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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt irradiance GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

& Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)
Parameter: Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWhm2day)
Internet: http:eosweb.larc.nasa.govsse
Note 1:...

2

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt irradiance GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

irradiance GIS data at irradiance GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude Tilt Irradiance NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Note 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of the region is +0.5 added to the the Lat/Lon value. These data are regional averages; not point data.

3

latitude tilt | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitude tilt latitude tilt Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Source U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor GIS latitude tilt Nepal NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 25.6 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 36.2 KiB)

4

GEF. latitude tilt | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEF. latitude tilt GEF. latitude tilt Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude tilted solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 40km x 40km (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders Source INPE (National Institute for Spatial Research) and LABSOLAR (Laboratory of Solar Energy/Federal University of Santa Catarina) - Brazil Date Released August 08th, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated August 08th, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords Brazil GEF. latitude tilt INPE LABSOLAR solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 706.1 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 999.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

5

latitutde tilt irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitutde tilt irradiance latitutde tilt irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Bangladesh. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor GEF GIS latitutde tilt irradiance NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 35.5 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 26.7 KiB) Quality Metrics

6

Solar: monthly latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Bangladesh. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The

7

Solar: monthly and annual latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at 40km latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at 40km resolution for Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The

8

Solar: annual and seasonal average latitude tilt GIS data (contours) for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitude tilt GIS data (contours) for latitude tilt GIS data (contours) for Brazil from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Annual and seasonal mean of Latitude Tilt Solar Radiation in kWh/m2/day based on data from 1995 to 2002 (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The cross-calibration process worked with data from 3 ground stations: Caicó (located in the Northeast of Brazil), Florianópolis (located in the South) and Balbina (located in Amazonia). These data have been used for validation and comparison of radiation transfer models operated in SWERA to estimate the incidence of solar radiation on the surface of the country from satellite images

9

South America Latitude Tilted SR Solar Model from INPE and LABSOLAR |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Latitude Tilted SR Solar Model from INPE and LABSOLAR Latitude Tilted SR Solar Model from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Mean values of Latitude Tilted Solar Radiation in kWh/m2/day for 40km cells for 1 year (month, season, year) based on data from 1995 to 2005 (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The BRASIL-SR model (developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) and the ARCVIEW software were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files.The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory. The BRASIL-SR model is not validated for areas covered by snow.

10

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The

11

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to

12

Brazil Latitude Tilted Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude tilted solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 40km x 40km (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files.The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase

13

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations

14

Brazil Latitude Tilted Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude tilted solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 10km x 10km (Purpose): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE -National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files (Supplemental Information): The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources incountries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates providedby the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory

15

latitude | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

42 42 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278742 Varnish cache server latitude Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude Tilt Irradiance NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords GIS global irradiance latitude

16

irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

irradiance irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude Tilt Irradiance NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords GIS global irradiance latitude mapping NASA renewable energy solar solar PV SWERA TILT UNEP Data text/csv icon Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) (csv, 11.8 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 5 MiB)

17

Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth's surface for cloudless atmospheres  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new, simple model for calculating clear-sky direct and diffuse spectral irradiance on horizontal and tilted surfaces is presented. The model is based on previously reported simple algorithms and on comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer calculations and limited outdoor measurements. Equations for direct normal irradiance are outlined; and include: Raleigh scattering; aerosol scattering and absorption; water vapor absorption; and ozone and uniformly mixed gas absorption. Inputs to the model include solar zenith angle, collector tilt angle, atmospheric turbidity, amount of ozone and precipitable water vapor, surface pressure, and ground albedo. The model calculates terrestrial spectra from 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m with approximately 10 nm resolution. A major goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collector geometries using microcomputers. A listing of the computer program is provided.

Bird, R.; Riordan, C.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

File:NREL-asia-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

asia-tilt.pdf asia-tilt.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Selected Asian Countries - Annual Tilted at Latitude Solar Radiation (PDF) Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 3.05 MB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Selected Asian Countries - Annual Tilted at Latitude Solar Radiation (PDF) Description Selected Asian Countries - Annual Tilted at Latitude Solar Radiation (PDF) Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Authors Donna Heimiller Related Technologies Solar, Solar-PV, Solar-40km Creation Date 2006-07-13 Extent International Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia

19

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: oTilt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

oTilt oTilt tool_otilt oTilt is an online tool for quickly determining the optimum tilt angles for solar collectors. Site can be located in an integrated Google map, searching it using keywords (e.g. Central Park, New York) or by directly entering latitude and longitude. oTilt determines the optimum monthly, seasonal, half-yearly and fixed tilt angles for solar collectors at selected site location along with respective energy collection during these spans. Results are presented in the form of a table. Screen Shots Keywords solar radiations, radiations on tilted surface, optimum tilt angle, optimum pitch angle, collector slope Validation/Testing Methodology and validation of results is given on website Expertise Required No special expertise needed. Users More than 100.

20

Simple Solar Spectral Model for Direct and Diffuse Irradiance on Horizontal and Tilted Planes at the Earth's Surface for Cloudless Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a previous work, we described a simple model for calculating direct normal and diffuse horizontal spectral solar irradiance for cloudless sky conditions. In this paper, we present a new simple model (SPCTRAL2) that incorporates improvements to ...

Richard E. Bird; Carol Riordan

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Brazil Latitude Tilted Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files.
The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed...

22

Brazil Latitude Tilted Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

INPE -
National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files

(Supplemental Information): The assessment of...

23

Solar: monthly and annual latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

24

Tilted Baroclinic Tidal Vortices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structure of baroclinic vortices generated by horizontal flow separation past a sloping headland in deep, stably stratified waters is investigated. The most distinctive feature of these eddies is that their cores are strongly tilted with ...

Miguel Canals; Geno Pawlak; Parker MacCready

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Observations of Tilting Meddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SOFAR floats at different depths within two Mediterranean Water eddies (meddies) reveal that the meddy rotation axes tilt transversely with respect to the meddy translation direction. The rotation axis of one of the meddies (Meddy 1) was ...

David Walsh; Philip L. Richardson; Jim Lynch

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

TILT | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TILT TILT Dataset Summary Description Developed by NREL and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency, this geographic toolkit that allows users to relate the renewable energy resource (solar and wind) data to other geographic data, such as land use, protected areas, elevation, etc. The GsT was completely redesigned and re-released in November 2010 to provide a more modern, easier-to-use interface with considerably faster analytical querying capabilities. The revised version of the Geospatial Toolkit for Turkey is available using the following link: http://www.nrel.gov/international/downloads/gst_turkey.exe Source GeoModel Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated July 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords DNI GeoModel GHI GIS GsT NREL solar SWERA TILT

27

File:NREL-afg-10km-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

tilt.pdf tilt.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Afghanistan - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 468 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Afghanistan - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude Description Afghanistan - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Authors Donna Heimiller Related Technologies Solar, Solar-PV, Solar-10km Creation Date 2007-06-01 Extent International Countries Afghanistan UN Region Southern Asia File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 15:30, 14 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 15:30, 14 December 2010 1,650 × 1,275 (468 KB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated upload from NREL's "mapsearch" data

28

File:NREL-africa-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

tilt.pdf tilt.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Africa - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude (PDF) Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 5.69 MB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Africa - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude (PDF) Description Africa - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude (PDF) Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Authors Donna Heimiller Related Technologies Solar, Solar-PV, Solar-40km Creation Date 2005-01-11 Extent Continent Countries Africa UN Region File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 15:34, 14 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 15:34, 14 December 2010 1,650 × 1,275 (5.69 MB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated upload from NREL's "mapsearch" data

29

Radiation Incident on Tilted Collectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For solar energy system design purposes, observations of solar radiation on a horizontal surface must be converted to values on a tilted energy collector. An empirical conversion relationship, introduced by Liu and Jordan (1960) and based on ...

P. J. Robinson

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

File:NREL-bhutan-10kmsolar-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

kmsolar-tilt.pdf kmsolar-tilt.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Bhutan - Annual - Flat PlateTilted at Latitude Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 333 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Bhutan - Annual - Flat PlateTilted at Latitude Solar Radiation Description Bhutan - Annual - Flat PlateTilted at Latitude Solar Radiation Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Authors Donna Heimiller Related Technologies Solar, Solar-PV, Solar-10km Creation Date 2009-03-03 Extent International Countries Bhutan UN Region Southern Asia File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 15:51, 14 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 15:51, 14 December 2010 1,650 × 1,275 (333 KB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated upload from NREL's "mapsearch" data

31

BEAM TILTED CORRELATIONS Frank Vignola  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, wind speed, and other meteorological variables and weather conditions. With the variety of solar cell from tilted solar radiance. This model will then be used to estimate the performance of a photovoltaic from the modules, module temperature, ambient temperature, wind speed, incident solar radiation

Oregon, University of

32

Estimation of Surface Solar Global Radiation from NOAA AVHRR Data in High Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A physical method for estimating the instantaneous global irradiance and daily cumulative insolation based on Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data was developed and tested at high latitudes in a boreal subarctic region. The satellite ...

Vesa Laine; Ari Venlinen; Martti Heikinheimo; Otto Hyvrinen

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

South America Latitude Tilted SR Solar Model from INPE and LABSOLAR  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for Space Research) and the ARCVIEW software were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files.
The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed...

34

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

35

Solar: monthly latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

36

Stabilizing windings for tilting and shifting modes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides simple, inexpensive, independent and passive, conducting loops for stabilizing a plasma ring having externally produced equilibrium fields on opposite sides of the plasma ring and internal plasma currents that interact to tilt and/or shift the plasma ring relative to the externally produced equilibrium field so as to produce unstable tilting and/or shifting modes in the plasma ring. More particularly this invention provides first and second passive conducting loops for containing first and second induced currents in first and second directions corresponding to the amplitude and directions of the unstable tilting and/or shifting modes in the plasma ring. To this end, the induced currents provide additional magnetic fields for producing restoring forces and/or restoring torques for counteracting the tilting and/or shifting modes when the conducting loops are held fixed in stationary positions relative to the externally produced equilibrium fields on opposite sides of the plasma ring.

Jardin, S.C.; Christensen, U.R.

1982-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

37

Tilting train smooths out the curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes a Swedish train that leans into curves and speed around them safely at more than 100 miles per hour and is being tested on a tortuous railroad corridor in the Northeast United States. If the test proves successful, the train--the X2000--could become a fixture in the country's rail system. The train has flexible steering that allows the wheels to hug the rail and permits it to drive around turns faster than most other trains, according to Amtrak. Further, all of the train, expect the locomotive, tilts as it winds its way around the curves. The tilting compensates for the centrifugal force on passengers at high speeds. The X2000 is one of several train systems under consideration by railroads in the United States to improve the rail system in the country. Among the others are Germany's Inter-City Express (ICE) and France's Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV), built by GEC Alshthom (Paris).

O'Connor, L.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Stabilizing windings for tilting and shifting modes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to passive conducting loops for stabilizing a plasma ring against unstable tilting and/or shifting modes. To this end, for example, plasma ring in a spheromak is stabilized by a set of four figure-8 shaped loops having one pair on one side of the plasma and one pair on the other side with each pair comprising two loops whose axes are transverse to each other.

Jardin, Stephen C. (Princeton, NJ); Christensen, Uffe R. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

direct normal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords direct normal irradiance DNI GEF GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance insolation latitutde tilt irradiance NASA NREL South America SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Cell Maps (zip, 13.9 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 3.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

40

The cost of noise reduction in commercial tilt rotor aircraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relationship between direct operating cost and departure noise annoyance was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt rotor aircraft designs to meet various ...

Faulkner, Henry B.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Safe Use of a Tilting Dewar Cart | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How to properly inspect a tilting dewar cart before each use. Duration 2:24 Topic Safety Browse By - Any - Energy -Energy efficiency --Vehicles ---Alternative fuels...

42

Adaptive control using neural network for command following of tilt-rotor airplane in 0-tilt angle mode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with an autonomous flight algorithm design problem for the tilt-rotor airplane under development by Korea Aerospace Research Institute for simulation study. The objective of this paper is to design a guidance and control algorithm to ... Keywords: KARI tilt-rotor airplane, adaptive control, approximate modelbased inversion, command following, neural network

Jae Hyoung Im; Cheolkeun Ha

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Northern and Mid-Latitude Soil Data Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Mid-Latitude Soil Data Released The ORNL DAAC announces the release of the data set "Northern and Mid-Latitude Soil Database, Version 1." This data set was developed...

44

Tracer Equivalent Latitude: A Diagnostic Tool for Isentropic Transport Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Area equivalent latitude based on potential vorticity (PV) is a widely used diagnostic for isentropic transport in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Here, an alternate method for calculating equivalent latitude is explored, namely, a ...

Douglas R. Allen; Noboru Nakamura

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Microwave Emission at High Galactic Latitudes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) 4-year sky maps to model Galactic microwave emission at high latitudes (|b| > 20 deg). Cross-correlation of the DMR maps with Galactic template maps detects fluctuations in the high-latitude microwave sky brightness with the angular variation of the DIRBE far-infrared dust maps and a frequency dependence consistent with a superposition of dust and free-free emission. We find no significant correlations between the DMR maps and various synchrotron templates. On the largest angular scales (e.g., quadrupole), Galactic emission is comparable in amplitude to the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The CMB quadrupole amplitude, after correction for Galactic emission, has amplitude $Q_{rms}$ = 10.7 uK with random uncertainty 3.6 uK and systematic uncertainty 7.1 uK from uncertainty in our knowledge of Galactic microwave emission.

A. Kogut; G. Hinshaw; A. J. Banday; C. L. Bennett; K. Gorski; G. F. Smoot; E. L. Wright

1996-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

46

Tilt Rotor Aeromechanics Phenomena in Low Speed Flight  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work investigates important aeromechanics phenomena affecting the V-22 tilt rotor in low speed sideward flight or while hovering in quartering or crosswind conditions. These phenomena, such as pitch-up with sideslip and increased power required ...

Mark A. Potsdam; Mark J. Silva

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Structural & Conformational Characterstics of Tilted Peptides: Prolactin & Growth Hormone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tilted peptides are short helical peptides (11 to 20 aa long), known to destabilize membranes and lipid cores. These characterized by a peculiar distribution of hydrophobic residues: they are amphipathic and their net hydrophobicity increases from one ...

Gitanjali Tandon

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Solids irradiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel facility for irradiation of solids embodying pathogens wherein solids are conveyed through an irradiation chamber in individual containers of an endless conveyor.

Morris, Marvin E. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Whitfield, Willis J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Comparison of Energy Production and Performance from Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Technologies Deployed at Fixed Tilt: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This conference paper describes the performance data for 14 photovoltaic modules deployed at fixed-latitude tilt in the field are presented and compared. Module performance is monitored continuously for optimum power characteristics. Flat-plate module technologies representative of crystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon, and cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide, are scrutinized for energy production, effective efficiency and performance ratio-ratio of effective to reference efficiency. Most performance ratios exhibit seasonal fluctuations largely correlated to air or module temperatures, varying between 80% and 100%. These ratios tend toward larger values during winter and vise versa, except for amorphous silicon and cadmium telluride modules. In a-Si cases, the situation appears reversed: better performance ratios are exhibited during late summer. The effective efficiency and average daily and yearly energy production are analyzed and quantified.

del Cueto, J. A.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Iowa - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Go Solar California: The ... Annual average latitude equals tilt irradiance for Hawaii and the contiguous United States over surface cells of 0.1 ...

51

Onverter Center of Gravity and Tilting Torque Dynamic Model Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using SolidWorks software to3D solid modeling of steelmaking converter and liquid steel to get their center of gravity coordinates, so as to optimize the location of the trunnion, that used to determine the best location of the converter trunnion. Based ... Keywords: Converter, Optimization, Tilting, Torque

Lichen Li, Yunfeng Liu, Shaoqing Ren, Tongqing Li

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

High-Latitude Filtering in Global Grid-Point Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Latitude-longitude grid-point models with explicit time schemes require filtering of unstable short waves at high latitudes to avoid the use of prohibitively short time steps. Using a shallow water model and a RossbyHaurwitz wave as an initial ...

Lawrence L. Takacs; Ramesh C. Balgovind

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Letter to the Editor Geomagnetic storm eects at low latitudes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Letter to the Editor Geomagnetic storm eects at low latitudes R. G. Rastogi School of Physics, Ahmedabad 380 009, India Received: 30 April 1998 / Accepted: 3 September 1998 Abstract. The geomagnetic corrected for geomagnetic latitudes. The disturbance daily variation of H at equatorial stations showed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Tilting of carbon encapsulated metallic nanocolumns in carbon-nickel nanocomposite films by ion beam assisted deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of assisting low-energy ({approx}50-100 eV) ion irradiation effects on the morphology of C:Ni ({approx}15 at. %) nanocomposite films during ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is investigated. It is shown that IBAD promotes the columnar growth of carbon encapsulated metallic nanoparticles. The momentum transfer from assisting ions results in tilting of the columns in relation to the growing film surface. Complex secondary structures are obtained, in which a significant part of the columns grows under local epitaxy via the junction of sequentially deposited thin film fractions. The influence of such anisotropic film morphology on the optical properties is highlighted.

Krause, Matthias [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Muecklich, Arndt; Zschornak, Matthias; Wintz, Sebastian; Gemming, Sibylle; Abrasonis, Gintautas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Oates, Thomas W. H. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaft, ISAS e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Luis Endrino, Jose [Surfaces and Coatings Department, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Baehtz, Carsten; Shalimov, Artem [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Rossendorf Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

55

Impact of Urban Effects on Precipitation in High Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This numerical study examines the impact of urban growth and release of aerosols, moisture, and heat on precipitation for Fairbanks, Alaska, a remote city at high latitude. The remote location allows atmospheric changes to be attributed to the ...

Nicole Mlders; Mark A. Olson

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Regional Models of the Atmosphere in Middle Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This review describes recent development in operational and research limited-area numerical weather prediction models in middle latitudes. The current skill of limited-area models is summarized through the use of conventional measures of ...

Richard A. Anthes

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Northern High-Latitude Heat Budget Decomposition and Transient Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate models simulate a wide range of climate changes at high northern latitudes in response to increased CO2. They also have substantial disagreement on projected changes of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Here, two ...

Maria A. A. Rugenstein; Michael Winton; Ronald J. Stouffer; Stephen M. Griffies; Robert Hallberg

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A study of three molecular structures at high galactic latitude.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A systematic examination of three low-extinction, interstellar, molecular structures is presented in this thesis. Two of the clouds are high-latitude clouds: MBM03 and MBM40. For (more)

Chastain, Raymond Joseph

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Low-Latitude Reflection of Rossby Wave Trains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nonlinear reflection of an isolated Rossby wave train at a low-latitude wave-breaking region is contrasted with the more familiar longitudinally periodic case. General theoretical arguments for nonlinear reflection based on absorptivity ...

