: Novel ALD-Coated Nanoparticle Anodes for Enhanced Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Phase I effort is described in detail in the Phase I report given below. The key accomplishments of the Phase I project were (1) the demonstration of high stability LiCoO2 cathodes using ALD-coated LiCoO2 particles, as well as on ALD-coated LiCoO2 electrodes and (2) the demonstration of high stability of graphite anodes using ALD-coated graphite electrodes.

Groner, Markus

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

120

Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells.

Ip, Alexander H.; Labelle, André J.; Sargent, Edward H., E-mail: ted.sargent@utoronto.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Photoresponse properties of large-area MoS{sub 2} atomic layer synthesized by vapor phase deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photoresponse properties of a large area MoS{sub 2} atomic layer synthesized by vapor phase deposition method without any catalyst are studied. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum characterizations confirm that the two-dimensional microstructures of MoS{sub 2} atomic layer are of high quality. Photoelectrical results indicate that the as-prepared MoS{sub 2} devices have an excellent sensitivity and a good reproducibility as a photodetector, which is proposed to be ascribed to the potential-assisted charge separation mechanism.

Luo, Siwei; Qi, Xiang, E-mail: xqi@xtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn; Ren, Long; Hao, Guolin; Fan, Yinping; Liu, Yundan; Han, Weijia; Zang, Chen; Li, Jun; Zhong, Jianxin, E-mail: xqi@xtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, People's Republic of China Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology, and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

122

Highly efficient flexible inverted organic solar cells using atomic layer deposited ZnO as electron selective layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

advancements, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) has been improved with PCE more than 4% was demonstrated.7 However,Cs2CO3 exhibitsdeliquescencewhichaffects severely a PCE of 3.09%.14 Hau et al. adopted spin-coated ZnO nanoparticles as the electron selective layer

123

CdS/CdTe Solar Cells Containing Directly Deposited CdSxTe1-x Alloy Layers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A CdSxTe1-x layer forms by interdiffusion of CdS and CdTe during the fabrication of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices. The CdSxTe1-x layer is thought to be important because it relieves strain at the CdS/CdTe interface that would otherwise exist due to the 10% lattice mismatch between these two materials. Our previous work [1] has indicated that the electrical junction is located in this interdiffused CdSxTe1-x region. Further understanding, however, is essential to predict the role of this CdSxTe1-x layer in the operation of CdS/CdTe devices. In this study, CdSxTe1-x alloy films were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and co-evaporation from CdTe and CdS sources. Both RF-magnetron-sputtered and co-evaporated CdSxTe1-x films of lower S content (x<0.3) have a cubic zincblende (ZB) structure akin to CdTe, whereas those of higher S content have a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure like that of CdS. Films become less preferentially oriented as a result of a CdCl2 heat treatment (HT) at ~400 degrees C for 5 min. Films sputtered in a 1% O2/Ar ambient are amorphous as deposited, but show CdTe ZB, CdS WZ, and CdTe oxide phases after a CdCl2 HT. Films sputtered in O2 partial pressure have a much wider bandgap than expected. This may be explained by nanocrystalline size effects seen previously [2] for sputtered oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) films. Initial PV device results show that the introduction of a directly-deposited CdSxTe1-x alloy layer into the device structure produces devices of comparable performance to those without the alloy layer when a CdCl2 HT is performed. Further investigation is required to determine whether the CdCl2 heat treatment step can be altered or eliminated through direct deposition of the alloy layer.

Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Moutinho, H. R.; To, B.; Pankow, J. W.; Kuciauskas, D.; Gessert, T. A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

CdS/CdTe Solar Cells Containing Directly-Deposited CdSxTe1-x Alloy Layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} layer forms by interdiffusion of CdS and CdTe during the fabrication of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices. The CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} layer is thought to be important because it relieves strain at the CdS/CdTe interface that would otherwise exist due to the 10% lattice mismatch between these two materials. Our previous work [1] has indicated that the electrical junction is located in this interdiffused CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} region. Further understanding, however, is essential to predict the role of this CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} layer in the operation of CdS/CdTe devices. In this study, CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloy films were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and co-evaporation from CdTe and CdS sources. Both RF-magnetron-sputtered and co-evaporated CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} films of lower S content (x<;0.3) have a cubic zincblende (ZB) structure akin to CdTe, whereas those of higher S content have a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure like that of CdS. Films become less preferentially oriented as a result of a CdCl{sub 2} heat treatment (HT) at {approx}400 C for 5 min. Films sputtered in a 1% O{sub 2}/Ar ambient are amorphous as deposited, but show CdTe ZB, CdS WZ, and CdTe oxide phases after a CdCl{sub 2} HT. Films sputtered in O{sub 2} partial pressure have a much wider bandgap than expected. This may be explained by nanocrystalline size effects seen previously [2] for sputtered oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) films. Initial PV device results show that the introduction of a directly-deposited CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloy layer into the device structure produces devices of comparable performance to those without the alloy layer when a CdCl{sub 2} HT is performed. Further investigation is required to determine whether the CdCl{sub 2} heat treatment step can be altered or eliminated through direct deposition of the alloy layer.

Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Moutinho, H. R.; To, B.; Pankow, J. W.; Kuciauskas, D.; Gessert, T. A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

E-Print Network 3.0 - ald na stali Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

low-density nanoporous silica aerogel monoliths... observed for Fe, Ru, and Pt ALD on aerogels. On the basis of these results, we discuss design rules for ... Source: Gordon, Roy -...

126

BulletinVol. 64 -No. 1 January 8, 2010 BNL's ALD Stokes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the BulletinVol. 64 - No. 1 January 8, 2010 BNL's ALD Stokes Heads NYS Energy Policy Institute New building on site has at least one mechanical equip- ment room -- many buildings have two or three

Ohta, Shigemi

127

ALD and Pulsed CVD of Ruthenium and Ruthenium Dioxide Thin Films From an Amidinate Precursor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Narrow window of O2 exposure (e.g. 0.02~0.04 Torr·s @ 325ºC) to obtain high quality pure Ru filmALD and Pulsed CVD of Ruthenium and Ruthenium Dioxide Thin Films From an Amidinate Precursor Xinwei, China Introduction Experimental ALD with O2 Ru metal film Pulsed CVD with NH3+H2 Ru metal film Pulsed

128

Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal-Organic Framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

encompass deposition onto micro- and nanopowders14 and coating of nanoparticle films15 as well as aerogel coating of porous materials that exhibit ultrahigh-aspect ratios.12,13 To date, some striking examples

130

Abstract --A physical-vapour-deposition (PVD) of AlN thin films is presented in this paper. For AlN layers that are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high quality layers with as high as possible thermal conductivity kTH, different materials have been are developed. The deposition parameters are tuned to guarantee low stress, high thermal conductivity , the dielectric constant about 8, and the thermal conductivity around -1 -1 11 Wm K . The deposition conditions

Technische Universiteit Delft

131

Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silicon dioxide films using plasma-activated triisopropylsilane as a precursor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process was developed as a growth technique of SiO{sub 2} thin films using a plasma-activated triisopropylsilane [TIPS, ((iPr){sub 3}SiH)] precursor. TIPS was activated by an argon plasma at the precursor injection stage of the process. Using the activated TIPS, it was possible to control the growth rate per cycle of the deposited films by adjusting the plasma ignition time. The PEALD technique allowed deposition of SiO{sub 2} films at temperatures as low as 50?°C without carbon impurities. In addition, films obtained with plasma ignition times of 3?s and 10?s had similar values of root-mean-square surface roughness. In order to evaluate the suitability of TIPS as a precursor for low-temperature deposition of SiO{sub 2} films, the vapor pressure of TIPS was measured. The thermal stability and the reactivity of the gas-phase TIPS with respect to water vapor were also investigated by analyzing the intensity changes of the C–H and Si–H peaks in the Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of TIPS.

Jeon, Ki-Moon [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dae Jeon University, Daejeon 300-716 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Su [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dae Jeon University, Daejeon 300-716 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ju-Young [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Nano and Bio Surface Science, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jun Lee, Sang [Center of Nanomaterials Characterization, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Nano Science, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang-Woo, E-mail: swkang@kriss.re.kr [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Advanced Device Technology, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet (DUV) and Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10 [micro]m for the shortest wavelength (13.4 nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R[sup 2] factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates. 15 figs.

Ruffner, J.A.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Deposition of TiN and HfO{sub 2} in a commercial 200 mm remote plasma atomic layer deposition reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors describe a remote plasma atomic layer deposition reactor (Oxford Instruments FlexAL trade mark sign ) that includes an inductively coupled plasma source and a load lock capable of handling substrates up to 200 mm in diameter. The deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) is described for the combination of the metal-halide precursor TiCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasma and the combination of the metallorganic precursor Hf[N(CH{sub 3})(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})]{sub 4} and O{sub 2} plasma, respectively. The influence of the plasma exposure time and substrate temperature has been studied and compositional, structural, and electrical properties are reported. TiN films with a low Cl impurity content were obtained at 350 deg. C at a growth rate of 0.35 A /cycle with an electrical resistivity as low as 150 {mu}{omega} cm. Carbon-free (detection limit <2 at. %) HfO{sub 2} films were obtained at a growth rate of 1.0 A /cycle at 290 deg. C. The thickness and resisitivity nonuniformity was <5% for the TiN and the thickness uniformality was <2% for the HfO{sub 2} films as determined over 200 mm wafers.

Heil, S. B. S.; Hemmen, J. L. van; Hodson, C. J.; Singh, N.; Klootwijk, J. H.; Roozeboom, F.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Kessels, W. M. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, North End, Yatton BS49 4AP (United Kingdom); Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); NXP Semiconductors Research, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Band offsets of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} oxides deposited by atomic layer deposition technique on hydrogenated diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-k oxide insulators (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}) have been deposited on a single crystalline hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) epilayer by an atomic layer deposition technique at temperature as low as 120 Degree-Sign C. Interfacial electronic band structures are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on core-level binding energies and valence band maximum values, valence band offsets are found to be 2.9 {+-} 0.2 and 2.6 {+-} 0.2 eV for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions, respectively. Band gaps of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} have been determined to be 7.2 {+-} 0.2 and 5.4 {+-} 0.2 eV by measuring O 1s energy loss spectra, respectively. Both the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions are concluded to be type-II staggered band configurations with conduction band offsets of 1.2 {+-} 0.2 and 2.7 {+-} 0.2 eV, respectively.

Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Koide, Y. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Nanofabrication Platform, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Center of Materials Research for Low Carbon Emission, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Effect of High Temperature Annealing on the Grain Characteristics of a Thin Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Carbide Layer.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unique combination of thermo-mechanical and physiochemical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) provides interest and opportunity for its use in nuclear applications. One of the applications of SiC is as a very thin layer in the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This SiC layer, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is designed to withstand the pressures of fission and transmutation product gases in a high temperature, radiation environment. Various researchers have demonstrated that macroscopic properties can be affected by changes in the distribution of grain boundary plane orientations and misorientations [1 - 3]. Additionally, various researchers have attributed the release behavior of Ag through the SiC layer as a grain boundary diffusion phenomenon [4 - 6]; further highlighting the importance of understanding the actual grain characteristics of the SiC layer. Both historic HTGR fission product release studies and recent experiments at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [7] have shown that the release of Ag-110m is strongly temperature dependent. Although the maximum normal operating fuel temperature of a HTGR design is in the range of 1000-1250°C, the temperature may reach 1600°C under postulated accident conditions. The aim of this specific study is therefore to determine the magnitude of temperature dependence on SiC grain characteristics, expanding upon initial studies by Van Rooyen et al, [8; 9].

Isabella J van Rooyen; Philippus M van Rooyen; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Air-stable ink for scalable, high-throughput layer deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing and depositing air-stable, easily decomposable, vulcanized ink on any of a wide range of substrates is disclosed. The ink enables high-volume production of optoelectronic and/or electronic devices using scalable production methods, such as roll-to-roll transfer, fast rolling processes, and the like.

Weil, Benjamin D; Connor, Stephen T; Cui, Yi

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

137

Highly Conformal Thin Films of Tungsten Nitride Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition from a Novel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) deposition temperatures under 350 °C (due to the thermal instability of low-k materials); (8) good growth, and electrically conducting. All of the films showed good adhesion to the substrates, were acid-resistant, and did resistivity than aluminum, 1.7 versus 2.7 µ-cm, respectively (bulk values). This property of copper enables

138

Atomic Layer Deposition of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films Using Nonhalogenated Jeffrey W. Elam,*, David A. Baker, Alex B. F. Martinson,, Michael J. Pellin, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precise coatings to be applied on all exposed surfaces of nanoporous substrates such as aerogels10 using ALD techniques to apply metal oxide coatings onto porous supports such as anodic aluminum oxide

139

Energy band alignment of atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} oxide film on epitaxial (100)Ge, (110)Ge, and (111)Ge layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystallographically oriented epitaxial Ge layers were grown on (100), (110), and (111)A GaAs substrates by in situ growth process using two separate molecular beam epitaxy chambers. The band alignment properties of atomic layer hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) film deposited on crystallographically oriented epitaxial Ge were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Valence band offset, {Delta}E{sub v} values of HfO{sub 2} relative to (100)Ge, (110)Ge, and (111)Ge orientations were 2.8 eV, 2.28 eV, and 2.5 eV, respectively. Using XPS data, variation in valence band offset, {Delta}E{sub V}(100)Ge>{Delta}E{sub V}(111)Ge>{Delta}E{sub V}(110)Ge, was obtained related to Ge orientation. Also, the conduction band offset, {Delta}E{sub c} relation, {Delta}E{sub c}(110)Ge>{Delta}E{sub c}(111)Ge>{Delta}E{sub c}(100)Ge related to Ge orientations was obtained using the measured bandgap of HfO{sub 2} on each orientation and with the Ge bandgap of 0.67 eV. These band offset parameters for carrier confinement would offer an important guidance to design Ge-based p- and n-channel metal-oxide field-effect transistor for low-power application.

Hudait, Mantu K.; Zhu Yan [Advanced Devices and Sustainable Energy Laboratory (ADSEL), Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

140

Fabrication of Sr silicate buffer layer on Si(100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition using a SrO target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors fabricated 2?×?1 Sr-reconstructed Si(100) substrates using thin SrO layers, and used them to direct growth of crystalline perovskite oxide on Si. The SrO layers used to reconstruct the Si(100) substrates were grown by pulsed laser deposition from a SrO single crystal target, followed by postdeposition-annealing (PDA) of the SrO/Si(100) structure. In situ observations of reflective high-energy electron diffraction during PDA confirmed a 2?×?1 reconstruction of the Si surface and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy of the annealed samples confirmed the existence of Sr atoms in a silicate phase, which indicated that a 2?×?1 Sr-reconstructed Si surface was achieved. The optimal fabrication conditions were annealing at 720?°C for 1?min and an equivalent SrO layer thickness (ML{sub eq}) of 2.5 ML{sub eq}. The temperature condition was very narrow, at 720?±?20?°C, for an acceptable product. Subsequently, the authors demonstrated the growth of crystalline SrTiO{sub 3} films on the 2?×?1 Sr-reconstructed Si(100) surfaces.

Imanaka, Atsuhiro; Sasaki, Tsubasa [Department of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Hotta, Yasushi, E-mail: hotta@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Satoh, Shin-ichi [Department of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

More stable hybrid organic solar cells deposited on amorphous Si electron transfer layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on defect densities, performance, and stability of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells produced using n-doped inorganic amorphous silicon-carbide layers as the electron transport layer (ETL). The organic material was poly-3-hexyl-thiophene (P3HT) and heterojunction was formed using phenyl-C{sub 71}-Butyric-Acid-Methyl Ester (PCBM). For comparison, inverted solar cells fabricated using Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as ETL were fabricated. Defect densities and subgap quantum efficiency curves were found to be nearly identical for both types of cells. The cells were subjected to 2xsun illumination and it was found that the cells produced using doped a-Si as ETL were much more stable than the cells produced using Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

Samiee, Mehran; Modtland, Brian; Dalal, Vikram L., E-mail: vdalal@iastate.edu [Iowa State University, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Aidarkhanov, Damir [Nazarbayev University, Astana (Kazakhstan)

2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

142

Comparative band alignment of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on gallium nitride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, HfO{sub 2} films, and HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacked structures were deposited on n-type, Ga-face, GaN wafers using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The wafers were first treated with a wet-chemical clean to remove organics and an in-situ combined H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} plasma at 650 Degree-Sign C to remove residual carbon contamination, resulting in a clean, oxygen-terminated surface. This cleaning process produced slightly upward band bending of 0.1 eV. Additional 650 Degree-Sign C annealing after plasma cleaning increased the upward band bending by 0.2 eV. After the initial clean, high-k oxide films were deposited using oxygen PEALD at 140 Degree-Sign C. The valence band and conduction band offsets (VBOs and CBOs) of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN and HfO{sub 2}/GaN structures were deduced from in-situ x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). The valence band offsets were determined to be 1.8 and 1.4 eV, while the deduced conduction band offsets were 1.3 and 1.0 eV, respectively. These values are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the electron affinity model and charge neutrality level model. Moreover, subsequent annealing had little effect on these offsets; however, the GaN band bending did change depending on the annealing and processing. An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer was investigated as an interfacial passivation layer (IPL), which, as results suggest, may lead to improved stability, performance, and reliability of HfO{sub 2}/IPL/GaN structures. The VBOs were {approx}0.1 and 1.3 eV, while the deduced CBOs were 0.6 and 1.1 eV for HfO{sub 2} with respect to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN, respectively.

Yang Jialing; Eller, Brianna S.; Zhu Chiyu; England, Chris; Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Effective work function of Pt, Pd, and Re on atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Platinum and Pd show a significant difference in work function on SiO{sub 2} and high-K materials (HfO{sub 2}). The effective metal work functions for Pd, Pt, and Re on atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2}, which are different from the vacuum work function and important for device threshold voltage control, are measured by the C-V method. The difference is attributed to the dipoles at the metal/HfO{sub 2} interface, which is a result of charge transfer across the interface. Moreover, the extracted charge neutrality level and screening parameter are correlated with the phase development, film stoichiometry, and density of interface states at the metal/high-K interface.

Gu Diefeng; Dey, Sandwip K.; Majhi, Prashant [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006 (United States) and Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Planar CMOS Scaling, SEMATECH, Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)

2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

144

Schottky barrier source-gated ZnO thin film transistors by low temperature atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have fabricated ZnO source-gated thin film transistors (SGTFTs) with a buried TiW source Schottky barrier and a top gate contact. The ZnO active channel and thin high-? HfO{sub 2} dielectric utilized are both grown by atomic layer deposition at temperatures less than 130?°C, and their material and electronic properties are characterized. These SGTFTs demonstrate enhancement-mode operation with a threshold voltage of 0.91?V, electron mobility of 3.9 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}, and low subthreshold swing of 192?mV/decade. The devices also exhibit a unique combination of high breakdown voltages (>20?V) with low output conductances.

Ma, Alex M.; Gupta, Manisha; Shoute, Gem; Tsui, Ying Y.; Barlage, Douglas W., E-mail: barlage@ualberta.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Afshar, Amir; Cadien, Kenneth C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

145

Self-aligned process for forming microlenses at the tips of vertical silicon nanowires by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The microlens is a key enabling technology in optoelectronics, permitting light to be efficiently coupled to and from devices such as image sensors and light-emitting diodes. Their ubiquitous nature motivates the development of new fabrication techniques, since existing methods face challenges as microlenses are scaled to smaller dimensions. Here, the authors demonstrate the formation of microlenses at the tips of vertically oriented silicon nanowires via a rapid atomic layer deposition process. The nature of the process is such that the microlenses are centered on the nanowires, and there is a self-limiting effect on the final sizes of the microlenses arising from the nanowire spacing. Finite difference time domain electromagnetic simulations are performed of microlens focusing properties, including showing their ability to enhance visible-wavelength absorption in silicon nanowires.

