National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for latvia lithuania monaco

  1. Monaco: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Datasets Monaco is a country in Europe. External Links Monaco Renewable Energy Data from IEA Monaco Contacts from Climate-Eval LowCarbonWorld Profile for Monaco Retrieved from...

  2. Latvia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Latvia Population 2,070,371 GDP 34,118,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.16 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LV 3-letter ISO code LVA Numeric ISO...

  3. Deputy Secretary of Energy Meets with President of Latvia | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman meets with President Zatlers of Latvia | DOE photo: Ken Shipp April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of ...

  4. Lithuania | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Lithuania NNSA Hosts International Nuclear Forensics Workshop with Participants from Eight Countries WASHINGTON, D.C. - During May 11-22, the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence program held a hands-on nuclear forensics course at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. The "International Training Course on

  5. US, Latvia Commission Radiation Detection Equipment at Freeport...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    has been working with SBG on projects at seven sites and a training center in Latvia. ... Through its SLD program, NNSA also provides training to host government law enforcement ...

  6. Lithuania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Lithuania Population 3,043,429 GDP 51,002,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.39 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LT 3-letter ISO code LTU Numeric ISO...

  7. Current practice and shortcomings of EIA in Lithuania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruopiene, Jolita; Zidoniene, Sigita; Dvarioniene, Jolanta

    2009-09-15

    The paper provides an overview of EIA system applications and assesses its effectiveness in Lithuania. A combination of archival research and quantitative/qualitative analysis was used to identify the main shortcomings of the EIA process in Lithuania: subjectivity in forecasting environmental effects, insufficient consideration of alternatives, politicisation of the process and incompetence of authorities involved. The research revealed that a thorough knowledge of EIA procedures and legal requirements may be a solution to these problems, especially when the stages related to forecasting the effects and evaluating the results are strictly reserved for recognized experts. The work concludes on the suggestions to involve in EIA process relevant authorities and to increase the competence of EIA practitioners.

  8. USAID Europe and Eurasia Climate Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Armenia, Republic of Macedonia, Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Kazakhstan, Hungary, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan Western...

  9. WWS_LorrieC157L_0915

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ireland Italy Japan Kenya Latvia Lesotho Libya Lithuania Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mauritius Mexico Mozambique Nepal The Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Norway ...

  10. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    11 0 -2 0 0 -1 -1 Honduras 0 0 -1 0 0 -3 -3 India 0 0 0 8 0 2 2 Italy 0 0 0 3 0 16 16 Japan 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Korea, South 0 0 0 1 0 4 4 Latvia 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Lithuania 0 0 0 0 0 19...

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    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 Honduras 0 0 -1 0 0 -3 -3 India 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Italy 0 0 0 15 0 21 21 Japan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Korea, South 0 0 0 0 0 16 16 Latvia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lithuania 0 0 0 0 0 7...

  12. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    14 0 -2 0 0 -1 -1 Honduras 0 0 -1 0 0 -3 -3 India 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 Italy 0 0 0 3 0 16 16 Japan 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Korea, South 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 Latvia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lithuania 0 0 0 0 0 16...

  13. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 -5 0 0 -1 -1 Honduras 0 0 -1 0 0 -3 -3 India 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Italy 0 0 -2 0 1 5 6 Japan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Korea, South 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Latvia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lithuania 0 0 0 0 0 10...

  14. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    11 0 -2 0 0 -1 -1 Honduras 0 0 -1 0 0 -3 -3 India 0 0 0 8 0 2 2 Italy 0 0 0 3 0 17 17 Japan 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Korea, South 0 0 0 1 0 4 4 Latvia 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Lithuania 0 0 0 0 0 17...

  15. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  16. Mazheikiai refinery modernization study. Executive summary. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The study, conducted by Foster Wheeler Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Lithuania's Ministry of Energy. The Mazheikiai Oil Refinery is the only one in the Baltic Region and serves the needs of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Kaliningrad. Before Lithuania's independence in 1990, the refinery was assured of crude supplies from Russia. However, since then the need has arisen to secure alternate sources of crude oil and the ability to process them. The purpose of the report is to provide recommendations to the Ministry of Energy for process improvements, environmental control measures, physical rehabilitation and energy conservation plans for the Mazheikiai Oil Refinery. The volume contains the Executive Summary.

  17. Mazheikiai refinery modernization study. Final report. Volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The study, conducted by Foster Wheeler Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Lithuania's Ministry of Energy. The Mazheikiai Oil Refinery is the only one in the Baltic Region and serves the needs of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Kaliningrad. Before Lithuania's independence in 1990, the refinery was assured of crude supplies from Russia. However, since then the need has arisen to secure alternate sources of crude oil and the ability to process them. The purpose of the report is to provide recommendations to the Ministry of Energy for process improvements, environmental control measures, physical rehabilitation and energy conservation plans for the Mazheikiai Oil Refinery. This is Volume 2 of the study.

  18. Mazheikiai refinery modernization study. Final report. Volume 3. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The study, conducted by Foster Wheeler Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Lithuania's Ministry of Energy. The Mazheikiai Oil Refinery is the only one in the Baltic Region and serves the needs of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Kaliningrad. Before Lithuania's independence in 1990, the refinery was assured of crude supplies from Russia. However, since then the need has arisen to secure alternate sources of crude oil and the ability to process them. The purpose of the report is to provide recommendations to the Ministry of Energy for process improvements, environmental control measures, physical rehabilitation and energy conservation plans for the Mazheikiai Oil Refinery. This is Volume 3 of the study.

  19. Mazheikiai refinery modernization study. Final report. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The study, conducted by Foster Wheeler Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Lithuania's Ministry of Energy. The Mazheikiai Oil Refinery is the only one in the Baltic Region and serves the needs of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Kaliningrad. Before Lithuania's independence in 1990, the refinery was assured of crude supplies from Russia. However, since then the need has arisen to secure alternate sources of crude oil and the ability to process them. The purpose of the report is to provide recommendations to the Ministry of Energy for process improvements, environmental control measures, physical rehabilitation and energy conservation plans for the Mazheikiai Oil Refinery. This is Volume 1 of the study.