G. Brunet; P. H. Haynes

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

An Explicit One-Dimensional Time-Dependent Tilting Cloud Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An explicit one-dimensional time-dependent tilting cloud model has been developed for use in cumulus parameterizations. The tilting axis is not necessarily orthogonal to the (r, ?) plane, making the horizontal axisymmetric assumption more ...

Shu-Hua Chen; Wen-Yih Sun

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The cost of noise reduction for departure and arrival operations of commercial tilt rotor aircraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relationship between direct operating cost (DOC) and noise annoyance due to a departure and an arrival operation was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt ...

Faulkner, Henry B.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Irradiation Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors II: Irradiation Studies Sponsored by: TMS Structural Materials Division,...

63

Bound Chains of Tilted Dipoles in Layered Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultracold polar molecules in multilayered systems have been experimentally realized very recently. While experiments study these systems almost exclusively through their chemical reactivity, the outlook for creating and manipulating exotic few- and many-body physics in dipolar systems is fascinating. Here we concentrate on few-body states in a multilayered setup. We exploit the geometry of the interlayer potential to calculate the two- and three-body chains with one molecule in each layer. The focus is on dipoles that are aligned at some angle with respect to the layer planes by means of an external eletric field. The binding energy and the spatial structure of the bound states are studied in several different ways using analytical approaches. The results are compared to stochastic variational calculations and very good agreement is found. We conclude that approximations based on harmonic oscillator potentials are accurate even for tilted dipoles when the geometry of the potential landscape is taken into acco...

Volosniev, A G; Fedorov, D V; Jensen, A S; Zinner, N T

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Bound Chains of Tilted Dipoles in Layered Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultracold polar molecules in multilayered systems have been experimentally realized very recently. While experiments study these systems almost exclusively through their chemical reactivity, the outlook for creating and manipulating exotic few- and many-body physics in dipolar systems is fascinating. Here we concentrate on few-body states in a multilayered setup. We exploit the geometry of the interlayer potential to calculate the two- and three-body chains with one molecule in each layer. The focus is on dipoles that are aligned at some angle with respect to the layer planes by means of an external eletric field. The binding energy and the spatial structure of the bound states are studied in several different ways using analytical approaches. The results are compared to stochastic variational calculations and very good agreement is found. We conclude that approximations based on harmonic oscillator potentials are accurate even for tilted dipoles when the geometry of the potential landscape is taken into account.

A. G. Volosniev; J. R. Armstrong; D. V. Fedorov; A. S. Jensen; N. T. Zinner

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

65

Microelectromechanical apparatus for elevating and tilting a platform  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which has a platform that can be elevated above a substrate and tilted at an arbitrary angle using a plurality of flexible members which support the platform and control its movement. Each flexible member is further controlled by one or more MEM actuators which act to bend the flexible member. The MEM actuators can be electrostatic comb actuators or vertical zip actuators, or a combination thereof. The MEM apparatus can include a mirror coating to form a programmable mirror for redirecting or switching one or more light beams for use in a projection display. The MEM apparatus with the mirror coating also has applications for switching light beams between optical fibers for use in a local area fiber optic network, or for use in fiber optic telecommunications or data communications systems.

Miller, Samuel Lee (Albuquerque, NM); McWhorter, Paul Jackson (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, Murray Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Edgewood, NM); Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

66

The Effect of Latitude on the Sea Breeze  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-term (five-day) integrations of a nonlinear numerical model of the sea breeze at the equator, 20N, 30N and 45N indicate the importance of latitude on the sea breeze circulation. During the hours of strong heating when friction is largest ...

Hong Yan; Richard A. Anthes

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Direct experimental measurement of SRS-induced spectral tilt in multichannel multispan communication systems  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear SRS-induced tilt of the spectrum of a multichannel DWDM signal is studied experimentally in standard singlemode fibreoptic communication lines. It is found that at a fixed spectral bandwidth and total power the nonlinear SRS tilt is independent of the number of channels, radiation source type, and the initial tilt (positive or negative). In a multispan line consisting of identical spans the total nonlinear tilt of the spectrum (in dB) is proportional to the number of spans, spectral width and total power. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

Kapin, Yu A; Nanii, Oleg E; Novikov, A G; Pavlov, V N; Plotskii, A Yu; Treshchikov, V N

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

68

Irradiation subassembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

1973-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

69

The Tilt of the Leading Edge of Mesoscale Tropical Convective Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The tilt with height of the leading edge of seven mesoscale convective lines in GATE is determined by two independent methods. When averaged over time and along the line axis, the tilt is found to he surprisingly shallow, between 20 and 35 ...

M. A. LeMone; G. M. Barnes; E. J. Szoke; E. J. Zipser

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Calculation and Analysis of Optimal Tilt Angle for PV/T Hybrid Collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of solar energy received world wide attention in recent years. Solar energy is a free and clean natural resource which can be utilized by using a solar collector. In this paper, a model was presented for the calculation of the optimal tilt angle ... Keywords: Solar energy, Optimal tilt angle, Optimization, PV/T hybrid collector

Xianping Liu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Californium Neutron Irradiation Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Californium Neutron Irradiation Facility. Summary: ... Cf irradiation facility (Photograph by: Neutron Physics Group). Lead Organizational Unit: pml. Staff: ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

72

Solar Transients disturbing the Terrestrial Magnetic Environment at Higher Latitudes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geomagnetic field variations during five major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events of solar cycle 23 have been investigated in the present study. The SEP events of 01 oct 2001, 04 Nov 2001, 21 Apr 2002 and 14 May 2005 have been selected to study the geomagnetic field variations at two high-latitude stations, Thule and Resolute Bay of the northern polar cap. We have used the GOES protn flux in seven different energy channels. All the proton events were associated with geoeffective or Earth directed CMEs that caused intense geomagnetic storms in response to geospace. We have taken high-latitude indices, AE and PC, under consideration and found fairly good correlation of thees with the ground magnetic field records during the five proton events. The departure of H component during the events were calculated from the quietest day of the month for each event. The correspondence of spectral index, inferred from event integrated spectra, with ground magnetic signatures along with Dst and PC indices have been broug...

Khan, Parvaiz A; Troshichev, O A; Waheed, Malik A; M., Aslam A; Gwal, A K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Tilt-up concrete panels : an investigation of flexural stresses and punching shear during lifting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tilt-up construction is becoming more popular in the United States due to its ease of construction, reliability, and relatively low construction and maintenance costs. In its most typical form, a concrete panel is cast on ...

Bono, Matthew P. (Matthew Paul)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

The Effect of Tilted Rotation on Shear Instabilities at Low Stratifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear stability analysis of the inviscid stratified Boussinesq equations is presented given a steady zonal flow with constant vertical shear in a tilted f plane. Full nonhydrostatic terms are included: 1) acceleration of vertical velocity and ...

Nicole Jeffery; Beth Wingate

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Quality Control and Tilt Correction Effects on the Turbulent Fluxes Observed at an Ocean Platform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates atmospheric factors influencing the quality and the postprocessing (e.g., tilt correction) of fast-response measurements of turbulent fluxes for difficult open-sea measurements over an offshore platform. The data were ...

Hyun-Mi Oh; Kyung-Eak Kim; Kyung-Ja Ha; Larry Mahrt; Jae-Seol Shim

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Resolution limits and process latitude of comformable contact nano-lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conformable Contact Lithography enables researchers to attain high-resolution lithographic patterning at manageable cost. This thesis characterizes the minimum resolvable feature size and process latitude of Conformable ...

Fucetola, Corey Patrick

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

The Influence of Meridional Shear on Planetary Waves. Part 2: Critical Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the simplifying assumption that the mean zonal wind is a function of latitude only, numerical and analytical methods are applied to study the effects of critical latitudes (where the Doppler-shifted frequency is 0) on planetary waves. On the ...

John P. Boyd

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

General heart construction on a triangulated category (I): unifying t-structures and tilting subcategories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2008, Koenig and Zhu revealed that the quotient of a triangulated category by a tilting subcategory (= maximal 1-orthogonal subcategory) becomes an abelian category. On the other hand, as is well known since 1980s, the heart of any $t$-structure is abelian. We unify these two important notion to define a {\\it dividing pair}. To any dividing pair in a triangulated category, we can naturally associate an abelian category, which gives back each of the above two abelian categories when the dividing pair is a tilting subcategory, or respectively a $t$-structure.

Nakaoka, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

LLiST - a new star tracker camera for tip-tilt correction at IOTA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The tip-tilt correction system at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) has been upgraded with a new star tracker camera. The camera features a backside-illuminated CCD chip offering doubled overall quantum efficiency and a four times higher system gain compared to the previous system. Tests carried out to characterize the new system showed a higher system gain with a lower read-out noise electron level. Shorter read-out cycle times now allow to compensate tip-tilt fluctuations so that their error imposed on visibility measurements becomes comparable to, and even smaller than, that of higher-order aberrations.

P. A. Schuller; M. G. Lacasse; D. Lydon; W. H. McGonagle; E. Pedretti; R. K. Reich; F. P. Schloerb; W. A. Traub

2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

80

Cosmic-ray latitude surveys in the Atlantic Ocean area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical cutoff rigidities were re-determined for the locations of the stratospheric balloon measurements made during the 22nd Soviet Antarctic Expedition (1975-1976). These cutoff rigidities were determined for the month of each measurement using a method that interpolates between the world grids of trajectory-derived vertical cutoff rigidities calculated for Epoch 1965.0 and Epoch 1980.0. In comparing these values with other calculated using the 1975.0 field models which under-estimated the secular variations, small increases in the vertical cutoff rigidities were noted in the North Atlantic area and small decreases were noted in the South Atlantic, consistent with the secular changes in the world grid of vertical cutoff rigidities. These results emphasize the necessity of determining cutoff rigidity values of the year in which latitude measurements are made if these measurements are in the region of the world (particularly the Atlantic Ocean area) where the cutoff-rigidity values are rapidly changing.

Shea, M.A.; Smart, D.F.; Stozhkov, Y.I.; Svirzhevsky, N.S.; Svirzhevskaya, A.K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A Study on Optimum Tilt Angle for Wind Estimation Using Indian MST Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of tilt angle on horizontal wind estimation is studied using Indian mesospherestratospheretroposphere (MST) radar located at Gadanki (13.45N, 79.18E). It operates in Doppler beam swinging (DBS) mode with a beamwidth of 3. ...

V. K. Anandan; I. Srinivasa Rao; P. Narasimha Reddy

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

The Size Distribution and Mass-Weighted Terminal Velocity of Low-Latitude Tropopause Cirrus Crystal Populations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice crystal terminal velocities govern the lifetime of radiatively complex, climatologically important, low-latitude tropopause cirrus clouds. To better understand cloud lifetimes, the terminal velocities of low-latitude tropopause cirrus cloud ...

C. G. Schmitt; A. J. Heymsfield

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Global Monitoring of Net Solar Irradiance at the Ocean Surface: Climatological Variability and the 19821983 El Nio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method has been used to generate the first satellite-based long-term climatology of surface solar irradiance over the world oceans. These monthly mean data cover the period November 1978 through October 1985 on a global, 9 latitude-...

Beth Chertock; Robert Frouin; Richard C. J. Somerville

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A Stochastic Model for the Angular Momentum Budget of Latitude Belts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stochastic model of Weickmann et al. for the global angular momentum budget is modified to become applicable to latitude belts. In particular, a Langevin equation is added for the flux divergence of angular momentum in a belt. The friction ...

Joseph Egger

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polar regions have great sensitivity to climate forcing; however, understanding of the physical processes coupling the atmosphere and ocean in these regions is relatively poor. Improving our knowledge of high-latitude surface fluxes will require close ...

Mark A. Bourassa; Sarah T. Gille; Cecilia Bitz; David Carlson; Ivana Cerovecki; Carol Anne Clayson; Meghan F. Cronin; Will M. Drennan; Chris W. Fairall; Ross N. Hoffman; Gudrun Magnusdottir; Rachel T. Pinker; Ian A. Renfrew; Mark Serreze; Kevin Speer; Lynne D. Talley; Gary A. Wick

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Thermodynamic and Hydrological Impacts of Increasing Greenness in Northern High Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite remote sensing data indicate that greenness has been increasing in the northern high latitudes, apparently in response to the warming of recent decades. To identify feedbacks of this land-cover change to the atmosphere, the authors ...

Jing Zhang; John E. Walsh

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The Effect of Tropospheric Jet Latitude on Coupling between the Stratospheric Polar Vortex and the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dry general circulation model is used to investigate how coupling between the stratospheric polar vortex and the extratropical tropospheric circulation depends on the latitude of the tropospheric jet. The tropospheric response to an identical ...

Chaim I. Garfinkel; Darryn W. Waugh; Edwin P. Gerber

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Surface Air Temperature and Humidity from Intersatellite-Calibrated HIRS Measurements in High Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-latitude ocean surface air temperature and humidity derived from intersatellite-calibrated High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) measurements are examined. A neural network approach is used to develop retrieval algorithms. HIRS ...

Lei Shi; Ge Peng; John J. Bates

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

On the Linear Relationship between Loop Current Retreat Latitude and Eddy Separation Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear correlation exists between the retreat latitude of the Loop Current following eddy separation and the subsequent eddy separation period. This empirical relationship was first identified in satellite altimeter-derived Loop Current ...

Alexis Lugo-Fernndez; Robert R. Leben

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

An Observational Study of High-Latitude Stratospheric Planetary Waves in Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nimbus 4 and 5 radiances, representing temperatures in the upper and lower stratosphere, are analyzed to obtain power and coherence squared spectra at high latitudes during the winters of both hemispheres. The spectra for zonal wavenumbers 13 ...

David E. Venne; John L. Stanford

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Equatorward Energy Cascade, Critical Latitude, and the Predominance of Cyclonic Vortices in Geostrophic Turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geostrophic turbulence exhibits features similar to those observed in the oceans: a movement of energy toward the equator, a critical latitude below which are alternating zonal flows and above which the flow is largely isotropic, and a ...

Jrgen Theiss

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Climatology of High-Latitude Air Pollution as Illustrated by Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High latitude communities frequently have severe air pollution problems. The usual situation is the release of moderate amounts of pollutants into an atmosphere with extremely poor dispersion. The poor dispersion is in turn a direct result of the ...

Sue Ann Bowling

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Computer shadow analysis technique for tilted windows shaded by overhangs, vertical projections, and side fins  

SciTech Connect

This paper expands upon previously published techniques for calculating window shadow areas by computer to include tilted and horizontal glazing systems as well as vertical glazing systems. This methodology may be used for any rectangular window shaded by rectangular overhangs and/or side fins perpendicular to the plane of the window. Rectangular projections suspended from the end of an overhang are also accommodated. The technique yields a precise solution and requires minimum input. Computer processing is rapid because iterative algorithms are avoided. Shadow overlaps and end effects are completely treated. The glazing system may have any degree of tilt from horizontal (looking upward) through vertical to horizontal (looking downward). Techniques for sorting window shadow shapes and equations for calculating shadow areas are included.

Bekooy, R.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Effects of head-up tilt on mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and regional cardiac output distribution in aging rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many senescent individuals demonstrate an inability to regulate mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to standing or head-up tilt; however, whether this aging effect is the result of depressed cardiac function or an inability to reduce peripheral vascular conductance remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of aging on MAP, heart rate (HR), regional blood flow (via radioactive-microspheres), and vascular conductance during head-up tilt in conscious young (4 mo; n=12) and old (24 mo; n=10) male Fischer-344 rats. Heart rate and MAP were measured continuously during normal posture and during 10 minutes of head-up tilt. Blood flow was determined during normal posture and at the end of 10 minutes of head-up tilt. Young rats increased MAP significantly at the onset of head-up tilt and generally maintained the increase in MAP for the duration of head-up tilt, while aged rats showed a significant reduction in MAP after 10 minutes of head-up tilt. In the normal posture, aged rats demonstrated lower blood flow to splanchnic, bone, renal, and skin tissues versus young rats. With tilt there were decreases in blood flow to skin, bone, and hind-limb in both age groups and in fat, splanchnic, reproductive, and renal tissues in the young. Bone blood flow was attenuated with age across both conditions in hind foot, distal femur, femur marrow, and proximal and distal tibia. Head-up tilt caused a decrease in blood flow across both age groups in all bones sampled with the exception of the hind foot. These results provide evidence that the initial maintenance of MAP in aged rats during head-up tilt occurs through decreased regional blood flow and vascular conductance, and that the fall in pressure is not attributable to an increase in tissue blood flow and vascular conductance. Therefore, reductions in arterial pressure during headup tilt are likely a result of an old age-induced reduction in cardiac performance. In addition, this is the first study to demonstrate a decreased bone vascular conductance in both young and old rats during head-up tilt.

Ramsey, Michael Wiechmann

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

A GCM Parameterization of Ice Particle Mean Effective Sizes for High Latitude Cirrus Clouds and It's Comparison with Mid-Latitude Parmaterization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GCM Parameterization of Ice Particle Mean Effective GCM Parameterization of Ice Particle Mean Effective Sizes for High Latitude Cirrus Clouds and It's Comparison with Mid-Latitude Parameterization F. S. Boudala Department of Oceanography Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Q. Fu Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of Washington Seattle, Washington G. A. Issac Meteorological Service of Canada Toronto, Ontario, Canada Introduction Single-scattering properties of ice clouds depend on both ice water content (IWC) and effective size of cloud particles (Fu 1996; Fu et al. 1998). However, only the IWC information is provided in numerical models. Stephens et al. (1990) showed that the ice cloud feedback on a CO 2 warming simulation could be either positive or negative depending on the value of the ice particle size assumed. Parameterizations

96

Thermal conductance and rectification of asymmetric tilt grain boundary in graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the lattice thermal transport across the asymmetry tilt grain boundary between armchair and zigzag grains by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). We have observed significant temperature drop and ultralow temperature-dependent thermal boundary resistance. Importantly, we find an unexpected thermal rectification phenomenon, i.e, the thermal conductivity and Kapitza conductance is asymmetric with respect to the thermal transport direction. And the effect of thermal rectification could be amplified by increasing the difference of temperature imposed on two sides. Our results propose a new promising kind of thermal rectifier and phonon diodes from polycrystalline graphene without delicate manupulation of the atomic structures.

Cao, Hai-Yuan; Gong, Xin-Gao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Solar heat gain coefficient of complex fenestrations with a venetian blind for differing slat tilt angles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measured bidirectional transmittances and reflectances of a buff-colored venetian blind together with a layer calculation scheme developed in previous publications are utilized to produce directional-hemispherical properties for the venetian blind layer and solar heat gain coefficients for the blind in combination with clear double glazing. Results are presented for three blind slat tilt angles and for the blind mounted either interior to the double glazing or between the glass panes. Implications of the results for solar heat gain calculations are discussed in the context of sun positions for St. Louis, MO.

Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Ion Irradiation Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 17, 2011 ... Materials Science Challenges for Nuclear Applications: Ion Irradiation Effects Sponsored by: MS&T Organization Program Organizers: Ram...