Dan, Yaping, E-mail: yaping.dan@sjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Kaixiang [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Crozier, Kenneth B. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Investigation of Thermal Stability and Delivery of Cobalt Amidinates and Novel Cobalt Formamidinates for Metallic Cobalt by ALD/CVD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of Thermal Stability and Delivery of Cobalt Amidinates and Novel Cobalt Si nanowire devices[2]. The Co precursor selection for CVD and ALD is primarily based on good thermal Liquid Injection process (DLI). ¾ For CVD and ALD of cobalt, various sources such as Co2(CO)8, (tert

147

Effect of e-beam irradiation on graphene layer grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have grown graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred it onto Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates to make tens of micron scale devices for Raman spectroscopy study. The effect of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation of various doses (600 to 12 000 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) on CVD grown graphene has been examined by using Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the radiation exposures result in the appearance of the strong disorder D band attributed the damage to the lattice. The evolution of peak frequencies, intensities, and widths of the main Raman bands of CVD graphene is analyzed as a function of defect created by e-beam irradiation. Especially, the D and G peak evolution with increasing radiation dose follows the amorphization trajectory, which suggests transformation of graphene to the nanocrystalline and then to amorphous form. We have also estimated the strain induced by e-beam irradiation in CVD graphene. These results obtained for CVD graphene are in line with previous findings reported for the mechanically exfoliated graphene [D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013101 (2009)]. The results have important implications for CVD graphene characterization and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy.

Iqbal, M. Z.; Kumar Singh, Arun; Iqbal, M. W.; Seo, Sunae; Eom, Jonghwa [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Atomic layer deposition of bismuth oxide using Bi(OCMe{sub 2}{sup i}Pr){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bismuth oxide thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition using Bi(OCMe{sub 2}{sup i}Pr){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O at deposition temperatures between 90 and 270?°C on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, TaN, and TiN substrates. Films were analyzed using spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited at 150?°C have a linear growth per cycle of 0.039?nm/cycle, density of 8.3?g/cm{sup 3}, band gap of approximately 2.9?eV, low carbon content, and show the ? phase structure with a (201) preferred crystal orientation. Deposition temperatures above 210?°C and postdeposition anneals caused uneven volumetric expansion, resulting in a decrease in film density, increased interfacial roughness, and degraded optical properties.

Austin, Dustin Z., E-mail: austind@eecs.oregonstate.edu; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Allman, Derryl; Price, David; Hose, Sallie [ON Semiconductor, Technology Development, Gresham, Oregon 97030 (United States); Saly, Mark [SAFC Hitech, Haverhill, Massachusetts 01832 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Method of making dense, conformal, ultra-thin cap layers for nanoporous low-k ILD by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Barrier layers and methods for forming barrier layers on a porous layer are provided. The methods can include chemically adsorbing a plurality of first molecules on a surface of the porous layer in a chamber and forming a first layer of the first molecules on the surface of the porous layer. A plasma can then be used to react a plurality of second molecules with the first layer of first molecules to form a first layer of a barrier layer. The barrier layers can seal the pores of the porous material, function as a diffusion barrier, be conformal, and/or have a negligible impact on the overall ILD k value of the porous material.

Jiang, Ying-Bing (Albuquerque, NM); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

150

Thermal stability and long term hydrogen/deuterium release from soft to hard amorphous carbon layers analyzed using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. Comparison with Tore Supra deposits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermal stability of 200 nm thick plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited a-C:H and a-C:D layers ranging from soft to hard layers has been studied and compared to that of deposits collected on the Tore Supra tokamak plasma facing components by means of in-situ Raman spectroscopy. Linear ramp heating and long term isotherms (from several minutes to 21 days) have been performed and correlations between spectrometric parameters have been found. The information obtained on the sp 2 clustering has been investigated by comparing the G band shift and the 514 nm photon absorption evolution due to the thermal treatment of the layer. The effects of isotopic substitution have also been investigated.

Pardanaud, C; Giacometti, G; Mellet, N; Pégourié, B; Roubin, P

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Infrared spectroscopic study of atomic layer deposition mechanism for hafnium silicate thin films using HfCl2N,,SiMe3...22 and H2O  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared spectroscopic study of atomic layer deposition mechanism for hafnium silicate thin films was used to study the atomic layer deposition mechanism of hafnium silicate films with dichlorobis EOT.2 Among many other high-k materials, hafnium silicate is considered to be the most promising

George, Steven M.

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina based capacitive Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Clarkson University Collection: Materials Science 71 Atomic layer deposited protective coatings for micro-electromechanical systems Summary: of conformal layer deposition, ALD...

153

Influences of alcoholic solvents on spray pyrolysis deposition of TiO{sub 2} blocking layer films for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Influences of alcoholic solvents for titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TPA) precursor solutions on the spray pyrolysis deposited TiO{sub 2} films and the photovoltaic performance of the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SDSCs) using these TiO{sub 2} films as the blocking layers were investigated. Smooth TiO{sub 2} films were obtained by spray pyrolysis deposition of a TPA solution in isopropanol (IPA) at a relatively low temperature of 260 Degree-Sign C. On the other hand, when ethanol was used as solvent, the TiO{sub 2} films fabricated at the same temperature showed much rougher surfaces with many pinholes. Our results showed that ethanol reacts with TPA to form titanium diethoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TEA), which requires a higher thermal decomposition temperature than that of TPA. SDSCs with TiO{sub 2} blocking layer films fabricated using a TPA solution in IPA showed higher power conversion efficiencies with smaller variations. - Graphical abstract: Alcoholic solvents used for the TiO{sub 2} precursor play a critical role in determining the surface morphology of blocking layers and thus the photovoltaic performance of the SDSCs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent influences morphology of spray pyrolysis deposited TiO{sub 2} blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol reacts with TPA, resulting poor quality of blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isopropanol is better than ethanol for obtaining smooth blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SDSC with blocking layer made with isopropanol showed better performance.

Jiang, Changyun, E-mail: jiangc@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Koh, Wei Lin; Leung, Man Yin [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Hong, Wei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West ON, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)] [Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West ON, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Li, Yuning, E-mail: yuning.li@uwaterloo.ca [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore) [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West ON, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Zhang, Jie [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Interface effect on dielectric constant of HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminate films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the interface between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} sublayers on the dielectric constant was investigated in HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminate films deposited using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. After annealing at 700 deg. C, the dielectric constants of the nanolaminate films with a sublayer thickness of 40 A ring or greater were the same as the calculated values for a series of capacitors consisting of amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and monoclinic or tetragonal HfO{sub 2}. As the sublayer thickness was reduced to 10 A, the dielectric constant increased up to 17.7 because a thin Hf-O-Al mixture layer, of which the number increases drastically in the nanolaminate films with thin sublayers, is formed at the interface.

Park, Pan Kwi; Cha, Eun-Soo; Kang, Sang-Won [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

155

The optimization of interfaces in InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice (SLS) semiconductors by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under a variety of conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer is indicated by x-ray diffraction patterns. Optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times, and no reactant flow during the purges. MOCVD was used to prepare an optically pumped, single heterostructure InAsSb/InGaAs SLS/InPSb laser which emitted at 3.9 {mu}m with a maximum operating temperature of approximately 100 K.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Kurtz, S.R.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

156

Reduction of native oxides on InAs by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin high-{kappa} oxide films on InAs, formed by atomic layer deposition, are the key to achieve high-speed metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. We have studied the native oxide and the interface between InAs and 2 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or HfO{sub 2} layers using synchrotron x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Both films lead to a strong oxide reduction, obtaining less than 10% of the native As-oxides and between 10% and 50% of the native In-oxides, depending on the deposition temperature. The ratio of native In- to As-oxides is determined to be 2:1. The exact composition and the influence of different oxidation states and suboxides is discussed in detail.

Timm, R.; Fian, A.; Hjort, M.; Thelander, C.; Lind, E.; Andersen, J. N.; Wernersson, L.-E.; Mikkelsen, A. [Department of Physics, Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 22 100 Lund (Sweden)

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

157

Surface Passivation of Nanoporous TiO2 via Atomic Layer Deposition of ZrO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the spiro-OMeTAD. Introduction Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on mesoporous titania and liquidSurface Passivation of Nanoporous TiO2 via Atomic Layer Deposition of ZrO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications Tina C. Li, Ma´rcio S. Go´es,,§ Francisco Fabregat-Santiago,*, Juan Bisquert

158

Thermal conductivity of Er{sup +3}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cross-plane thermal conductivity of 800, 458, and 110?nm erbium-doped crystalline yttria (Er{sup +3}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films deposited via atomic layer deposition was measured using the 3? method at room temperature. Thermal conductivity results show 16-fold increase in thermal conductivity from 0.49?W m{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} to 8?W m{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} upon post deposition annealing, partially due to the suppression of the number of the -OH/H{sub 2}O bonds in the films after annealing. Thermal conductivity of the annealed film was ?70% lower than undoped bulk single crystal yttria. The cumulative interface thermal resistivity of substrate-Er{sup +3}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-metal heater was determined to be ?2.5?×?10{sup ?8} m{sup 2} K/W.

Raeisi Fard, Hafez; Hess, Andrew; Pashayi, Kamyar; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian, E-mail: borcat@rpi.edu [Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)] [Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Becker, Nicholas; Proslier, Thomas; Pellin, Michael [Material Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Material Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

159

RealReal--Time Chemical SensingTime Chemical Sensing for Advanced Process Control in ALDfor Advanced Process Control in ALD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Differential pumping Gas Inlet Gas Outlet 300 amu CIS mass-spec 35 µm orifice 5 Torr 100 mm wafer, substrate-heated Incomplete layer adsorption & reaction Multilayer adsorption & reaction Atomic Layer DepositionAtomic Layer Temperature-dependent growth Dose dependencies Incomplete layer adsorption & reaction Multilayer adsorption

Rubloff, Gary W.

160

Optimization of InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for use in infrared emitters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using a variety of growth conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer was indicated by x-ray diffraction. This interface effect was minimized by optimizing the purge times, reactant flows, and growth conditions. The optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times between the growth of the layers, and no reactant flow during the purges. Electron diffraction indicates that CuPt-type compositional ordering occurs in InAs{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} alloys and SLSs which explains an observed bandgap reduction from previously accepted alloy values.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Density dependence of the room temperature thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina thin films as a function of atomic density. Using time domain thermoreflectance, we measure the thermal conductivity of the thin alumina films at room temperature. The thermal conductivities vary ?35% for a nearly 15% change in atomic density and are substrate independent. No density dependence of the longitudinal sound speeds is observed with picosecond acoustics. The density dependence of the thermal conductivity agrees well with a minimum limit to thermal conductivity model that is modified with a differential effective-medium approximation.

Gorham, Caroline S.; Gaskins, John T.; Hopkins, Patrick E., E-mail: phopkins@virginia.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Parsons, Gregory N.; Losego, Mark D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

162

Highly transparent low capacitance plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-HfO{sub 2} tunnel junction engineering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of metallic single electron transistor (SET) depends on the downscaling and the electrical properties of its tunnel junctions. These tunnel junctions should insure high tunnel current levels, low thermionic current, and low capacitance. The authors use atomic layer deposition to fabricate Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} thin layers. Tunnel barrier engineering allows the achievement of low capacitance Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} tunnel junctions using optimized annealing and plasma exposure conditions. Different stacks were designed and fabricated to increase the transparency of the tunnel junction while minimizing thermionic current. This tunnel junction is meant to be integrated in SET to enhance its electrical properties (e.g., operating temperature, I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio)

El Hajjam, Khalil, E-mail: khalil.el-hajjam@insa-lyon.fr [INL, INSA, UMR CNRS 5270, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex, France and Institut Interdisciplinaire d'Innovation Technologique (3IT), Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec (Canada); Baboux, Nicolas; Calmon, Francis [INL, INSA, UMR CNRS 5270, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Souifi, Abdelkader [Laboratoire Nanotechnologies Nanosystèmes (LN2)-CNRS UMI-3463, Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec (Canada); Poncelet, Olivier; Francis, Laurent A. [ICTEAM, ELEN, UCL, Place du Levant 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Ecoffey, Serge; Drouin, Dominique [Laboratoire Nanotechnologies Nanosystèmes (LN2)-CNRS UMI-3463, Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec, Canada and Institut Interdisciplinaire d'Innovation Technologique (3IT), Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec (Canada)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

L{sub g}?=?100?nm In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As quantum well metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with atomic layer deposited beryllium oxide as interfacial layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we have fabricated nanometer-scale channel length quantum-well (QW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) incorporating beryllium oxide (BeO) as an interfacial layer. BeO has high thermal stability, excellent electrical insulating characteristics, and a large band-gap, which make it an attractive candidate for use as a gate dielectric in making MOSFETs. BeO can also act as a good diffusion barrier to oxygen owing to its small atomic bonding length. In this work, we have fabricated In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As MOS capacitors with BeO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and compared their electrical characteristics. As interface passivation layer, BeO/HfO{sub 2} bilayer gate stack presented effective oxide thickness less 1 nm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As QW MOSFETs with a BeO/HfO{sub 2} dielectric, showing a sub-threshold slope of 100?mV/dec, and a transconductance (g{sub m,max}) of 1.1 mS/?m, while displaying low values of gate leakage current. These results highlight the potential of atomic layer deposited BeO for use as a gate dielectric or interface passivation layer for III–V MOSFETs at the 7?nm technology node and/or beyond.

Koh, D., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kwon, H. M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.-W., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org; Veksler, D.; Gilmer, D.; Kirsch, P. D. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kim, D.-H. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Hudnall, Todd W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, 78666 (United States); Bielawski, Christopher W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Maszara, W. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Banerjee, S. K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

164

High-Speed Data Transmission in Multi-Layer Deposited Silicon Photonics for Advanced Photonic Networks-on-Chip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the potential to supply an immense amount of bandwidth, while reducing the total energy consumption. The extent a waveguide coupled to a microring resonator, forming an optical filter with a through port (Fig. 3). The 60 layer, comprising another waveguide, providing a drop port to this optical filter (Fig. 3). All

Bergman, Keren

165

E-Print Network 3.0 - al-2 o-3 surfaces Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Characterization of WAl2O3 Nanolaminates Grown Using Atomic Layer Deposition Techniques Summary: . The nucleation of Al2O3 ALD on W surfaces and W ALD on Al2O3 surfaces was...

166

The adhesion of electroless Ni(P) on alumina ceramic using a vacuum-deposited Ti-Pd activator layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adhesion of electrolessly deposited nickel on Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] ceramic substrates using sputtered and evaporated Ti-Pd activator films was studied. The adhesion was measured using the direct pull-off test and the 90[degree] peel test. The morphology and the chemical composition of the fracture surfaces of the samples with evaporated Ti-Pd activator film were studied with scanning electron microscopy/energy, dispersive x-ray, and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Failure did not occur along the metal-ceramic interface, but mainly in the alumina, and therefore the strength of the system is determined primarily by the substrate material. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to study the interface structure before failure. The oxidation state of Ti at the interface was measured with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This was carried out in the (sub)monolayer range by using a Ti wedge deposited on alumina with a maximum thickness of 0.35 nm. It is concluded that the strong adhesion at the metal-ceramic interface is caused by chemical bonding of the first Ti monolayer with substrate oxygen atoms.

Severin, J.W.; Hokke, R.; Wel, H. van der; Johnson, M.T.; With, G. de (Philips Research Labs., Eindhoven (Netherlands))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Surface and interfacial reaction study of half cycle atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} on chemically treated GaSb surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An in situ half-cycle atomic layer deposition/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study was conducted in order to investigate the evolution of the HfO{sub 2} dielectric interface with GaSb(100) surfaces after sulfur passivation and HCl etching, designed to remove the native oxides. With the first pulses of tetrakis(dimethylamido)hafnium(IV) and water, a decrease in the concentration of antimony oxide states present on the HCl-etched surface is observed, while antimony sulfur states diminished below the XPS detection limit on sulfur passivated surface. An increase in the amount of gallium oxide/sulfide is seen, suggesting oxygen or sulfur transfers from antimony to gallium during antimony oxides/sulfides decomposition.

Zhernokletov, D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Kim, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Yakimov, M.; Tokranov, V.; Oktyabrsky, S. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany - SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)] [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany - SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Wallace, R. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on GaSb using in situ hydrogen plasma exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, we study the effectiveness of hydrogen plasma surface treatments for improving the electrical properties of GaSb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces. Prior to atomic layer deposition of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric, p-GaSb surfaces were exposed to hydrogen plasmas in situ, with varying plasma powers, exposure times, and substrate temperatures. Good electrical interfaces, as indicated by capacitance-voltage measurements, were obtained using higher plasma powers, longer exposure times, and increasing substrate temperatures up to 250 Degree-Sign C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the most effective treatments result in decreased SbO{sub x}, decreased Sb, and increased GaO{sub x} content at the interface. This in situ hydrogen plasma surface preparation improves the semiconductor/insulator electrical interface without the use of wet chemical pretreatments and is a promising approach for enhancing the performance of Sb-based devices.

Ruppalt, Laura B.; Cleveland, Erin R.; Champlain, James G.; Prokes, Sharka M.; Brad Boos, J.; Park, Doewon; Bennett, Brian R. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

169

Time-resolved surface infrared spectroscopy during atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (TDMAT) and water vapor is studied by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) with a time resolution of 120?ms. At 190?°C and 240?°C, a decrease in the absorption from adsorbed TDMAT is observed without any evidence of an adsorbed product. Ex situ measurements indicate that this behavior is not associated with an increase in the impurity concentration or a dramatic change in the growth rate. A desorbing decomposition product is consistent with these observations. RAIRS also indicates that dehydroxylation of the growth surface occurs only among one type of surface hydroxyl groups. Molecular water is observed to remain on the surface and participates in reactions even at a relatively high temperature (110?°C) and with long purge times (30?s)

Sperling, Brent A., E-mail: brent.sperling@nist.gov; Hoang, John; Kimes, William A.; Maslar, James E. [Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8320, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8320 (United States); Steffens, Kristen L. [Biomolecular Measurement Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8362, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8362 (United States); Nguyen, Nhan V. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8120, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8120 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Current induced annealing and electrical characterization of single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition for future interconnects in VLSI circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated for its prospective application as horizontal interconnects in very large scale integrated circuits. However, the major bottleneck for its successful application is its degraded electronic transport properties due to the resist residual trapped in the grain boundaries and on the surface of the polycrystalline CVD graphene during multi-step lithographic processes, leading to increase in its sheet resistance up to 5 M?/sq. To overcome this problem, current induced annealing has been employed, which helps to bring down the sheet resistance to 10?k?/sq (of the order of its initial value). Moreover, the maximum current density of ?1.2?×?10{sup 7?}A/cm{sup 2} has been obtained for SLG (1?×?2.5??m{sup 2}) on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, which is about an order higher than that of conventionally used copper interconnects.

Prasad, Neetu, E-mail: neetu.prasad@south.du.ac.in, E-mail: neetu23686@gmail.com; Kumari, Anita; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Bhatia, C. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Conductance enhancement due to interface magnons in electron-beam evaporated MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with CoFeB free layer deposited at different pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron-beam evaporated MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions have been fabricated with the CoFeB free layer deposited at Ar pressure from 1 to 4?mTorr, and their tunneling process has been studied as a function of temperature and bias voltage. By changing the growth pressure, the junction dynamic conductance dI/dV, inelastic electron tunneling spectrum d{sup 2}I/dV{sup 2}, and tunneling magnetoresistance vary with temperature. Moreover, the low-energy magnon cutoff energy E{sub C} derived from the conductance versus temperature curve agrees with interface magnon energy obtained directly from the inelastic electron tunneling spectrum, which demonstrates that interface magnons are involved in the electron tunneling process, opening an additional conductance channel and thus enhancing the total conductance.