  20. EUDEEP (Smart Grid Project) (Latvia) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technical and nontechnical barriers that prevent a massive deployment of distributed energy resources (DER) in Europe. In partnership with manufacturers, research organizations,...

  1. Industry turns its attention south

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marhefka, D.

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Significant foreign investment continues to elude Russia`s oil and gas industry, so the Caspian nations of Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are picking up the slack, welcoming the flow of foreign capital to their energy projects. Separate evaluations are given for Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia.

  2. U.S., Lithuania Expand Cooperation to Prevent Nuclear Smuggling...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    billion over the next five years to support NNSA's nuclear nonproliferation programs. ... 2012 and 14.2 billion over the next five years to reduce the global nuclear threat by ...

  3. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  4. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Biotechnolog...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Orr) - Marine Environment Laboratories, Monaco Oswald, Wyatt (Wyatt Oswald) - Harvard Forest, Harvard University Ouillon, Sylvain (Sylvain Ouillon) - Laboratoire d'Etudes en ...

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - PACoP August 2015

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... 2. What is the population of Lithuania (CIA 2008 report)? 3. How long is the Amazon ... 2. What is the population of Lithuania (CIA 2008 report)? 3.57 million 3. How long is ...

  6. United States and Latvian Governments Sign Agreement to Allow...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... International partners, such as the government of Latvia, are key participants in this new initiative. Media contact: Anne Womack Kolton, 202586-4940 Addthis Related Articles ...

  7. WorldWide Science.org

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Libya Lithuania Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mauritius Mexico Mozambique Nepal The Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Norway Philippines Poland Portugal Russia Rwanda Saudi ...

  8. U.S. Energy Secretary Highlights Need for Energy Diversity at...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... who are original GNEP partners, as well as Australia, Bulgaria, Ghana, Hungary, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Ukraine in efforts to address ...

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - Belianinov_2015_UserProjectHighlight_NanoLett...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Physics, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania LT-01513 3a Institute for Problems of Material Sciences, 3b Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv,...

  10. Vilnius Energy Secretary Conference 2007: Responsible Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    achieving these goals. Thank you. Location: Vilnius, Lithuania Media contact(s): Megan Barnett, (202) 586-4940 Addthis Related Articles Secretary Bodman to Lead Presidential...

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - GNEP PARTNERS CANDIDATE PARTNERS AND OBSERVERS...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5. Ghana 6. Hungary 7. Japan 8. Jordan 9. Kazakhstan 10. Lithuania 11. Poland 12. Romania 13. Russia 14. Slovenia 15. Ukraine 16. United States GNEP Observers 1. International ...

  12. Media Corner - News Archive: 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 News Archive: 2010 Catching up with Ned Sauthoff, ITER, and the Prince of Monaco [Knoxville News Sentinel, November 30, 2010] Foundation Stone for ITER [Knoxville News Sentinel, November 25, 2010] Engineer Gary Johnson helping expand future of fusion [Evansville Courier & Press, October 16, 2010] Support contracts for US ITER [Knoxville News Sentinel, August 21, 2010] ITER construction -- can you dig it? [Knoxville News Sentinel, August 8, 2010] New Director Shakes Up Management of Fusion

  13. SU-E-T-580: Comparison of Cervical Carcinoma IMRT Plans From Four Commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y; Li, R; Chi, Z; Zhu, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Different treatment planning systems (TPS) use different treatment optimization and leaf sequencing algorithms. This work compares cervical carcinoma IMRT plans optimized with four commercial TPSs to investigate the plan quality in terms of target conformity and delivery efficiency. Methods: Five cervical carcinoma cases were planned with the Corvus, Monaco, Pinnacle and Xio TPSs by experienced planners using appropriate optimization parameters and dose constraints to meet the clinical acceptance criteria. Plans were normalized for at least 95% of PTV to receive the prescription dose (Dp). Dose-volume histograms and isodose distributions were compared. Other quantities such as Dmin(the minimum dose received by 99% of GTV/PTV), Dmax(the maximum dose received by 1% of GTV/PTV), D100, D95, D90, V110%, V105%, V100% (the volume of GTV/PTV receiving 110%, 105%, 100% of Dp), conformity index(CI), homogeneity index (HI), the volume of receiving 40Gy and 50 Gy to rectum (V40,V50) ; the volume of receiving 30Gy and 50 Gy to bladder (V30,V50) were evaluated. Total segments and MUs were also compared. Results: While all plans meet target dose specifications and normal tissue constraints, the maximum GTVCI of Pinnacle plans was up to 0.74 and the minimum of Corvus plans was only 0.21, these four TPSs PTVCI had significant difference. The GTVHI and PTVHI of Pinnacle plans are all very low and show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans require significantly less segments and MUs to deliver than the other plans. Conclusion: To deliver on a Varian linear-accelerator, the Pinnacle plans show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans have faster beam delivery.

  14. INSIDE: ITER Site Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry Monaco/ITER Postdoctoral Fellowship Program Upcoming Events US Researchers Parse Complex Plasma Issues From "Snowballs in Hell" to "Burping the Baby" - by Agatha Bardoel The design, testing, and manufacture of a pellet injection system is one of the key contributions of the United States to ITER. Physicist David Rasmussen serves as the lead for US ITER's fueling team and as a group leader in the Fusion Energy Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He points out

  15. COP 21 Shelby Cobra | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    COP 21 Shelby Cobra COP 21 Shelby Cobra Addthis 1 of 12 U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack visits the Shelby Cobra at the COP 21 conference in Paris. Image: Photo courtesy U.S. Department of Energy 2 of 12 U.S. Ambassador to France and Monaco Jane Hartley discusses 3D printing technology and advanced manufacturing with Rob Ivester from EERE's Advanced Manufacturing Office Image: Photo courtesy U.S. Department of Energy 3 of 12 French Minister of Foreign Affairs and International