99

Irradiation Damage Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...R.L. Klueh, Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Properties of Steels, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys,

100

Small-scale anisotropy and intermittency in high and low-latitude solar wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze low and high--latitude fast solar wind data from the Ulysses spacecraft from 1992 to 1994 using a a systematic method to analyse the anisotropic content of the magnetic field fluctuations. We investigate all available frequencies, 1-10^{-6} Hz, for both high and low--latitudes datasets and are able to quantify the relative importance of the anisotropic versus the isotropic fluctuations. We analyse, up to sixth order, longitudinal, transverse and mixed magnetic field correlations. Our results show that strongly intermittent and anisotropic events are present in the solar wind plasma at high frequencies/small scales, indicating the absence of a complete recovery of isotropy. Anisotropic scaling properties are compatible for high and low--latitude data, suggesting a universal behaviour in spite of the different rate of evolution of the fast solar wind streams in the two environments.

A. Bigazzi; L. Biferale; S. M. A. Gama; M. Velli

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne in situ observations of molecules with a wide range of lifetimes (methane, nitrous oxide, reactive nitrogen, ozone, chlorinated halocarbons, and halon-1211), used in a tropical tracer model, show that mid-latitude air is entrained into the tropical lower stratosphere within about 13.5 months; transport is faster in the reverse direction. Because exchange with the tropics is slower than global photochemical models generally assume, ozone at mid-latitudes appears to be more sensitive to elevated levels of industrial chlorine than is currently predicted. Nevertheless, about 45 percent of air in the tropical ascent region at 21 kilometers is of mid-latitude origin, implying that emissions from supersonic aircraft could reach the middle stratosphere. 49 refs., 5 figs.

Volk, C.M.; Dutton, G.S.; Gilligan, J.M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)] [and others

1996-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

102

Small-scale anisotropy and intermittency in high and low-latitude solar wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze low and high--latitude fast solar wind data from the Ulysses spacecraft from 1992 to 1994 using a a systematic method to analyse the anisotropic content of the magnetic field fluctuations. We investigate all available frequencies, 1-10^{-6} Hz, for both high and low--latitudes datasets and are able to quantify the relative importance of the anisotropic versus the isotropic fluctuations. We analyse, up to sixth order, longitudinal, transverse and mixed magnetic field correlations. Our results show that strongly intermittent and anisotropic events are present in the solar wind plasma at high frequencies/small scales, indicating the absence of a complete recovery of isotropy. Anisotropic scaling properties are compatible for high and low--latitude data, suggesting a universal behaviour in spite of the different rate of evolution of the fast solar wind streams in the two environments.

Bigazzi, A; Gama, S M A; Velli, M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

mapping | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

mapping mapping Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude Tilt Irradiance NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords GIS global irradiance latitude mapping NASA renewable energy solar solar PV SWERA TILT UNEP Data text/csv icon Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) (csv, 11.8 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 5 MiB)

105

The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Liquid, Dried, and Absorbed DNA Extracts ... Page 12. Study Shipped Land Carrier Irradiation ? ...

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

106

Sensitivity of the Latitude of the Surface Westerlies to Surface Friction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity to surface friction of the latitude of the surface westerlies and the associated eddy-driven midlatitude jet is studied in an idealized dry GCM. The westerlies move poleward as the friction is reduced in strength. An increase in ...

Gang Chen; Isaac M. Held; Walter A. Robinson

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

An Observational Study on the Latitudes Where Wave Forcing Drives BrewerDobson Upwelling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data are analyzed to demonstrate that wave forcing at lower latitudes plays a crucial role in driving the tropical upwelling portion of the BrewerDobson circulation. It is shown that subtropical wave forcing ...

Tiehan Zhou; Marvin A. Geller; Wuyin Lin

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Large-Scale Energy Transformations in the High Latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetic energy balance and kinetic energy source are studied for high latitudes north of 55N with twice daily upper air observations during a seven-year period from 1973 to 1979. Energy variables are presented for 5 latitudinal zones from ...

E. C. Kung; S. E. Masters; J. A. M. Corte-Real

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Dell Latitude 5000 Series Outstanding reliability and security in the world's most manageable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solid state hybrid drives or performance solid state drive options for large, reliable storage capacity from a single source, the Latitude 5000 Series offer outstanding security. Protect data on any device out of the box with factory installation and simplify compliance with preset compliance templates

Sanderson, Yasmine

110

Verification of Low Latitude Ionosphere Effects on WAAS During October 2003 Geomagnetic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Verification of Low Latitude Ionosphere Effects on WAAS During October 2003 Geomagnetic Storm S one of the strongest geomagnetic and ionospheric storms of the solar cycle. WAAS user integrity to be the case that this larger structure may exist due to the effects of the geomagnetic storm in the South

Stanford University

111

Computing the latitudes of sunspot trajectories and speed of sunspots with intelligent methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar sunspot rotation, latitudinal bands are studied based on intelligent computation methods. The benefices of image fusion and powerful tree decomposition are used in this study in order to achieve quantitative values about the latitudes of trajectories ... Keywords: image fusion, quad tree decomposition, sunspot image

Mostafa Bakhtiary; Ahmad Hamedi Yekta; Arash Attarzadeh

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

WIND-DRIVEN NEAR INERTIAL OCEAN RESPONSE AND MIXING AT THE CRITICAL LATITUDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spatial structure and temporal evolution of sea breeze and the latitudinal distribution of propagation and mixing of sea breeze driven near-inertial ocean response in the Gulf of Mexico are investigated using comprehensive data sets and a non-linear numerical model. Near 30?N, inertial oceanic response is significantly enhanced by a near-resonant condition between inertial and diurnal forcing frequencies. Observational results indicate that sea breeze variability peaks in summer and extends at least 300 km offshore with continuous seaward phase propagation. The maximum near-inertial oceanic response occurs in June when there is a shallow mixed layer, strong stratification, and an approximately 10-day period of continuous sea breeze forcing. Near-inertial current variance decreases in July and August due to the deepening of the mixed layer and a more variable phase relationship between the wind and current. River discharge varies interannually and can significantly alter the oceanic response during summer. During 1993, the ?great flood? of the Mississippi River deepens the summer mixed layer and reduces the sea breeze response. The near-inertial currents can provide considerable vertical mixing on the shelf in summer, as seen by the suppression of bulk Richardson number during strong near-inertial events. Three-dimensional idealized simulations show that the coastal oceanic response to sea breeze is trapped poleward of 30? latitude, however, it can propagate offshore as Poincare waves equatorward of 30? latitude. Near 30? latitude, the maximum oceanic response to sea breeze moves offshore slowly because of the near-zero group speed of Poincare waves at this latitude. The lateral energy flux convergence plus the energy input from the wind is maximum near the critical latitude, leading to increased vertical mixing. This local dissipation is greatly reduced at other latitudes. Simulations with realistic bathymetry of the Gulf of Mexico confirm that a basin-wide ocean response to coastal sea breeze forcing is established in the form of Poincare waves. This enhanced vertical mixing is consistent with observations on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf. Comparison of the three-dimensional and one-dimensional models shows some significant limitations of one-dimensional simplified models for sea breeze simulations near the critical latitude.

Zhang, Xiaoqian

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

The Structure and Predictability of the High-Latitude Mode in the CSIRO9 General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CSIRO9 general circulation model shows a zonally symmetric mode of variability, which closely resembles the high-latitude mode (HLM) in middle and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. The leading EOF of the zonal mean zonal wind between ...

John W. Kidson; Ian G. Watterson

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Effects of solar wind magnetosphere coupling recorded at different geomagnetic latitudes: Separation of directly-driven and storage/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of solar wind magnetosphere coupling recorded at different geomagnetic latitudes November 2008. [1] The effect on geomagnetic activity of solar wind speed, compared with that of the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field, differs with geomagnetic latitude. In this study we

Lockwood, Mike

115

Geomagnetic field behavior at high latitudes from a paleomagnetic record from Eltanin core 2721 in the Ross Sea sector, Antarctica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geomagnetic field behavior at high latitudes from a paleomagnetic record from Eltanin core 27-term geomagnetic features, like the Cobb Mountain excursion, are resolved. The record from Eltanin 27­21 provides new insights into the behavior of the geomagnetic field at high latitudes, about which very little

Acton, Gary

116

CZT detectors used in different irradiation geometries: Simulations and experimental results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate potential advantages and limitations of CZT detectors used in surface-on, edge-on, and tilted angle irradiation geometries. Simulations and experimental investigations of the energy spectrum measured by a CZT detector have been performed using different irradiation geometries of the CZT. Experiments were performed using a CZT detector with 10x10 mm{sup 2} size and 3 mm thickness. The detector was irradiated with collimated photon beams from Am-241 (59.5 keV) and Co-57 (122 keV). The edge-scan method was used to measure the detector response function in edge-on illumination mode. The tilted angle mode was investigated with the radiation beam directed to the detector surface at angles of 90 degree sign , 15 degree sign , and 10 degree sign . The Hecht formalism was used to simulate theoretical energy spectra. The parameters used for simulations were matched to experiment to compare experimental and theoretical results. The tilted angle CZT detector suppressed the tailing of the spectrum and provided an increase in peak-to-total ratio from 38% at 90 degree sign to 83% at 10 degree sign tilt angle for 122 keV radiation. The corresponding increase for 59 keV radiation was from 60% at 90 degree sign to 85% at 10 degree sign tilt angle. The edge-on CZT detector provided high energy resolution when the beam thickness was much smaller than the thickness of CZT. The FWHM resolution in edge-on illumination mode was 4.2% for 122 keV beam with 0.3 mm thickness, and rapidly deteriorated when the thickness of the beam was increased. The energy resolution of surface-on geometry suffered from strong tailing effect at photon energies higher than 60 keV. It is concluded that tilted angle CZT provides high energy resolution but it is limited to a 1D linear array configuration. The surface-on CZT provides 2D pixel arrays but suffers from tailing effect and charge build up. The edge-on CZT is considered suboptimal as it requires small beam thickness and also suffers from charge buildup.

Fritz, Shannon G.; Shikhaliev, Polad M. [Imaging Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Unresolved H-Alpha Enhancements at High Galactic Latitude in the WHAM Sky Survey Maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have identified 85 regions of enhanced H-Alpha emission at |b| > 10 degrees subtending approximately 1 degree or less on the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) sky survey. These high latitude ``WHAM point sources'' have H-Alpha fluxes of 10^{-11} to 10^{-9} erg cm^-2 s^-1, radial velocities within about 70 km/s of the LSR, and line widths that range from less than 20 km/s to about 80 km/s (FWHM). Twenty nine of these enhancements are not identified with either cataloged nebulae or hot stars and appear to have kinematic properties that differ from those observed for planetary nebulae. Another 14 enhancements are near hot evolved low mass stars that had no previously reported detections of associated nebulosity. The remainder of the enhancements are cataloged planetary nebulae and small, high latitude H II regions surrounding massive O and early B stars.

R. J. Reynolds; V. Chaudhary; G. J. Madsen; L. M. Haffner

2004-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

118

Unresolved H-Alpha Enhancements at High Galactic Latitude in the WHAM Sky Survey Maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have identified 85 regions of enhanced H-Alpha emission at |b| > 10 degrees subtending approximately 1 degree or less on the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) sky survey. These high latitude ``WHAM point sources'' have H-Alpha fluxes of 10^{-11} to 10^{-9} erg cm^-2 s^-1, radial velocities within about 70 km/s of the LSR, and line widths that range from less than 20 km/s to about 80 km/s (FWHM). Twenty nine of these enhancements are not identified with either cataloged nebulae or hot stars and appear to have kinematic properties that differ from those observed for planetary nebulae. Another 14 enhancements are near hot evolved low mass stars that had no previously reported detections of associated nebulosity. The remainder of the enhancements are cataloged planetary nebulae and small, high latitude H II regions surrounding massive O and early B stars.

Reynolds, R J; Madsen, G J; Haffner, L M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Multi-Year Lags between Forest Browning and Soil Respiration at High Northern Latitudes  

SciTech Connect

High-latitude northern ecosystems are experiencing rapid climate changes, and represent a large potential climate feedback because of their high soil carbon densities and shifting disturbance regimes. A significant carbon flow from these ecosystems is soil respiration (RS, the flow of carbon dioxide, generated by plant roots and soil fauna, from the soil surface to atmosphere), and any change in the high-latitude carbon cycle might thus be reflected in RS observed in the field. This study used two variants of a machine-learning algorithm and least squares regression to examine how remotely-sensed canopy greenness (NDVI), climate, and other variables are coupled to annual RS based on 105 observations from 64 circumpolar sites in a global database. The addition of NDVI roughly doubled model performance, with the best-performing models explaining ~62% of observed RS variability

Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bunn, Andrew G.; Thomson, Allison M.

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

120

An analysis on the mid-latitude scintillation and coherence frequency bandwidth using transionospheric VHF signals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis was perfonned on the mid-latitude scintillation and coherence frequency bandwidth (Fcoh) using transionospheric VHF signal data. The data include 1062 events spanning from November 1997 to June 2002. Each event records FORTE satellite received VHF signals from LAPP located at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Fcohs were derived to study scintillation characteristics on diurnal and seasonal variations, as well as changes due to solar and geomagnetic activities. Comparisons to the VHFIUHF coherence frequency bandwidth studies previously reported at equatorial and mid-latitude regions are made using a 4th power frequency dependence relationship. Furthennore, a wideband ionospheric scintillation model, WBMOD, was used to estimate Fcohs and compared with our VHF Fcoh values. Our analysis indicates mid-latitude scintillation characteristics that are not previously revealed. At the VHF bottom frequency range (3035 MHz), distinguished smaller Fcohs are found in time period from sunset to midnight, in wann season from May to August, and in low solar activity years. The effects of geomagnetic storm activity on Fcoh are characterized by a sudden transition at a Kp index of 50-60. Comparisons with median Fcohs estimated from other studies validated our VHF Fcohs for daytime while an order of magnitude larger Fcohs are found for nighttime, implying a time-dependent issue in applying the 4th order power relationship. Furthermore, comparisons with WBMOD-estimated Fcohs indicated generally matched median scintillation level estimates while differences do exist for those events undergoing high geomagnetic stonn activity which may imply underestimates of scintillation level by the WBMOD in the mid-latitude regions.

Juang, Zhen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel-dupre, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Investigation of tilted dose kernels for portal dose prediction in a-Si electronic portal imagers  

SciTech Connect

The effect of beam divergence on dose calculation via Monte Carlo generated dose kernels was investigated in an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID). The flat-panel detector was simulated in EGSnrc with an additional 3.0 cm water buildup. The model included details of the detector's imaging cassette and the front cover upstream of it. To approximate the effect of the EPID's rear housing, a 2.1 cm air gap and 1.0 cm water slab were introduced into the simulation as equivalent backscatter material. Dose kernels were generated with an incident pencil beam of monoenergetic photons of energy 0.1, 2, 6, and 18 MeV. The orientation of the incident pencil beam was varied from 0 deg. to 14 deg. in 2 deg. increments. Dose was scored in the phosphor layer of the detector in both cylindrical (at 0 deg. ) and Cartesian (at 0 deg. -14 deg.) geometries. To reduce statistical fluctuations in the Cartesian geometry simulations at large radial distances from the incident pencil beam, the voxels were first averaged bilaterally about the pencil beam and then combined into concentric square rings of voxels. Profiles of the EPID dose kernels displayed increasing asymmetry with increasing angle and energy. A comparison of the superposition (tilted kernels) and convolution (parallel kernels) dose calculation methods via the {chi}-comparison test (a derivative of the {gamma}-evaluation) in worst-case-scenario geometries demonstrated an agreement between the two methods within 0.0784 cm (one pixel width) distance-to-agreement and up to a 1.8% dose difference. More clinically typical field sizes and source-to-detector distances were also tested, yielding at most a 1.0% dose difference and the same distance-to-agreement. Therefore, the assumption of parallel dose kernels has less than a 1.8% dosimetric effect in extreme cases and less than a 1.0% dosimetric effect in most clinically relevant situations and should be suitable for most clinical dosimetric applications. The resulting time difference for the parallel kernel assumption versus the tilted kernels was 10.5 s vs 18 h (a factor of approximately 6000), dependent on existing hardware and software details.

Chytyk, K.; McCurdy, B. M. C. [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9, Canada and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada) and Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9 (Canada)

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

STARSPOTS, SPIN-ORBIT MISALIGNMENT, AND ACTIVE LATITUDES IN THE HAT-P-11 EXOPLANETARY SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the analysis of four months of Kepler photometry of the K4V star HAT-P-11, including 26 transits of its 'super-Neptune' planet. The transit data exhibit numerous anomalies which we interpret as passages of the planet over dark starspots. These spot-crossing anomalies preferentially occur at two specific phases of the transit. These phases can be understood as the intersection points between the transit chord and the active latitudes of the host star, where starspots are most abundant. Based on the measured characteristics of spot-crossing anomalies and previous observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find two solutions for the stellar obliquity {psi} and active latitude l: either {psi} = 106{sup +15}{sub -11} and l = 19.7{sup +1.5}{sub -2.2}, or {psi} = 97{sup +8}{sub -4} and l = 67{sup +2}{sub -4} (all in degrees). If the active latitude changes with time analogous to the 'butterfly diagram' of the Sun's activity cycle, future observations should reveal changes in the preferred phases of spot-crossing anomalies.

Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

123

Test Problem: Tilted Rayleigh-Taylor for 2-D Mixing Studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 'tilted-rig' test problem originates from a series of experiments (Smeeton & Youngs, 1987, Youngs, 1989) performed at AWE in the late 1980's, that followed from the 'rocket-rig' experiments (Burrows et al., 1984; Read & Youngs, 1983), and exploratory experiments performed at Imperial College (Andrews, 1986; Andrews and Spalding, 1990). A schematic of the experiment is shown in Figure 1, and comprises a tank filled with light fluid above heavy, and then 'tilted' on one side of the apparatus, thus causing an 'angled interface' to the acceleration history due to rockets. Details of the configuration given in the next chapter include: fluids, dimensions, and other necessary details to simulate the experiment. Figure 2 shows results from two experiments, Case 110 (which is the source for this test problem) that has an Atwood number of 0.5, and Case 115 (a secondary source described in Appendix B), with Atwood of 0.9 Inspection of the photograph in Figure 2 (the main experimental diagnostic) for Case 110. reveals two main areas for mix development; 1) a large-scale overturning motion that produces a rising plume (spike) on the left, and falling plume (bubble) on the right, that are almost symmetric; and 2) a Rayleigh-Taylor driven mixing central mixing region that has a large-scale rotation associated with the rising and falling plumes, and also experiences lateral strain due to stretching of the interface by the plumes, and shear across the interface due to upper fluid moving downward and to the right, and lower fluid moving upward and to the left. Case 115 is similar but differs by a much larger Atwood of 0.9 that drives a strong asymmetry between a left side heavy spike penetration and a right side light bubble penetration. Case 110 is chosen as the source for the present test problem as the fluids have low surface tension (unlike Case 115) due the addition of a surfactant, the asymmetry small (no need to have fine grids for the spike), and there is extensive reasonable quality photographic data. The photographs in Figure 2 also reveal the appearance of a boundary layer at the left and right walls; this boundary layer has not been included in the test problem as preliminary calculations suggested it had a negligible effect on plume penetration and RT mixing. The significance of this test problem is that, unlike planar RT experiments such as the Rocket-Rig (Youngs, 1984), Linear Electric Motor - LEM (Dimonte, 1990), or the Water Tunnel (Andrews, 1992), the Tilted-Rig is a unique two-dimensional RT mixing experiment that has experimental data and now (in this TP) Direct Numerical Simulation data from Livescu and Wei. The availability of DNS data for the tilted-rig has made this TP viable as it provides detailed results for comparison purposes. The purpose of the test problem is to provide 3D simulation results, validated by comparison with experiment, which can be used for the development and validation of 2D RANS models. When such models are applied to 2D flows, various physics issues are raised such as double counting, combined buoyancy and shear, and 2-D strain, which have not yet been adequately addressed. The current objective of the test problem is to compare key results, which are needed for RANS model validation, obtained from high-Reynolds number DNS, high-resolution ILES or LES with explicit sub-grid-scale models. The experiment is incompressible and so is directly suitable for algorithms that are designed for incompressible flows (e.g. pressure correction algorithms with multi-grid); however, we have extended the TP so that compressible algorithms, run at low Mach number, may also be used if careful consideration is given to initial pressure fields. Thus, this TP serves as a useful tool for incompressible and compressible simulation codes, and mathematical models. In the remainder of this TP we provide a detailed specification; the next section provides the underlying assumptions for the TP, fluids, geometry details, boundary conditions (and alternative set-ups), initial conditions, and acceleration history (an

Andrews, Malcolm J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Youngs, David L. [AWE

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fuel or irradiation subassembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

1975-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

125

FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Monotone and Conservative Cascade Remapping between Spherical Grids (CaRS): Regular LatitudeLongitude and Cubed-Sphere Grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-order monotone and conservative cascade remapping algorithm between spherical grids (CaRS) is developed. This algorithm is specifically designed to remap between the cubed-sphere and regular latitudelongitude grids. The remapping approach ...

Peter H. Lauritzen; Ramachandran D. Nair

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Low-latitude Western North Atlantic climate variability during the past millennium : insights from proxies and models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimates of natural climate variability during the past millennium provide a frame of reference in which to assess the significance of recent changes. This thesis investigates new methods of reconstructing low-latitude ...

Saenger, Casey Pearce

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The Freshening of Surface Waters in High Latitudes: Effects on the Thermohaline and Wind-Driven Circulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impacts of a freshening of surface waters in high latitudes on the deep, slow, thermohaline circulation have received enormous attention, especially the possibility of a shutdown in the meridional overturning that involves sinking of surface ...

Alexey Fedorov; Marcelo Barreiro; Giulio Boccaletti; Ronald Pacanowski; S. George Philander

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Tilt grain boundaries in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-x thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grain boundaries in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} superconductor thin films grown on (001) MgO by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). It was found that the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} thin films were highly textured with the c axes, or (001) orientation, nearly parallel between grains and perpendicular to the MgO substrate. A majority of the grain boundaries are low-angle boundaries with a tilt angle, {theta}, less than 15{degree}. The low-angle boundaries appear to be strongly faceted on an atomic scale in such a way that the boundary planes tend to be parallel to the (100), (010), or (110) lattice planes in one of the adjacent grains. Almost all of the lattice planes, except for a number of distorted regions along the boundaries, are continuous across the boundaries from one grain to another, accommodating the misorientation with a slight bending of the lattice planes. The small-angle boundaries are shown to consist of arrays of dislocations. A domain structure, formed by the interchange of a and b axes has been observed in large grains. The domain boundaries are strongly faceted with the (100) and (010) lattice planes parallel to the boundaries. These observations on the atomic structure of boundaries, are used to discuss the effect of grain boundaries on superconductor properties in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} thin films. 15 refs., 9 figs.

Gao, Y.; Bai, G.; Chang, H.L.M.; Merkle, K.L.; Lam, D.J.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Solar Irradiance Variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

Solanki, Sami K

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

There has been recent interest in the application of the tilt-rotor concept to civil aviation. The concept offers the speed and altitude capability of the turbojet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hybrid electric will be explored. The impact of engine location and Part-Span tilt wing will also of a helicopter. Such a vehicle could fill a number of niches in the aviation market. Some tilt-rotor studies have through the application of new technologies to the concept. Advanced materials and systems, including

132

Water-bearing minerals on mars: source of observed mid-latitude water?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Odyssey spacecraft documented the existence of heterogeneously distributed hydrogen at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound H20 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3 .8% equivalent H20. Shallow occurrences of water ice are not stable near the martian equator, making the hydrogen deposits at these latitudes somewhat enigmatic. Clay minerals and zeolites have both been proposed as possible water-bearing constituents on Mars, and both are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable to those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide good evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust [6] . The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i .e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question . The existence of hydrous minerals is also important in connection with their possible role in affecting the diurnal variation of the martian atmosphere, in their potential role in unraveling the paleohydrology and paleobiology of Mars, and in their possible use as a water resource to support exploration of the martian mid-latitudes.

Bish, D. L. (David L.); Carey, J. W. (James W.); Fialips, C. I. (Clair I.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A FALSE POSITIVE FOR OCEAN GLINT ON EXOPLANETS: THE LATITUDE-ALBEDO EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ('glint'), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected light curves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: (1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice; and (2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this 'latitude-albedo effect' will operate even for large obliquities: in that case the equator receives less orbit-averaged flux than the poles, and the equator is preferentially sampled at crescent phase. Using rotational and orbital color variations to map the surfaces of directly imaged planets and estimate their obliquity will therefore be a necessary pre-condition for properly interpreting their reflected phase variations. The latitude-albedo effect is a particularly convincing glint false positive for zero-obliquity planets, and such worlds are not amenable to latitudinal mapping. This effect severely limits the utility of specular reflection for detecting oceans on exoplanets.

Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, D-20146, Hamburg (Germany)

2012-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

134

Definition: Global horizontal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Normal Irradiance (DNI) and Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DIF).1 Related Terms DNI, Solar radiation, Concentrating solar power, Photovoltaics References http:...

135

VLF heating of the lower ionosphere: Variation with magnetic latitude and electron density profile  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the results of calculations of ionospheric absorption of VLF heating radiation, in comparison with HF heating. This work was motivated by recent observations of the effects of VLF heating, which indicate that it is much more efficient than HF heating, at least for certain ionospheric conditions. The authors assume an ionospheric model which is consistent with that observed during the previous heating experiments. Their results are in basic agreement with the experimental observations. They find that the enhancement in efficiency of VLF heating over HF heating is a feature of low latitudes, where ionospheric density profiles favor this effect. In the polar regions, HF heating is more efficient.

Barr, R. (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand)); Stubbe, P. (Max Planck Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany))

1992-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

136

Hydrogen sorption in titanium alloys with a symmetric {Sigma}5(310) tilt grain boundary and a (310) surface  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogen sorption in intermetallic B2 TiM (M = Ni, Co, Pd) with a symmetric {Sigma}5(310) tilt grain boundary and a (310) surface is studied by density functional theory methods. The effect of hydrogen on the electronic characteristics of the alloys is analyzed as a function of a sorption position at the interfaces. The hydrogen sorption energy is shown to depend on the local environment of hydrogen; on the whole, hydrogen at the interfaces prefers titanium-rich positions. The hydrogen sorption energy in metal-rich positions decreases when the d shell of the second alloy component is filled with electrons. The grain-boundary energy, the surface energy, and the hydrogen segregation energies to the interfaces are calculated. Hydrogen sorption in titanium alloys is shown to decrease Griffith work and to favor brittle fracture along tilt grain boundaries.

Kulkova, S. E., E-mail: kulkova@ispms.tsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Strength Physics and Material Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Bakulin, A. V. [Tomsk State University (Russian Federation); Kulkov, S. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Strength Physics and Material Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Hocker, S.; Schmauder, S. [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Materials Testing, Materials Science and Strength of Materials (Germany)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Radiation interaction with tilt grain boundaries in {beta}-SiC  

SciTech Connect

Interaction between grain boundaries and radiation is studied in 3C-SiC by conducting molecular dynamics cascade simulations on bicrystal samples with different misorientation angles. The damage in the in-grain regions was found to be unaffected by the grain boundary type and is comparable to damage in single crystal SiC. Radiation-induced chemical disorder in the grain boundary regions is quantified using the homonuclear to heteronuclear bond ratio ({chi}). We found that {chi} increases nearly monotonically with the misorientation angle, which behavior has been attributed to the decreasing distance between the grain boundary dislocation cores with an increasing misorientation angle. The change in the chemical disorder due to irradiation was found to be independent of the type of the grain boundary.

Swaminathan, Narasimhan [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1595 (United States); Wojdyr, Marcin [Institute of High Pressure Physics UNIPRESS, ul. Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Morgan, Dane D.; Szlufarska, Izabela [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1595 (United States); Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1595 (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Uranium vacancy mobility at the sigma 5 symmetric tilt grain boundary in UO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important consequence of the fissioning process occurring during burnup is the formation of fission products. These fission products alter the thermo-mechanical properties of the fuel. They also lead to macroscopic changes in the fuel structure, including the formation of bubbles that are connected to swelling of the fuel. Subsequent release of fission gases increase the pressure in the plenum and can cause changes in the properties of the fuel pin itself. It is thus imperative to understand how fission products, and fission gases in particular, behave within the fuel in order to predict the performance of the fuel under operating conditions. Fission gas redistribution within the fuel is governed by mass transport and the presence of sinks such as impurities, dislocations, and grain boundaries. Thus, to understand how the distribution of fission gases evolves in the fuel, we must understand the underlying transport mechanisms, tied to the concentrations and mobilities of defects within the material, and how these gases interact with microstructural features that might act as sinks. Both of these issues have been addressed in previous work under NEAMS. However, once a fission product has reached a sink, such as a grain boundary, its mobility may be different there than in the grain interior and predicting how, for example, bubbles nucleate within grain boundaries necessitates an understanding of how fission gases diffuse within boundaries. That is the goal of the present work. In this report, we describe atomic level simulations of uranium vacancy diffusion in the pressence of a {Sigma}5 symmetric tilt boundary in urania (UO{sub 2}). This boundary was chosen as it is the simplest of the boundaries we considered in previous work on segregation and serves as a starting point for understanding defect mobility at boundaries. We use a combination of molecular statics calculations and kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to determine how the mobility of uranium vacancies is altered at this particular grain boundary. Given that the diffusion of fission gases such as Xe are tied to the mobility of uranium vacancies, these results given insight into how fission gas mobility differs at grain boundaries compared to bulk urania.

Uberuaga, Blas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

139

Gamma Irradiation | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Irradiation Gamma Irradiation Gamma Irradiation Facility Gamma irradiation chamber Gamma irradiation chamber. The HFIR Gamma Irradiation Facility is an experimental facility designed to irradiate materials with gamma radiation from spent fuel elements. The facility chamber is stainless steel and is made of 0.065-thick tubing to maximize the internal dimensions of the chamber. This allows for the largest samples possible that can still fit inside the cadmium post of the spent fuel loading station positions. The interior chamber is approximately 3.75 inches inside diameter and accommodates samples up to 25 inches long. There are two configurations for the chamber assembly, with the only difference being the plugs. The uninstrumented configuration has a top plug that is used for installation of the samples, to support the inert gas

140

ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

Damask, A.C.

1959-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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141

The QUEST RR Lyrae Survey: III. The Low Galactic Latitude Catalogue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results for the QUEST RR Lyrae Survey at low galactic latitude, conducted entirely with observations obtained with the QUEST mosaic camera and the 1.0/1.5m J\\"urgen Stock Schmidt telescope at the National Observatory of Venezuela. The survey spans an area of 476 sq. deg on the sky, with multi-epoch observations in the V, R and I photometric bands for 6.5x10^6 stars in the galactic latitude range 3095 per cent and ~85 per cent for RRab and RRc stars respectively. Photometric metallicities were computed based on the light curves and individual extinctions calculated from minimum light colours for each RRab star. Distances were obtained with typical errors ~7 per cent. The RR Lyrae survey simultaneously spans a large range of heliocentric distances 0.5<= R_hel(kpc)<=40 and heights above the plane -15<=z(kpc)<=+20, with well known completeness across the survey area, making it an ideal set for studying the struc ture of the Galactic thick disk.

Mateu, Cecilia; Downes, Juan Jos; Briceo, Csar; Zinn, Robert; Cruz-Diaz, Gustavo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Can hydrous minerals account for the observed mid-latitude water on Mars?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Great interest was generated with the discovery by the Odyssey spacecraft OC heterogeneously distributed hydrogcn at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound 1120 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3.8% equivalent H20. More recent interpretations of the Odyssey data using new calibrations suggest that some near-equatorial areas, such as Arabia Terra, contain up to 8.5f I .3% water-equivalent hydrogen. Such shallow occurrences (latitudes. A number of potentially hydrous silicate phases, notably clay minerals and zeolites, have been proposed as possible M20-bearing constituents on Mars, and both groups of minerals are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable io those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust, and concluded that spectral deconvolution of MGS TES and Mariner 9 IRIS data is consistent with the presence of zeolite in the martian surface dust.

Bish, D. L. (David L.); Vaniman, D. T. (David T.); Fialips, C. I. (Clair I.); Carey, J. W. (James W.); Feldman, W. C. (William C.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Is the solar spectrum latitude dependent? An investigation with SST/TRIPPEL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context: In studies of the solar spectrum relative to spectra of solar twin stars, it has been found that the chemical composition of the Sun seems to depart systematically from those of the twins. One possible explanation is that the effect is due to the special aspect angle of the Sun when observed from Earth, as compared with the aspect angles of the twins. Thus, a latitude dependence of the solar spectrum, even with the heliocentric angle constant, could lead to effects of the type observed. Aim: We explore a possible variation in the strength of certain spectral lines, used in the comparisons between the composition of the Sun and the twins, at loci on the solar disk with different latitudes but at constant heliocentric angle. Methods: We use the TRIPPEL spectrograph at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope on La Palma to record spectra in five spectral regions in order to compare different locations on the solar disk at a heliocentric angle of 45 deg. Equivalent widths and other parameters are measured for fi...

Kiselman, Dan; Gustafsson, Bengt; Asplund, Martin; Melndez, Jorge; Scharmer, Gran B; Langhans, Kai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

HAPO GRAPHITE IRRADIATION CAPSULES  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of the broad field of graphite irradiation capsules. The various capsule designs are considered; they include temperature- controlled and temperature-monitored capsules. The components and materials of the capsules are described. Finally, methods are given for carrying out heat trandsfer calculations in capsule design and neutron spectra calculations for correlation of radiation data from different reactors. (D.L.C.)

Helm, J.W.

1963-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

145

BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

1962-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

146

High-latitude F supergiant IRAS 18095 + 2704 - a proto-planetary nebula  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper reports the discovery of a new high-latitude F supergiant, IRAS 18095 + 2704, which shows a large excess in the far-infrared. Ground-based observations have identified it as a V = 10.4 mag F3 Ib star which displays light and velocity variability. Comparison with the post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution model of Volk and Kwok suggests that it is an excellent candidate for a protoplanetary nebula. Model fitting of the spectrum of 18095 + 2704 from 0.35 to 100 microns suggests that it evolved from the AGB approximately 265 yr ago and had a mass-loss rate of 0.00003 solar mass/yr at the end of the AGB. 31 references.

Hrivnak, B.J.; Kwok, S.; Volk, K.M.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Structural Materials - Irradiation Studies II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 15, 2012 ... Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Structural Materials - Irradiation Studies II Sponsored by: The Minerals,...

148

Development and applications of a two-dimensional tip-tilting stage system with nanoradian-level positioning resolution  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, designs of a novel rotary weak-link stage for a vertical rotation axis and a two-dimensional tip-tilting system are presented. Applications of these new stage systems include: an advanced X-ray stereo imaging instrument for particle tracking velocimetry, an alignment stage system for hard X-ray nano-focusing Montel mirror optics, and an ultra-precision crystal manipulator for cryo-cooling optical cavities of an X-ray free-electron-laser oscillator (XFELO).

Shu, Deming [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Lee, Wah-Keat [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liu, Wenjun [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ice, Gene E [ORNL; Shvyd'ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Kim, Kwang-Je [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Development and Applications of a Two-dimensional Tip-Tilting Stage System with Nanoradian-Level Positioning Resolution  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, designs of a novel rotary weak-link stage for a vertical rotation axis and a two-dimensional tip-tilting system are presented. Applications of these new stage systems include: an advanced X-ray stereo imaging instrument for particle tracking velocimetry, an alignment stage system for hard X-ray nano-focusing Montel mirror optics, and an ultra-precision crystal manipulator for cryo-cooling optical cavities of an X-ray free-electron-laser oscillator (XFELO).

Shu, Deming [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Lee, Wah-Keat [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liu, Wenjun [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ice, Gene E [ORNL; Shvyd'ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Kim, Kwang-Je [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion irradiation of carbon nanotubes is a tool that can be used to achieve modification of the structure. Irradiation stability of carbon nanotubes was studied by ion and electron bombardment of the samples. Different ion species at various energies were used in experiments, and several defect characterization techniques were applied to characterize the damage. Development of dimensional changes of carbon nanotubes in microscopes operated at accelerating voltages of 30 keV revealed that binding energy of carbon atoms in CNs is much lower than in bulk materials. Resistivity measurements during irradiation demonstrated existence of a quasi state of defect creation. Linear relationship between ID/IG ratio and increasing irradiation fluence was revealed by Raman spectroscopy study of irradiated carbon buckypapers. The deviations from linear relationship were observed for the samples irradiated to very high fluence values. Annealing of irradiated samples was able to reduce the value of ID/IG ratio and remove defects. However, annealing could not affect ID/IG ratio and remove defects in amorphized samples. The extracted value of activation energy for irradiated sample was 0.36 0.05 eV. The value of activation energy was in good agreement with theoretical studies.