Guo, P.; Yu, G. Q.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F., E-mail: jiafengfeng@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: xfhan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, D. L.; Feng, J. F., E-mail: jiafengfeng@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: xfhan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kurt, H. [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Department of Engineering Physics, Istanbul Medeniyet University, 34720 Istanbul (Turkey); Chen, J. Y.; Coey, J. M. D. [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

172

Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

173

Intermixing of InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and quantum dots using sputter-deposited silicon oxynitride capping layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various approaches can be used to selectively control the amount of intermixing in III-V quantum well and quantum dot structures. Impurity-free vacancy disordering is one technique that is favored for its simplicity, however this mechanism is sensitive to many experimental parameters. In this study, a series of silicon oxynitride capping layers have been used in the intermixing of InGaAs/GaAs quantum well and quantum dot structures. These thin films were deposited by sputter deposition in order to minimize the incorporation of hydrogen, which has been reported to influence impurity-free vacancy disordering. The degree of intermixing was probed by photoluminescence spectroscopy and this is discussed with respect to the properties of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} films. This work was also designed to monitor any additional intermixing that might be attributed to the sputtering process. In addition, the high-temperature stress is known to affect the group-III vacancy concentration, which is central to the intermixing process. This stress was directly measured and the experimental values are compared with an elastic-deformation model.

McKerracher, Ian; Fu Lan; Hoe Tan, Hark; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Method for depositing a uniform layer of particulate material on the surface of an article having interconnected porosity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method for depositing liquid-suspended particles on an immersed porous article characterized by interconnected porosity. In one form of the invention, coating is conducted in a vessel containing an organic liquid supporting a colloidal dispersion of graphite sized to lodge in surface pores of the article. The liquid comprises a first volatile component (e.g., acetone) and a second less-volatile component (e.g., toluene) containing a dissolved organic graphite-bonding agent. The liquid also contains an organic agent (e.g., cellulose gum) for maintaining the particles in suspension. A porous carbon article to be coated is immersed in the liquid so that it is permeated therewith. While the liquid is stirred to maintain a uniform blend, the vessel headspace is evacuated to effect flashing-off of the first component from the interior of the article. This causes particle-laden liquid exterior of the article to flow inwardly through its surface pores, lodging particles in these pores and forming a continuous graphite coating. The coated article is retrieved and heated to resin-bond the graphite. The method can be used to form a smooth, adherent, continuous coating of various materials on various porous articles. The method is rapid and reproducible.

Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Lewis, J. Jr.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

175

Vacancies Ordered in Screw Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide Thin Film Deposition by Laser Back Ablation. Vacancies Ordered in Screw Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide Thin Film Deposition by...

176

Energy band alignment of atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} on epitaxial (110)Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The band alignment properties of atomic layer HfO{sub 2} film deposited on epitaxial (110)Ge, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy exhibited a sharp interface between the (110)Ge epilayer and the HfO{sub 2} film. The measured valence band offset value of HfO{sub 2} relative to (110)Ge was 2.28 {+-} 0.05 eV. The extracted conduction band offset value was 2.66 {+-} 0.1 eV using the bandgaps of HfO{sub 2} of 5.61 eV and Ge bandgap of 0.67 eV. These band offset parameters and the interface chemical properties of HfO{sub 2}/(110)Ge system are of tremendous importance for the design of future high hole mobility and low-power Ge-based metal-oxide transistor devices.

Hudait, M. K.; Zhu, Y. [Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Maurya, D.; Priya, S. [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

177

Nanocrystalline-Si-dot multi-layers fabrication by chemical vapor deposition with H-plasma surface treatment and evaluation of structure and quantum confinement effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

100-nm-thick nanocrystalline silicon (nano-Si)-dot multi-layers on a Si substrate were fabricated by the sequential repetition of H-plasma surface treatment, chemical vapor deposition, and surface oxidation, for over 120 times. The diameter of the nano-Si dots was 5–6 nm, as confirmed by both the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The annealing process was important to improve the crystallinity of the nano-Si dot. We investigated quantum confinement effects by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Based on the experimental results, we simulated the Raman spectrum using a phenomenological model. Consequently, the strain induced in the nano-Si dots was estimated by comparing the experimental and simulated results. Taking the estimated strain value into consideration, the band gap modulation was measured, and the diameter of the nano-Si dots was calculated to be 5.6 nm by using PL. The relaxation of the q ? 0 selection rule model for the nano-Si dots is believed to be important to explain both the phenomena of peak broadening on the low-wavenumber side observed in Raman spectra and the blue shift observed in PL measurements.

Kosemura, Daisuke, E-mail: d-kose@isc.meiji.ac.jp; Mizukami, Yuki; Takei, Munehisa; Numasawa, Yohichiroh; Ogura, Atsushi [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)] [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Ohshita, Yoshio [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)] [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Aspects of the SrO-CuO-TiO2 Ternary System Related to the Deposition of SrTiO3 and Copper-Doped SrTiO3 Thin-Film Buffer Layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) coated conductors are promising materials for large-scale superconductivity applications. One version of a YBCO coated conductor is based on ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of magnesium oxide (MgO) onto polycrystalline metal substrates. SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) is often deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods as a buffer layer between the YBCO and IBAD MgO due to its chemical stability and lattice mismatch of only {approx}1.5% with YBCO. In this work, some aspects of the stability of STO with respect to copper (Cu) and chemical solution deposition of STO on IBAD MgO templates were examined. Solubility limits of Cu in STO were established by processing Cu-doped STO powders by conventional bulk preparation techniques. The maximum solubility of Cu in STO was {approx}1% as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction (XRD) data. XRD analysis, performed in collaboration with NIST, on powder compositions on the STO/SrCuO{sub 2} tie line did not identify any ternary phases. SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer layers were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and CSD on IBAD MgO flexible metallic textured tapes. TEM analysis of a {approx}100 nm thick SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer layer deposited by PLD showed a smooth Cu-doped STO/MgO interface. A {approx}600 nm thick YBCO film, deposited onto the SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer by PLD, exhibited a T{sub c} of 87 K and critical current density (J{sub c}) of {approx}1 MA/cm{sup 2}. STO and Cu-doped STO thin films by CSD were {approx}30 nm thick. The in plane alignment (FWHM) after deposition of the STO improved by {approx}1{sup o} while it degraded by {approx}2{sup o} with the SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffer. YBCO was deposited by PLD on the STO and SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffers. The in plane alignment (FWHM) of the YBCO with the STO buffer layer slightly improved while that of the YBCO with the SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffer layer remained constant. A goal of the CSD approach to fabrication of coated conductors is process simplicity. In this study, single layer textured films were obtained without a nucleating seed layer that has been deemed necessary by several investigators. These results indicate that Cu-doped STO buffer layers deposited by PLD or CSD are compatible with IBAD MgO and YBCO and that CSD is a viable approach to coated conductor fabrication.

A. Ayala

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

179

As-Received, Ozone Cleaned and Ar+ Sputtered Surfaces of Hafnium Oxide Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition and Studied by XPS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization was performed on 47 nm thick hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) films grown by atomic layer deposition using TEMA-Hf/H{sub 2}O at 250 C substrate temperature. HfO{sub 2} is currently being studied as a possible replacement for Silicon Oxide (SiO{sub 2}) as a gate dielectric in electronics transistors. XPS spectra were collected on a Physical Electronics Quantum 2000 Scanning ESCA Microprobe using a monochromatic Al K{sub a} X-ray (1486.7 eV) excitation source. The sample was analyzed under the following conditions: as received, after UV irradiation for five minutes, and after sputter cleaning with 2 kV Ar{sup +} ions for 180 seconds. Survey scans showed carbon, oxygen, and hafnium as the major species in the film, while the only minor species of argon and carbide was detected after sputtering. Adventitious carbon initially composed approximately 18.6 AT% of the surface, but after UV cleaning it was reduced to 2.4 AT%. This demonstrated that that the majority of carbon was due to adventitious carbon. However, after 2 kV Ar{sup +} sputtering there was still only trace amounts of carbon at {approx}1 AT%, Some of this trace carbon is now in the form of a carbide due to the interaction with Ar{sup +} used for sputter cleaning. Furthermore, the stoiciometric ratio of oxygen and hafnium is consistent with a high quality HfO{sub 2} film.

Engelhard, Mark H.; Herman, Jacob A.; Wallace, Robert; Baer, Donald R.

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

180

Synchrotron radiation photoemission study of interfacial electronic structure of HfO{sub 2} on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As(001)-4?×?2 from atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of a passivating layer on a In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As(001)-4?×?2 surface by atomic-layer deposition of tetrakis[ethylmethylamino]Hafnium (TEMAHf)) followed by the water pulse was investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission. The Hf atoms maintain four-fold coordination, both after the initial TEMAHf deposition and the subsequent water pulse. The Hf atoms initially bond to the As dangling bonds of the surface As atom located on the edges of the raised ridges. One EMA ligand is removed in this process. Subsequent water exposure substitutes OH ligand for one or more remaining EMA ligands. These in turn react with TEMAHf to form Hf-O-Hf bonds allowing the hafnium oxides to grow. The surface In atoms on the terrace of the raised ridges were partially removed, but none bonded of the precursor atoms. Correlations between the interfacial electronic structure and the electric performance are discussed.

Pi, T. W., E-mail: pi@nsrrc.org.tw, E-mail: gkwer@verizon.net, E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Lin, T. D.; Chang, Y. C.; Hong, M., E-mail: pi@nsrrc.org.tw, E-mail: gkwer@verizon.net, E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, H. Y.; Kwo, J., E-mail: pi@nsrrc.org.tw, E-mail: gkwer@verizon.net, E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wertheim, G. K., E-mail: pi@nsrrc.org.tw, E-mail: gkwer@verizon.net, E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Woodland Consulting, 175 Woodland Ave., Morristown, New Jersey 07960 (United States)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Triple-Junction a-Si Solar Cells Deposited With Improved Intrinsic Layers X. Deng, W. Wang, X.B. Liao, S. Han, H. Povolny, X.B. Xiang, and W. Du  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple cells with 12.7% initial efficiency. Figure 1 shows the IV curve of the 12.7% triple cell, GD585.7%. Figure 1 IV curve of a UT fabricated triple cell, showing 12.7% initial, active-area efficiency. Figure 2Triple-Junction a-Si Solar Cells Deposited With Improved Intrinsic Layers X. Deng, W. Wang, X

Deng, Xunming

182

Experimental study on the energy deposition of an ns-DBD plasma actuator and its effect on a laminar boundary layer:.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An experimental study aimed at the influence of different barrier materials on the energy deposition of nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuator was… (more)

Winkel, R.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

PLUS: FAT, BUT NOT SICK HOW TO SPOT QUACKERY GREEN BUSINESS MAGA ZINE OF THE GER ALD J. AND DOROTHY R.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PLUS: FAT, BUT NOT SICK HOW TO SPOT QUACKERY GREEN BUSINESS NUTRITION MAGA ZINE OF THE GER ALD J N G . G R O W T H . G R AT I T U D E . 32 ALUMNI NEWS S TAY I N G C O N N E C T E D 36 LAST BITE WA

Dennett, Daniel

184

Systematic Modulation of Quantum (Electron) Tunneling Behavior by Atomic Layer Deposition on Nanoparticulate SnO2 and TiO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as the nanoparticulate and semiconducting photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), with a layer of a second metal. Hupp*,, Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center

185

2012 NNIN ALD Symposium ALD Staff Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Remote Assisted - $165 · Rates ­ Non-academic ­Regular - $120/hr; Assisted use - $165/hr; Remote Assisted Reaction Unit #12;Problems (cont.) · Hot lid...melts things. ­ Put heat shield on hinge (custom - drawing available) #12;Heat Shield Hinge #12;#12;#12;Problems (cont.) · Hot lid...melts things. ­ Put heat shield

186

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

187

The Polar Deposits of Mars Shane Byrne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- tian polar layered deposits and understanding the role of the residual ice caps that cover them of the stratigraphy of the polar layered deposits in unprecedented detail. Additionally, change within the residualThe Polar Deposits of Mars Shane Byrne Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona

Jellinek, Mark

188

Effects of N{sub 2} remote plasma nitridation on the structural and electrical characteristics of the HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics grown using remote plasma atomic layer deposition methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The characteristics of remote plasma atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} on Si, which has a very thin SiO{sub 2} interlayer with and without remote plasma nitridation (RPN), have been investigated. Small amounts of N atoms were successfully incorporated by RPN pretreatment, in which the dominant emission species were excited atomic nitrogen (N{sup *}) and excited molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}{sup *}), into a very thin SiO{sub 2} interlayer for the growth of HfO{sub 2} thin film. The thin ({approx}1.5 nm) intermediate layer containing nitrogen, which was prepared by sequential O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} remote plasma treatment of the Si substrate, can effectively suppress growth of the unintentional interface layer. In addition, it enhances the thermal stability and the resistance to oxygen diffusion during rapid thermal annealing. The HfO{sub 2} film containing the remote plasma nitrided SiO{sub 2} interlayer annealed at 800 deg. C showed a lower equivalent oxide thickness of {approx}1.89 nm and a lower leakage current density (3.78x10{sup -7} A cm{sup -2} at |V{sub G}-V{sub FB}|=2 V) compared to a non-nitrided sample of the same physical thickness. Also, we compared the characteristics of HfO{sub 2} films annealed in two different ambient environments, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}.

Choi, Jihoon; Kim, Seokhoon; Kim, Jinwoo; Kang, Hyunseok; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Bae, Choelhwyi [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Crater ice deposits near the south pole of Mars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Layered deposits atop both Martian poles are thought to preserve a record of past climatic conditions in up to three km of water ice and dust. Just beyond the extent of these south polar layered deposits (SPLD), dozens of ...

Westbrook, Owen William

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

191

Seeding Conformal Dielectrics on Graphene J. M. P. Alaboson, Q. H. Wang, J. D. Emery, A. L. Lipson, M. J. Bedzyk, J. W. Elam, M. J. Pellin,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MRSEC Seeding Conformal Dielectrics on Graphene J. M. P. Alaboson, Q. H. Wang, J. D. Emery, A. L of graphene-based nanoelectronics requires the deposition of ultrathin and pinhole-free high-k dielectric layer deposition (ALD) of HfO2 and Al2O3 on graphene. Whereas identical ALD conditions lead

Shahriar, Selim

192

Realization of high-quality HfO{sub 2} on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As by in-situ atomic-layer-deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High {kappa} dielectric of HfAlO/HfO{sub 2} was an in-situ atomic-layer-deposited directly on molecular beam epitaxy grown In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As surface without using pre-treatments or interfacial passivation layers, where HfAlO (HfO{sub 2}:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {approx} 4:1) with high re-crystallization temperature was employed as the top oxide layer. The HfAlO ({approx}4.5 nm)/HfO{sub 2} (0.8 nm)/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As metal oxide semiconductor capacitors have exhibited an oxide/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface free of arsenic-related defective bonding, thermodynamic stability at 800 deg. C, and low leakage current densities of <10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} at {+-}1 MV/cm. The interfacial trap density (D{sub it}) spectra in absence of mid-gap peaks were obtained by temperature-dependent capacitance and conductance with D{sub it}'s of 2-3 x 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} below and 6-12 x 10{sup 11} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} above the mid-gap of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As, respectively. An equivalent oxide thickness of less than 1 nm has been achieved by reducing the HfAlO thickness to {approx}2.7 nm with the same initial HfO{sub 2} thickness of {approx}0.8 nm.

Lin, T. D.; Hong, M. [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, C. A.; Huang, M. L.; Lee, W. C. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Kwo, J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2012-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

193

Structured luminescence conversion layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

194

Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

195

Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

196

Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

198

Antimicrobial Activity of Cationic Antiseptics in Layer-by-Layer Thin Film Assemblies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has proven to be a powerful technique for assembling thin films with a variety of properties including electrochromic, molecular sensing, oxygen barrier, and antimicrobial. LbL involves the deposition of alternating...

Dvoracek, Charlene M.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

199

High coercivity CoCrPt films achieved by post-deposition rapid thermal annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

layer, a CoCrPt mag- netic layer, a capping Mn diffusion layer, and a final CrTi oxidation protection conditions were stud- ied. II. EXPERIMENT All layers were deposited onto glass substrates by rf di- ode, and CrTi oxida- tion protection layer were all 200 Ã? thick. Post-deposition annealing was performed

Laughlin, David E.

200

2007 2 8 ( )-9 ( ) / Layer Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Branched Structure ZnO Nanowires for Use in Dye- Sensitized Solar Cell Applications : , >), 4, UF

Hwang, Sung Woo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Environmental Performance Characterization of Atomic Layer Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature can only save 3~5% of total energy consumption.all invariable, the total energy consumption, Q, is directlyLabview program. The total energy consumption of the circuit

Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

ARGONNE'S ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION Customized Nanoengineered Coatings  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01) (See95TI07)Operations2AP-XPSAPS50 -Issue 60ARCSHIGH

203

Atomic Layer Deposition | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone byDear Friend,Arthur J. NozikAtom Probe

204

WILLIAMS ET AL. VOL. 6 ' NO. 7 ' 61856196 ' 2012 www.acsnano.org  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on ALD-Modified SiO2 Aerogel Frameworks Vennesa O. Williams, Nak Cheon Jeong, Chaiya Prasittichai aerogels was fabricated on transparent conducting oxides for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These templates were coated with ZnO via atomic layer deposition (ALD) to yield an electronically interconnected

205

Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

206

Published on Web Date: May 04, 2010 r 2010 American Chemical Society 1611 DOI: 10.1021/jz100361f |J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 16111615  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Significant Improvements in Photovoltage via Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition of ultrathin layers of Al2O3 deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) on SnO2 photoanodes used in dye-sensitized playing only secondary roles. SECTION Energy Conversion and Storage D ye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs

207

Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aspheric optical element formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin (.about.100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application.

Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

To be the leader in research, development, and education, concentrating on laser and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

films Materials characterization Laser micromachining Advanced sensors Ultrafast laser diagnostics surface preparation and characterization; electron emitters and electron gun design; and thin film for advanced gate stack engineering; atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology of electronic thin film materials

209

Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

aluminum oxide layer: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE...

211

aluminum oleate layered: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE...

212

aluminum oxide layers: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE...

213

Characterization of metal oxide layers grown on CVD graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth of a fully oxidized aluminum oxide layer with low surface roughness on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. This is accomplished by the deposition of a 0.2 nm thick titanium seed layer on the graphene prior to the deposition of the aluminum under ultra high vacuum conditions, which was subsequently oxidized. The stoichiometry and surface roughness of the oxide layers were measured for a range of titanium and aluminum depositions utilizing ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. These fully oxidized films are expected to produce good dielectric layers for use in graphene based electronic devices.

Matsubayashi, Akitomo; Abel, Joseph; Prasad Sinha, Dhiraj; Lee, Ji Ung; LaBella, Vincent P. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Scalable Manufacture of Built-to-Order Nanomedicine: Spray-Assisted Layer-by-Layer Functionalization of PRINT Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scalable methods, PRINT particle fabrication, and spray-assisted Layer-by-Layer deposition are combined to generate uniform and functional nanotechnologies with precise control over composition, size, shape, and surface ...

Herlihy, Kevin P.