  16. Lessons learnt from Ignalina NPP decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NAISSE, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) is located in Lithuania, 130 km north of Vilnius, and consists of two 1500 MWe RBMK type units, commissioned respectively in December 1983 and August 1987. On the 1. of May 2004, the Republic of Lithuania became a member of the European Union. With the protocol on the Ignalina Nuclear Power in Lithuania which is annexed to the Accession Treaty, the Contracting Parties have agreed: - On Lithuanian side, to commit closure of unit 1 of INPP before 2005 and of Unit 2 by 31 December 2009; - On European Union side, to provide adequate additional Community assistance to the efforts of Lithuania to decommission INPP. The paper is divided in two parts. The first part describes how, starting from this agreement, the project was launched and organized, what is its present status and which activities are planned to reach the final ambitious objective of a green field. To give a global picture, the content of the different projects that were defined and the licensing process will also be presented. In the second part, the paper will focus on the lessons learnt. It will explain the difficulties encountered to define the decommissioning strategy, considering both immediate or differed dismantling options and why the first option was finally selected. The paper will mention other challenges and problems that the different actors of the project faced and how they were managed and solved. The paper will be written by representatives of the Ignalina NPP and of the Project Management Unit. (author)

  17. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  18. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  19. SU-E-T-608: Performance Comparison of Four Commercial Treatment Planning Systems Applied to Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y; Li, R; Chi, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the performances of four commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) used for the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Ten patients of nasopharyngeal (4 cases), esophageal (3 cases) and cervical (3 cases) cancer were randomly selected from a 3-month IMRT plan pool at one radiotherapy center. For each patient, four IMRT plans were newly generated by using four commercial TPS (Corvus, Monaco, Pinnacle and Xio), and then verified with Matrixx (two-dimensional array/IBA Company) on Varian23EX accelerator. A pass rate (PR) calculated from the Gamma index by OminiPro IMRT 1.5 software was evaluated at four plan verification standards (1%/1mm, 2%/2mm, 3%/3mm, 4%/4mm and 5%/5mm) for each treatment plan. Overall and multiple pairwise comparisons of PRs were statistically conducted by analysis of covariance (ANOVA) F and LSD tests among four TPSs. Results: Overall significant (p>0.05) differences of PRs were found among four TPSs with F test values of 3.8 (p=0.02), 21.1(>0.01), 14.0 (>0.01), 8.3(>0.01) at standards of 1%/1mm to 4%/4mm respectively, except at 5%/5mm standard with 2.6 (p=0.06). All means (standard deviation) of PRs at 3%/3mm of 94.3 ± 3.3 (Corvus), 98.8 ± 0.8 (Monaco), 97.5± 1.7 (Pinnacle), 98.4 ± 1.0 (Xio) were above 90% and met clinical requirement. Multiple pairwise comparisons had not demonstrated a consistent low or high pattern on either TPS. Conclusion: Matrixx dose verification results show that the validation pass rates of Monaco and Xio plans are relatively higher than those of the other two; Pinnacle plan shows slight higher pass rate than Corvus plan; lowest pass rate was achieved by the Corvus plan among these four kinds of TPS.

  20. Preparation for Early Termination of Ignalina NPP Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poskas, P.; Poskas, R.

    2003-02-26

    Seimas (Parliament of Lithuania) approved updated National Energy strategy where it is indicated that first Unit will be shutdown before the year 2005 and second Unit in 2009 if funding for decommissioning is available from EU and other donors. In accordance to Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Closure Law the Government of Lithuania approved the Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Decommissioning Program until year 2005. For enforcement of this program, the plan of measures for implementation of the program was prepared and approved by the Minister of Economy. The plan consists of two parts, namely technical- environmental and social-economic. Technical-environmental measures are mostly oriented to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel and operational radioactive waste stored at the plant and preparation of licensing documents for Unit 1 decommissioning. Social-economic measures are oriented to mitigate negative social and economic impact on Lithuania, inhabitants of the region, and, particularly, o n the staff of Ignalina NPP by means of creating favorable conditions for a balanced social and economic development of the region. In this paper analysis of planned activities, licensing requirements for decommissioning, progress in preparation of the Final Decommissioning Plan is discussed.

  1. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  2. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  3. IEA agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 2000 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Carolyn C.

    2001-12-01

    The 2000 annual report of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement contains an overview of the agreement, including its guiding principles, latest strategic plan, and a report from the Chairman, Mr. Neil P. Rossmeissl, U.S. Department of Energy. Overviews of the National Hydrogen Programs of nine member countries are given: Canada, Japan, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Task updates are provided on the following annexes: Annex 12 - Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Annex 13 - Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Annex 14 - Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and, Annex 15 - Photobiological Production of Hydrogen.

  4. SU-E-T-539: Fixed Versus Variable Optimization Points in Combined-Mode Modulated Arc Therapy Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kainz, K; Prah, D; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel modulated arc therapy technique, mARC, enables superposition of step-and-shoot IMRT segments upon a subset of the optimization points (OPs) of a continuous-arc delivery. We compare two approaches to mARC planning: one with the number of OPs fixed throughout optimization, and another where the planning system determines the number of OPs in the final plan, subject to an upper limit defined at the outset. Methods: Fixed-OP mARC planning was performed for representative cases using Panther v. 5.01 (Prowess, Inc.), while variable-OP mARC planning used Monaco v. 5.00 (Elekta, Inc.). All Monaco planning used an upper limit of 91 OPs; those OPs with minimal MU were removed during optimization. Plans were delivered, and delivery times recorded, on a Siemens Artiste accelerator using a flat 6MV beam with 300 MU/min rate. Dose distributions measured using ArcCheck (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Inc.) were compared with the plan calculation; the two were deemed consistent if they agreed to within 3.5% in absolute dose and 3.5 mm in distance-to-agreement among > 95% of the diodes within the direct beam. Results: Example cases included a prostate and a head-and-neck planned with a single arc and fraction doses of 1.8 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Aside from slightly more uniform target dose for the variable-OP plans, the DVHs for the two techniques were similar. For the fixed-OP technique, the number of OPs was 38 and 39, and the delivery time was 228 and 259 seconds, respectively, for the prostate and head-and-neck cases. For the final variable-OP plans, there were 91 and 85 OPs, and the delivery time was 296 and 440 seconds, correspondingly longer than for fixed-OP. Conclusion: For mARC, both the fixed-OP and variable-OP approaches produced comparable-quality plans whose delivery was successfully verified. To keep delivery time per fraction short, a fixed-OP planning approach is preferred.