Aitkaliyeva, Assel

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Development of a chemical dosimeter for electron beam food irradiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A chemical solution composed of paraffin wax, chloroform, and methyl yellow biological indicator was shaped into a solid 3-D apple phantom to determine absorbed dose from e-beams and X-rays. The purpose of this research was to determine the most uniform irradiation treatment on apple-phantoms (a complex shaped target) and GAFCHROMIC® HD-810 films using electron beams from (1) a 2 MeV Van de Graaff (VDG) accelerator, (2) a 10 MeV Linear Accelerator (LINAC), and (3) X-rays from a 5 MeV LINAC. Irradiation with the VDG accelerator confirmed that tilting the apple-phantom yaxis towards the e-beam source by 90 degrees, 45, and 22.5 degrees resulted in more uniform treatment in both the methyl yellow apple phantom and HD-810 film. The phantoms were over-exposed at the top and bottom regions when their y-axis was oriented exactly parallel to the e-beam at 22.5-degrees. The 45-degree orientation ensured uniformity throughout the whole apple surface without overexposing it at the top and bottom. In contrast, the 90-degree orientation resulted in the least effective treatment with the bottom and top region not receiving any radiation. A 10 MeV dual e-beam showed uniform penetration from top to bottom in the HD-810 film and apple phantoms. The HD-810 film responded linearly with doses up to 1.5 kGy while the methyl yellow response was non-linear up to 0.5 kGy maximum. The X-ray irradiation completely penetrated the apple phantoms from top to bottom showing excellent lateral uniformity at different penetration depths.

Rivadeneira, Ramiro Geovanny

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Definition: Irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Irradiance Irradiance Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Irradiance The direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation that strikes a surface. Usually expressed in kilowatts per square meter. Irradiance multiplied by time equals insolation.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Irradiance is the power of electromagnetic radiation per unit area incident on a surface. Radiant emittance or radiant exitance is the power per unit area radiated by a surface. The SI units for all of these quantities are watts per square meter (W/m), while the cgs units are ergs per square centimeter per second (erg·cm·s, often used in astronomy). These quantities are sometimes called intensity, but this usage leads to confusion with radiant intensity, which has different units. All of these

153

SOLAR WIND HELIUM ABUNDANCE AS A FUNCTION OF SPEED AND HELIOGRAPHIC LATITUDE: VARIATION THROUGH A SOLAR CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOLAR WIND HELIUM ABUNDANCE AS A FUNCTION OF SPEED AND HELIOGRAPHIC LATITUDE: VARIATION THROUGH A SOLAR CYCLE Justin C. Kasper,1 Michael L. Stevens, and Alan J. Lazarus Kavli Institute for Astrophysics of the variation of the relative abundance of helium to hydrogen in the solar wind as a function of solar wind

Richardson, John

154

Changes in Climate at High Southern Latitudes: A Unique Daily Record at Orcadas Spanning 19032008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate observations at Orcadas represent the only southern high-latitude site where data span more than a century, and its daily measurements are presented for the first time in this paper. Although limited to a single station, the observed ...

Natalia Zazulie; Matilde Rusticucci; Susan Solomon

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A Numerical Study of Sea-Breeze-Driven Ocean Poincare Wave Propagation and Mixing near the Critical Latitude  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near the vicinity of 30 latitude, the coincidence of the period of sea breeze and the inertial period of the ocean leads to a maximum near-inertial ocean response to sea breeze. This produces a propagating inertial internal (Poincare) wave ...

Xiaoqian Zhang; David C. Smith IV; Steven F. DiMarco; Robert D. Hetland

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

The Interannual Relationship between the Latitude of the Eddy-Driven Jet and the Edge of the Hadley Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A strong correlation between the latitudes of the eddy-driven jet and of the Hadley cell edge, on interannual time scales, is found to exist during austral summer, in both the NCEPNCAR reanalysis and the models participating in the Coupled Model ...

Sarah M. Kang; Lorenzo M. Polvani

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Characterization of Stress Relaxation, Dislocations and Crystallographic Tilt Via X-ray Microdiffraction in GaN (0001) Layers Grown by Maskless Pendeo-Epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intrinsic stresses due to lattice mismatch and high densities of threading dislocations and extrinsic stresses resulting from the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion are present in almost all III-Nitride heterostructures. Stress relaxation in the GaN layers occurs in conventional and in pendeo-epitaxial films via the formation of additional misfit dislocations, domain boundaries, elastic strain and wing tilt. Polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction, high resolution monochromatic X-ray diffraction and finite element simulations have been used to determine the distribution of strain, dislocations, sub-boundaries and crystallographic wing tilt in uncoalesced and coalesced GaN layers grown by maskless pendeo-epitaxy. An important parameter was the width-to-height ratio of the etched columns of GaN from which the lateral growth of the wings occurred. The strain and tilt across the stripes increased with the width-to-height ratio. Tilt boundaries formed in the uncoalesced GaN layers at the column/wing interfaces for samples with a large ratio. Sharper tilt boundaries were observed at the interfaces formed by the coalescence of two laterally growing wings. The wings tilted upward during cooling to room temperature for both the uncoalesced and the coalesced GaN layers. It was determined that finite element simulations that account for extrinsic stress relaxation can explain the experimental results for uncoalesced GaN layers. Relaxation of both extrinsic and intrinsic stress components in the coalesced GaN layers contribute to the observed wing tilt and the formation of sub-boundaries.

Barabash, R.I.; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.; Einfeldt, S.; Hommel, D.; Roskowski, A.M.; Davis, R.F. (ORNL)

2010-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

158

Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes  

SciTech Connect

The diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess {gamma}-ray emission {ge}1 GeV relative to diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called 'EGRET GeV excess'). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has measured the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission with improved sensitivity and resolution compared to EGRET. We report on LAT measurements for energies 100 MeV to 10 GeV and galactic latitudes 10{sup o} {le} |b| {le} 20{sup o}. The LAT spectrum for this region of the sky is well reproduced by a diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission model that is consistent with local CR spectra and inconsistent with the EGRET GeV excess.

Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; /SLAC; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Padua U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Pisa /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; /more authors..

2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

159

Discovery of a New Low-Latitude Milky Way Globular Cluster using GLIMPSE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spitzer Space Telescope imaging as part of the Galactic Legacy Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) reveals a previously unidentified low-latitude rich star cluster near l=31.3 degrees, b=-0.1 degrees. Near-infrared JHK' photometry from the Wyoming Infrared Observatory indicates an extinction of A_V ~ 15+/-3 mag for cluster members. Analysis of 13CO features along the same sightline suggests a probable kinematic distance of 3.1 -- 5.2 kpc. The new cluster has an angular diameter of ~1-2 pc, a total magnitude m_{K_0}=2.1 corrected for extinction, and a luminosity of M_K ~ -10.3 at 3.1 kpc. In contrast to young massive Galactic clusters with ages designate this object ``GLIMPSE-C01'' and classify it as a Milky Way globular cluster passing through the Galactic disk. We also identify a region of star formation and fan-shaped outflows from young stellar objects in the same field as the cluster. The cluster's passage through the Galactic molecular layer may have triggered this star formation activity.

Chip Kobulnicky; A. J. Monson; B. A Buckalew; J. M. Darnel; B. Uzpen; B. A. Whitney; R. Indebetouw; B. L. Babler; M. R. Meade; C. Watson; E. Churchwell; M. J. Wolff; M. G. Wolfire; D. P. Clemens; R. Shah; T. M. Bania; R. A. Benjamin; M. Cohen; K. E. Devine; J. M. Dickey; F. Heitsch; J. M. Jackson; A. P. Marston; J. S. Mathis; E. P. Mercer; J. R. Stauffer; S. R. Stolovy; J. P. Norris; A. Kutyrev; R. Canterna; M. J. Pierce

2004-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

160

Mid-latitude composition of mars from thermal and epithermal neutrons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Epithermal neutron data acquired by Mars Odyssey have been analyzed to determine global maps of water-equivalent hydrogen abundance. By assuming that hydrogen was distributed uniformly with depth within the surface, a map of minimum water abundance was obtained. The addition of thermal neutrons to this analysis could provide information needed to determine water stratigraphy. For example, thermal and epithermal neutrons have been used together to determine the depth and abundance of waterequivalent hydrogen of a buried layer in the south polar region. Because the emission of thermal neutrons from the Martian surface is sensitive to absorption by elements other than hydrogen, analysis of stratigraphy requires that the abundance of these elements be known. For example, recently published studies of the south polar region assumed that the Mars Pathfinder mean soil composition is representative of the regional soil composition, This assumption is partially motivated by the fact that Mars appears to have a well-mixed global dust cover and that the Pathfinder soil composition is representative of the mean composition of the Martian surface. In this study, we have analyzed thermal and epithermal neutron data measured by the neutron spectrometer subsystem of the gamma ray spectrometer to determine the spatial distribution of the composition of elements other than hydrogen. We have restricted our analysis to mid-latitude regions for which we have corrected the neutron counting data for variations in atmospheric thickness.

Prettyman, T. H. (Thomas H.); Feldman, W. C. (William C.); Elphic, R. C. (Richard C.); Boynton, W. V. (William V.); Bish, D. L. (David L.); Vaniman, D. T. (David T.); Funsten, H. O. (Herbert O.); Lawrence, David J. (David Jeffery),; Maurice, S. (Sylvestre); McKinney, G. W. (Gregg W.); Moore, K. R. (Kurt R.); Tokar, R. L. (Robert L.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Is the northern high latitude land-based CO2 sink weakening?  

SciTech Connect

Studies indicate that, historically, terrestrial ecosystems of the northern high latitude region may have been responsible for up to 60% of the global net land-based sink for atmospheric CO2. However, these regions have recently experienced remarkable modification of the major driving forces of the carbon cycle, including surface air temperature warming that is significantly greater than the global average and associated increases in the frequency and severity of disturbances. Whether arctic tundra and boreal forest ecosystems will continue to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the face of these dramatic changes is unknown. Here we show the results of model simulations that estimate a 41 Tg C yr-1 sink in the boreal land regions from 1997 to 2006, which represents a 73% reduction in the strength of the sink estimated for previous decades in the late 20th Century. Our results suggest that CO2 uptake by the region in previous decades may not be as strong as previously estimated. The recent decline in sink strength is the combined result of 1) weakening sinks due to warming-induced increases in soil organic matter decomposition and 2) strengthening sources from pyrogenic CO2 emissions as a result of the substantial area of boreal forest burned in wildfires across the region in recent years. Such changes create positive feedbacks to the climate system that accelerate global warming, putting further pressure on emission reductions to achieve atmospheric stabilization targets.

Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Kicklighter, David W. [Ecosystem Center, The; Gurney, Kevin R [Arizona State University; Burnside, Todd [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

HI in NGC 5433 and its Environment: High-Latitude Emission in a Small Galaxy Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present HI synthesis maps of the edge-on starburst NGC 5433 and its environment, obtained with the VLA in its C and D configurations. The observations and spectral model residuals of the main disc emission in NGC 5433 reveal 3 extraplanar features. We associate 2 of these features with coherent extraplanar extensions across multiple spectral channels in our data, including a complete loop in position-velocity space. Interpreting the latter as an expanding shell we derive a corresponding input energy of 2 x 10^54 ergs, comparable to that for the largest supershells found in the Galaxy and those in other edge-on systems. NGC 5433 is in a richer environment than previously thought. We confirm that KUG 1359+326 is a physical companion to NGC 5433 and find two new faint companions, both with Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner identifications, that we label SIS-1 and SIS-2. Including the more distant IC 4357, NGC 5433 is the dominant member of a group of at least 5 galaxies, spanning over 750 kpc in a filamentary structure. A variety of evidence suggests that interactions are occurring in this group. While a number of underlying mechanisms are consistent with the morphology of the high-latitude features in NGC 5433, we argue that environmental effects may play a role in their generation.

K. Spekkens; J. A. Irwin; D. J. Saikia

2004-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

163

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE). The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE)1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, May 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of May 1962.

1962-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

166

Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

Gorman, P.K.

1995-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

167

LOW-LATITUDE CORONAL HOLES AT THE MINIMUM OF THE 23rd SOLAR CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

Low- and mid-latitude coronal holes (CHs) observed on the Sun during the current solar activity minimum (from 2006 September 21, Carrington rotation (CR) 2048, to 2009 June 26, CR 2084) were analyzed using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope and STEREO-A SECCHI EUVI data. From both the observations and Potential Field Source Surface modeling, we find that the area occupied by CHs inside a belt of +-40{sup 0} around the solar equator is larger in the current 2007 solar minimum relative to the similar phase of the previous 1996 solar minimum. The enhanced CH area is related to a recurrent appearance of five persistent CHs, which survived during 7-27 solar rotations. Three of the CHs are of positive magnetic polarity and two are negative. The most long-lived CH was being formed during 2 days and existed for 27 rotations. This CH was associated with fast solar wind at 1 AU of approximately 620 +- 40 km s{sup -1}. The three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic modeling for this time period shows an open field structure above this CH. We conclude that the global magnetic field of the Sun possessed a multi-pole structure during this time period. Calculation of the harmonic power spectrum of the solar magnetic field demonstrates a greater prevalence of multi-pole components over the dipole component in the 2007 solar minimum compared to the 1996 solar minimum. The unusual large separation between the dipole and multi-pole components is due to the very low magnitude of the dipole component, which is three times lower than that in the previous 1996 solar minimum.

Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Linker, Jon; Mikic, Zoran [Predictive Science, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Luhmann, Janet; Lee, Christina O. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Low frequency geomagnetic eld uctuations at low latitude during the passage of a higher pressure solar wind region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low frequency geomagnetic ®eld ¯uctuations at low latitude during the passage of a higher pressure ¯uctuations in the frequency range (0.8±5.5 mHz) for both the horizontal geomagnetic ®eld components. Spectral of the geomagnetic ®eld components at L'Aquila (Italy, v 1X6, Francia and Villante, 1997) we found statistical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

HFIR In-Vessel Irradiation Facilities | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Facilities HFIR In-Vessel Irradiation In-Vessel Irradiation Experiment Facilities The HFIR provides a variety of in-core irradiation facilities, allowing for a...

170

Comparison of Year-Average Latitude, Longitude and Pressure of the Four Centers of Action with Air and Sea Temperature, 18991978  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The average latitude, longitude and central pressure of the four centers of action (Icelandic low, Aleutian low, Azores high, Pacific high) have been estimated for each of the 80 years of the Northern Hemisphere Historical Weather Map Series (...

J. K. Angell; J. Korshover

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Methane Fluxes Between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere at Northern High Latitudes During the Past Century: A retrospective analysis with a process-based biogeochemistry model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop and use a new version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to study how rates of methane (CH4) emissions and consumption in high-latitude soils of the Northern Hemisphere have changed over the past century ...

Zhuang, Qianlai.

172

IRRADIANCE THRESHOLDS FOR CHORIORETINAL LESIONS  

SciTech Connect

With use of a high-intensity light source to produce chorioretinal lesions in the eyes of rabbits, cats, and guinea pigs, we determined, at different levels of retinal irradiance, the exposure time which produced an ophthalmoscopically visible lesion it was found that at irradiance levels greater than 2 cal. per square centimeter per second a radiant exposure of 1.0 cal. per square centimeter produced a threshold lesion. At irradiance levels 1ess than 0.7 cal. per square centimeter per second lesions could not be produced at any exposure time through 10 seconds. Histological data on the nature of the lesions and course of healing are presented and discussed. (auth)

DeMott, D.W.; Davis, T.P.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

The IMPROVE-1 Storm of 12 February 2001. Part I: Development of a Forward-Tilted Cold Front and a Warm Occlusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of observations and the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State UniversityNational Center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) are used to study the development of a forward-tilted cold front off the coast of Washington ...

John D. Locatelli; Mark T. Stoelinga; Matthew F. Garvert; Peter V. Hobbs

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Automatic recovery of missing amplitudes and phases in tilt-limited electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals  

SciTech Connect

Electron crystallography of 2D protein crystals provides a powerful tool for the determination of membrane protein structure. In this method, data is acquired in the Fourier domain as randomly sampled, uncoupled, amplitudes and phases. Due to physical constraints on specimen tilting, those Fourier data show a vast un-sampled ''missing cone'' of information, producing resolution loss in the direction perpendicular to the membrane plane. Based on the flexible language of projection onto sets, we provide a full solution for these problems with a projective constraint optimization algorithm that, for sufficiently oversampled data, produces complete recovery of unmeasured data in the missing cone. We apply this method to an experimental data set of Bacteriorhodopsin and show that, in addition to producing superior results compared to traditional reconstruction methods, full, reproducible, recovery of the missing cone from noisy data is possible. Finally, we present an automatic implementation of the refinement routine as open source, freely distributed, software that will be included in our 2dx software package.

Gipson, Bryant R.; Stahlberg, Henning [Center for Cellular Imaging and Nano Analytics (C-CINA), Biozentrum, University Basel, WRO-1058 Mattenstrasse 26, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland); Masiel, Daniel J.; Browning, Nigel D. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Sciences, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Spence, John [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Mitsuoka, Kaoru [Biomedicinal Information Research Center (BIRC), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2-3-26, Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064 (Japan)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Studying defects created by irradiating molybdenum crystals ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by irradiating molybdenum crystals July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint In order to study irradiation damage and inert gas bubble formation and growth behaviors, and to provide results...

176

Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.  

SciTech Connect

We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Irradiation Performance of Advanced and Model Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Mechanical Performance of Materials for Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Irradiation Performance of Advanced and Model Alloys

178

Electron-Beam Irradiation of Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron-Beam Irradiation of Solar Cells. Summary: The Dosimetry Group operates a system capable of performing electron ...

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

179

HIGH LATITUDE ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS OF THE H/HE INTENSITY RATIO UNDER SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM CONDITIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We analyze measurements of the 0.5-1.0 MeV/nucleon H/He intensity ratio from the Ulysses spacecraft during its first (1992-94) and second (1999-2000) ascent to southern high latitude regions of the heliosphere. These cover a broad range of heliocentric distances (from 5.2 to 2.0 AU) and out-of-ecliptic latitudes (from 18{degree}S to 80{degree}S). During Ulysses' first southern pass, the HI-SCALE instrument measured a series of enhanced particle fluxes associated with the passage of a recurrent corotating interaction region (CIR). Low values ({approximately}6) of the H/He ratio were observed in these recurrent corotating events, with a clear minimum following the passage of the corotating reverse shock. When Ulysses reached high southern latitudes (>40{degree}S), the H/He ratio always remained below {approximately}10 except during two transient solar events that brought the ratio to high (>20) values. Ulysses' second southern pass was characterized by a higher average value of the H/He ratio. No recurrent pattern was observed in the energetic ion intensity which was dominated by the occurrence of transient events of solar origin. Numerous CIRs, many of which were bounded by forward and reverse shock pairs, were still observed in the solar wind and magnetic field data. The arrival of those CIRs at Ulysses did not always result in a decrease of the H/He ratio; on the contrary, many CIRs showed a higher H/He ratio than some transient events. Within a CIR, however, the H/He ratio usually increased around the forward shock and decreased towards the reverse shock. Throughout the second ascent to southern heliolatitudes, the H/He ratio seldom decreased below {approximately}10 even at high latitudes (>40{degree}S). We interpret these higher values of the H/He ratio in terms of the increasing level of solar activity together with the poor definition and short life that corotating solar wind structures have under solar maximum conditions. The global filling of the heliosphere by transient solar events and the fact that in 1999-2000 Ulysses observed only intermediate (<650 km s{sup {minus}1}) solar wind speed (whose contents in pick-up He is less energetic than in the fast solar wind streams observed in 1992-1994) favored the protons with respect to alpha particles. Hence the fact that the average values of the H/He ratio observed by Ulysses during the rising phase of the solar cycle (1999-2000) were higher than those observed during the declining phase (1992-1994).