215

Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

216

Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, A. Wayne (Albuquerque, NM); Omstead, Thomas R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

Murduck, James M. (Lisle, IL); Lepetre, Yves J. (Lauris, FR); Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

1989-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

219

Carbon Nanosheets and Nanostructured Electrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-321  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon nanosheet thin films were employed as nanostructured electrodes in organic solar cells. Due to the nanostructured texture of the carbon nanosheet electrodes, there was an increase in performance over standard ITO electrodes with very thick active layers. ZnO deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used as a hole blocking layer to provide for carrier selectivity of the carbon nanosheets.

Olson, D.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Method of transferring a thin crystalline semiconductor layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure and allowed to diffuse to the interface. Afterward, the thin semiconductor layer is bonded to a second substrate and the thin layer is separated away at the interface, which results in transferring the thin epitaxial semiconductor layer from one substrate to the other substrate.

Nastasi, Michael A. (Sante Fe, NM); Shao, Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Theodore, N. David (Mesa, AZ)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

222

Method for making photovoltaic devices using oxygenated semiconductor thin film layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for making a photovoltaic device is presented. The method includes steps of disposing a window layer on a substrate and disposing an absorber layer on the window layer. Disposing the window layer, the absorber layer, or both layers includes introducing a source material into a deposition zone, wherein the source material comprises oxygen and a constituent of the window layer, of the absorber layer or of both layers. The method further includes step of depositing a film that comprises the constituent and oxygen.

Johnson, James Neil; Albin, David Scott; Feldman-Peabody, Scott; Pavol, Mark Jeffrey; Gossman, Robert Dwayne

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

223

Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

Guha, Subhendu (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Yan, Baojie (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

224

Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

Liang, Xiaogan (Berkeley, CA)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted deposition method Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the individual deposit compositions within a stepped material... the effects of LENS processing parameters on dilution in simple, single-layer ... Source: DuPont, John N. -...

227

Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

228

High density Ru nanocrystal deposition for nonvolatile memory applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High density Ru nanocrystal deposition for nonvolatile memory applications Damon B. Farmer School density optimizes the charge storing capability of the floating layer, while a high degree of size

229

Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission Spectroscopic Study of Band Offsets and Interface Self-cleaning by Atomic Layer Deposited HfO2 on In0.53Ga0.47As and In0.52Al0.48As  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission Spectroscopic (SRPES) study was conducted to (a) investigate the surface chemistry of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As post chemical and thermal treatments, (b) construct band diagram and (c) investigate the interface property of HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As. Dilute HCl and HF etch remove native oxides on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.47}As, whereas in-situ vacuum annealing removes surface arsenic pile-up. After the atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2}, native oxides were considerably reduced compared to that in as-received epi-layers, strongly suggesting the self-clean mechanism. Valence and conduction band offsets are measured to be 3.37 {+-} 0.1eV, 1.80 {+-} 0.3eV for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and 3.00 {+-} 0.1eV, 1.47 {+-} 0.3eV for In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.47}As, respectively.

Kobayashi, Masaharu; /SLAC, SSRL; Chen, P.T.; Sun, Y.; Goel, N.; Majhi, P.; Garner, M; Tsai, W.; Pianetta, P.; Nishi, Y.; /SLAC, SSRL

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Colloidal particle deposition in turbulent flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical analysis is presented which describes the initial deposition of monodispersed spherical colloidal particles from a steady fully developed turbulent flow onto conduit walls. When the net particle-conduit electrical interaction potential is attractive, particle deposition is shown to be often governed by turbulent hydrodynamics. When the net particle-conduit electrical interaction potential possess a repulsive maximum, particle deposition to first order is uniform and depends solely on electrical interaction effects. The developed theoretical model specialized to orifice deposition with the use of Harwell Flow3D turbulence modelling software qualitatively described the deposition of 0.5 {mu}m silica particles onto glass orifices from an aqueous suspension. The effect of the electrical double layer on the rate of colloidal particle deposition in laminar flow has been described by Spielman and Friedlander (1), Dahneke (2), Bowen et al. (3) and Bowen and Epstein (4). This article describes the extension of their work to colloidal particle deposition under steady fully developed turbulent flow conditions. This article also reports the results of orifice particle deposition experiments which were conducted to qualitatively investigate the developed theoretical model.

Morton, D.S.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Wax Deposition and Aging in Flowlines from Irreversible Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 2007. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed April 4, 2008 The development of waxy crude oil and some gas of the wax deposit. However, most of these models assume that the wax-oil (gel) deposit has a constant wax and the composition of the gel layer as a function of position and time. The wax-oil gel region is considered

Firoozabadi, Abbas

232

Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Electro-deposition of superconductor oxide films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The superconducting precursor is then formed by electrodepositing a first electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the substrate electrode, followed by depositing a layer of silver onto the first electrodeposited (ED) layer, and then electrodepositing a second electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the Ag layer. The multilayered superconducting precursor is suitable for oxidation at a sufficient annealing temperature in air or an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form a crystalline superconducting oxide film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

235

Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

236

Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

237

Low temperature junction growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and a process for forming a semi-conductor device, and solar cells (10) formed thereby. The process includes preparing a substrate (12) for deposition of a junction layer (14); forming the junction layer (14) on the substrate (12) using hot wire chemical vapor deposition; and, finishing the semi-conductor device.

Wang, Qi; Page, Matthew; Iwaniczko, Eugene; Wang, Tihu; Yan, Yanfa

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

238

Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure. 7 figures.

Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

239

Method for forming a barrier layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and An Evaluation of Thermophoretic Deposition Rates C.1of estimated thermophoretic deposition velocities, v th+ ,of estimated thermophoretic deposition velocities, v th+ ,

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

Krauss, Alan R. (Plainfield, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Cary, NC)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

1990-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

243

IMPROVED pc-Si p-LAYER AND a-Si i-LAYER MATERIALS USING VHF PLASMA X. Deng, S. J. Jones, T. Liu, M. Izu and S. R. Ovshinsky  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conventional RF (13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process, the window in deposition by improving their p-layers, and 2) establishrng a wider process window for the deposition of high quality p of these studies were focused on the thin film properties of the VHF deposited materials. Few studies were carried

Deng, Xunming

244

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Jose, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Malahide, IE)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique is disclosed. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques. 2 figs.

Wickboldt, P.; Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Ellingboe, A.R.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

247

The Effect of Nanoparticles on the Thermal Transitions of Hydrated Layer-by-Layer Assemblies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). 27 Figure 9. The various film configurations studied in this work. Parts a), c), and e) correspond to films incorporating SiO2 nanospheres, while parts b), d), and f) correspond to films incorporating LAP nanoplatelets. Polyethyleneimine... the nanospheres slowly embedding themselves in the film, thereby leading to film densification. SiO2 embedment in a PDAC layer is not an unusual phenomenon, being previously observed by Xu et al. [49]. In their experiments a single layer of PDAC was deposited...

Puhr, Joseph Timothy

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

248

Carbon nanofiber supercapacitors with large areal capacitances James R. McDonough,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

growth rather than CNT growth see supplementary information Fig. S1 .10 Carbon aerogels CAs have also with nanosized MnO2 loaded inside aerogel pores.7 Preparation of our CNF-based SC electrodes consists of two approxi- mately 1 1 0.2 cm3 is conformally coated with a 1 nm alumina layer by atomic layer deposition ALD

Cui, Yi

249

Building biomedical materials layer-by-layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this materials perspective, the promise of water based layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly as a means of generating drug-releasing surfaces for biomedical applications, from small molecule therapeutics to biologic drugs and ...

Hammond, Paula T.

250

Buffer layers for REBCO films for use in superconducting devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A superconducting article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface. A biaxially textured buffer layer, which can be a cap layer, is supported by the substrate. The buffer layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different transition metal cations. A biaxially textured superconductor layer is deposited so as to be supported by the buffer layer. A method of making a superconducting article is also disclosed.

Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

251

Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

1988-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

252

Integrated Sustainability Analysis of Atomic Layer Deposition for Microelectronics Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monitoring, etc. The total energy consumption of the ALDof 42.7% of the total energy consumption; pumping duringwhich is 32.8% of total energy consumption; the electronics

Yuan, Chris Yingchun; David Dornfeld

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Silicon Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

254

atomic layer deposited: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

standards in addition to performing the desired optical function, which includes filters, beam (more) Gabriel, Nicholas Theodore 2011-01-01 213 Novel inverse opal based...

255

atomic layer deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

standards in addition to performing the desired optical function, which includes filters, beam (more) Gabriel, Nicholas Theodore 2011-01-01 213 Novel inverse opal based...

256

Atomic Layer Deposition of Insulating Hafnium and Zirconium Nitrides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

author. E-mail: gordon@chemistry.harvard.edu. (1) Toth, L. E. Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides homoleptic tetrakis(dialkylamido)- metal(IV) complexes and ammonia at low substrate temperatures (150-250 °C). The precursor vapors were alternately pulsed into a heated reactor, yielding 1.15-1.20 � of metal nitride film

257

Dual Layer Solid State Thin Film Deposition - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocationDiurnalCommittee Draftfor $1.14Energy Storage

258

Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon Anodes |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd: Scope Change #1Impacts |Services

259

Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers | ANSER  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher,Future | DepartmentSolar andSolving theCenter |

260

Conjugate heat transfer and particle transport in outside vapor deposition process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical study of conjugate heat transfer and particle transport has been carried out for the outside vapor deposition process. A buoyant jet flow impinging on a two-layered cylinder has been analyzed including heat conduction occurring through the two-layered cylinder, which consists of the original target rod and the deposited porous layers. Temperature and flow fields have been obtained by an iterative method, and thermophoretic particle deposition has been studied. Of particular interest are the effects of the thickness of deposited layers, the torch speed, the rotation speed of the cylinder, and the distance between the torch and the cylinder on the heat transfer and particle deposition. Effects of variable properties and tube rotation are also included.

Choi, M.; Song, Y.; Kang, S.H. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

262

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Instrument Series: Deposition and Microfabrication Sputter Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors ­ thin film growth of functional material systems for developing highly sensitive and portable chemical and biological sensors Energy sources ­ development of thin film materials systems for research and solid oxide fuel cells and solar cells for energy generation Microfabrication ­ deposition

264

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

266

Solution deposition assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

267

Biomimetic thin film deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Impact of the Vertical Mixing Induced by Low-level Jets on Boundary Layer Ozone4 Concentration5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the ground, while the upper24 region of the daytime mixed layer becomes the residual layer (RL). Mixing40 chemical reactions and dry deposition, which resulted in lower O3 peak values on the next day.41 layer (SBL) near45 the surface that is typically quite shallow. Above the SBL is a residual layer (RL

Xue, Ming

269

A simplified model of thin layer static/flowing dynamics for granular materials with yield  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/deposition processes when a layer of particles is flowing over a static layer or near the destabilization and arrestA simplified model of thin layer static/flowing dynamics for granular materials with yield, 75005 Paris, France, 4 ANGE team, INRIA, CETMEF, Lab. J.-L. Lions, Paris, France Abstract We introduce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

Thick adherent dielectric films on plastic substrates and method for depositing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thick adherent dielectric films deposited on plastic substrates for use as a thermal barrier layer to protect the plastic substrates from high temperatures which, for example, occur during laser annealing of layers subsequently deposited on the dielectric films. It is desirable that the barrier layer has properties including: a thickness of 1 .mu.m or greater, adheres to a plastic substrate, does not lift-off when cycled in temperature, has few or no cracks and does not crack when subjected to bending, resistant to lift-off when submersed in fluids, electrically insulating and preferably transparent. The thick barrier layer may be composed, for example, of a variety of dielectrics and certain metal oxides, and may be deposited on a variety of plastic substrates by various known deposition techniques. The key to the method of forming the thick barrier layer on the plastic substrate is maintaining the substrate cool during deposition of the barrier layer. Cooling of the substrate maybe accomplished by the use of a cooling chuck on which the plastic substrate is positioned, and by directing cooling gas, such as He, Ar and N.sub.2, between the plastic substrate and the cooling chucks. Thick adherent dielectric films up to about 5 .mu.m have been deposited on plastic substrates which include the above-referenced properties, and which enable the plastic substrates to withstand laser processing temperatures applied to materials deposited on the dielectric films.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA); Theiss, Steven D. (Woodbury, MN); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Ash deposit workshop: Class outline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash deposits formed from the combustion of coal and other fuels have plagued the steam production industry from the start. The ash fusion test has been around for over eighty years. As steam plant size increased, so have the problems associated with ash deposits. This workshop is designed to cover: (1) The basic types of deposits. (2) Causes of deposits. (3) Analytical procedures for resolving, or at least providing information about deposits and fuels, and (4) Deposit removal and reduction techniques.

Hatt, R. [Commercial Testing & Engineering Co., Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

As-deposited low-strain LPCVD (low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition) polysilicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As-deposited polysilicon films with very low residual strain (lower than 5 x 10/sup -5/) are obtained by a low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition (LPCVD) process. Straight polysilicon bridges 300 ..mu..m long, 1.2 ..mu..m thick, and 2 to 20 ..mu..m wide, made using this process. No buckling has been observed in any of the nearly one thousand bridges of this type made in two separate process runs. In addition, no problems of sticking between the bridges and the substrate were encountered with these structures. The polysilicon films from which the beams were fabricated were deposited by pyrolyzing silane at 605/degree/C on a phosphosilicate-glass (PSG) layer (8 wt % P). The PSG layer serves as a sacrificial layer to be subsequently etched away to free the bridge. Our research is aimed at obtaining an understanding of these relationships through consideration of the role of interfacial stresses and the kinetics of initial crystalline nucleation. The technique for producing these low-strain films is significant, however, because no high-temperature annealing steps are required to produce them. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Fan, L.S.; Muller, R.S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Underpotential Deposition-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Growth of Thin Films -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layeredof2014National Nuclear23, 2014 Meetingsays | ArgonneEnergy

274

Chemical solution deposition method of fabricating highly aligned MgO templates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A superconducting article includes a substrate having an untextured metal surface; an untextured barrier layer of La.sub.2Zr.sub.2O.sub.7 or Gd.sub.2Zr.sub.2O.sub.7 supported by and in contact with the surface of the substrate; a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the untextured barrier layer; and a biaxially textured superconducting layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer. Moreover, a method of forming a buffer layer on a metal substrate includes the steps of: providing a substrate having an untextured metal surface; coating the surface of the substrate with a barrier layer precursor; converting the precursor to an untextured barrier layer; and depositing a biaxially textured buffer layer above and supported by the untextured barrier layer.

Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans (Knoxville, TN); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan (Knoxville, TN); Aytug, Tolga (Knoxville, TN); Arendt, Paul N (Los Alamos, NM); Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R (Los Alamos, NM)

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

275

Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

276

Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic AU/AG layers for nitride light-emitting diodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A double-metallic deposition process is used whereby adjacent layers of different metals are deposited on a substrate. The surface plasmon frequency of a base layer of a first metal is tuned by the surface plasmon frequency of a second layer of a second metal formed thereon. The amount of tuning is dependent upon the thickness of the metallic layers, and thus tuning can be achieved by varying the thicknesses of one or both of the metallic layers. In a preferred embodiment directed to enhanced LED technology in the green spectrum regime, a double-metallic Au/Ag layer comprising a base layer of gold (Au) followed by a second layer of silver (Ag) formed thereon is deposited on top of InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) on a sapphire/GaN substrate.

Tansu, Nelson; Zhao, Hongping; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Guangyu

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Vacuum arc deposition devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N. [Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Energy deposition by Alfven waves into the dayside auroral oval: Cluster and FAST observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy deposition by Alfve´n waves into the dayside auroral oval: Cluster and FAST observations C observations from the Cluster and FAST spacecraft showing the deposition of energy into the auroral ionosphere from broadband ULF waves in the cusp and low-latitude boundary layer. A comparison of the wave Poynting

California at Berkeley, University of

280

Ambipolar silicon nanowire FETs with stenciled-deposited metal gate Davide Sacchetto  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ambipolar silicon nanowire FETs with stenciled-deposited metal gate Davide Sacchetto , Veronica Keywords: Schottky barrier Ambipolarity Si nanowire Stencil lithography FET Silicide a b s t r a c t We chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of amorphous Si (a-Si) and SiO2 layers as well as metal gate patterning

De Micheli, Giovanni

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Deposition of biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia by ion-beam-assisted deposition.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biaxially textured yttria (8 mol %)-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films were deposited on randomly oriented Hastelloy C and Stainless Steel 304 at room temperature as a buffer layer for subsequent deposition of oriented YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films. The 0.16-1.3 {micro}m thick YSZ films were deposited by e-beam evaporation at rates of 1.2-3.2 {angstrom}/sec. Biaxially textured films were produced with an Ar/O{sub 2} ion beam directed at the substrate during film growth. X-ray diffraction was used to study in-plane and out-of-plane orientation as a function of ion-bombardment angle, film thickness, ion-to-atom flux ratio, and substrate material. In-plane and out-of-plane average-misorientation angles on these YSZ films that were deposited by ion-beam-assisted deposition were as low as 17 and 5.4{degree}, respectively, on as-received substrates.

Chudzik, M. P.

1998-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

282

DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702781 Aerogel Templated ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702781 Aerogel Templated ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells** By Thomas W. Hamann silica aerogel films, featuring a large range of controllable thickness and porosity, are prepared as substructure templates. The aerogel templates are coated with ZnO via atomic layer deposition (ALD) to yield

283

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide, Self-regulating phenomena in materials science: Self-assembly of nanopores during anodic oxidation of aluminum (AAO) Self combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

Rubloff, Gary W.

284

Method of making a layered composite electrode/electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrode/electrolyte structure is prepared by a plurality of methods. An unsintered (possibly bisque fired) moderately catalytic electronically-conductive or homogeneous mixed ionic electronic conductive electrode material is deposited on a layer composed of a sintered or unsintered ionically-conductive electrolyte material prior to being sintered. A layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on an unsintered ("green") layer of electrolyte material and the electrode and electrolyte layers are sintered simultaneously, sometimes referred to as "co-firing," under conditions suitable to fully densify the electrolyte while the electrode retains porosity. Or, the layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on a previously sintered layer of electrolyte, and then sintered. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of an electrolcatalyst precursor (e.g., a metal salt such as a transition metal nitrate). This may be followed by low temperature firing to convert the precursor to catalyst. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in an ionic (electrochemical) device such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

285

Stability of polymer-dielectric bi-layers for athermal silicon photonics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature sensitivity of Si based rings can be nullified by the use of polymer over-cladding. Integration of athermal passive rings in an electronic-photonic architecture requires the possibility of multi-layer depositions ...

Raghunathan, Vivek

286

Layered plasma polymer composite membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

Babcock, W.C.

1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

287

Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films on sapphire  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films Cedex 9, France (Dated: 15 March 2011) Uniform single layer graphene was grown on single-crystal Ir. These graphene layers have a single crystallographic orientation and a very low density of defects, as shown

Boyer, Edmond

288

Pulsed electrodeposition of copper/nickel multilayers on a rotating disk electrode. 2: Potentiostatic deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin Cu/Ni multilayers were deposited on a rotating disk electrode (RDE) by square-wave potentiostatic pulses. A theoretical model was developed to predict the copper content in the Ni layer on the RDE. The copper content in the Ni layer was measured under a variety of experimental conditions. Theory agrees well with experimental results.