  5. Methods for Detector Placement and Analysis of Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Wetzel, Larry

    2012-01-01

    -to-detect accident sites, which may not have included every possible accident location. Analog calculations (no biasing) simply follow particles naturally. For sparse buildings and line-of-sight calculations, analog Monte Carlo (MC) may be adequate. For buildings with internal walls or large amounts of heavy equipment (dense geometry), variance reduction may be required. Calculations employing the CADIS method use a deterministic calculation to create an importance map and a matching biased source distribution that optimize the final MC to quickly calculate one specific tally. Calculations employing the FW-CADIS method use two deterministic calculations (one forward and one adjoint) to create an importance map and a matching biased source distribution that are designed to make the MC calculate a mesh tally with more uniform uncertainties in both high-dose and low-dose areas. Depending on the geometry of the problem, the number of detectors, and the number of accident sites, different approaches to CAAS placement studies can be taken. These are summarized in Table I. SCALE 6.1 contains the MAVRIC sequence, which can be used to perform any of the forward-based approaches outlined in Table I. For analog calculations, MAVRIC simply calls the Monaco MC code. For CADIS and FW-CADIS, MAVRIC uses the Denovo discrete ordinates (SN) deterministic code to generate the importance map and biased source used by Monaco. An adjoint capability is currently being added to Monaco and should be available in the next release of SCALE. An adjoint-based approach could be performed with Denovo alone - although fine meshes, large amounts of memory, and long computation times may be required to obtain accurate solutions. Coarse-mesh SN simulations could be employed for adjoint-based scoping studies until the adjoint capability in Monaco is complete. CAAS placement studies, especially those dealing with mesh tallies, require some extra utilities to aid in the analysis. Detectors must receive a minimum dose

  6. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  7. Technical Letter Report - Analysis of Ultrasonic Data on Piping Cracks at Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Before and After Applying a Mechanical Stress Improvement Process, JCN-N6319, Task 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Crawford, Susan L.

    2008-02-26

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in piping systems previously analyzed for leak-before-break (LBB). Part of this work involves determining whether inspections alone are sufficient or if inspections plus mitigation techniques are needed. The work described in this report addresses the reliability of ultrasonic phased-array (PA) examinations for inspection of cracks that have been subjected to the mitigation method of mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). It is believed that stresses imparted during MSIP may make ultrasonic crack responses in piping welds more difficult to detect and accurately characterize. To explore this issue, data were acquired, both before and after applying MSIP, and analyzed from cracked areas in piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. This work was performed under NRC Project JCN-N6319, PWSCC in Leak-Before-Break Systems.

  8. International project -- RBMK safety review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, S.F.; Gabaraev, B.A.

    1996-07-01

    A major international RBMK safety review project managed by AEA Technology and funded by the CEC TACIS Programme, and the governments of Canada, Sweden and Finland is assessing the safety of RBMK Reactors as operated in Russia, Lithuania and Ukraine. RBMK reactors have been the subject of numerous safety studies by other Eastern and Western European organizations and Canada. Their objectives were, by necessity, not consistent (for example, identifying the deficiencies, reviewing and assessing the safety, checking the existing safety reports, establishing western style safety justifications). However, they share a common technical content in many areas. As a result a considerable number of Safety Recommendations have already been published. The current problem is to categorize and evaluate these recommendations.

  9. Validation of a virtual source model for Monte Carlo dose calculations of a flattening filter free linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashmore, Jason; Golubev, Sergey; Dumont, Jose Luis; Sikora, Marcin; Alber, Markus; Ramtohul, Mark

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: A linac delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can benefit from a flattening filter free (FFF) design which offers higher dose rates and reduced accelerator head scatter than for conventional (flattened) delivery. This reduction in scatter simplifies beam modeling, and combining a Monte Carlo dose engine with a FFF accelerator could potentially increase dose calculation accuracy. The objective of this work was to model a FFF machine using an adapted version of a previously published virtual source model (VSM) for Monte Carlo calculations and to verify its accuracy. Methods: An Elekta Synergy linear accelerator operating at 6 MV has been modified to enable irradiation both with and without the flattening filter (FF). The VSM has been incorporated into a commercially available treatment planning system (Monaco Trade-Mark-Sign v 3.1) as VSM 1.6. Dosimetric data were measured to commission the treatment planning system (TPS) and the VSM adapted to account for the lack of angular differential absorption and general beam hardening. The model was then tested using standard water phantom measurements and also by creating IMRT plans for a range of clinical cases. Results: The results show that the VSM implementation handles the FFF beams very well, with an uncertainty between measurement and calculation of <1% which is comparable to conventional flattened beams. All IMRT beams passed standard quality assurance tests with >95% of all points passing gamma analysis ({gamma} < 1) using a 3%/3 mm tolerance. Conclusions: The virtual source model for flattened beams was successfully adapted to a flattening filter free beam production. Water phantom and patient specific QA measurements show excellent results, and comparisons of IMRT plans generated in conventional and FFF mode are underway to assess dosimetric uncertainties and possible improvements in dose calculation and delivery.

  10. Benchmarking of a treatment planning system for spot scanning proton therapy: Comparison and analysis of robustness to setup errors of photon IMRT and proton SFUD treatment plans of base of skull meningioma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, R.; Trnková, P.; Lomax, A. J.; Weston, S. J.; Lilley, J.; Thompson, C. M.; Cosgrove, V. P.; Short, S. C.; Loughrey, C.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Base of skull meningioma can be treated with both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and spot scanned proton therapy (PT). One of the main benefits of PT is better sparing of organs at risk, but due to the physical and dosimetric characteristics of protons, spot scanned PT can be more sensitive to the uncertainties encountered in the treatment process compared with photon treatment. Therefore, robustness analysis should be part of a comprehensive comparison between these two treatment methods in order to quantify and understand the sensitivity of the treatment techniques to uncertainties. The aim of this work was to benchmark a spot scanning treatment planning system for planning of base of skull meningioma and to compare the created plans and analyze their robustness to setup errors against the IMRT technique. Methods: Plans were produced for three base of skull meningioma cases: IMRT planned with a commercial TPS [Monaco (Elekta AB, Sweden)]; single field uniform dose (SFUD) spot scanning PT produced with an in-house TPS (PSI-plan); and SFUD spot scanning PT plan created with a commercial TPS [XiO (Elekta AB, Sweden)]. A tool for evaluating robustness to random setup errors was created and, for each plan, both a dosimetric evaluation and a robustness analysis to setup errors were performed. Results: It was possible to create clinically acceptable treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy of meningioma with a commercially available TPS. However, since each treatment planning system uses different methods, this comparison showed different dosimetric results as well as different sensitivities to setup uncertainties. The results confirmed the necessity of an analysis tool for assessing plan robustness to provide a fair comparison of photon and proton plans. Conclusions: Robustness analysis is a critical part of plan evaluation when comparing IMRT plans with spot scanned proton therapy plans.