J. GOSLING; D. LARIO; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Options for improving the load matching capability of distributed photovoltaics: Methodology and application to high-latitude data  

SciTech Connect

At high latitudes, domestic electricity demand and insolation are negatively correlated on both an annual and a diurnal basis. With increasing integration of distributed photovoltaics (PV) in low-voltage distribution grids of residential areas, limits to the penetration level are set by voltage rise due to unmatched production and load. In this paper a methodology for determining the impacts of three options for increased load matching is presented and applied to high-latitude data. The studied options are PV array orientation, demand side management (DSM) and electricity storage. Detailed models for domestic electricity demand and PV output are used. An optimisation approach is applied to find an optimal distribution of PV systems on different array orientations and a best-case evaluation of DSM and a storage model are implemented. At high penetration levels, storage is the most efficient option for maximising the solar fraction, but at lower overproduction levels, the impact of DSM is equal or slightly better. An east-west orientation of PV arrays is suggested for high penetration levels, but the effect of the optimised orientation is small. Without an optimised storage operation, the overproduced power is more efficiently reduced by DSM than storage, although this is highly dependent on the applied DSM algorithm. Further research should be focused on the DSM potential and optimal operation of storage. (author)

Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lund, Peter D. [Advanced Energy Systems, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 2200, FI-02015 HUT, Helsinki (Finland)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Magnetoresistivity in a tilted magnetic field in p-Si/SiGe/Si heterostructures with an anisotropic g-factor. Part II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The magnetoresistance components {rho}xx and {rho}xy are measured in two p-Si/SiGe/Si quantum wells that have an anisotropic g-factor in a tilted magnetic field as a function of the temperature, field, and tilt angle. Activation energy measurements demonstrate the existence of a ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (F-P) transition for the sample with the hole density p = 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. This transition is due to the crossing of the 0{up_arrow} and 1{down_arrow} Landau levels. However, in another sample with p = 7.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}, the 0{up_arrow} and 1{down_arrow} Landau levels coincide for angles {theta} = 0-70 Degree-Sign . Only for {theta} > 70 Degree-Sign do the levels start to diverge which, in turn, results in the energy gap opening.

Drichko, I. L.; Smirnov, I. Yu., E-mail: ivan.smirnov@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Suslov, A. V. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (United States); Mironov, O. A. [University of Warwick Science Park, Warwick SEMINANO R and D Centre (United Kingdom); Leadley, D. R. [University of Warwick, Department of Physics (United Kingdom)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

GTL-1 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Gas Test Loop (GTL-1) miniplate experiment is to confirm acceptable performance of high-density (i.e., 4.8 g-U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel plates clad in Al-6061 and irradiated under the relatively aggressive Booster Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) booster fuel conditions, namely a peak plate surface heat flux of 450 W/cm2. As secondary objectives, several design and fabrication variations were included in the test matrix that may have the potential to improve the high-heat flux, high-temperature performance of the base fuel plate design.1, 2 The following report summarizes the life of the GTL-1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing  

SciTech Connect

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about 50 test assemblies throughout the early FFTF operating cycles.

Corrigan, D.C.; Julyk, L.J.; Hoth, C.W.; McGuire, J.C.; Sloan, W.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Irradiation test program for FFTF  

SciTech Connect

Four unique deisgn features are described which make the Fast Flux Test Facility eminently suitable for irradiation test programs. These features are a fast flux level of 7 x 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//sec, a 36-inch reference (breeder reactor) core height, test volumes suitable for testing of statistical quantities of materials, and the capability for direct (contact) or indirect (proximity) instrumentation of active core experiments.

Corrigan, D.C.; Last, G.A.

1978-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

186

Dose calculation methodology for irradiation treatment of complex-shaped foods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dose calculation methodology was developed for irradiation treatment of complex-shaped foods. To obtain satisfactory electron beam irradiation of food products, a strict process control is required to ensure that the dose delivered to all parts of the treated product falls within some specified range. The Monte Carlo electron transport simulation and computer tomography (CT) scan technology were used to predict the dose distribution in complex shaped foods, an apple phantom composed of paraffin wax, chloroform, and methyl yellow, and a chicken carcass. The Monte Carlo code used was successfully tested against the experimental data, resulting in less than 5% discrepancy between the simulated and measured data. For 1.35 MeV electron beam simulation of apple phantom, tilting and axial rotation ensures dose distribution of the entire surface of the phantom, even reaching the critical regions of the apple stem and calyx ends. For 1 and 5 MeV X-ray simulations, both depth-dose curves show exponential attenuation after a build-up region. The depth to peak for the former is shorter than that of the latter. For 1.35 MeV electron beam simulation of a chicken carcass, dose adsorption occurred up to 5-7 mm deep, resulting in surface irradiation of the carcass. For 10 MeV electron beam simulation, the doses within the carcass reached a peak of 1.2 times the incident dose with increasing depth. Two-sided X-ray (5 MeV) irradiation significantly improved the dose uniformity ratio, from 2.5 to 1.8. A web-based integrated system was developed for data manipulation and management for irradiation treatment of foods. Based on CT scan, three dimensional geometry modeling was used to provide input data to the general Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. A web-based interface provided the on-line capability to formulate input data for MCNP and to visualize output data generated by MCNP. The integrated Matlab and Matlab Web Server programs automatically functions through the steps and procedures for data input and output during simulation. In addition, a database having D10 values (decimal reduction value), food nutrition composition, and qualities was integrated into the dose planning system to support food irradiation treatment.

Kim, Jongsoon

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance (Redirected from Definition:DNI) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays that come in a straight line from the direction of the sun at its current position in the sky.[1] Also Known As DNI Related Terms Solar radiation, Irradiance, Concentrating solar power, Global horizontal irradiance References ↑ http://www.3tier.com/en/support/glossary/#dni Retrie LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Direct_normal_irradiance&oldid=423379" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link

188

Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Facilities: Gamma Irradiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Irradiation Facility Gamma Irradiation Facility Photo of Gamma Irradiation Facility The Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) provides high-fidelity simulation of nuclear radiation environments for materials and component testing. The low-dose irradiation facility also offers an environment for long-duration testing of materials and electronic components. Such testing may take place over a number of months or even years. Research and other activities The single-structure GIF can house a wide variety of gamma irradiation experiments with various test configurations and at different dose and dose rate levels. Radiation fields at the GIF are produced by high-intensity gamma-ray sources. To induce ionizing radiation effects and damage in test objects, the objects are subjected to high-energy photons from gamma-source

189

Characterization of Fast Reactor Irradiated Stainless Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the overall effort to understand the role of different material and environmental variables on irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in light water reactor (LWR) components, the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR-II) Program has conducted irradiation experiments in the BOR-60 fast reactor near Dimitrovgrad, Russia. This project was a continuation of research on characterization of microstructure and microchemistry of stainless steel heats irradiated in the BOR-60 fast reactor, do...

2008-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

190

Surface Irradiances Consistent with CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave Irradiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimate of surface irradiance on a global scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances, however, do not ...

Seiji Kato; Norman G. Loeb; Fred G. Rose; David R. Doelling; David A. Rutan; Thomas E. Caldwell; Lisan Yu; Robert A. Weller

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum Pilewskie, Peter University of Colorado Fontenla, Juan LASP University of Colorado Harder, Jerry LASP University of Colorado Category:...

192

Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RAM 3.1.2 Compute clearness index 3.1.2 Compute global horizontal irradiance complete Performed to reduce duplicate steps when an analysis

Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays...

194

ABSTRACT: Electron Irradiation Induced Transformation of ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 27, 2007 ... Crystallochemical changes of (Pb5Ca5)(VO4)6F2 apatite under electron irradiation were examined by transmission electron microscopy.

195

Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Radiation Effects in Ceramic Oxide and Novel LWR Fuels: Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation Sponsored by: The...

196

Irradiation Performance - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of irradiated fuel, cladding and fueled-cladding were conducted in the Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF), while mechanical properties of defueled cladding and structural...

197

NIST Lunar spectral irradiance and radiance (LUSI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... However, a spectrally resolved model that allows trending at the 0.1 % level ... of the lunar irradiance and radiance at reflected solar wavelengths. ...

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

198

Microstructural Characterization of Test Reactor Irradiated RPV ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Microstructural Characterization of Test Reactor Irradiated RPV ... Evolution in High Purity Reference V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for Fusion Reactor.

199

Correlation between Irradiation Hardening and Microstructural ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Correlation between Irradiation Hardening and Microstructural Evolution in High Purity Reference V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for Fusion Reactor.

200

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Transmission Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: February 19, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The transmission of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Decadal Variability of the ENSO Teleconnection to the High-Latitude South Pacific Governed by Coupling with the Southern Annular Mode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decadal variability of the El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnection to the high-latitude South Pacific is examined by correlating the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-yr Re-Analysis (ERA-40) and observations ...

Ryan L. Fogt; David H. Bromwich

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stan Wullschleger of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems" on March 22, 2012 at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, California.

Wullschleger, Stan [ORNL

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

203

A case-study of the low-latitude thermosphere during geomagnetic storms and its new representation by improved MSIS model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A case-study of the low-latitude thermosphere during geomagnetic storms and its new representation geomagnetically disturbed periods are known to exhibit signi®cant deviations from atmospheric model predictions station in India, are successfully reproduced for two moderate geomagnetic storms. Key words. Low

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.4.6 Irradiation-induced defects in multi-walled nanotubes and nanotube bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.5.2 Irradiation-induced links between single-walled carbon nan- otubes in bundles tubes, as the gap in the latter is quite small, around 1 eV. It should be pointed out that applications

Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

205

Irradiation Performance - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Testing > Materials Testing > Irradiation Performance Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Irradiated Materials Overview Light Water Reactor Materials Other Current Activities Future Directions Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Irradiation Performance Bookmark and Share The activities of the Irradiation Performance Section (IPS) are aimed at determining and assessing normal-operation and accident behavior of neutron-irradiated material throughout the life cycle of the materials. The conditions of interest are normal in-reactor operation, design-basis accidents, intermediate storage in pools and dry casks, and ultimate

206

Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

207

Conducting Well-Controlled Ion Irradiations To Understand Neutron Irradiation Effects In Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A firm understanding of the effect of radiation on materials is required to develop predictive models of materials behavior in-reactor and provide a foundation for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials. Ion irradiation can serve this purpose for nuclear reactor components and is becoming a key element of materials development for advanced nuclear reactors. Ion irradiations can be conducted quickly, at low cost, and with precise control over irradiation temperature, temperature uniformity, dose rate, dose uniformity and total dose. During proton irradiations the 2{sigma}(twice the standard deviation) of the sample temperature is generally below {approx}7 deg. C, the dose rate variation {approx}3%, the dose uncertainty {approx}3%, and there is an excellent temperature and dose uniformity across the irradiated area. In this article, we describe the experimental setup and irradiation procedure used to conduct well-controlled ion irradiations at the University of Michigan.

Naab, F. U.; West, E. A.; Toader, O. F.; Was, G. S. [Department of Engineering and Radiological Sciences, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Development of a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility for Long...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility for Long Term Animal Exposures at Colorado State University Michael Weil Colorado State University Abstract A low dose rate irradiation facility...

210

Helium Behaviour in Ferritic/Martensitic Steels Irradiated in a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eurofer97 and F82H steels were irradiated in spallation conditions of STIP-II, the ... experiment of the irradiation program of Swiss Neutron Spallation Source.

211

Workshop on a National Irradiation Sciences User Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 * SNS * Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Materials Irradiation Home Materials Irradiation & HFIR Agenda Registration Hotel Registration CommitteeContacts Workshop on a National...

212

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear...

213

Causes of spring vegetation greenness trends in the northern mid-high latitudes from 1982 to 2004  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) is applied to explore the spatial temporal patterns of spring (April May) vegetation growth trends over the northern mid high latitudes (NMH) (>25 N) between 1982 and 2004. During the spring season through the 23 yr period, both the satellite-derived and simulated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) anomalies show a statistically significant correlation and an overall greening trend within the study area. Consistently with the observed NDVI temperature relation, the CLM4 NDVI shows a significant positive association with the spring temperature anomaly for the NMH, North America and Eurasia. Large study areas experience temperature discontinuity associated with contrasting NDVI trends. Before and after the turning point (TP) of the temperature trends, climatic variability plays a dominant role, while the other environmental factors exert minor effects on the NDVI tendencies. Simulated vegetation growth is broadly stimulated by the increasing atmospheric CO2. Trends show that nitrogen deposition increases NDVI mostly in southeastern China, and decreases NDVI mainly in western Russia after the temperature TP. Furthermore, land use-induced NDVI trends vary roughly with the respective changes in land management practices (crop areas and forest coverage). Our results highlight how non-climatic factors mitigate or exacerbate the impact of temperature on spring vegetation growth, particularly across regions with intensive human activity.

Mao, Jiafu [ORNL; Shi, Xiaoying [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Shilong, Dr. Piao [Peking University; Xuhui, Dr. Wang [Peking University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

AGC-1 Post Irradiation Examination Status  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF), and examined at the INL Research Center (IRC) or Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This is the first in a series of status reports on the progress of the AGC experiment. As the first capsule, AGC1 was irradiated from September 2009 to January 2011 to a maximum dose level of 6-7 dpa. The capsule was removed from ATR and transferred to the HFEF in April 2011 where the capsule was disassembled and test specimens extracted from the capsules. The first irradiated samples from AGC1 were shipped to the IRC in July 2011and initial post irradiation examination (PIE) activities were begun on the first 37 samples received. PIE activities continue for the remainder of the AGC1 specimen as they are received at the IRC.

David Swank

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

AGR-1 Irradiation Experiment Test Plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document presents the current state of planning for the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment will be irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The test will contain six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule will contain a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. The irradiation is planned for about 700 effective full power days (approximately 2.4 calendar years) with a time-averaged, volume-average temperature of approximately 1050 C. Average fuel burnup, for the entire test, will be greater than 17.7 % FIMA, and the fuel will experience fast neutron fluences between 2.4 and 4.5 x 1025 n/m2 (E>0.18 MeV).

John T. Maki

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A 24-h forecast of solar irradiance using artificial neural network: Application for performance prediction of a grid-connected PV plant at Trieste, Italy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forecasting of solar irradiance is in general significant for planning the operations of power plants which convert renewable energies into electricity. In particular, the possibility to predict the solar irradiance (up to 24 h or even more) can became - with reference to the Grid Connected Photovoltaic Plants (GCPV) - fundamental in making power dispatching plans and - with reference to stand alone and hybrid systems - also a useful reference for improving the control algorithms of charge controllers. In this paper, a practical method for solar irradiance forecast using artificial neural network (ANN) is presented. The proposed Multilayer Perceptron MLP-model makes it possible to forecast the solar irradiance on a base of 24 h using the present values of the mean daily solar irradiance and air temperature. An experimental database of solar irradiance and air temperature data (from July 1st 2008 to May 23rd 2009 and from November 23rd 2009 to January 24th 2010) has been used. The database has been collected in Trieste (latitude 45 40'N, longitude 13 46'E), Italy. In order to check the generalization capability of the MLP-forecaster, a K-fold cross-validation was carried out. The results indicate that the proposed model performs well, while the correlation coefficient is in the range 98-99% for sunny days and 94-96% for cloudy days. As an application, the comparison between the forecasted one and the energy produced by the GCPV plant installed on the rooftop of the municipality of Trieste shows the goodness of the proposed model. (author)

Mellit, Adel [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, LAMEL, Jijel University, Ouled-aissa, P.O. Box 98, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Pavan, Alessandro Massi [Department of Materials and Natural Resources, University of Trieste Via A. Valerio, 2 - 34127 Trieste (Italy)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

global horizontal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

horizontal irradiance horizontal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Global Horizontal IrradianceNASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Note 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance NASA solar

220

Heat pipe thermal control of irradiation capsules  

SciTech Connect

From 1st international heat pipe conference; Stuttgart, F.R. Germany (15 Oct 1973). The use of heat pipes to control the temperature of irradiation capsules containing fast breeder reactor structural materials is discussed. (TFD)

Deverall, J.E.

1974-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

IRRADIATION METHOD OF CONVERTING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for changing the distribution of organic compounds from that produced by the irradiation of bulk alkane hydrocarbons. This method consists of depositing an alkane hydrocarbon on the surface of a substrate material and irradiating with gamma radiation at a dose rate of more than 100,000 rads. The substrate material may be a metal, metal salts, metal oxides, or carbons having a surface area in excess of 1 m/sup 2//g. The hydrocarbons are deposited in layers of from 0.1 to 10 monolayers on the surfaces of these substrates and irradiated. The product yields are found to vary from those which result from the irradiation of bulk hydrocarbons in that there is an increase in the quantity of branched hydrocarbons.

Allen, A.O.; Caffrey, J.M. Jr.

1960-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

222

Cloud Optical Thickness Estimation from Irradiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer algorithms are developed to estimate the optical thickness of clouds using an irradiance detector located above, deep within, and beneath a cloud. Both monodirectional and diffuse illumination cases are considered. For each ...

H. C. Yi; N. J. McCormick; R. Sanchez

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffuse downwelling irradiance diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance All of the solar radiation, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, coming directly from the sky except for solar radiation coming directly from the sun and the circumsolar irradiance within approximately three degrees of the sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments

224

Gamma irradiation effects in W films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

Claro, Luiz H. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil) and Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei (Brazil); Santos, Ingrid A. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Cassia F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

225

The use of cubic Nd-Ba-Cu-O seeds to create {theta}[100], 90{degree}-{theta}[100], and {theta}[001] tilt Y-Ba-Cu-O grain boundaries.  

SciTech Connect

Using seeding techniques to control the orientation of grains, we have been able to create a wide variety of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}, grain boundaries. In addition to five domain samples with 90{degree}[100] twist and tilt grain boundaries, we have now developed a method to produce grain boundaries in the same sample that have the misorientations {theta}[001] tilt, {theta}[100] tilt, and 90{degree} {approximately} {theta}[100], where the disorientation angle {theta} is fully controllable. We will demonstrate how these boundaries can be synthesized, give experimental evidence via polarized light microscopy and electron backscatter patterns (EBSP) that the intended grain boundaries were indeed formed, and discuss the importance of these boundaries in future grain boundary studies.