Yang, C.C.; Cheh, H.Y. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Mass changes in NSTX Surface Layers with Li Conditioning as Measured by Quartz Microbalances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dynamic retention, lithium deposition, and the stability of thick deposited layers were measured by three quartz crystal microbalances (QMB) deployed in plasma shadowed areas at the upper and lower divertor and outboard midplane in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Deposition of 185 {micro}/g/cm{sup 2} over 3 months in 2007 was measured by a QMB at the lower divertor while a QMB on the upper divertor, that was shadowed from the evaporator, received an order of magnitude less deposition. During helium glow discharge conditioning both neutral gas collisions and the ionization and subsequent drift of Li{sup +} interrupted the lithium deposition on the lower divertor. We present calculations of the relevant mean free paths. Occasionally strong variations in the QMB frequency were observed of thick lithium films suggesting relaxation of mechanical stress and/or flaking or peeling of the deposited layers.

C.H. Skinner, H.W. Kugel, A. L. Roquemore, PS. Krstic and A. Beste

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

290

Layered Cathode Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Layered Cathode Materials presented by Michael Thackeray Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne Annual Merit Review DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Washington, D.C....

291

Wide magnetic field range of Ni-P/PZT/Ni-P cylindrical layered magnetoelectric composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

magnetoelectric (ME) composites were prepared by electroless deposition. The Ni-P layer has an amorphous with epoxy,5 electrodeposition,6,7 and electroless deposition.8,9 The objective and the develop- ment trend films with good interfacial bonding.12 Nickel is a kind of conventional magnetic material suitable

Volinsky, Alex A.

292

Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization DecompositionDecomposition Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-2 CONTENTSCONTENTS Introduction (Marta;2 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-3 Layering as Optimization Decomposition Introduction By Marta

Fan, Xingzhe

293

Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Multiple density layered insulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

Alger, T.W.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

295

Multiple density layered insulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Uranium deposits of Brazil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

NONE

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Modeling of thermophoretic deposition of aerosols in nuclear reactor containments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol released in postulated or real nuclear reactor accidents can deposit on containment surfaces via motion induced by temperature gradients in addition to the motion due to diffusion and gravity. The deposition due to temperature gradients is known as thermophoretic deposition, and it is currently modeled in codes such as CONTAIN in direct analogy with heat transfer, but there have been questions about such analogies. This paper focuses on a numerical solution of the particle continuity equation in laminar flow condition characteristics of natural convection. First, the thermophoretic deposition rate is calculated as a function of the Prandtl and Schmidt numbers, the thermophoretic coefficient K, and the temperature difference between the atmosphere and the wall. Then, the cases of diffusion alone and a boundary-layer approximation (due to Batchelor and Shen) to the full continuity equation are considered. It is noted that an analogy with heat transfer does not hold, but for the circumstances considered in this paper, the deposition rates from the diffusion solution and the boundary-layer approximation can be added to provide reasonably good agreement (maximum deviation 30%) with the full solution of the particle continuity equation. Finally, correlations useful for implementation in the reactor source term codes are provided.

Fernandes, A.; Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Multiple layer insulation cover  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

Farrell, James J. (Livingston Manor, NY); Donohoe, Anthony J. (Ovid, NY)

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

299

Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

Tajoure, Meloud, E-mail: Tajoore2000@yahoo.com [MechanicalEng.,HIHM,Gharian (Libya); Tajouri, Ali, E-mail: Tajouri-am@yahoo.com, E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar, E-mail: Tajouri-am@yahoo.com, E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com [Materials and Metallurgical Eng., UOT, Tripoli (Libya); Akreem, Mosbah, E-mail: makreem@yahoo.com [Industrial Research Centre,Tripoli (Libya)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

300

Cleaning graphene with a titanium sacrificial layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene is a promising material for future electronic applications and chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper is a promising method for synthesizing graphene on the wafer scale. The processing of such graphene films into electronic devices introduces a variety of contaminants which can be difficult to remove. An approach to cleaning residues from the graphene channel is presented in which a thin layer of titanium is deposited via thermal e-beam evaporation and immediately removed. This procedure does not damage the graphene as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy, greatly enhances the electrical performance of the fabricated graphene field effect transistors, and completely removes the chemical residues from the surface of the graphene channel as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Joiner, C. A., E-mail: cjoiner3@gatech.edu; Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Modifications of the surface properties of metals by oxide overlayers: 1, Oxidized zirconium deposited on the Pt(100) single crystal surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic zirconium was deposited on a single crystal Pt(100) surface by thermal evaporation in UHV conditions. The deposit was oxidized by exposure to oxygen immediately after deposition. Oxidized zirconium was found to grow on the platinum ace by the layer-by-layer mechanism. The adsorption of carbon monoxide on the surface was studied as a function of the zirconium coverage. The results show that oxidized zirconium forms a chemically inert layer which blocks the adsorptive sites of the underlying platinum substrate. The properties of the free Pt surface were unaffected by the presence of the oxidized zirconium layer.

Bardi, U.; Ross, P.N.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Experimental study of a shock accelerated thin gas layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging is utilized in shock-tube experiments to visualize the development of a shock-accelerated thin gas layer. The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of both sides of the heavy gas layer causes perturbations initially imposed on the two interfaces to develop into one of three distinct flow patterns. Two of the patterns exhibit vortex pairs which travel either upstream or downstream in the shock tube, while the third is a sinuous pattern that shows no vortex development until late in its evolution. The development of the observed patterns as well as the growth in the layer thickness is modeled by considering the dynamics of vorticity deposited in the layer by the shock interaction process. This model yields an expression for the layer growth which is in good agreement with measurements.

Jacobs, J.W. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering; Jenkins, D.G.; Klein, D.L.; Benjamin, R.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer.

Donaghy, Robert E. (Wilmington, NC); Sherman, Anna H. (Wilmington, NC)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer. 1 fig.

Donaghy, R. E.; Sherman, A. H.

1981-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

305

Heteroepitaxial Growth of NSMO on Silicon by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is the optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) procedure by which we prepared the final samples that were sent to LLNL. These samples are epitaxial multilayer structures of Si/YSZ/CeO/NSMO, where the abbreviations are explained in the following table. In this heterostructure, YSZ serves as a buffer layer to prevent deleterious chemical reactions, and also serves to de-oxygenate the amorphous SiO{sub 2} layer to generate a crystalline template for epitaxy. CeO and BTO serve as template layers to minimize the effects of thermal and lattice mismatch strains, respectively. More details on the buffer and template layer scheme are included in the manuscript [Yong et al., 2008] attached to this report.

Kolagani, R; Friedrich, S

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

306

Noninvasive picosecond ultrasonic detection of ultrathin interfacial layers: CFx at the AVSi interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ultrasonics technique has been used to detect interfacial fluorocarbon (CF,) layers as thin as 0.5 nm between, demonstrated in this letter by application to fluorocarbon (CF,) residues as thin as 0.5 nm at the Al schematically in Fig. 1. The sample consists of a thin layer of polymeric fluorocarbon (CF,) deposited onto

Rubloff, Gary W.

307

Systems having optical absorption layer for mid and long wave infrared and methods for making the same  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An optical system according to one embodiment includes a substrate; and an optical absorption layer coupled to the substrate, wherein the optical absorption layer comprises a layer of diamond-like carbon, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). A method for applying an optical absorption layer to an optical system according to another embodiment includes depositing a layer of diamond-like carbon of an optical absorption layer above a substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). Additional systems and methods are also presented.

Kuzmenko, Paul J

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Deposition and Microfabrication | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The Desert Southwest RegionInsideDeposition and

309

Layered Spinach Salad Ingredients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cucumbers 2 tomatoes 1/2 cup low-fat mayonnaise 1/2 cup parmesan cheese, grated 1/4 cup milk 1 1/2 teaspoons size pieces, layer on bottom of a large bowl. 2. Rinse mushrooms off under cool water and use a soft half. Layer on top of vegetables. 6. To make salad dressing, add mayonnaise, cheese, milk, dill weed

Liskiewicz, Maciej

310

Deposition of CVD diamond onto GaN P.W. May a,*, H.Y. Tsai b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the polycrystalline diamond surface would prevent light from leaking out of the GaN layer and channel it to the endsDeposition of CVD diamond onto GaN P.W. May a,*, H.Y. Tsai b , W.N. Wang c , J.A. Smith a a School performed to deposit continuous layers of CVD diamond onto epitaxial GaN films. Such diamond coatings would

Bristol, University of

311

Fabrication of alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technique has been proposed for the fabrication of atmospheric corrosion resistant alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition. We produced photocathodes with a highly homogeneous photoemissive layer well-adherent to the substrate. The photocathodes were mounted in a vacuum photodiode, and a tungsten grid was used as an anode. Using pulsed UV lasers, we carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the quantum efficiency of the photocathodes. With a dc voltage applied between the photocathode and anode grid, we measured a shunt signal proportional to the total charge emitted by the cathode exposed to UV laser light. The proposed deposition technique enables one to produce photocathodes with photoemissive layers highly uniform in quantum efficiency, which is its main advantage over thin film growth by resistive evaporation. (laser technologies)

Brendel', V M; Bukin, V V; Garnov, Sergei V; Bagdasarov, V Kh; Denisov, N N; Garanin, Sergey G; Terekhin, V A; Trutnev, Yurii A

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

Ni-Pt Silicide Formation Through Ti Mediating Layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With Ni1-xPtxSi, the variation in queue time between the final surface cleaning and Ni-Pt deposition represents a significant manufacturability issue. A short queue time is often difficult to maintain, leading to the formation of an oxide layer on the Si substrate prior to Ni-Pt deposition that can affect the formation of Ni1-xPtxSi and its texture. In this manuscript, it will be shown that an extended queue time prior to Ni-Pt deposition leads to morphological changes in the Ni1-xPtxSi formation sequence. A layer of Ti deposited between Ni-Pt and Si reduces the native oxide and may facilitate Ni1-xPtxSi formation. With increasing Ti thickness, the presence of metal-rich phases is gradually reduced and the formation temperature of Ni1-xPtxSi increases, suggesting a direct formation of Ni1-xPtxSi from Ni-Pt. In the presence of an interfacial oxide, an increase in formation temperature is also observed with increasing Ti interlayer thickness. When the Ti layer is sufficiently thick, the phase formation sequence becomes relatively insensitive to the presence of an interfacial oxide or extended queue time.

Besser,P.; Lavoie, C.; Ozcan, A.; Murray, C.; Strane, J.; Wong, K.; Gribelyuk, M.; Wang, Y.; Parks, C.; Jordan-Sweet, J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Layered electrode for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Mikhail, Youssef M. (Sterling Heights, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Composition Control in the Direct Laser-Deposition Process R.R. UNOCIC and J.N. DuPONT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the LENS system makes this feasible. Dissimilar powder materials can be placed into separate powder hoppers the composition within each layer deposit. Previous work in the closely related process of fusion welding has changes in a continuous manner from one target value to another. However, with a direct metal- deposition

DuPont, John N.

315

Graphene-based textured surface by pulsed laser deposition as a robust platform for surface enhanced Raman scattering applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Graphene-based textured surface by pulsed laser deposition as a robust platform for surface scattering (SERS)-active substrate based on gold nanoparticles-decorated few-layer (fl) graphene grown by pulsed laser deposition. Diamond-Like Carbon film has been converted to fl-graphene after thermal

Boyer, Edmond

316

IN-LINE HIGH-RATE DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM ONTO RISE SOLAR CELLS BY ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

depositions water cooled copper crucible and ceramic crucibles were used. The ceramic crucibles were found at dynamic deposition rates of 3.6 µm�m/min from ceramic crucibles onto RISE EWT solar cells. The cell by a dielectric passivation layer consisting of a thermal silicon oxide and ­ depending on the embodiment

317

The effects of high temperature processing on the structural and optical properties of oxygenated CdS window layers in CdTe solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High efficiency CdTe solar cells typically use oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) window layers. We synthesize CdS:O window layers at room temperature (RT) and 270?°C using reactive sputtering. The band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at RT increase when O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2}?+?Ar) ratios in the deposition chamber increase. On the other hand, the band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at 270?°C decrease as the O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2}?+?Ar) ratios increase. Interestingly, however, our high temperature closed-space sublimation (CSS) processed CdTe solar cells using CdS:O window layers deposited at RT and 270?°C exhibit very similar cell performance, including similar short-circuit current densities. To understand the underlying reasons, CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270?°C are annealed at temperatures that simulate the CSS process of CdTe deposition. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy characterization of the annealed films reveals that the CdS:O films deposited at RT undergo grain regrowth and/or crystallization and exhibit reduced band gaps after the annealing. Our results suggest that CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270?°C should exhibit similar optical properties after the deposition of CdTe layers, explaining the similar cell performance.

Paudel, Naba R.; Grice, Corey R.; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Yan, Yanfa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

318

Growth of Large-Area Single- and Bi-Layer Graphene by Controlled Carbon Precipitation on Polycrystalline Ni Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report graphene films composed mostly of one or two layers of graphene grown by controlled carbon precipitation on the surface of polycrystalline Ni thin films during atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Controlling ...

Reina, Alfonso

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Conformal GaP layers on Si wire arrays for solar energy applications Adele C. Tamboli,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P layers on arrays of Si microwires. Silicon wires grown using chlorosilane chemical vapor deposition were collection.2 We have previously shown high fidelity synthesis of vertically ori- ented, high aspect ratio

Kimball, Gregory

320

Layered semiconductor neutron detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Growth of CdTe Films on Amorphous Substrates Using CaF2 Nanorods as a Buffer Layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth of CdTe Films on Amorphous Substrates Using CaF2 Nanorods as a Buffer Layer NICHOLAS LICAUSI biaxially textured CdTe films were grown on biaxial CaF2 buffer layers. The CaF2 nanorods were grown by oblique angle vapor deposition and possessed a {111}h121i biaxial texture. The CdTe film was deposited

Wang, Gwo-Ching

322

Tritium deposition patterns in TFTR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tritium deposition patterns in TFTR Presented by C. H. Skinner with key contributions from Charles, JAERI #12;· TFTR was a limiter machine - no divertor. · Operated with tritium Nov `93 - April `97. · NetV Limiter Temperature @ 28 MW NBI Low density, high temperature edge #12;Tritium deposition patterns in TFTR

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

323

Method of deforming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a textured metallic substrate and articles therefrom  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and biaxially textured articles having a deformed epitaxial layer formed therefrom for use with high temperature superconductors, photovoltaic, ferroelectric, or optical devices. A buffer layer is epitaxially deposited onto biaxially-textured substrates and then mechanically deformed. The deformation process minimizes or eliminates grooves, or other irregularities, formed on the buffer layer while maintaining the biaxial texture of the buffer layer. Advantageously, the biaxial texture of the buffer layer is not altered during subsequent heat treatments of the deformed buffer. The present invention provides mechanical densification procedures which can be incorporated into the processing of superconducting films through the powder deposit or precursor approaches without incurring unfavorable high-angle grain boundaries.

Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

325

Use of separate ZnTe interface layers to form OHMIC contacts to p-CdTe films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising: depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurim-containing II-VI semiconductor, but thin enough to minimize affects of series resistance; depositing a second heavy doped p-type ZnTe layer to the first layer using an appropriate dopant; and depositing an appropriate metal onto the outer-most surface of the doped ZnTe layer for connecting an external electrical conductor to an ohmic contact.

Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Use of separate ZnTe interface layers to form ohmic contacts to p-CdTe films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of is disclosed improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising: depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor, but thin enough to minimize affects of series resistance; depositing a second heavy doped p-type ZnTe layer to the first layer using an appropriate dopant; and depositing an appropriate metal onto the outer-most surface of the doped ZnTe layer for connecting an external electrical conductor to an ohmic contact. 11 figs.

Gessert, T.A.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Improved magnetoelectric performance of the Ni-P/Ni/Pb(Zr,TiO)3 cylindrical layered composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) cylindrical layered magnetoelectric (ME) composites have been prepared by electroless deposition, and electroless deposition.9­12 Improving magnetoelectric device characteristics can be achieved by enhancing via magnetic flux concentration. Nickel is a kind of universal strong magnetic material, while Ni

Volinsky, Alex A.

328

MODELING OF THERMOPHORETIC SOOT DEPOSITION ANDHYDROCARBON CONDENSATION IN EGR COOLERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40-90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature. Thermal properties of fouled layer are calculated based on mass fraction of deposited soot and hydrocarbons. The experiments with the same conditions ran to validate the model. Hot EGR gases flow through the inner pipe and the coolant circulates around it in the outer pipe to keep a constant wall temperature. Effectiveness, deposited soot mass, condensed hydrocarbon mass, and pressure drop across the cooler are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a reasonably good agreement with the experimental results although there are some fields that need to be studied in future to improve the model.

Abarham, Mehdi [University of Michigan; Hoard, John W. [University of Michigan; Assanis, Dennis [University of Michigan; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Curtis, Eric W. [Ford Motor Company; Ramesh, Nitia [Ford Motor Company; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two-Phase Studies, with a focus on heat transfer and paraffin deposition at various pipe inclinations, which will be used to enhance the paraffin deposition code for gas-liquid flow in pipes. (3) Deposition Physics and Water Impact Studies, which will address the aging process, improve our ability to characterize paraffin deposits and enhance our understanding of the role water plays in paraffin deposition in deepwater pipelines. As in the previous two studies, knowledge gained in this suite of studies will be integrated into a state-of-the-art three-phase paraffin deposition computer program.

Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Pulsed electrodeposition of copper/nickel multilayers on a rotating disk electrode. 1: Galvanostatic deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin Cu/Ni multilayers were deposited on a rotating disk electrode by square-wave galvanostatic pulses in one-third and full strength Watts nickel baths with 50 to 1,000 ppm Cu{sup 2+}. A theoretical model was developed to predict the copper content in the Ni layer. Factors affecting the deposition which include the mass-transfer rate, copper ion concentration, temperature, and applied current density were studied. The copper content in the Ni layer was analyzed experimentally by X-ray diffraction and potentiodynamic stripping. Theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental results.

Yang, C.C.; Cheh, H.Y. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Unexpected behaviour of one Pb monolayer deposited on aluminum oxide thin film grown on Ag(111)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Auger electron spectroscopy, and low energy electron diffraction, we have observed a surprising complete dissolution at room temperature of one lead monolayer deposited by evaporation on an aluminum oxide thin film (?0.8?nm thick) previously grown on Ag (111). We have observed the quasi-instantaneous diffusion of the lead deposit through the oxide layer to the silver/oxide interface. After the diffusion process, lead atoms form a Moiré superstructure, which is characterized by STM through the oxide layer. This unexpected behavior puts in light the very weak interaction between the aluminum oxide and the silver substrate.

Vizzini, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.vizzini@im2np.fr; Bertoglio, M. [IM2NP CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13397 Marseille (France)] [IM2NP CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13397 Marseille (France); Oughaddou, Hamid [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d'Orsay, ISMO CNRS, Université de Paris, F-91405 Orsay, France and Deptartamento de Physique, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France)] [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d'Orsay, ISMO CNRS, Université de Paris, F-91405 Orsay, France and Deptartamento de Physique, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Hoarau, J. Y.; Biberian, J. P.; Aufray, B. [CINaM CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13288 Marseille (France)] [CINaM CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13288 Marseille (France)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

332

Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R A T O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunUC-1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunPaper Sol-gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

Ozer, N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Engineering electroresponsive layer-by-layer thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electroresponsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer films and polymer nanocomposite films were investigated as model systems for electrically triggered drug delivery applications and "mechanomutable" surface coating applications. ...

Schmidt, Daniel J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Ion transport and structure of layer-by-layer assemblies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Layer-by-layer (LbL) films of various architectures were examined as potential solid state electrolytes for electrochemical systems (e.g. batteries and fuel cells). The relationship between materials properties and ion ...

Lutkenhaus, Jodie Lee

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Layer-by-layer assembly in confined geometries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fundamental nature of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in confined geometries was investigated for a number of different chemical systems. The first part of this thesis concerns the modification of microfluidic and ...