  11. SU-E-J-193: Feasibility of MRI-Only Based IMRT Planning for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prior, P; Botros, M; Chen, X; Paulson, E; Erickson, B; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: With the increasing use of MRI simulation and the advent of MRI-guided delivery, it is desirable to use MRI only for treatment planning. In this study, we assess the dosimetric difference between MRI- and CTbased IMRT planning for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Planning CTs and MRIs acquired for a representative pancreatic cancer patient were used. MRI-based planning utilized forced relative electron density (rED) assignment of organ specific values from IRCU report 46, where rED = 1.029 for PTV and a rED = 1.036 for non-specified tissue (NST). Six IMRT plans were generated with clinical dose-volume (DV) constraints using a research Monaco planning system employing Monte Carlo dose calculation with optional perpendicular magnetic field (MF) of 1.5T. The following five plans were generated and compared with the planning CT: 1.) CT plan with MF and dose recalculation without optimization; 2.) MRI (T2) plan with target and OARs redrawn based on MRI, forced rED, no MF, and recalculation without optimization; 3.) Similar as in 2 but with MF; 4.) MRI plan with MF but without optimization; and 5.) Similar as in 4 but with optimization. Results: Generally, noticeable differences in PTV point doses and DV parameters (DVPs) between the CT-and MRI-based plans with and without the MF were observed. These differences between the optimized plans were generally small, mostly within 2%. Larger differences were observed in point doses and mean doses for certain OARs between the CT and MRI plan, mostly due to differences between image acquisition times. Conclusion: MRI only based IMRT planning for pancreatic cancer is feasible. The differences observed between the optimized CT and MRI plans with or without the MF were practically negligible if excluding the differences between MRI and CT defined structures.

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 57: Evaluation of laryngeal mucosal dose with conventional linac and TomoTherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nusrat, H; Lekx, K; Eapen, L

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not underdosing occurs in the mucosal layer during treatment of glottis cancer. A larynx phantom was produced and regions at risk of recurrence due to suspected underdosing were identified and wells drilled into the phantom for flush placement of TLDs. Seven interest points were chosen. CT simulation was completed prior to the wells being drilled, and again afterwards with the TLD locations indicated using BBs. Treatment plans created for this investigation included: 3DCRT using Elekta-XiO (n=9) and VMAT created using Elekta-Monaco (n=9), both delivered on an Elekta linac; standard TomoTherapy plan (n=11) and a directionally blocked TomoTherapy plan to approximate a 3D-conformal approach (n=5). Imaging dose during TomoTherapy deliveries was accounted for. The average TLD result at each interest point was compared to the planned value using a paired t-test. There was no significant difference between the planned and measured 3DCRT dose (268.9 vs. 267.0 cGy, respectively; p>0.05). Similarly, the planned and measured TomoTherapy treatment did not show any significant differences (271.7 vs 269.7 cGy; p>0.05). In the blocked TomoTherapy plan, significant overdosing was seen (274.5 vs 294.9 cGy; p<0.05) and underdosing was not seen in the VMAT treatment (303.5 vs 321.8 cGy; p>0.05). Further investigation is ongoing to ensure appropriate normalization of results and to investigate the overdosing noted with the blocked TomoTherapy plan. Results from this study suggest that significant underdosing does not occur in the conventional treatment of early glottic cancer using 6MV photons.

  13. SU-E-T-226: Junction Free Craniospinal Irradiation in Linear Accelerator Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy : A Novel Technique Using Dose Tapering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, B; Roy, S; Paul, S; Munshi, A; Roy, Shilpi; Jassal, K; Ganesh, T; Mohanti, BK

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Spatially separated fields are required for craniospinal irradiation due to field size limitation in linear accelerator. Field junction shits are conventionally done to avoid hot or cold spots. Our study was aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of junction free irradiation plan of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for Meduloblastoma cases treated in linear accelerator using Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique. Methods: VMAT was planned using multiple isocenters in Monaco V 3.3.0 and delivered in Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. A full arc brain and 40° posterior arc spine fields were planned using two isocentre for short (<1.3 meter height ) and 3 isocentres for taller patients. Unrestricted jaw movement was used in superior-inferior direction. Prescribed dose to PTV was achieved by partial contribution from adjacent beams. A very low dose gradient was generated to taper the isodoses over a long length (>10 cm) at the conventional field junction. Results: In this primary study five patients were planned and three patients were delivered using this novel technique. As the dose contribution from the adjacent beams were varied (gradient) to create a complete dose distribution, therefore there is no specific junction exists in the plan. The junction were extended from 10–14 cm depending on treatment plan. Dose gradient were 9.6±2.3% per cm for brain and 7.9±1.7 % per cm for spine field respectively. Dose delivery error due to positional inaccuracy was calculated for brain and spine field for ±1mm, ±2mm, ±3mm and ±5 mm were 1%–0.8%, 2%–1.6%, 2.8%–2.4% and 4.3%–4% respectively. Conclusion: Dose tapering in junction free CSI do not require a junction shift. Therefore daily imaging for all the field is also not essential. Due to inverse planning dose to organ at risk like thyroid kidney, heart and testis can be reduced significantly. VMAT gives a quicker delivery than Step and shoot or dynamic IMRT.

  14. SU-E-J-239: IMRT Planning of Prostate Cancer for a MRI-Linac Based On MRI Only

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X; Prior, P; Paulson, E; Lawton, C; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: : To investigate dosimetric differences between MRI- and CT-based IMRT planning for prostate cancer, the impact of a magnetic field in a MRI-Linac, and to explore the feasibility of IMRT planning based on MRI alone. Methods: IMRT plans were generated based on CT and MRI images acquired on two representative prostate-cancer patients using clinical dose volume constraints. A research planning system (Monaco, Elekta), which employs a Monte Carlo dose engine and includes a perpendicular magnetic field of 1.5T from an MRI-Linac, was used. Bulk electron density assignments based on organ-specific values from ICRU 46 were used to convert MRI (T2) to pseudo CT. With the same beam configuration as in the original CT plan, 5 additional plans were generated based on CT or MRI, with or without optimization (i.e., just recalculation) and with or without the magnetic field. The plan quality in terms of commonly used dose volume (DV) parameters for all plans was compared. The statistical uncertainty on dose was < 1%. Results: For plans with the same contour set but without re-optimization, the DV parameters were different from those for the original CT plan, mostly less than 5% with a few exceptions. These differences were reduced to mostly less than 3% when the plans were re-optimized. For plans with contours from MRI, the differences in the DV parameters varied depending on the difference in the contours as compared to CT. For the optimized plans with contours from MR, the differences for PTV were less than 3%. Conclusion: The prostate IMRT plans based on MRI-only for a MR-Linac were practically similar as compared to the CT plan under the same beam and optimization configuration if the difference on the structure delineation is excluded, indicating the feasibility of using MRI-only for prostate IMRT.

  15. The current state of the Russian reduced enrichment research reactors program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, V.G.; Kartashov, E.F.; Lukichev, V.A.

    1997-08-01

    During the last year after the 16-th International Conference on Reducing Fuel Enrichment in Research Reactors held in October, 1993 in Oarai, Japan, the conclusive stage of the Program on reducing fuel enrichment (to 20% in U-235) in research reactors was finally made up in Russia. The Program was started late in 70th and the first stage of the Program was completed by 1986 which allowed to reduce fuel enrichment from 80-90% to 36%. The completion of the Program current stage, which is counted for 5-6 years, will exclude the use of the fuel enriched by more than 20% from RF to other countries such as: Poland, Czeck Republick, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, Libya, Viet-Nam, North Korea, Egypt, Latvia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. In 1994 the Program, approved by RF Minatom authorities, has received the status of an inter-branch program since it was admitted by the RF Ministry for Science and Technical Policy. The Head of RF Minatom central administrative division N.I.Ermakov was nominated as the Head of the Russian Program, V.G.Aden, RDIPE Deputy Director, was nominated as the scientific leader. The Program was submitted to the Commission for Scientific, Technical and Economical Cooperation between USA and Russia headed by Vice-President A. Gore and Prime Minister V. Chemomyrdin and was given support also.

  16. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, Proceedings of SPIE,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exarhos, Gregory J.; Guenther, Arthur H.; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Lewis, Keith L.; Soileau, M. J.

    2001-04-12

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the Thirty-Second Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers, held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, 16-18 October 2000. The symposium was sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA). Cooperating organizations were Cierra Photonics, Inc. (USA), the School of Optics at the University of Central Florida (USA, the Center for High Technology Materials at the University of New Mexico (USA), the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK), National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), and SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering. The symposium was attended by more than 110 participants from Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Uzbekistan. Almost one-half of the attendees and more than half of the presentations were from abroad. The purpose of this series of symposia is to exchange information about optical materials for high-power/high-energy lasers. The editors welcome comments and criticism relevant to this purpose from all interested readers.

  17. Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program : implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, Daniel L.

    2004-11-01

    plans, etc. This standardized approach is applied to specific country and regional needs. Recent examples (FY 2003-2004) include foreign missions to Lithuania, Russian Federation Navy, Russia - PNPI, Greece (joint mission with IAEA), Tanzania, Iraq, Chile, Ecuador, and Egypt. Some of the ambitions and results of the RTR program may be characterized by the successes in Lithuania, Greece, and Russia.

  18. Reference Material for Radionuclides in Sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon Sediment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Povinec, P; Pham, M; Barci-Funel, G; Bojanawski, R; Boshkova, T; Burnett, W; Carvalho, F; Chapeyron, B; Cunha, I; Dahlgaard, H; Galabov, N; Gastaud, J; Geering, J; Gomez, I; Green, N; Hamilton, T; Ibanez, F; Majah, M I; John, M; Kanisch, G; Kenna, T; Kloster, M; Korun, M; Wee Kwong, L L; La Rosa, J; Lee, S; Levy-Palomo, I; Malatova, M; Maruo, Y; Mitchell, P; Murciano, I; Nelson, R; Oh, J; Oregioni, B; Petit, G L; Pettersson, H; Reineking, A; Smedley, P; Suckow, A; der Struijs, T v; Voors, P; Yoshimizu, K; Wyse, E

    2005-09-23

    The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's program of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). An important part of the AQCS program has been a production of Reference Materials (RMs) and their provision to radioanalytical laboratories. The RMs have been developed for different marine matrices (sediment, water, biota), with accuracy and precision required for the present state of the art of radiometrics and mass spectrometry methods. The RMs have been produced as the final products of world-wide intercomparison exercises organized during last 30 years. A total of 44 intercomparison exercises were undertaken and 39 RMs were produced for radionuclides in the marine environment. All required matrices (seawater, biota, sediment) have been covered with radionuclide concentrations ranging from typical environmental levels to elevated levels affected by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants. The long-term availability of RMs (over 10 years) requires the use of very specific techniques to collect and pretreat large quantities of material (e.g., in excess of 100 kg) in order to ensure sample stability and homogenization of any analytes of interest. The production of a RM is therefore a long process, covering the identification of needs, sample collection, pre-treatment, homogenization, bottling, distribution to laboratories, evaluation of data, preliminary reporting, additional analyses in expert laboratories, certification of the material, and finally issuing the RM. In this paper we describe a reference material IAEA-384, Fangataufa lagoon sediment, designed for determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in the marine environment. This RM has been prepared with the aim of testing the performance of analytical laboratories to measure the activity of these radionuclides in a sediment sample contaminated