DeRocher, Jonathan P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials, Elsevier, .O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

Ozer, N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Linked Deposit Loan Program (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Linked Deposit Program provides loan financing for small businesses of up to $100,000 for up to 7 years. The State Investment Commission invests funds from the state's Abandoned Property Cash...

340

Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

Fay, James A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Asphalt deposition in miscible floods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. . 22 23 8. REFERENCES. 24 9. APPENDIX. 26 LIST OF TABLES Table Page I II IV Properties of the Crude Oils Studied Average Core Properties for Different Tests Average Perrneabilities of Different Sections of Core Before and After... Displacement with Liquefied Petroleum Gas Percent Reduction in Permeability in Different Sections of Core Due to Asphalt Deposition Average Recoveries of Four Crude Oils and Increase in Swept Area due to Plugging by Asphalt Deposition 27 29 ABSTRACT...

Hasan, Syed Mir Ahmed

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Chemical enhancement of surface deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

343

Chemical enhancement of surface deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

344

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

345

A Radon Progeny Deposition Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly Rn-222) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of Pb-210 on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

V. E. Guiseppe; S. R. Elliott; A. Hime; K. Rielage; S. Westerdale

2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

346

Method for materials deposition by ablation transfer processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method in which a thin layer of semiconducting, insulating, or metallic material is transferred by ablation from a source substrate, coated uniformly with a thin layer of said material, to a target substrate, where said material is desired, with a pulsed, high intensity, patternable beam of energy. The use of a patternable beam allows area-selective ablation from the source substrate resulting in additive deposition of the material onto the target substrate which may require a very low percentage of the area to be covered. Since material is placed only where it is required, material waste can be minimized by reusing the source substrate for depositions on multiple target substrates. Due to the use of a pulsed, high intensity energy source the target substrate remains at low temperature during the process, and thus low-temperature, low cost transparent glass or plastic can be used as the target substrate. The method can be carried out atmospheric pressures and at room temperatures, thus eliminating vacuum systems normally required in materials deposition processes. This invention has particular application in the flat panel display industry, as well as minimizing materials waste and associated costs.

Weiner, Kurt H. (San Jose, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Film properties of low temperature HfO{sub 2} grown with H{sub 2}O, O{sub 3}, or remote O{sub 2}-plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reduction of the deposition temperature is necessary for atomic layer deposition (ALD) on organic devices. HfO{sub 2} films were deposited by ALD on silicon substrates in a wide temperature range from 80 to 300?°C with tetrakis[ethylmethylamino]hafnium as metal precursor and H{sub 2}O, O{sub 3}, or an remote O{sub 2}-plasma as oxygen source. Growth rate and density were correlated to electrical properties like dielectric constant and leakage current of simple capacitor structures to evaluate the impact of different process conditions. Process optimizations were performed to reduce film imperfections visible at lower deposition temperatures. Additionally, the influence of postdeposition annealing on the structural and electrical properties was studied.

Richter, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Richter@namlab.com; Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe [NaMLab gGmbH, Noethnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [NaMLab gGmbH, Noethnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden, Germany and Institut für Halbleiter und Mikrosystemtechnik, TU Dresden, Noethnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Growth of graphene underlayers by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a simple and very convincing approach to visualizing that subsequent layers of graphene grow between the existing monolayer graphene and the copper catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene samples were grown by CVD and then transferred onto glass substrates by the bubbling method in two ways, either direct-transfer (DT) to yield poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene/glass or (2) inverted transfer (IT) to yield graphene/PMMA/glass. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to reveal surface features for both the DT and IT samples. The results from FE-SEM and AFM topographic analyses of the surfaces revealed the underlayer growth of subsequent layers. The subsequent layers in the IT samples are visualized as 3D structures, where the smaller graphene layers lie above the larger layers stacked in a concentric manner. The results support the formation of the so-called “inverted wedding cake” stacking in multilayer graphene growth.

Fabiane, Mopeli; Khamlich, Saleh; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Momodu, Damilola; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa)] [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Layered reactive particles with controlled geometries, energies, and reactivities, and methods for making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An energetic composite having a plurality of reactive particles each having a reactive multilayer construction formed by successively depositing reactive layers on a rod-shaped substrate having a longitudinal axis, dividing the reactive-layer-deposited rod-shaped substrate into a plurality of substantially uniform longitudinal segments, and removing the rod-shaped substrate from the longitudinal segments, so that the reactive particles have a controlled, substantially uniform, cylindrically curved or otherwise rod-contoured geometry which facilitates handling and improves its packing fraction, while the reactant multilayer construction controls the stability, reactivity and energy density of the energetic composite.

Fritz, Gregory M; Knepper, Robert Allen; Weihs, Timothy P; Gash, Alexander E; Sze, John S

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

350

Hot-Jupiter Inflation due to Deep Energy Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some extrasolar giant planets in close orbits---"hot Jupiters"---exhibit larger radii than that of a passively cooling planet. The extreme irradiation $L_{\\rm eq}$ these hot Jupiters receive from their close in stars creates a thick isothermal layer in their envelopes, which slows down their convective cooling, allowing them to retain their inflated size for longer. This is yet insufficient to explain the observed sizes of the most inflated planets. Some models invoke an additional power source, deposited deep in the planet's envelope. Here we present an analytical model for the cooling of such irradiated, and internally heated gas giants. We show that a power source $L_{\\rm dep}$, deposited at an optical depth $\\tau_{\\rm dep}$, creates an exterior convective region, between optical depths $L_{\\rm eq}/L_{\\rm dep}$ and $\\tau_{\\rm dep}$, beyond which a thicker isothermal layer exists, which in extreme cases may extend to the center of the planet. This convective layer, which occurs only for $L_{\\rm dep}\\tau_{\\r...

Ginzburg, Sivan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Understanding Molecular Interactions within Chemically Selective Layered Polymer Assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work focuses on two broad issues. These are (1) the molecular origin of the chemical selectivity achieved with ultrathin polymer multilayers, and (2) how the viscoelastic properties of the polymer layers are affected by exposure to solvent and analytes. These issues are inter-related, and to understand them we need to design experiments that probe both the energetic and kinetic aspects of interfacial adsorption processes. This project focuses on controling the chemical structure, thickness, morphology and sequential ordering of polymer layers bound to interfaces using maleimide-vinyl ether and closely related alternating copolymerization chemistry and efficient covalent cross-linking reactions that allow for layer-by-layer polymer deposition. This chemistry has been developed during the funding cycle of this Grant. We have measure the equilibrium constants for interactions between specific layers within the polymer interfaces and size-controlled, surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The ability to control both size and functionality of gold nanoparticle model analytes allows us to evaluate the average “pore size” that characterizes our polymer films. We have measured the “bulk” viscosity and shear modulus of the ultrathin polymer films as a function of solvent overlayer identity using quartz crystal microbalance complex impedance measurements. We have measured microscopic viscosity at specific locations within the layered polymer interfaces with time-resolved fluorescence lifetime and depolarization techniques. We combine polymer, cross-linking and nanoparticle synthetic expertise with a host of characterization techniques, including QCM gravimetry and complex impedance analysis, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopies.

Gary J. Blanchard

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

352

Buried oxide layer in silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

A Model for Phosphosilicate Glass Deposition via POCl3 for Control of Phosphorus Dose in Si  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effective control of diffused phosphorus profiles in crystalline silicon requires detailed understanding of the doping process. We develop a model and analyze concentration profiles within the deposited phosphosilicate glass (PSG) for a range of POCl3 conditions. During predeposition, a PSG layer with composition nearly independent of process conditions forms. This layer is separated from Si by a thin SiO2 layer. There is also strong accumulation of P at the SiO2-Si interface. A simple linear-parabolic model cannot fully explain the kinetics of thickness and dose; while an improved model including oxygen dependence and dose saturation gives better fits to the experiments.

Chen, Renyu; Wagner, Hannes; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Kessler, Michael; Zhu, Zihua; Shutthanandan, V.; Altermatt, Pietro P.; Dunham, Scott T.

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

354

Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of electrochromic tungsten oxide films Roy G. Gordona,U , Sean Barryb , Jeffrey T. Bartona , Randy N.R. Broomhall oxide, WO , is a coloring layer commonly used in electrochromic windows and displays. Successful: Chemical vapor deposition; Tungsten; Oxides; Electrochromism 1. Introduction Tungsten oxide is a key

355

High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Figure 3-1 IV curve of a UT fabricated triple cell, showing 12.7% initial, active-area efficiency. Figure1 High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells PHASE I Annual-junction a-Si Solar Cells with Heavily Doped Thin Interface Layers at the Tunnel Junctions Section 4 High

Deng, Xunming

356

Sputter-Deposited Pt PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes: Particles vs M. D. Gasda,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sputter-Deposited Pt PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes: Particles vs Layers M. D. Gasda,a R. Teki,b T.-M. Lu as cathode electrodes in proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells using Nafion 1135 membranes and Teflon, 2009. Published March 24, 2009. Polymer electrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells

Gall, Daniel

357

RISO-M-2438 Dry deposition and resuspension of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deposition to city surfaces. INIS descriptors AEROSOLS; DEPOSITION; DUSTS; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; PARTICLE

358

Vapor deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a flexible structure of cadmium sulfide (CdS) on graphene-coated glass substrate, where CdS was deposited by the chemical bath deposition method on defective tri-layer graphene. The defects in graphene, confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy, were created by a ultra-violet treatment with varying exposure time from 10 to 60?min. The number of defect sites in the graphene as a seed layer was related to the quality of the CdS thin films determined from the results from X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance, scanning electron microscopy, and room temperature micro-photoluminescence. Our film-on-substrate structure of CdS-graphene-on-glass was maintained up to a tensile strain of 0.3%, where graphene with a high failure strain was employed as a transparent conductive layer.

Seo, Won-Oh; Jung, Younghun; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiwan [Flexible Display Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Method to inhibit deposit formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for inhibiting deposit formation on the contact surfaces of structures confining heated hydrocarbon fluid which exhibits substantial fouling. The process consists of introducing into the hydrocarbon fluid at least an inhibiting amount of thiophene-containing polycondensed aromatic/naphthenic compounds of number average molecular weight (M-bar n) from 200 to 1,000.

Dickakian, G.B.

1986-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (.about.1.10-1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm.

Chow, Robert (Livermore, CA); Loomis, Gary E. (Livermore, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (ca. 1.10--1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm. 2 figs.

Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Thomas, I.M.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

363

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

364

Effects of plasma-deposited silicon nitride passivation on the radiation hardness of CMOS integrated circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of plasma-deposited silicon nitride as a final passivation over metal-gate CMOS integrated circuits degrades the radiation hardness of these devices. The hardness degradation is manifested by increased radiation-induced threshold voltage shifts caused principally by the charging of new interface states and, to a lesser extent, by the trapping of holes created upon exposure to ionizing radiation. The threshold voltage shifts are a strong function of the deposition temperature, and show very little dependence on thickness for films deposited at 300/sup 0/C. There is some correlation between the threshold voltage shifts and the hydrogen content of the PECVD silicon nitride films used as the final passivation layer as a function of deposition temperature. The mechanism by which the hydrogen contained in these films may react with the Si/SiO/sub 2/ interface is not clear at this point.

Clement, J. J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Process for forming epitaxial perovskite thin film layers using halide precursors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for forming an epitaxial perovskite-phase thin film on a substrate. This thin film can act as a buffer layer between a Ni substrate and a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor layer. The process utilizes alkali or alkaline metal acetates dissolved in halogenated organic acid along with titanium isopropoxide to dip or spin-coat the substrate which is then heated to about 700.degree. C. in an inert gas atmosphere to form the epitaxial film on the substrate. The YBCO superconductor can then be deposited on the layer formed by this invention.

Clem, Paul G. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodriguez, Mark A. (Albuquerque, NM); Voigt, James A. (Corrales, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode, contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer, and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO[sub 3] particles, doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. 2 figs.

Pal, U.B.; Isenberg, A.O.; Folser, G.R.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

367

Low resistance barrier layer for isolating, adhering, and passivating copper metal in semiconductor fabrication  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palto Alto, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Energetic Particle Synthesis of Metastable Layers for Superior Mechanical Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energetic particle methods have been used to synthesize two metastable layers with superior mechanical properties: amorphous Ni implanted with overlapping Ti and C, and amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) formed by vacuum-arc deposition or pulsed laser deposition. Elastic modulus, yield stress and hardness were reliably determined for both materials by fitting finite-element simulations to the observed layer/substrate responses during nanoindentation. Both materials show exceptional properties, i.e., the yield stress of amorphous Ni(Ti,C) exceeds that of hardened steels and other metallic glasses, and the hardness of DLC (up to 88 GPa) approaches that of crystalline diamond (approx. 100 GPa). Tribological performance of the layers during unlubricated sliding contact appears favorable for treating Ni-based micro-electromechanical systems: stick-slip adhesion to Ni is eliminated, giving a low coefficient of friction (approx. 0.3-0.2) and greatly reduced wear. We discuss how energetic particle synthesis is critical to forming these phases and manipulating their properties for optimum performance.

Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Myers, S.M.; Dugger, M.T.; Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Monteiro, O.R.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G.; Christenson, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Entropy of H2O Wetting Layers Peter J. Feibelman*, and Ali Alavi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, configurational entropy favors wetting by deposited H2O over formation of 3-D crystalline mounds. A Pauling periodic adlayers on metals are observed, residual entropy reduces their free energies relative to a 3-D 1 and 2. The residual entropy of a real, two-dimensional layer of water molecules is therefore

Alavi, Ali

370

Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templated Channel Electrodes via Atomic Layer A. B. F. Martinsona,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

60439, USA Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) utilize high surface area metal oxide sintered particle aluminum oxide membranes via atomic layer deposition. Introduction Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) These photoelectrochemical cells use molecular dyes to sensitize high area, wide band gap semiconductor oxide photoanodes

371

Experimental Measurement of Lateral Transport in the Inversion Layer of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]. Furthermore, the a-Si:H emitter and back surface field depositions are performed at low temperatures, which-type emitter configuration that is commonly used, the c-Si/a-Si:H heterointerface presents a valence band in the inversion layer. II. EXPERIMENTAL The experimental structure used was a SHJ emitter, in which an intrinsic a-Si:H

Atwater, Harry

372

Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

David M. Dean

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Electrowetting on plasma-deposited fluorocarbon hydrophobic films for biofluid transport in microfluidics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work focuses on the plasma deposition of fluorocarbon (FC) films on surfaces and the electrostatic control of their wettability (electrowetting). Such films can be employed for actuation of fluid transport in microfluidic devices, when deposited over patterned electrodes. Here, the deposition was performed using C{sub 4}F{sub 8} and the plasma parameters that permit the creation of films with optimized properties desirable for electrowetting were established. The wettability of the plasma-deposited surfaces was characterized by means of contact angle measurements (in the static and dynamic mode). The thickness of the deposited films was probed in situ by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry, while the surface roughness was provided by atomic force microscopy. These plasma-deposited FC films in combination with silicon nitride, a material of high dielectric constant, were used to create a dielectric structure that requires reduced voltages for successful electrowetting. Electrowetting experiments using protein solutions were conducted on such optimized dielectric structures and were compared with similar structures bearing commercial spin-coated Teflon registered amorphous fluoropolymer (AF) film as the hydrophobic top layer. Our results show that plasma-deposited FC films have desirable electrowetting behavior and minimal protein adsorption, a requirement for successful transport of biological solutions in 'digital' microfluidics.

Bayiati, P.; Tserepi, A.; Petrou, P. S.; Kakabakos, S. E.; Misiakos, K.; Gogolides, E. [Institute of Microelectronics-NCSR 'Demokritos', POB 60228, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products-NCSR 'Demokritos', POB 60228, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Institute of Microelectronics-NCSR 'Demokritos', POB 60228, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Essays on Banking Crises and Deposit Insurance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and elaborately illustrated the role of market discipline under deposit insurance. Barajas and Steiner (2000) show the ability of the Colombian deposit insurance system to limit moral hazard when considering market discipline. Demirguc-Kunt and Huizinga (2004...

Wang, Wen-Yao

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Formation mechanisms of combustion chamber deposits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combustion chamber deposits are found in virtually all internal combustion engines after a few hundred hours of operation. Deposits form on cylinder, piston, and head surfaces that are in contact with fuel-air mixture ...

O'Brien, Christopher J. (Christopher John)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Modeling deposit formation in diesel injector nozzle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation of deposit in the diesel injector nozzle affects the injection behavior and hinders performance. Under running condition, deposit precursors are washed away by the ensuing injection. However, during the cool down ...

Sudhiesh Kumar, Chintoo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Structural characterization of carbonaceous engine deposits   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbonaceous engine deposits tend to accumulate on most of the inner surfaces of the car engine. The presence of these deposits leads to a deteriorated efficiency of the engine and a number of adverse effects, such as ...

Pinto da Costa, José Mário Cerqueira

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G. [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Fabrication of a single layer graphene by copper intercalation on a SiC(0001) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cu atoms deposited on a zero layer graphene grown on a SiC(0001) substrate, intercalate between the zero layer graphene and the SiC substrate after the thermal annealing above 600?°C, forming a Cu-intercalated single layer graphene. On the Cu-intercalated single layer graphene, a graphene lattice with superstructure due to moiré pattern is observed by scanning tunneling microscopy, and specific linear dispersion at the K{sup ¯} point as well as a characteristic peak in a C{sub 1s} core level spectrum, which is originated from a free-standing graphene, is confirmed by photoemission spectroscopy. The Cu-intercalated single layer graphene is found to be n-doped.

Yagyu, Kazuma; Tochihara, Hiroshi; Tomokage, Hajime; Suzuki, Takayuki [Department of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Tajiri, Takayuki; Kohno, Atsushi [Department of Applied Physics, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Takahashi, Kazutoshi [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); McDonald, Jimmie M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lutz, Thomas J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallis, Michail A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

382

Deposition  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

it as simple as possible. So that when 123 13 comes into effect, then the Secretary of Energy, with 14 the concurrence of the State Department and consulting 15 with the other...

383

Deposition  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNational NuclearhasAdministration77 SandiaGuidance to8/08/2012Reporting Company

384

Rhodium coated mirrors deposited by magnetron sputtering for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical spectroscopy and imaging systems for ITER plasma diagnostics. Any change in the mirror performance, in particular, its reflectivity, due to erosion of the surface by charge exchange neutrals or deposition of impurities will influence the quality and reliability of the detected signals. Due to its high reflectivity in the visible wavelength range and its low sputtering yield, rhodium appears as an attractive material for first mirrors in ITER. However, the very high price of the raw material calls for using it in the form of a film deposited onto metallic substrates. The development of a reliable technique for the preparation of high reflectivity rhodium films is therefore of the highest importance. Rhodium layers with thicknesses of up to 2 {mu}m were produced on different substrates of interest (Mo, stainless steel, Cu) by magnetron sputtering. Produced films exhibit a low roughness and crystallite size of about 10 nm with a dense columnar structure. No impurities were detected on the surface after deposition. Scratch tests demonstrate that adhesion properties increase with substrate hardness. Detailed optical characterizations of Rh-coated mirrors as well as results of erosion tests performed both under laboratory conditions and in the TEXTOR tokamak are presented in this paper.

Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Oelhafen, P.; Covarel, G.; Litnovsky, A. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Laboratoire Mecanique, Materiaux et Procedes de Fabrication, 61 rue Albert Camus, Universite de Haute-Alsace, F-68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Institut fuer Energieforschung (Plasmaphysik), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, D 52425 Juelich (Germany)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Tae H. (Naperville, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

387

Systematic studies of the nucleation and growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond films on silicon substrates coated with a tungsten layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on effects of a tungsten layer deposited on silicon surface on the effectiveness for diamond nanoparticles to be seeded for the deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). Rough tungsten surface and electrostatic forces between nanodiamond seeds and the tungsten surface layer help to improve the adhesion of nanodiamond seeds on the tungsten surface. The seeding density on tungsten coated silicon thus increases. Tungsten carbide is formed by reactions of the tungsten layer with carbon containing plasma species. It provides favorable (001) crystal planes for the nucleation of (111) crystal planes by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD) in argon diluted methane plasma and further improves the density of diamond seeds/nuclei. UNCD films grown at different gas pressures on tungsten coated silicon which is pre-seeded by nanodiamond along with heteroepitaxially nucleated diamond nuclei were characterized by Raman scattering, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy.

Chu, Yueh-Chieh; Jiang, Gerald [Institute of Microelectronics, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tu, Chia-Hao [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang Chi [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chuan-pu; Ting, Jyh-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hsin-Li [Industrial Technology Research Institute - South, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Yonhua [Institute of Microelectronics, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Auciello, Orlando [Argonne National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Political connections, bank deposits, and formal deposit insurance: Evidence from an emerging economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Political connections, bank deposits, and formal deposit insurance: Evidence from an emerging the impact of banks' political connections on their ability to collect deposits under two different deposit, regardless of their type (state-owned or private entities), politically connected banks are able to attract

Boyer, Edmond

389

Nanoengineering Catalyst Supports via Layer-by Layer Surface Functionalization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent progress in the layer-by-layer surface modification of oxides for the preparation of highly active and stable gold nanocatalysts is briefly reviewed. Through a layer-by-layer surface modification approach, the surfaces of various catalyst supports including both porous and nonporous silica materials and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were modified with monolayers or multilayers of distinct metal oxide ultra-thin films. The surface-modified materials were used as supports for Au nanoparticles, resulting in highly active nanocatalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation. Good stability against sintering under high-temperature treatment was achieved for a number of the Au catalysts through surface modification of the support material. The surface modification of supports can be a viable route to control both the composition and structure of support and nanoparticle interfaces, thereby tailoring the stability and activity of the supported catalyst systems.

Yan, Wenfu [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Layer-By-Layer Assembled Hybrid Film of Carbon Nanotubes/Iron...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

By-Layer Assembled Hybrid Film of Carbon NanotubesIron Oxide Nanocrystals for Reagentless Electrochemical Detection of Layer-By-Layer Assembled Hybrid Film of Carbon Nanotubes...

392

Multi-Layer Inkjet Printed Contacts to Si  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ag, Cu, and Ni metallizations were inkjet printed with near vacuum deposition quality. The approach developed can be easily extended to other conductors such as Pt, Pd, Au, etc. Thick highly conducting lines of Ag and Cu demonstrating good adhesion to glass, Si, and printed circuit board (PCB) have been printed at 100-200 deg C in air and N2 respectively. Ag grids were inkjet-printed on Si solar cells and fired through the silicon nitride AR layer at 850 deg C, resulting in 8% cells. Next generation inks, including an ink that etches silicon nitride, have now been developed. Multi-layer inkjet printing of the etching ink followed by Ag ink produced contacts under milder conditions and gave solar cells with efficiencies as high as 12%.

Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Kaydanova, T.; Smith, L.; Ginley, D. S.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The elemental interaction in the electrodeposited Pb-Sn/electroless Ni-P deposit/Al multilayer upon heat treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deposition of electroless nickel on aluminum is a relatively simple process. It is thus feasible to manufacture an electrodeposited solder bump on aluminum with the aid of an electroless nickel intermediate layer. The Al/electroless Ni/Pb-SN combination has been successfully developed in the present work. For this application, however, it is necessary to understand the possible interactions during protracted utilization of the multilayer combination. Nickel is reported to undergo the smallest rate of dissolution and the rate of reaction with solder among various materials is commonly applied in electronics. Thus, nickel has been applied as a diffusion barrier in electronic packaging. Electroless nickel is expected to have a similar barrier property. The interaction between nickel and electrodeposited tin forms Ni[sub 3]Sn[sub 4] at 190 C (12); Ni[sub 3]Sn is formed when the nickel surface is roughened. Ni[sub 3]Sn[sub 2] was found after soldering on electroless Ni-P. Despite all this work, there are still few investigations on the behavior of electrodeposited solder and electroless nickel deposits. The authors investigated the interphases formed in the Al/electroless Ni-P/Pb-Sn electro-deposit multilayer combination.

Lin, K.L.; Chang, J.T. (National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

A photoemission study of Au, Ge, and O{sub 2} deposition on NH{sub 4}F etched Si(111)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the interaction of a metal, Au, a semiconductor, Ge, and a non-metal, O{sub 2}, with the NH{sub 4}F etched Si(111) surface with photoemission spectroscopy. Two components were present in Si 2p core level spectra from the H-terminated surface. We observed the flat band condition from the as-etched, n-type, Si(111) surface. We performed stepwise depositions of Au and measured the band bending with photoemission spectroscopy. The Fermi level pinned near mid-gap as Au was deposited onto the as-etched surface. After the deposition of 1 ML of Au, a Au-silicide layer formed. This interfacial component indicated that the passivating H layer was compromised. As the Au coverage was increased, layers of pure Au formed between the bulk silicon and the Au-silicide layer. The observed behavior was nearly identical to that of Au deposition on the Si(111) 7 {times} 7 surface. Next, we tested the ability of the monohydride layer to sustain surfactant assisted growth of Ge. Ge islanding was observed at 400{degree}C indicating that good surfactant growth was not obtained. Although the monohydride layer was not a good surfactant for the Si(111) surface at this temperature, further study at different temperatures is needed to determine the ability of the ideal monohydride layer to act as a surfactant. Finally, we observed no oxidation of the as-etched surface at room temperature upon exposure to molecular oxygen.

Terry, J.; Cao, R.; Wigren, C.; Pianetta, P.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Development of Lithium Deposition Techniques for TFTR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Kugel, H.W.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; et al

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Development of lithium deposition techniques for TFTR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

Kugel, H.W.; Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; Mansfield, D.; Timberlake, J.; Vocaturo, M.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Effect of high temperature deposition on CoSi{sub 2} phase formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the nucleation behaviour of the CoSi to CoSi{sub 2} transformation from cobalt silicide thin films grown by deposition at elevated substrate temperatures ranging from 375 Degree-Sign C to 600 Degree-Sign C. A combination of channelling, real-time Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, real-time x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the effect of the deposition temperature on the subsequent formation temperature of CoSi{sub 2}, its growth behaviour, and the epitaxial quality of the CoSi{sub 2} thus formed. The temperature at which deposition took place was observed to exert a significant and systematic influence on both the formation temperature of CoSi{sub 2} and its growth mechanism. CoSi films grown at the lowest temperatures were found to increase the CoSi{sub 2} nucleation temperature above that of CoSi{sub 2} grown by conventional solid phase reaction, whereas the higher deposition temperatures reduced the nucleation temperature significantly. In addition, a systematic change in growth mechanism of the subsequent CoSi{sub 2} growth occurs as a function of deposition temperature. First, the CoSi{sub 2} growth rate from films grown at the lower reactive deposition temperatures is substantially lower than that grown at higher reactive deposition temperatures, even though the onset of growth occurs at a higher temperature, Second, for deposition temperatures below 450 Degree-Sign C, the growth appears columnar, indicating nucleation controlled growth. Elevated deposition temperatures, on the other hand, render the CoSi{sub 2} formation process layer-by-layer which indicates enhanced nucleation of the CoSi{sub 2} and diffusion controlled growth. Our results further indicate that this observed trend is most likely related to stress and changes in microstructure introduced during reactive deposition of the CoSi film. The deposition temperature therefore provides a handle to tune the CoSi{sub 2} growth mechanism.

Comrie, C. M. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa) [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); MRD, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Ahmed, H. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)] [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Smeets, D.; Demeulemeester, J.; Vantomme, A. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Turner, S.; Van Tendeloo, G. [EMAT, Universiteit Antwerpen, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)] [EMAT, Universiteit Antwerpen, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Detavernier, C. [Vakgroep Vaste-Stofwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)] [Vakgroep Vaste-Stofwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

398

In situ study of erosion and deposition of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films by exposure to a hydrogen atom beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the first dual-beam experiment employing a hydrogen atom beam for sample exposure and an ion beam for analysis, enabling in situ and real-time studies of hydrogen atom interaction with materials. The erosion of an amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) layer by deuterium atoms at 580 K sample temperature was studied and the uptake of deuterium during the erosion process was measured in real time. The deuterium areal density increased at the beginning to 7.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} D cm{sup -2}, but then stabilized at a constant value of 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} D cm{sup -2}. Formation of a polymer-like deposit on an a-C:H layer held at room temperature and subjected to the deuterium atom beam was observed and also studied in situ. For both erosion and deposition studies an a-{sup 13}C:H layer on top of an Si substrate was used as a sample, making the experiments isotopically fully specified and thereby differentiating the deposited from the original layer and the interacting D atoms from H atoms present in the layer and in the residual vacuum. From the deposition study it was shown that carbon in the deposited layer originates from carbon-carrying species in the background vacuum that interact with hydrogen atoms. The areal density of the carbon at the surface was determined from the energy shift of the Si edge in the Rutherford backscattering spectrum. The cross section for {sup 7}Li on D at 4.3 MeV Li ion energy and at a recoil angle of 30 Degree-Sign was also determined to be (236 {+-} 16) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -27} cm{sup 2}/sr. This is a factor of 3 {+-} 0.2 times higher than the Rutherford elastic cross section.

Markelj, Sabina; Pelicon, Primoz; Cadez, Iztok; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Jacob, Wolfgang [Jozef Stefan Institute and Association EURATOM-MHEST, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Silica Deposition | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation,Pvt LtdShrub Oak, New York:Siemens°SilescentDeposition

400

General Comparison of Power Loss in Single-Layer and Multi-Layer Windings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

General Comparison of Power Loss in Single-Layer and Multi-Layer Windings M. E. Dale C. R. Sullivan the IEEE. #12;General Comparison of Power Loss in Single-Layer and Multi-Layer Windings Magdalena E. Dale

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated spin-assisted layer-by-layer...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A novel hydrothermal layer-by-layer... control in an aqueous system, we explored a novel hydrothermal layer-by- layer processing method11 Source: Schiff, Eric A. - Department of...

402

The limited growth of vegetated shear layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In contrast to free shear layers, which grow continuously downstream, shear layers generated by submerged vegetation grow only to a finite thickness. Because these shear layers are characterized by coherent vortex structures ...

Ghisalberti, M.

403

Melanin as an active layer in biosensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of pH sensors is of great interest due to its extensive application in several areas such as industrial processes, biochemistry and particularly medical diagnostics. In this study, the pH sensing properties of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) based on melanin thin films as active layer are investigated and the physical mechanisms related to the device operation are discussed. Thin films were produced from different melanin precursors on indium tin oxide (ITO) and gold substrates and were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in the pH range from 2 to 12. EGFETs with melanin deposited on ITO and on gold substrates showed sensitivities ranging from 31.3 mV/pH to 48.9 mV/pH, depending on the melanin precursor and the substrate used. The pH detection is associated with specific binding sites in its structure, hydroxyl groups and quinone imine.

Piacenti da Silva, Marina, E-mail: marinaness@yahoo.com; Congiu, Mirko, E-mail: congiumat@gmail.com; Oliveira Graeff, Carlos Frederico de, E-mail: graeff@fc.unesp.br [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences - UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Jéssica Colnaghi, E-mail: jeziga-cf@yahoo.com.br; Biziak de Figueiredo, Natália, E-mail: natbiziak@yahoo.com.br; Mulato, Marcelo, E-mail: mmulato@ffclrp.usp.br [Department of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters at Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters at Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Hydrogen in magnesium palladium thin layer structures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis, the study of hydrogen storage, absorption and desorption in magnesium layers is described. The magnesium layers have a thickness of 50-500 nm… (more)

Kruijtzer, G.L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition of Manganese Self-Aligned Capping Layer for Cu Interconnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

could not be broken apart. This Mn-enhanced binding strength of Cu to insulators is observed for all and nitrides. An adhesive tape is usually sufficient to remove copper films from these surfaces. Quantitative reliability because cobalt on the dielectric can increase leakage and lower the breakdown voltage.4 Cobalt

406

atomic-layer-deposited gate dielectric: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

standards in addition to performing the desired optical function, which includes filters, beam (more) Gabriel, Nicholas Theodore 2011-01-01 167 Novel inverse opal based...

407

Wall-Mounted QCM Fixture for Atomic Layer Deposition | Argonne National  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500IIVasudhaSurface.Laboratory30,WP-07 power

408

Deposition of sacrificial silicon oxide layers by electron cyclotron resonance plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Fourier transform infrared and ellipsometry. Optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe were used The procedure to fabricate suspended structures is shown in Fig. 1. In the first step, the p-type 100 Si-Si dry etching was performed to define the suspended structure area. As in the previous etching pro- cess

Technische Universiteit Delft

409

Electro-deposition of Bi-axial Textured Layers on a Substrate - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutronEnvironmentZIRKLEEFFECTSHigh

410

ZnS Thin Films Deposited by a Spin Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste andAnniversary, part 2Zenoss, VersionThe Role ofZnOReaction

411

Modeling of Debris Deposition on an Extrusion Filter Medium E.W. Jenkins and C.L. Cox  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the equation that models particle deposition. The mass balance and particle transport equations are adjusted with sufficient force to pro- duce a cake material, or layers of wired mesh, with mesh spacings small enough, differential system that includes the flow equation for the suspension, the particle transport equation

Jenkins, Lea

412

Growth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from `silacycllobutane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and TPS resulted in single crystal layer" on Si ( 111) only up to a thickness of 2000 h;. Highly orientedGrowth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from grown by SCB at a temperature of 800 "C. The progress of SiC/Si heterojunction devices has been C3HsSiH2

Steckl, Andrew J.

413

Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films and their multilayered structures for photonic applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France Abstract Amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films were (As40Se60/Ge25Sb5S70) and mixed chalcogenide-oxide layers (As40Se60/alumino-silicate and Ga10Ge15Te75

Boyer, Edmond

414

Modeling particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fouling of fin-and-tube heat exchangers by particle deposition leads to diminished effectiveness in supplying ventilation and air conditioning. This paper explores mechanisms that cause particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces. We present a model that accounts for impaction, diffusion, gravitational settling, and turbulence. Simulation results suggest that some submicron particles deposit in the heat exchanger core, but do not cause significant performance impacts. Particles between 1 and 10 {micro}m deposit with probabilities ranging from 1-20% with fin edge impaction representing the dominant mechanism. Particles larger than 10 {micro}m deposit by impaction on refrigerant tubes, gravitational settling on fin corrugations, and mechanisms associated with turbulent airflow. The model results agree reasonably well with experimental data, but the deposition of larger particles at high velocities is underpredicted. Geometric factors, such as discontinuities in the fins, are hypothesized to be responsible for the discrepancy.

Siegel, J.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Highly oriented polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O film formation using RF magnetron sputtering deposition for solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room temperature sputtering deposition and re-crystallization of the deposited thin films by rapid thermal annealing have been evaluating in detail as a formation method of Cu{sub 2}O active layer for solar cells, which minimize thermal budget in fabrication processes. Single phase polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O films were obtained by a magnetron rf sputtering deposition and its crystallinity and electrical characteristics were controlled by the annealing. Hall mobility was improved up to 17 cm{sup 2}V{sup ?1}s{sup ?1} by the annealing at 600°C for 30s. Since this value was smaller than 47 cm{sup 2}V{sup ?1}s{sup ?1} of the film deposited under thermal equilibrium state using pulsed laser deposition at 600°C, some contrivances were necessary to compensate the deficiency. It was understood that the sputter-deposited Cu{sub 2}O films on (111)-oriented Pt films were strongly oriented to (111) face also by the self-assembly and the crystallinity was improved by the annealing preserving its orientation. The sputter-deposited film quality was expected to become equivalent to the pulsed laser deposition film from the results of X-ray diffractometry and photoluminescence.

Noda, S.; Shima, H.; Akinaga, H. [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Central 2, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

416

CHEMICAL SIGNATURE OF TWO PERMIAN VOLCANIC ASH DEPOSITS WITHIN A BENTONITE BED FROM MELO, URUGUAY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, URUGUAY L. CALARGE1,2,4 ; A. MEUNIER1* ; B. LANSON3 and M. L.L. FORMOSO4 2 ­ Liane Maria Calarge; Alain-layer minerals, Uruguay 5- CHEMICAL SIGNATURE OF TWO BENTONITE DEPOSITS 6 ­ Academic Section: EARTH SCIENCES 7, URUGUAY L. CALARGE1,2,4 ; A. MEUNIER1* ; B. LANSON3 and M. L. FORMOSO4 1 ­ Universidade Católica Dom Bosco

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

Stable isotope variations in Late Pennsylvanian brachiopods from cyclic sedimentary deposits: paleoenvironmental and diagenetic implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION CHAPTER II. GEOLOGIC SETTING CHAPTER III. CYCLES STUDIED . Description Sampling Techniques and Preparation Fauna . . Thin Sect4n Techniques Environment CHAPTER IV. DIAGENESIS General Considerations Diagenetic Processes... only in well preserved specimens. The primary or prismatic or fibrous layer is deposited extracellularly and consists of fine calcite prisms oriented normal to the shell with the long axes coincident with their crystallographic c-axis. The underlying...

Adlis, David Scott

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

Wong, Ming-Show (Northbrook, IL); Li, Dong (Evanston, IL); Chung, Yip-Wah (Wilmette, IL); Sproul, William D. (Palantine, IL); Chu, Xi (Evanston, IL); Barnett, Scott A. (Evanston, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

Wong, Ming-Show (Northbrook, IL); Li, Dong (Evanston, IL); Chung, Yin-Wah (Wilmette, IL); Sproul, William D. (Palantine, IL); Chu, Xi (Evanston, IL); Barnett, Scott A. (Evanston, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Xi Chu; Barnett, S.A.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Chu, X.; Barnett, S.A.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

422

Laser Induced Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition (LCLD)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser induced chemical deposition (LCLD) of metals onto different substrates attracts growing attention during the last decade. Deposition of metals onto the surface of dielectrics and semiconductors with help of laser beam allows the creation of conducting metal of very complex architecture even in 3D. In the processes examined the deposition occurs from solutions containing metal ions and reducing agents. The deposition happens in the region of surface irradiated by laser beam (micro reactors). Physics -chemical reactions driven by laser beam will be discussed for different metal-substrate systems. The electrical, optical, mechanical properties of created interfaces will be demonstrated also including some practical-industrial applications.

Nanai, Laszlo; Balint, Agneta M. [University of Szeged, JGYPK, Department of General and Environmental Physics H-6725 Szeged, Boldogasszony sgt. 6 (Hungary); West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Physics, Department of Physics, Bulv. V. Parvan 4, Timisoara 300223 (Romania)

2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

423

The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

424

Layered architecture for quantum computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a layered quantum computer architecture, which is a systematic framework for tackling the individual challenges of developing a quantum computer while constructing a cohesive device design. We discuss many of the prominent techniques for implementing circuit-model quantum computing and introduce several new methods, with an emphasis on employing surface code quantum error correction. In doing so, we propose a new quantum computer architecture based on optical control of quantum dots. The timescales of physical hardware operations and logical, error-corrected quantum gates differ by several orders of magnitude. By dividing functionality into layers, we can design and analyze subsystems independently, demonstrating the value of our layered architectural approach. Using this concrete hardware platform, we provide resource analysis for executing fault-tolerant quantum algorithms for integer factoring and quantum simulation, finding that the quantum dot architecture we study could solve such problems on the timescale of days.