  19. WE-G-17A-07: Investigation of the Influence of the Electron Return Effect (ERE) On the Dose Distribution in Rectal Cancer Patients On a 1.5T MR-Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uilkema, S; Heide, U; Nijkamp, J; Sonke, J; Moreau, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this planning study is to investigate the influence of the ERE on the day-to-day dose distribution in rectal cancer patients, where changes in gas-pockets frequently occur. Methods: Daily CT scans of 5 patients treated neo-adjuvant with 5x5Gy for rectal cancer were used. We optimized two plans on the planning CT (Monaco, 1 mm3 dosegrid), a conventional 7-field 6MV IMRT plan (Dconv) and a plan in the presence of a 1.5T field (Dmrl). We recalculated the plans on all repeat-CT scans and evaluated under/over-dosage of the daily CTVs. Changes of more than 1% were considered significant. In the bowel area, we investigated the relative dose changes due to the ERE, where the contribution of the ERE was separated from other effects such as attenuation. Results: Both plans were comparable and compliant with ICRU 62 for all patients. For 2 fractions in one patient under-dosage in the CTV was significant, due to a disappearing gas-pocket. Here the V95 was 96.82 and 97.36% in in Dmrl compared to 98.85 and 98.66% in Dconv, respectively. For 3 fractions in another patient appearing gas-pockets resulted in significant over-dosage of the CTV. In these fractions the V107 was 1.88–2.68% in Dmrl compared to 0.33–1.27% in Dconv. In the bowel area the dose changes attributable to the ERE were approximately ± 5% in 1cc, at low dose levels. Conclusion: We were able to calculate acceptable treatment plans with and without a magnetic field. The ERE was present in the Dmrl, but the volumetric effect within the CTV was limited. Outside the CTV relative dose differences were similar, but on small volumes at lower, less relevant dose levels. This suggests that there is no clinical relevant ERE on dose distributions in rectal cancer patients on a 1.5T MR-Linac.

  20. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2005, Proceedings of SPIE,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exarhos, Gregory J.; Guenther, Arthur H.; Ristau, Detlev; Lewis, Keith L.; Soileau, M. J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2005-12-27

    This volume contains papers presented at the 37th Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers that was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, 19-21 September 2005. The symposium was cosponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA). Cooperating organizations were the Center for High Technology Materials at the University of New Mexico (USA), Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (Germany), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), QinetiQ (United Kingdom), and the College of Optics and Photonics, CREOL and FPCE, University of Central Florida (USA). The symposium, was attended by 145 scientist and engineers from China, France, Lithuania, Russia, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. One-third of the attendees and nearly half of the presentations were from abroad. A mini-symposium on Tuesday afternoon, that addressed damage issues associated with petawatt lasers, highlighted our growing interest in the emerging area. Including the mini-symposium, 87 papers were presented in oral and poster sessions.

  1. The criteria of fracture in the case of the leak of pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habil; Ziliukas, A.

    1997-04-01

    In order to forecast the break of the high pressure vessels and the network of pipes in a nuclear reactor, according to the concept of leak before break of pressure vessels, it is necessary to analyze the conditions of project, production, and mounting quality as well as of exploitation. It is also necessary to evaluate the process of break by the help of the fracture criteria. In the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant of, in Lithuania, the most important objects of investigation are: the highest pressure pipes, made of Japanese steel 19MN5 and having an anticorrosive austenitic: coal inside, the pipes of distribution, which arc made of 08X1810T steel. The steel of the network of pipes has a quality of plasticity: therefore the only criteria of fragile is impossible to apply to. The process of break would be best described by the universal criteria of elastic - plastic fracture. For this purpose the author offers the criterion of the double parameter.

  2. IPIRG-2 task 1 - pipe system experiments with circumferential cracks in straight-pipe locations. Final report, September 1991--November 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Rudland, D.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results from Task 1 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The IPIRG-2 program is an international group program managed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and funded by a consortium of organizations from 15 nations including: Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Republic of China, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The objective of the program was to build on the results of the IPIRG-1 and other related programs by extending the state-of-the-art in pipe fracture technology through the development of data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping systems that contain defects. The IPIRG-2 program included five main tasks: Task 1 - Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds Task 2 - Fracture of Flawed Fittings Task 3 - Cyclic and Dynamic Load Effects on Fracture Toughness Task 4 - Resolution of Issues From IPIRG-1 and Related Programs Task 5 - Information Exchange Seminars and Workshops, and Program Management. The scope of this report is to present the results from the experiments and analyses associated with Task 1 (Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds). The rationale and objectives of this task are discussed after a brief review of experimental data which existed after the IPIRG-1 program.

  3. Progress and Status of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant's New Solid Waste Management and Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rausch, J.; Henderson, R.W.; Penkov, V.

    2008-07-01

    A considerable amount of dry radioactive waste from former NPP operation has accumulated up to date and is presently stored at the Ignalina NPP site, Lithuania. Current storage capacities are nearly exhausted and more waste is to come from future decommissioning of the two RMBKtype reactors. Additionally, the existing storage facilities does not comply to the state-of-the-art technology for handling and storage of radioactive waste. In 2005, INPP faced this situation of a need for waste processing and subsequent interim storage of these wastes by contracting NUKEM with the design, construction, installation and commissioning of new waste management and storage facilities. The subject of this paper is to describe the scope and the status of the new solid waste management and storage facilities at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. In summary: The turnkey contract for the design, supply and commission of the SWMSF was awarded in December 2005. The realisation of the project was initially planned within 48 month. The basic design was finished in August 2007 and the Technical Design Documentation and Preliminary Safety Analyses Report was provided to Authorities in October 2007. The construction license is expected in July 2008. The procurement phase was started in August 2007, start of onsite activities is expected in November 2007. The start of operation of the SWMSF is scheduled for end of 2009. (authors)

  4. Principles on Radiological Characterization of the Unit 1 at Ignalina NPP for Decommissioning Purposes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poskas, P.; Zujus, R.; Drumstas, G.; Poskas, R.; Simonis, V.