N. Cody Jones; Rodney Van Meter; Austin G. Fowler; Peter L. McMahon; Jungsang Kim; Thaddeus D. Ladd; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

425

Uncooled thin film infrared imaging device with aerogel thermal isolation: Deposition and planarization techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have successfully integrated a thermally insulating silica aerogel thin film into a new uncooled monolithic thin film infrared (IR) imaging device. Compared to other technologies (bulk ceramic and microbridge), use of an aerogel layer provides superior thermal isolation of the pyroelectric imaging element from the relatively massive heat sinking integrated circuit. This results in significantly higher thermal and temporal resolutions. They have calculated noise equivalent temperature differences of 0.04--0.10 C from a variety of Pb{sub x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PZT) and Pb{sub x}La{sub 1{minus}x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PLZT) pyroelectric imaging elements in monolithic structures. In addition, use of aerogels results in an easier, less expensive fabrication process and a more robust device. Fabrication of these monolithic devices entails sol-gel deposition of the aerogel, sputter deposition of the electrodes, and solution chemistry deposition of the pyroelectric imaging elements. Uniform pyroelectric response is achieved across the device by use of appropriate planarization techniques. These deposition and planarization techniques are described. Characterization of the individual layers and monolithic structure using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Byer-Roundy techniques also is discussed.

Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sriram, C.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Bullington, J.A. [AMMPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Oxidation of In2S3 films to synthetize In2S3(1-x)O3x thin films as a buffer layer in solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxidation of In2S3 films to synthetize In2S3(1-x)O3x thin films as a buffer layer in solar cells S layers for solar cells. PACS : 68.55.ag Semiconductors, 68.55.J Morphology of films , 68.55.Nq the oxidation occurs is strongly dependent on the texture of deposited films. As-grown films deposited

Boyer, Edmond

427

Strain relaxation in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of single layer graphene by chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline Cu substrates induces large internal biaxial compressive strain due to thermal expansion mismatch. Raman backscattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the strain relaxation during and after the transfer process from Cu foil to SiO{sub 2}. Interestingly, the growth of graphene results in a pronounced ripple structure on the Cu substrate that is indicative of strain relaxation of about 0.76% during the cooling from the growth temperature. Removing graphene from the Cu substrates and transferring it to SiO{sub 2} results in a shift of the 2D phonon line by 27?cm{sup ?1} to lower frequencies. This translates into additional strain relaxation. The influence of the processing steps, used etching solution and solvents on strain, is investigated.

Troppenz, Gerald V., E-mail: gerald.troppenz@helmholtz-berlin.de; Gluba, Marc A.; Kraft, Marco; Rappich, Jörg; Nickel, Norbert H. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institut für Silizium Photovoltaik, Kekuléstr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

428

Scale and deposits in high-heat-rejection engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scaling under conditions very similar to those of a heavy-duty diesel engine cooling system was investigated using a newly designed, versatile test stand. The parameters included flow rate, heat flux, hardness, along with bulk fluid temperatures. The hot surface temperature, a critical parameter, was also measured. Results were interpreted in terms of the conditions in the boundary layer at the hot surface. Critical values of flow rate and heat flux existed for scaling under experimental conditions. A quantitative relationship of scale with heat flux and hardness was observed. Deposits produced from testing of different types of commercial coolants, including phosphate based and nonphosphate bases, were measured and compared with results from simple beaker tests.

Chen, Y.S.; Kershisnik, E.I. [Dober Group, Glenwood, IL (United States); Hudgens, R.D. [Fleetguard, Inc., Cookeville, TN (United States); Corbeels, C.L.; Zehr, R.L. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Layered Manufacturing Sara McMains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ Sintering (vector) ­ 3D Printing (raster) #12;Stereolithography (SLA) · First commercial layered

McMains, Sara

430

Buffer layer for thin film structures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Buffer layer for thin film structures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Atom Nano-lithography with Multi-layer Light Masks: Particle Optics Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the focusing of atoms by multiple layers of standing light waves in the context of atom lithography. In particular, atomic localization by a double-layer light mask is examined using the optimal squeezing approach. Operation of the focusing setup is analyzed both in the paraxial approximation and in the regime of nonlinear spatial squeezing for the thin-thin as well as thin-thick atom lens combinations. It is shown that the optimized double light mask may considerably reduce the imaging problems, improve the quality of focusing and enhance the contrast ratio of the deposited structures.

R. Arun; I. Sh. Averbukh; T. Pfau

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

433

Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-49339 MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT EXCHANGERS J.A. Siegel1,3 * and W.W. Nazaroff2 Department of Energy under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098. #12;MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT, such as discontinuities in the fins, are hypothesized to be responsible for the discrepancy. INDEX TERMS HVAC, Fouling

435

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences by Greta J. Orris1 and Richard I. Grauch2 Open. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements of rare earth element concentration. Many of the occurrences have not been well studied and the economic

Torgersen, Christian

436

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition Noelle E. Selin and Christopher D. Holmes mercury oxidation [Selin & Jacob, Atmos. Env. 2008] 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 Influences on Mercury Wet Deposition · Hg wet dep = f(precipitation, [Hg(II)+Hg(P)]) Correlation (r2) between

Selin, Noelle Eckley

437

Formation of Cobalt Silicide Films by Ion Beam Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of cobalt silicide are widely used as metallization in very large-scale integrated electronic circuits. In this study, Co ions were deposited on Si (111) wafers by a high beam current filter metal vacuum arc deposition (FMEVAD) system. Surface silicide films were formed after annealing from 500 to 700 C for 30 minutes. Cobalt depth profiles and contaminations were determined using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-E ERDA). The polycrystalline cobalt silicide phases formed were characterized by grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The surface topography development and interfaces have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that a thin CoSi2 surface layer with both a smooth surface topography and sharp interface can be achieved by annealing at 700 C. The CoSi phase and O contamination were observed in the samples that were annealed at lower temperatures.

Zhang, Yanwen; McCready, David E.; Wang, Chong M.; Young, James S.; Mckinley, Mathew I.; Whitlow, Harry J.; Razpet, Alenka; Possnert, Göran; Zhang, Tonghe; Wu, Yuguang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

hal-00126760,version1-26Jan2007 The buckling of a swollen thin gel layer bound to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with high residual stresses. The swelling of a thin layer on a compliant substrate leads to compressive to compli- ant substrates (see e.g. [2] for a review). For metal films vapor-deposited on an elastomer [3], high compressive residual stresses are generated in the film when the system is cooled, due

Boyer, Edmond

439

Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection Agata Sakic a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection Agata Sakic´ a photodiodes Electron detection Low-energy electrons Boron deposition Ultrashallow junctions Responsivity Electron signal gain Electron irradiation Dark current degradation a b s t r a c t Silicon photodiodes

Technische Universiteit Delft

440

A New Optically Reflective Thin Layer Electrode (ORTLE) Window: Gold on a Thin Porous Alumina Film Used to Observe the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the electrode face and a window behind it. The electrode is created by thin-film deposition of gold ontoFull Paper A New Optically Reflective Thin Layer Electrode (ORTLE) Window: Gold on a Thin Porous Alumina Film Used to Observe the Onset of Water Reduction Paul G. Miney, Maria V. Schiza, Michael L

Myrick, Michael Lenn

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "layer deposition ald" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Femtosecond laser fabrication of micro and nano-disks in single layer graphene using vortex Bessel beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Femtosecond laser fabrication of micro and nano-disks in single layer graphene using vortex Bessel deposition graphene on glass substrate using femtosecond laser ablation with vortex Bessel beams. The fabricated graphene disks with diameters ranging from 650 nm to 4 µm were characterized by spatially resolved

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

442

Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO{sub 2})/SiO{sub 2} multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO{sub 2}) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

Pinto, S. R. C.; Ramos, M. M. D.; Gomes, M. J. M. [University of Minho, Centre of Physics and Physics Department, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Buljan, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Chahboun, A. [University of Minho, Centre of Physics and Physics Department, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Physics Department, FST Tanger, Tanger BP 416 (Morocco); Roldan, M. A.; Molina, S. I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain); Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste, SS 14 km163, 5, Basovizza 34012 (Italy); Varela, M.; Pennycook, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico e Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear-, EN10, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO{sub 2})/SiO{sub 2} multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO{sub 2}) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

Pinto, S. [University of Minho, Portugal; Roldan Gutierrez, Manuel A [ORNL; Ramos, M. M.D. [University of Minho, Portugal; Gomes, M.J.M. [University of Minho, Portugal; Molina, S. I. [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Buljan, M. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Barradas, N. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Chahboun, A. [FST Tanger, Morocco; Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Laser induced thermophoresis and particulate deposition efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of laser radiation and an absorbing aerosol in a tube flow has been considered. The aerosol is produced by external heating of reactants as in the MCVD (Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition) process to produce submicron size particles in the manufacture of optical fiber preforms. These are subsequently deposited by thermophoretic forces on the inner wall of the tube as they are convected by a Poiseuille velocity profile. Axial laser radiation in the tube interacts with the absorbing particles, and the laser heating of the gas induces additional thermophoretic forces that markedly increase the efficiency of particulate deposition. A particle concentration dependent absorption coefficient that appears in the energy equation couples the energy equation to the equation of particle conservation, so that a non-linear set of coupled partial integrodifferential equations must be solved. Numerical solutions for aerosol particle trajectories, and thus deposition efficiencies, have been obtained. It is shown that laser enhanced thermophoresis markedly improves the deposition efficiency.

Cipolla, J.; Morse, T.F.; Wang, C.Y.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

8 | harriman magazine By ROnALD MEyER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for just over a year now, stationed in both Washington, D.C., and Almaty, Kazakhstan. What is the mission about economic development in Kazakhstan. The article you're referring to was an op-ed I produced for the EUROBAK (European Business Association of Kazakhstan) Global Monitor, a business magazine based

Qian, Ning

446

Overview of ALD Precursors and Reaction Mechanisms Roy G. Gordon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-flammable, non-corrosive, non-toxic, simple and non-hazardous to make and inexpensive. Presenting Author: Roy GXe YttriumY 4 CopperCu DysprosiumDy ErbiumEr LithiumLi LutetiumLu MagnesiumMg RhodiumRh RutheniumRu Sulfur

447

ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 SouthWater Rights,Information OfOpen

448

Application of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Ferrite Layers for Particle Accelerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A common problem in all kinds of cavity-like structures in particle accelerators is the occurrence of RF-resonances. Typically, ferrite plates attached to the walls of such structures as diagnostic devices, kickers or collimators, are used to dampen those undesired modes. However, the heat transfer rate from these plates to the walls is rather limited. Brazing ferrite plates to the walls is not possible in most cases due to the different thermal expansion coefficients. To overcome those limitations, atmospheric plasma spraying techniques have been investigated. Ferrite layers with a thickness from 50 ?m to about 300 ?m can be deposited on metallic surfaces like stainless steel exhibiting good thermal contact and still reasonable absorption properties. In this paper the technological aspects of plasma deposition are discussed and results of specifically developed RF loss measurement procedures for such thin magnetically lossy layers on metal are presented.

Caspers, F; Federmann, S; Taborelli, M; Schulz, C; Bobzin, K; Wu, J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-temperature (?200?°C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. Based on our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.

Demaurex, Bénédicte, E-mail: benedicte.demaurex@epfl.ch; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Maladière 71B, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy (CIME), Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

450

Ceramic-metallic coatings by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) process is considered to be a technology that has overcome some of the difficulties or problems associated with the chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and metal spray processes. The EB-PVD process offers many desirable characteristics such as relatively high deposition rates (up to 100-150 {mu}m/minute with an evaporation rate {approx}10-15 Kg/hour,) dense coatings, precise compositional control, columnar and poly-crystalline microstructure, low contamination, and high thermal efficiency. Various metallic and ceramic coatings (oxides, carbides, nitrides) can be deposited at relatively low temperatures. Even elements with low vapor pressure such as molybdenum, tungsten, and carbon are readily evaporated by this process. In addition, EB-PVD is capable of producing multi-layered laminated metallic/ceramic coatings on large components by changing the EB-PVD processing conditions such as ingot composition, part manipulation, and electron beam energy. Attachment of an ion assisted beam source to the EB-PVD offers additional benefits such as dense coatings with improved adhesion. In addition, textured coatings can be obtained that are desirable in many applications such as cutting tools. This laboratory has started a new thrust in the coating area by the EB-PVD process. The microstructure of thermal barrier ceramic coatings (i.e., yttria stabilized zirconia) developed by the EB-PVD process will be presented.

Wolfe, D.E.; Singh, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

451

Inclined-substrate deposition of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for YBCO coated conductors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly textured MgO films were grown by the inclined-substrate deposition (ISD) technique at a high deposition rate. A columnar grain with a roofing-tile-shaped surface was observed in these MgO films. X-ray pole figure, and {phi}- and {omega}-scan were used to characterize in-plane and out-of-plane textures. MgO films deposited when the incline angle {alpha} was 55 and 30 degrees exhibited the best in-plane and out-of-plane texture, respectively. High-quality YBCO films were epitaxially grown on ISD-MgO-buffered Hastelloy C substrates by pulsed laser deposition. {Tc}=88 K, with sharp transition, and j{sub c} values of {approx}2x10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K in zero field were observed on films 5 mm wide and 1 cm long. This work has demonstrated that biaxially textured ISD MgO buffer layers deposited on metal substrates are excellent candidates for fabrication of high-quality YBCO coated conductors.

Ma, B.; Li, M.; Jee, Y. A.; Koritala, R. E.; Fisher, B. L.; Balachandran, U.; Energy Technology

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Biaxially aligned template films fabricated by inclined-substrate deposition for YBCO-coated conductor applications.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inclined substrate deposition (ISD) has the potential for rapid production of high-quality biaxially textured buffer layers, which are important for YBCO-coated conductor applications. We have grown biaxially textured MgO films by ISD at deposition rates of 20-100 {angstrom}/sec. Columnar grains with a roof-tile surface structure were observed in the ISD-MgO films. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the (002) planes of the ISD-MgO films are tilted at an angle from the substrate normal. A small {phi}-scan full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of {approx}9{sup o} was observed on MgO films deposited at an inclination angle of 55{sup o}. In-plane texture in the ISD MgO films developed in the first 0.5 {micro}m from the interface, then stabilized with further increases in film thickness. YBCO films deposited by pulsed laser deposition on ISD-MgO buffered Hastelloy C276 substrates were biaxially aligned with the c-axis parallel to the substrate normal. T{sub c} of 91 K with a sharp transition and transport J{sub c} of 5.5 x 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K in self-field were measured on a YBCO film that was 0.46-{micro}m thick, 4-mm wide, 10-mm long.

Ma, B.; Li, M.; Koritala, R. E.; Fisher, B. L.; Erck, R. A.; Dorris, S. E.; Miller, D. J.; Balachandran, U.

2002-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

453

Effects of oxygen reduction on nickel deposition from unbuffered aqueous solutions. 2: Characterization of the electrode interface in electrodeposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contrary to the reactive electrodeposition of cobalt, porous nickel is not easily produced by electrodeposition from neutral aqueous solutions in the presence of dissolved oxygen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the electrode surface detected the presence of a highly stable metal hydroxide layer of the same characteristics as precipitated Ni(OH){sub 2}. The hydroxide layer inhibits the nucleation of nickel nuclei and increases the irreversibility in electrodeposition. For reactive deposition to result in a porous deposit, the hydroxide layer should have only moderate stability so that it can be continuously removed and reinstated by interfacial chemical and electrochemical reactions. The surface Ni(OH){sub 2} formed in neutral solutions lacks the reactivity for such dynamism. Nonetheless, the stability of surface Ni(OH){sub 2} could be lowered by increasing the acidity of the deposition medium. Careful pH control seems to be a requirement for nickel reactive electrodeposition to produce porous metal deposits.

Cui, C.Q.; Lee, J.Y.; Lin, J.; Tan, K.L. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Interface dynamics for layered structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate dynamics of large scale and slow deformations of layered structures. Starting from the respective model equations for a non-conserved system, a conserved system and a binary fluid, we derive the interface equations which are a coupled set of equations for deformations of the boundaries of each domain. A further reduction of the degrees of freedom is possible for a non-conserved system such that internal motion of each domain is adiabatically eliminated. The resulting equation of motion contains only the displacement of the center of gravity of domains, which is equivalent to the phase variable of a periodic structure. Thus our formulation automatically includes the phase dynamics of layered structures. In a conserved system and a binary fluid, however, the internal motion of domains turns out to be a slow variable in the long wavelength limit because of concentration conservation. Therefore a reduced description only involving the phase variable is not generally justified.

Takao Ohta; David Jasnow

1997-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

455

Reliability in layered networks with random link failures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider network reliability in layered networks where the lower layer experiences random link failures. In layered networks, each failure at the lower layer may lead to multiple failures at the upper layer. We generalize ...

Lee, Kayi

456

Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

Hu, Zhong-Cheng

2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

457

Depositional environments of the Kodiak Shelf, Alaska  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'te ?eel i 9/I !, . jor S h!est; O? anoo! aphJ DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS OF THE KODIAK SHELF, ALASKA A Thesis by STUART PETER BURBACH Approved as to sty1e and content by: (Chairman of Committee ( ead of Department) (Member) (Member) December 1977... -'DSTRRCT Depositional Environments of the Kodiak ', elf, Alaska. (December 1977) Stuart Peter Burbach, B. P, . , University of Ifisconsin at Iililv!aukee Chairman of Cidvfsory Committee: Dr. I!illiam B. Bryant Four depositional environments are defined...

Burbach, Stuart Peter

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this third quarter of Grant DE-FG22-86 PC 90756, we have obtained preliminary experimental results on the deposition behavior of submicron and supermicron solid particles (MgO, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) on a two-dimensional surface exposed to a high temperature/velocity particle laden'' atmospheric pressure jet. The uniform velocity ( plug flow'') jet, with temperatures up to about 1520 K, derives from a pressurized gaseous fuel microcombustion chamber (110 cc) equipped with a platinum guiding (exit) channel. Particles were generated by several methods (Berglund-Liu type aerosol generator, ultrasonic nebulizer, or syringe feeder with aerodynamic particle off-take) and were introduced into the combustion chamber with a carrier stream of nitrogen or air. Laser light scattering and reflectivity techniques were used for the study of particle deposition, supplemented by post-mortem microscopy on the exposed surface. We observed a linear deposition rate of submicron particles due to the thermophoretic mechanism (until the first layer was developed) under both high and low velocity conditions. On the contrary, supermicron particle deposits reach a steady-state, evidently due to a dynamic equilibrium between particle deposition and dislodging caused by the impacting particles. At several temperatures particle-free subsonic gas jets (up to 120 m/sec) were unable to remove the submicron particle layer.

Rosner, D.E.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Design of a compact ultrahigh vacuum-compatible setup for the analysis of chemical vapor deposition processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optimizing thin film deposition techniques requires contamination-free transfer from the reactor into an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for surface science analysis. A very compact, multifunctional Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactor for direct attachment to any typical UHV system for thin film analysis was designed and built. Besides compactness, fast, easy, and at the same time ultimately clean sample transfer between reactor and UHV was a major goal. It was achieved by a combination of sample manipulation parts, sample heater, and a shutter mechanism designed to fit all into a NW38 Conflat six-ways cross. The present reactor design is versatile to be employed for all commonly employed variants of CVD, including Atomic Layer Deposition. A demonstration of the functionality of the system is provided. First results of the setup (attached to an Omicron Mu