    2008-07-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (INPP). The INPP operated two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW(each). They were commissioned in 12/1983 and 08/1987, and the original design lifetime was projected out to 2010 and 2015 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit will be closed down before 2010 taking into consideration substantial long-term financial assistance from the EU, G7 and other states as well as international institutions. Implementation of dismantling activities requires detailed knowledge of the radiological situation at the Unit 1. General Programme of Radiological Survey for Ignalina NPP Unit 1 based on NUREG-1575 was prepared in 2005- 2006 by Consortium led by Lithuanian Energy Institute and approved by Regulatory Bodies. It includes such main steps as historical site assessment, scoping, characterization, remedial actions/decontamination support surveys and final status surveys. General Programme of Radiological Survey defines content and principles of the surveys, and preliminary survey considerations, including identification of the contaminants, establishment of the free release levels, principles on areas classification depending on contamination potential, identification of the final survey units, criteria for selection survey instrumentation, techniques and methods etc. So, in the paper information on these principles and the content of the different stages in General Programme of Radiological Survey is presented. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of geological formations of Eastern Europe countries for raw disposal and elaboration of joint R&D programmes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khrushchov, D.P.; Nigmatullin, N.S.; Balla, Z.

    1995-12-01

    The development of national R&D programmes on RAW management in the countries of East Europe is inevitably due to the fact that some of them (Ukraine, Russia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Romania), have rather developed nuclear power industries, whereas some others are planning their development (Poland, Byelarus, Lithuania, etc.). The majority of East European countries have their own R&D programmes. The territories of these countries are situated within the limits of the East European geological platforms. As to RAW disposal these geological areas and consequently, the geological regions of East European countries are in very different condition. However, all the countries making use of nuclear power and other industries producing RAW, are facing a need to solve the problem of RAW disposal and to develop their own national programmes. Thus, the different geological environments for RAW disposal, which are extremely unfavorable in some countries, may be considered as a reason for joint R&D programmes initiation. The aim of these programmes is a detailed evaluation of geological formations and geological structure of East European countries as to RAW isolation in order to unite the efforts and to increase the efficiency of national R&D programmes as well as to ground subsequent joint actions related to RAW disposal.

  6. Comparison of Candidate Sites for installation of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP Site Using Fuzzy Logic Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poskas, P.; Kilda, R.; Poskas, G.

    2008-07-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW (each) were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was finally shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit is planned to be shutdown before 2010. Operational radioactive waste of different activities is generated at Ignalina NPP. After closure of INPP a waste from decommissioning should be managed also. According to Lithuanian regulatory requirements (1) the waste depending on the activity must be managed in different ways. In compliance with this Regulation very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW) could be disposed of in a Landfill facility. In such case very simple engineered barriers are required. A cap on the top of the repository is necessary from long-term safety point of view. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The basic objective of the siting process is to select a suitable site for disposal and demonstrate that this site has characteristics which provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the biosphere for desired periods of time. The methodology and results on evaluation and comparison of two candidate sites intended for construction of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP site are presented in the paper. Criteria for comparison are based on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) recommendations (2). Modeling of the radionuclide releases has been performed using ISAM (Improving of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal facilities) methodology (3). For generalization of the information and elaboration of the recommendations Fuzzy Logic approach was used (4). (authors)

  7. Summary of the contractor information exchange meeting for improving the safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants, February 19, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held on February 19, 1997, in Washington, D.C. The meeting was held primarily to exchange information among the contractors involved in the U.S. Department of Energy`s efforts to improve the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Previous meetings have been held on December 5-6, 1995, and May 22, 1996. The meetings are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and coordinated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy works with countries to increase the level of safety at 63 Soviet-designed nuclear reactors operating in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. The work is implemented largely by commercial companies and individuals who provide technologies and services to the countries with Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Attending the meeting were 71 representatives of commercial contractors, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of State, national laboratories, and other federal agencies. The presentations and discussions that occurred during the exchange are summarized in this report. While this report captures the general presentation and discussion points covered at the meeting, it is not a verbatim, inclusive record. To make the report useful, information presented at the meeting has been expanded to clarify issues, respond to attendees` requests, or place discussion points in a broader programmatic context. Appendixes A through F contain the meeting agenda, list of attendees, copies of presentation visuals and handouts, the Strategy Document discussed at the meeting, and a summary of attendees` post-meeting evaluation comments. As with past information exchanges, the participants found this meeting valuable and useful. In response to the participant`s requests, a fourth information exchange will be held later in 1997.

  8. Romania: Brand-New Engineering Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Nicolae Zamfir; Madalina Budu

    2011-01-01

    The HEU spent nuclear fuel transport from Romania was a pilot project in the framework of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), being the first fully certified spent nuclear fuel shipment by air. The successful implementation of the Romanian shipment also brought various new technology in the program, further used by other participating countries. Until 2009, the RRRFR program repatriated to the Russian Federation HEU spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin from many countries, like Uzbekistan, Czech Republic, Latvia, Hungary, Kazakhstan and Bulgaria. The means of transport used were various; from specialized TK-5 train for the carriage of Russian TUK-19 transport casks, to platform trains for 20 ft freight ISO containers carrying Czech Skoda VPVR/M casks; from river barge on the Danube, to vessel on the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Initially, in 2005, the transport plan of the HEU spent nuclear fuel from the National Institute for R&D in Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei' in Magurele, Romania considered a similar scheme, using the specialized TK-5 train transiting Ukraine to the destination point in the Russian Federation, or, as an alternative, using the means and route of the spent nuclear fuel periodically shipped from the Bulgarian nuclear power plant Kosloduy (by barge on the Danube, and by train through Ukraine to the Russian Federation). Due to impossibility to reach an agreement in due time with the transit country, in February 2007 the US, Russian and Romanian project partners decided to adopt the air shipment of the spent nuclear fuel as prime option, eliminating the need for agreements with any transit countries. By this time the spent nuclear fuel inspections were completed, proving the compliance of the burn-up parameters with the international requirements for air shipments of radioactive materials. The short air route avoiding overflying of any other countries except the country of origin and the