Field, M. B.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

Irradiation Embritlement in Alloy HT-9  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HT-9 steel is a candidate structural and cladding material for high temperature lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. In typical advanced fast reactor designs fuel elements will be irradiated for an extended period of time, reaching up to 5-7 years. Significant displacement damage accumulation in the steel is expected (> 200 dpa) when exposed to dpa-rates of 20-30 dpa{sub Fe}/y and high fast flux (E > 0.1 MeV) {approx}4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s. Core temperatures could reach 400-560 C, with coolant temperatures at the inlet as low as 250 C, depending on the reactor design. Mechanical behavior in the presence of an intense fast flux and high dose is a concern. In particular, low temperature operation could be limited by irradiation embrittlement. Creep and corrosion effects in liquid metal coolants could set a limit to the upper operating temperature. In this report, we focus on the low temperature operating window limit and describe HT-9 embrittlement experimental findings reported in the literature that could provide supporting information to facilitate the consideration of a Code Case on irradiation effects for this class of steels in fast reactor environments. HT-9 has an extensive database available on irradiation performance, which makes it the best choice as a possible near-term candidate for clad, and ducts in future fast reactors. Still, as it is shown in this report, embrittlement data for very low irradiation temperatures ( 150 dpa) is scarce. Experimental findings indicate a saturation of DBTT shifts as a function of dose, which could allow for long lifetime cladding operation. However, a strong increase in DBTT shift with decreasing irradiation temperature could compromise operation at low service temperatures. Development of a deep understanding of the physics involved in the radiation damage mechanisms, together with multiscale computer simulation models of irradiation embrittlement will provide the basis to derive trendlines and quantitative engineering predictions.

Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

227

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

normal irradiance normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments

228

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

upwelling irradiance upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments RAD-AIR : Airborne Radiometers

229

ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy, at wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments BSRN : Baseline Solar Radiation Network BRS : Broadband Radiometer Station CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems

230

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NFOV : Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer

231

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance The direct unscattered radiant energy from the Sun, in a narrow band of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments SOAR : Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation

232

ARM - Measurement - Net broadband total irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Net broadband total irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling, covering longwave and shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System External Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

233

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

upwelling irradiance upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer

234

Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory May 30, 2013 The Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) was initially designed and constructed to permit the safe handling of increasing levels of radiation in the chemical, physical, and metallurgical examination of nuclear reactor fuel elements and reactor parts. The IFEL was constructed in 1963 and is a two-story brick building with a partial basement. The front or northern-most section is a single-story office area. The two story area to the immediate rear houses the cell complex, the operating areas, and other supporting activities. The office area is isolated from the main part of the building, so the office area can be excluded from the secondary containment zone. The facility has a gross floor area of about 27,000 ft2.

235

ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

narrowband upwelling irradiance narrowband upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance The total radiant energy, in a narrow band of wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments OTTER : Twin Otter UAV-EGRETT : UAV-Egrett Value-Added Products LBTM-MINNIS : Minnis Cloud Products Using LBTM Algorithm (Process)

236

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffuse downwelling irradiance diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which spectrally resolved radiant energy at wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments RSS : Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer

237

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Transmission Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: February 19, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The transmission of tuberculosis (TB) and other infectious diseases in health-care buildings has been a recognized hazard for decades. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) of upper room air is used as an engineering control method to prevent the spread of airborne infectious disease. Under full-scale conditions, the efficacy of UVGI for inactivating airborne bacterial spores and active cells was evaluated. A test room fitted with a modern UVGI system was used to conduct bio-aerosol inactivation experiments. UVGI efficacy can be affected by environmental factors such as relative humidity (RH), and air mixing

238

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component BSRN : Baseline Solar Radiation Network

239

Irradiation effects on borosilicate waste glasses  

SciTech Connect

The effects of alpha decay on five borosilicate glasses containing simulated nuclear high-level waste oxides were studied. Irradiations carried out at room temperature were achieved by incorporating 1 to 8 wt % /sup 244/Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the glasses. Density changes and stored-energy build-up saturated at doses less than 2 x 10/sup 21/ alpha decays/kg. Damage manifested by stored energy was completely annealed at 633/sup 0/K. Positive and negative density changes were observed which never exceeded 1%. Irradiation had very little effect on mechanical strength or on chemical durability as measured by aqueous leach rates. Also, no effects were observed on the microstructure for vitreous waste glasses, although radiation-induced microcracking could be achieved on specimens that had been devitrified prior to irradiation.

Roberts, F.P.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

STUDY OF A CASE OF CHRONIC PROFESSIONAL IRRADIATION. PROVISIONAL DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THIS IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

The case of a chemist submitted to professional chronic irradiation, in the absence of a physical check doses received, was studied to estimate the deleterious effects of this irradiation on the patient and his descent. No connection was found between the observed symptoms and this irradiation. The health of the patient did not seem to be affected in any important way. The only objective symptom, a depression of the spermatogenesis, was followed by spectacular recuperation. In the absence of objective symptoms, it is felt that there is no reason to fear genetic consequences neither for the patient nor for his offspring. (auth)

Minet, P.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC- based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response (ZrC) by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation-induced microstructures mapped spatially and temporally, microstructural evolution during post-irradiation annealing, and atomistic modeling of defect formation and transport energetics will provide new, critical understanding about property changes in ZrC. The behavior of materials under irradiation is determined by the balance between damage production, defect clustering, and lattice response. In order to predict those effects at high temperatures so targeted testing can be expanded and extrapolated beyond the known database, it is necessary to determine the defect energetics and mobilities as these control damage accumulation and annealing. In particular, low-temperature irradiations are invaluable for determining the regions of defect mobility. Computer simulation techniques are particularly useful for identifying basic defect properties, especially if closely coupled with a well-constructed and complete experimental database. The close coupling of calculation and experiment in this project will provide mutual benchmarking and allow us to glean a deeper understanding of the irradiation response of ZrC, which can then be applied to the prediction of its behavior in reactor conditions.

Motta, Arthur; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

242

Frequency variations of quasi-periodic ELF-VLF emissions: A possible new ground-based diagnostic of the outer high-latitude magnetosphere  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic pulsations and quasi-periodic (QP) amplitude modulations of ELF-VLF waves at Pc 3-4 frequencies (15-50 mHz) are commonly observed simultaneously in cusp-latitude data. The naturally occurring ELF-VLF emissions are believed to be modulated within the magnetosphere by the compressional component of geomagnetic pulsations formed external to the magnetosphere. The authors have examined data from South Pole Station (L {approximately} 14) to determine the occurrence and characteristics of QP emissions. On the basis of 14 months of data during 1987 and 1988 they found that QP emissions typically appeared in both the 0.5-1 kHz and 1-2 kHz receiver channels at South Pole Station and ocassionally in the 2-4 kHz channel. The QP emission frequency appeared to depend on solar wind parameters and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction, and the months near fall equinox in both 1987 and 1988 showed a significant increase in the percentage of QP emissions only in the lowest-frequency channel. The authors present a model consistent with these variations in which high-latitude (nonequatorial) magnetic field minima near the magnetopause play a major role, because the field magnitude governs both the frequency of ELF-VLF emissions and the whistler mode propagation cutoffs. Because the field in these regions will be strongly influenced by solar wind and IMF parameters, variations in the frequency of such emissions may be useful in providing ground-based diagnostics of the outer high-latitude magnetosphere. 32 refs., 13 figs.

Alford, J.; Engebretson, M. [Ausburg College, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Arnoldy, R. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Inan, U. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Irradiation is known to have a significant impact on the properties and performance of Zircaloy cladding and structural materials (material degradation processes, e.g., effects of hydriding). This UFD study examines the behavior and performance of unirradiated cladding and actual irradiated cladding through testing and simulation. Three capsules containing hydrogen-charged Zircaloy-4 cladding material have been placed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of

244

Spatial Variability of Shortwave Irradiance for Snowmelt in Forests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial variation of melt energy can influence snow cover depletion rates and in turn be influenced by the spatial variability of shortwave irradiance to snow. The spatial variability of shortwave irradiance during melt under uniform and ...

John Pomeroy; Chad Ellis; Aled Rowlands; Richard Essery; Janet Hardy; Tim Link; Danny Marks; Jean Emmanuel Sicart

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

High accuracy diffuse horizontal irradiance measurements without a shadowband  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The standard method for measuring diffuse horizontal irradiance uses a fixed shadowband to block direct solar radiation. This method requires a correction for the excess skylight blocked by the band, and this correction varies with sky conditions. Alternately, diffuse horizontal irradiance may be calculated from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance. This method is in error because of angular (cosine) response of the total horizontal pyranometer to direct beam irradiance. This paper describes an improved calculation of diffuse horizontal irradiance from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance using a predetermination of the angular response of the total horizontal pyranometer. We compare these diffuse horizontal irradiance calculations with measurements made with a shading-disk pyranometer that shields direct irradiance using a tracking disk. Results indicate significant improvement in most cases. Remaining disagreement most likely arises from undetected tracking errors and instrument leveling.

Schlemmer, J.A; Michalsky, J.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Direct Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements and Updated Simple Transmittance Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of 509 direct solar irradiance spectra, carefully measured over one year, is checked against spectral irradiances computed from five updated transmittance models. The wavelengths under investigation range from 290 to 900 nm, with a 5- or 10-...

A. de La Casinire; A. I. Bokoye; T. Cabot

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

The Sun and Climate Solar Irradiance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun and Climate #12;Solar Irradiance The Solar Constant f = 1.4 x 106 erg/cm2/s. Over the surface of the Earth, this is 2 x 1024 erg/s, or 2 x 1017 watts (100 million gigawatts). This energy input keeps the Earth warm. If the solar constant were To change, so would the Earth's temperature. Solar

Walter, Frederick M.

248

Effects of hadron irradiation on scintillating fibers  

SciTech Connect

Trackers based on scintillating-fiber technology are being considered by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration at SSC and the D[phi] collaboration at Fermilab. An important issue is the effect of the radiation existing in the detector cores on fiber properties. Most studies of radiation damage in scintillators have irradiated small bulk samples rather than fibers, and have used X-rays, [sup 60]Co gammas, or electron beams, often at accelerated rates. The authors have irradiated some 600 fibers in the Fermilab Tevatron C[phi] area, thereby obtaining a hadronic irradiation at realistic rates. Four-meter-long samples of ten Bicron polystyrene-based fiber types, maintained in air, dry nitrogen, argon, and vacuum atmospheres within stainless-steel tubes, were irradiated for seven weeks at various distances from the accelerator beam pipes. Maximum doses, measured by thermoluminescence detectors, were about 80 Krad. Fiber properties, particularly light yield and attenuation length, have been measured over a one-year period. A description of the work together with the results is presented. At the doses achieved, corresponding to a few years of actual fiber-tracking detector operation, little degradation is observed. In addition, recovery after several days' exposure to air has been noted. Properties of unirradiated samples kept in darkness show no changes after one year.

Atac, M. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Buchanan, C.; Chrisman, D.; Cline, D.; Kolonko, J.; Kubic, J.; Park, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Baumbaugh, A.; Binkley, M.; Bross, A.D.; Finley, D.; Elias, J.; Foster, G.W.; Kephart, R.; Kephart, R.; Kim, C.; Park, H.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Rivetta, C.; Tkaczyk, S.; Wagner, R. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Chung, M.; Goldberg, H.; Jeskik, R.; Margulies, S.; Mendez, H.; Solomon, J.; Vaca, F. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)); Kelley, C. (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Boston, MA (United States)); Baumbaugh, B.; Bishop, J.; Biswas, N.; Cason, N.; Jacques, J.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M.; Kenney, V.; LoSecco, J.; Ruchti, R.; Shephard, W.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Marchant, J.; Mountain, R.J. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)); Davis, D.; Vandergriff, D. (O

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, October 1961  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of October, 1961. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

1961-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

250

Recent Changes in Solar Irradiance in Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant decrease in the annual sums of global irradiance reaching the surface in Antarctica, averaging ?0.28 W m?2 yr?1, was derived from an analysis of all complete years of measurement available from 12 pyranometer stations, 10 of which ...

G. Stanhill; S. Cohen

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, June 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of June, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and NPR Project.

1992-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

252

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, November 1964  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November, 1964. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and Financial Operation.

1964-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

253

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, November 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of November, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

1962-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

254

NIST SURF Beamline 3: Facility for Irradiance Calibration ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Beamline 3 is home to the Facility for Irradiance Calibration Using ... Source of Uncertainty, Nominal Value, Relative Uncertainty, Sensitivity Coefficient, ...

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

255

Implementation Plan for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document contains details regarding the planned implementation of the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory at the INL.

Not Listed

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Ion Irradiation of an Ultrafine Grained 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Nuclear Energy: Processes and Policies. Presentation Title, Ion Irradiation of...

257

A Study of the Irradiation-Temperature Coefficient for Alanine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Study of the Irradiation-Temperature Coefficient for Alanine Film and Pellet Dosimeters at Elevated Temperature. ...

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

ABSTRACT: Effects of Electron Irradiation in Nuclear Waste ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 26, 2007 ... This article summarizes recent studies of electron irradiation damage in sodium borosilicate, iron phosphate and aluminophosphate glass...

259

Statistical analysis of solar irradiation in a distributed microgrid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

irradiation in a distributed microgrid A Thesis submitted inin a distributed microgrid by James Patrick Harper Master of

Harper, James Patrick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Irradiation Embritlement in Alloy HT-9  

SciTech Connect

HT-9 steel is a candidate structural and cladding material for high temperature lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. In typical advanced fast reactor designs fuel elements will be irradiated for an extended period of time, reaching up to 5-7 years. Significant displacement damage accumulation in the steel is expected (> 200 dpa) when exposed to dpa-rates of 20-30 dpa{sub Fe}/y and high fast flux (E > 0.1 MeV) {approx}4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s. Core temperatures could reach 400-560 C, with coolant temperatures at the inlet as low as 250 C, depending on the reactor design. Mechanical behavior in the presence of an intense fast flux and high dose is a concern. In particular, low temperature operation could be limited by irradiation embrittlement. Creep and corrosion effects in liquid metal coolants could set a limit to the upper operating temperature. In this report, we focus on the low temperature operating window limit and describe HT-9 embrittlement experimental findings reported in the literature that could provide supporting information to facilitate the consideration of a Code Case on irradiation effects for this class of steels in fast reactor environments. HT-9 has an extensive database available on irradiation performance, which makes it the best choice as a possible near-term candidate for clad, and ducts in future fast reactors. Still, as it is shown in this report, embrittlement data for very low irradiation temperatures (< 200 C) and very high radiation exposure (> 150 dpa) is scarce. Experimental findings indicate a saturation of DBTT shifts as a function of dose, which could allow for long lifetime cladding operation. However, a strong increase in DBTT shift with decreasing irradiation temperature could compromise operation at low service temperatures. Development of a deep understanding of the physics involved in the radiation damage mechanisms, together with multiscale computer simulation models of irradiation embrittlement will provide the basis to derive trendlines and quantitative engineering predictions.

Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Experimental plan for irradiation experiment HRB-21  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation experiment HRB-21 is the first in a series of test capsules that are designed to provide a fuel-performance data base to be used for the validation of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) coated-particle fuel performance models under MHTGR normal operating conditions and specific licensing basis events. Capsule HRB-21 will contain an advanced TRISO-P UCO/ThO{sub 2} - coated-particle fuel system with demonstrated low defective-particle fraction ({le}5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}) and a heavy metal-contamination fraction ({le}1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}) that meets MHTGR quality specifications. The coated particles and fuel compacts were fabricated in laboratory-scale facilities using MHTGR reference procedures at General Atomics (GA). Nearly 150,000 fissile and fertile particles will be irradiated in capsule HRB-21 at a mean volumetric fuel temperature of 975{degree}C and will achieve a peak fissile burnup of 26% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) while accumulating a fast neutron fluence of about 4.5 {times} 10{sup 25} neutrons/m{sup 2}. This experiment is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The participants are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), GA, and the Tokai Research Establishment. Capsule HRB-21 will contain the US MHTGR fuel specimens, and a companion capsule, HRB-22, will contain the JAERI fuel. The irradiation will take place in the removable beryllium reflector facility of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. The performance of the fuel during irradiation will be closely monitored through on-line fission gas release measurements. Detailed postirradiation examination and conduction cooldown simulation testing will be performed on the irradiated fuel compacts from both the HRB-21 and HRB-22 capsules. 5 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Goodin, D. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kania, M. J.; Patton, B. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Measuring Spectral Actinic Flux and Irradiance: Experimental Results from the Actinic Flux Determination from Measurements of Irradiance (ADMIRA) Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from the Actinic Flux Determination from Measurements of Irradiance (ADMIRA) campaign to measure spectral global UV irradiance and actinic flux at the ground, beneath an atmosphere well defined by supporting measurements. ...

A. R. Webb; A. F. Bais; M. Blumthaler; G-P. Gobbi; A. Kylling; R. Schmitt; S. Thiel; F. Barnaba; T. Danielsen; W. Junkermann; A. Kazantzidis; P. Kelly; R. Kift; G. L. Liberti; M. Misslbeck; B. Schallhart; J. Schreder; C. Topaloglou

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Final report on graphite irradiation test OG-2  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of dimensional, thermal expansivity, thermal conductivity, Young's modulus, and tensile strength measurements on specimens of nuclear graphites irradiated in capsule OG-2. About half the irradiation space was allocated to H-451 near-isotropic petroleum-coke-based graphite or its subsized prototype grade H-429. Most of these specimens had been previously irradiated. Virgin specimens of another near-isotropic graphite, grade TS-1240, were irradiated. Some previously irradiated specimens of needle-coke-based H-327 graphite and pitch-coke-based P$sub 3$JHAN were also included.

Price, R.J.; Beavan, L.A.

1975-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Mechanical Cutting of Irradiated Reactor Internal Components  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of mechanical cutting methods to volume reduce and package irradiated reactor internal components. The recent completion of the removal of the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) from within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant demonstrates that unlike previous methods used for similar projects, mechanical cutting minimizes exposure to workers, costly water cleanup, and excessive secondary waste generation. (authors)

Anderson, M.G.; Fennema, J.A. [MOTA Corporation, West Columbia, SC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Behavior of Irradiated B4C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A project sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Industry Research (NFIR) Group was conducted to evaluate the behavior of irradiated B4C absorber material from LWR control components that had been discharged after having reached a relatively high exposure. Vibratory compacted B4C powder from a Vermont Yankee BWR control blade was examined after reaching a maximum local B-10 depletion of 70%. Hot pressed B4C pellets from a Maine Yankee PWR control rod were examined after ...

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Metal fuel manufacturing and irradiation performance  

SciTech Connect

The advances in metal fuel by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, and improved passive safety. The goals and the safety philosophy of the Integral Fast Reactor Program are stressed.

Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Metal fuel manufacturing and irradiation performance  

SciTech Connect

The advances in metal fuel by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, and improved passive safety. The goals and the safety philosophy of the Integral Fast Reactor Program are stressed.

Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Carbon-14 in Irradiated Graphite Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the international data on the formation and distribution of 14C in graphite moderators in the context of the treatment and/or disposal of the material upon reactor decommissioning. International organizations from the United States, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, and the United Kingdom collaborated in this program. This report provides an informed and improved understanding of the formation and behavior of 14C in irradiated graphite to determine where agreement or residual differ...

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

269

Effect of gamma irradiation on optical isolators  

SciTech Connect

The effects of gamma radiation on optical isolators have been investigated. This study has included the simultaneous irradiation and measurement of the individual emitters and detectors making up the isolators. In this manner, the net effect of irradiation on the isolators could be attributed to the degradation of either the emitter or detector, or both. As expected, isolators containing photodiodes are more radiation resistant than those containing phototransistors. In the photodiode isolator the LED is responsible for essentially all the gamma-induced isolator degradation. The performance of phototransistor isolators depends strongly on the phototransistor bias, V/sub CE/ , and the LED input current, I/sub LED/. At high I/sub LED/ and low V/sub CE/ where gamma-induced surface effects in the phototransistor are minimized, the degradation of the isolator is due primarily to the LED which is more sensitive than the LED in the photodiode isolator. In contrast, at low I/sub LED/ and high V/sub CE/, gamma-induced surface damage in the phototransistor is the dominant effect and the isolator is quite sensitive to irradiation. (auth)

Soda, K.J.; Barnes, C.E.; Kiehl, R.A.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Irradiation response and stability of nanoporous materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoporous materials consist of a regular organic or inorganic framework supporting a regular, porous structure. Pores are by definition roughly in the nanometre range, that is between 0.2 nm and 100 nm. Nanoporous materials can be subdivided into 3 categories (IUPAC): (1) Microporous materials - 0.2-2 nm; (2) Mesoporous materials - 2-50 nm; and (3) Macroporous materials - 50-1000 nm. np-Au foams were successfully synthesized by de-alloying process. np-Au foams remain porous structure after Ne ion irradiation to 1 dpa. Stacking Fault Tetrahedra (SFTs) were observed in RT irradiated np-Au foams under the highest and intermediate fluxes, but not under the lowest flux. SFTs were not observed in LNT irradiated np-Au foams under all fluxes. The vacancy diffusivity in Au at RT is high enough so that the vacancies have enough time to agglomerate and then collapse to form SFTs. The high ion flux creates more damage per unit time; vacancies don't have enough time to diffuse or recombine. As a result, SFTs were formed at high ion fluxes.

Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caro, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zepeda-Ruiz, L [Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory; Bringa, E. [CONICET, Universidad de Cuyo, Argentina; Nastasi, Mike [University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

271

Irradiation Environment of the Materials Test Station  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual design of the proposed Materials Test Station (MTS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is now complete. The principal mission is the irradiation testing of advanced fuels and materials for fast-spectrum nuclear reactor applications. The neutron spectrum in the fuel irradiation region of MTS is sufficiently close to that of fast reactor that MTS can match the fast reactor fuel centerline temperature and temperature profile across a fuel pellet. This is an important characteristic since temperature and temperature gradients drive many phenomena related to fuel performance, such as phase stability, stoichiometry, and fission product transport. The MTS irradiation environment is also suitable in many respects for fusion materials testing. In particular, the rate of helium production relative to atomic displacements at the peak flux position in MTS matches well that of fusion reactor first wall. Nuclear transmutation of the elemental composition of the fusion alloy EUROFER97 in MTS is similar to that expected in the first wall of a fusion reactor.

Pitcher, Eric John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

272

Gas generation from the irradiation of mortar  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A mortar formulation capable of immobilizing chloride salts with high levels of radioactivity is being developed. As part of the developmental effort, radiation effects are being investigated. The radiolytic generation of gas(es) from irradiated mortar formulations was determined for several formulations with variable salt loadings at several test temperatures. The irradiation of a mortar formulation consisting of cement, slag, fly ash, water and 0 to 10 wt % salt led to the generation of hydrogen. The rate of generation was approximately constant, steady state pressures were not attained and final pressures were comparatively high. Higher salt concentrations were correlated with higher hydrogen generation rates for experiments at ambient temperature while lower rates were observed at 120/degree/C. The irradiation of a mortar consisting of cement, fly ash, water and salt led to the radiolytic generation of both oxygen and hydrogen. The addition of 2 wt % FeS or CaS inhibited oxygen generation and changed the hydrogen production rate. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Lewis, M.A.; Warren, D.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Irradiation hardening in F82H irradiated at 573 K in the HFIR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Post-irradiation tensile tests were conducted on alloy F82H and variants of this steels irradiated at 573 K up to 19 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Post-irradiation tensile and hardness tests revealed that the strength of F82H steeply increased below 5 dpa, and the total elongation decreased. The ductility of the variants, which showed more ductility in the unirradiated condition was the same as irradiated F82H, even though the magnitude of irradiation hardening is smaller than F82H. This suggests that the softened parts of the blanket, such as heat affected zones, could show more ductility loss at this temperature. The hardening behavior of F82H with 0.09% additional tantalum (mod3), which demonstrated microstructural stability under high temperature processing, was very similar to that of F82H. Therefore mod3 can be an attractive alternate structural material for a blanket when processed above 1373 K.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Hirose, Takanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Okubo, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [ORNL; Odette, G.R. [University of California, Santa Barbara; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Neogene Low-latitude Seasonal Environmental Variations: Stable Isotopic and Trace Elemental Records in Mollusks from the Florida Platform and the Central American Isthmus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This Ph.D. dissertation integrates stable isotope and trace element geochemistry in modern and fossil gastropod shells to study low-latitude marine paleoenvironments. First, stable isotopes (delta18O and delta13C) and Sr/Ca ratios are used to examine low-latitude temperature and salinity variations recorded in Plio-Pleistocene (3.5-1.6 Ma) fossils from western Florida during periods of high-latitude warming and "global" cooling. The middle Pliocene Pinecrest Beds (Units 7 and 4) and the overlaying Plio-Pleistocene Caloosahatchee Formation generate significantly different delta18O-derived paleotemperatures but identical Sr/Ca ratios. High delta18O values, together with low delta13C values and brackish fauna, indicate that Unit 4 was deposited in a lagoonal environment similar to modern Florida Bay. In contrast, relatively low delta18O and high delta13C values in Unit 7 and Caloosahatchee Formation represent deposition in an open-marine environment. The observed Unit 7 and Caloosahatchee paleotemperatures are inconsistent with middle Pliocene warming event, but consistent with the Plio-Pleistocene cooling trend. To quantify modern upwelling and freshening signals and contrast these signals between the tropical eastern Pacific (TEP) and southwestern Caribbean (SWC), methodologies are developed for reconstructing seasonal upwelling and freshening patterns from modern tropical gastropod shells from Panama using: 1) paired oxygen and carbon isotopic profiles and delta18O-delta13C (delta-delta) correlations, and 2) deviation from baseline delta18O values that represent conditions free of seasonal upwelling or freshening influences. Shell delta18O values normalized to the baseline faithfully record modern conditions of little or no upwelling in SWC and Gulf of Chiriqui, and strong upwelling in the Gulf of Panama, as well as strong freshwater input in most areas. The baseline and delta-delta methods are applied to identify and quantify changes in upwelling and freshening in the Neogene TEP and SWC seawaters associated with the final closure of Central American Isthmus. The records reveal significant upwelling in late Miocene SWC and mid Pliocene TEP waters, strong freshening in SWC waters from 5.7-2.2 Ma, and minimal seasonal upwelling and/or freshening variations in Plio-Pleistocene SWC waters. The reconstructed paleotemperatures agree with the global cooling trend through the late Miocene, but lack evidence for middle Pliocene warming or late Neogene global cooling.

Tao, Kai

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Comparison of structural properties of pristine and gamma irradiated single-wall carbon nanotubes: Effects of medium and irradiation dose  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of the gamma irradiation effects on single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) structure was conducted. Nanotubes were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation in three media. Irradiation was carried out in air, water and aqueous ammonia. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis (EA) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the changes in the SWCNT structure. TGA measurements showed the highest percentage of introduced groups for the SWCNTs irradiated with 100 kGy. FTIR spectroscopy provided evidence for the attachment of hydroxyl, carboxyl and nitrile functional groups to the SWCNT sidewalls. Those groups were confirmed by EA. All irradiated SWCNTs had hydroxyl and carboxyl groups irrelevant to media used for irradiation, but nitrile functional groups were only identified in SWCNTs irradiated in aqueous ammonia. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the degree of disorder in the carbon nanotube structure correlates with the irradiation dose. For the nanotubes irradiated with the dose of 100 kGy, the Raman I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio was three times higher than for the pristine ones. Atomic force microscopy showed a 50% decrease in nanotube length at a radiation dose of 100 kGy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies showed significant changes in the morphology and structure of gamma irradiated SWCNTs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gamma irradiation causes SWCNT covalent functionalization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Type of covalently attached groups to SWCNT surface depends on irradiation medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SWCNT shortening level increases with applied irradiation dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average length of carbon nanotubes decreased by 50% at the highest dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The diameter of SWCNT bundles becomes small as irradiation dose rises.

Kleut, D. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, S., E-mail: svetlanajovanovic@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Markovic, Z.; Kepic, D.; Tosic, D. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Romcevic, N. [Insitute of Physics, P.O.B. 68, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Insitute of Physics, P.O.B. 68, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Marinovic-Cincovic, M.; Dramicanin, M. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Holclajtner-Antunovic, I. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, P.O.B. 47, University of Belgrade, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, P.O.B. 47, University of Belgrade, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Pavlovic, V. [Faculty of Agriculture, P.O.B. 127, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Agriculture, P.O.B. 127, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Drazic, G. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Milosavljevic, M.; Todorovic Markovic, B. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Systeme international d'unites, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed by international intercomparisons among NMIs. Ultimately, the spectral irradiance can be realized with expanded measurement uncertainties of far less than 1 % over a wide spectral range. Thus, for customers with high demands on low measurement uncertainties, it is possible to calibrate their working standards directly against the blackbody-radiator, taking into account the higher necessary effort. In special cases it is possible to calibrate the customer's spectroradiometric facilities directly in front of the blackbody-radiator. In the context of the European Metrology Research Project Traceability for surface spectral solar ultraviolet radiation, the traceability chain will be improved and adapted.

Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 10, 381160 Braunschweig (Germany)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

277

Evaluation of Neutron Irradiated Silicon Carbide and Silicon Carbide Composites  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fast neutron irradiation on SiC and SiC composites have been studied. The materials used were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC and SiC/SiC composites reinforced with either Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic{trademark} fibers fabricated by chemical vapor infiltration. Statistically significant numbers of flexural samples were irradiated up to 4.6 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV) at 300, 500 and 800 C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dimensions and weights of the flexural bars were measured before and after the neutron irradiation. Mechanical properties were evaluated by four point flexural testing. Volume increase was seen for all bend bars following neutron irradiation. Magnitude of swelling depended on irradiation temperature and material, while it was nearly independent of irradiation fluence over the fluence range studied. Flexural strength of CVD SiC increased following irradiation depending on irradiation temperature. Over the temperature range studied, no significant degradation in mechanical properties was seen for composites fabricated with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, while composites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic fibers showed significant degradation. The effects of irradiation on the Weibull failure statistics are also presented suggesting a reduction in the Weibull modulus upon irradiation. The cause of this potential reduction is not known.

Newsome G, Snead L, Hinoki T, Katoh Y, Peters D

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

278

Post-irradiation-examination of irradiated fuel outside the hot cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of their high radioactivity, irradiated fuels are commonly examined in a hot cell. However, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has recently investigated irradiated U-Mo-Al metallic fuel from the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) project using a conventional unshielded scanning electron microscope outside a hot cell. This examination was possible because of a two-step sample-preparation approach in which a small volume of fuel was isolated in a hot cell and shielding was introduced during later stages of sample preparation. The resulting sample contained numerous sample-preparation artifacts but allowed analysis of microstructures from selected areas.

Dawn E. Janney; Adam B. Robinson; Thomas P. O'Holleran; R. Paul Lind; Marc Babcock; Laurence C. Brower; Julie Jacobs; Pamela K. Hoggan

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Thermal analysis of the FSP-1RR irradiation test  

SciTech Connect

The thermal analysis of four unirradiated fuel pins to be tested in the FSP-1RR fuels irradiation experiment was completed. This test is a follow-on experiment in the series of fuel pin irradiation tests conducted by the SP-100 Program in the Fast Flux Test Facility. One of the pins contains several meltwire temperature monitors within the fuel and the Li annulus. A post-irradiation examination will verify the accuracy of the pre-irradiation thermal analysis. The purpose of the pre-irradiation analysis was to determine the appropriate insulating gap gas compositions required to provide the design goal cladding operating temperatures and to ensure that the meltwire temperature ranges in the temperature monitored pin bracket peak irradiation temperatures. This paper discusses the methodology and summarizes the results of the analysis.

Webb, R.H.; Lyon, W.F. III

1992-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

280

NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

Energetic ion bombardment can lead to the development of complex and diverse nanostructures on or beneath the material surface through induced self-organization processes. These self-organized structures have received particular interest recently as promising candidates as simple, inexpensive, and large area patterns, whose optical, electronic and magnetic properties are different from those in the bulk materials [1-5]. Compared to the low mass efficiency production rate of lithographic methods, these self-organized approaches display new routes for the fabrication of nanostructures over large areas in a short processing time at the nanoscale, beyond the limits of lithography [1,4]. Although it is believed that surface nanostructure formation is based on the morphological instability of the sputtered surface, driven by a kinetic balance between roughening and smoothing actions [6,7], the fundamental mechanisms and experimental conditions for the formation of these nanostructures has still not been well established, the formation of the 3-D naopatterns beneath the irradiated surface especially needs more exploration. During the last funding period, we have focused our efforts on irradiation-induced nanostructures in a broad range of materials. These structures have been studied primarily through in situ electron microscopy during electron or ion irradiation. In particular, we have performed studies on 3-D void/bubble lattices (in metals and CaF2), embedded sponge-like porous structure with uniform nanofibers in irradiated semiconductors (Ge, GaSb, and InSb), 2-D highly ordered pattern of nanodroplets (on the surface of GaAs), hexagonally ordered nanoholes (on the surface of Ge), and 1-D highly ordered ripple and periodic arrays (of Cu nanoparticles) [3,8-11]. The amazing common feature in those nanopatterns is the uniformity of the size of nanoelements (nanoripples, nanodots, nanovoids or nanofibers) and the distance separating them. Our research focuses on the understanding of fundamental scientific basis for the irradiation-induced self-organization processes. The fundamental physical mechanisms underlying ordered pattern formation, which include defect production and migration, ion sputtering, redeposition, viscous flow and diffusion, are investigated through a combination of modeling and in situ and ex-situ observations [3,9,11]. In addition, these nanostructured materials exhibit considerable improvement of optical properties [9,12,13]. For example, patterned Ge with a hexagonally ordered, honeycomb-like structure of nanoscale holes possesses a high surface area and a considerably blue-shifted energy gap [9], and oxidation of ordered Ga droplets shows noticeable enhancement of optical transmission [12]. This research has addressed nanopattern formation in a variety of materials under ion bombardment and provided a fundamental understanding of the dynamic mechanisms involved. In addition, have also stared to systematically investigate pattern formation under ion irradiation for more systems with varied experimental conditions and computation, including the collaboration with Dr. Veena Tikare of Sandia National Laboratory with a hybrid computation method at the ending this grant. A more detailed relationship between nanostructure formation and experimental conditions will be revealed with our continued efforts.

Wang, Lumin [Regents of the University of Michigan; Lu, Wei [Regents of the University of Michigan

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Comparison of Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diffuse Shortwave Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements J. J. Michalsky and J. Schlemmer Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York B. C. Bush, S. Leitner, D. Marsden, and F. P. J. Valero Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California R. Dolce and A. Los Kipp & Zonen, Inc. Bohemia, New York and Delft The Netherlands E. G. Dutton Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado M. P. Haeffelin Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blackburg, Virginia G. Major Budapest University of Economic Sciences and Public Administration Budapest, Hungry J. Hickey The Eppley Laboratory, Inc. Newport, Rhode Island

282

DECONTAMINATION OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATED REACTOR FUEL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pyrometallurgical method of decontaminating neutronirradiated reactor fuel is presented. In accordance with the invention, neutron-irradiated reactor fuel may be decontaminated by countercurrently contacting the fuel with a bed of alkali and alkaine fluorides under an inert gas atmosphere and inductively melting the fuel and tracking the resulting descending molten fuel with induction heating as it passes through the bed. By this method, a large, continually fresh surface of salt is exposed to the descending molten fuel which enhances the efficiency of the scrubbing operation.

Buyers, A.G.; Rosen, F.D.; Motta, E.E.

1959-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

283

Radicals in {gamma}-irradiated wool  

SciTech Connect

Radicals were identified in wool fiber {gamma}-irradiated at 77 K by EPR: products of reaction of an electron e and H atom with amino acid residues and a polypeptide chain, and their partial yields at 77 K and the reactivity scale of e with respect to the individual fragments of the protein molecule were determined: [RSSR]: [>C=O{sub p.b.}]:[NH{sub 3}{sup +}-R]:[aromatic ring] = 4:3: > 1:1. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Baeva, N.N.; Sadova, S.F.; Sharpatyi, V.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

IRRADIATION BY X RAYS AND AWUEOUS DIURESIS  

SciTech Connect

The effect of x radiation on the renal functioning in the rat, rabbit. and dog was studied to determine if irradiation can modify significantly the yield of aqueous diuresis. The techniques used in the three cases are described. Results show that x radiation does noi cause constant and significant polyuria in the rat, rabbit, or dog. Whereas the rat is characterized by a variable urinary elimination, the rabbit regularly exhibits oliguria. The dog, in acute experiments, shows a rise in diuresis. (J.S.R.)

Beaumariage, M.L.; Barac, G.

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Anomalous Adsorption of Ultrafast Laser Irradiation in Glass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Anomalous Adsorption of Ultrafast Laser Irradiation in Glass ... and is driven by the stress induced by absorption of ultrafast light in glass.

286

Improved Solar Power Plant Efficiency: Low Cost Solar Irradiance Sensor  

A University of Colorado research group led by Fernando Mancilla-David has developed a low cost irradiance sensor using a network modeled on a neural ...

287

ALGAE: RADIOACTIVITY UPTAKE AND IRRADIATION EFFECTS. A Literature Search  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven references are included on the uptake of radioisotopes by algae and the biological effects of external or internal irradiation of algae. (C.H.)

Smith, L.L.

1961-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic...

289

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS Bertrand Tseng, Munjal M. Acharya, Neal Patel, Katherine Tran, Mary Lan, Erich Giedzinski, Vipan Kumar and Charles Limoli Department...

290

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation in radiosensitive mice Sumita Raha Northwestern University Abstract We have developed a quantitative real-time...

291

Irradiation and Testing of Fuels and Cladding Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Mechanical Performance of Materials for Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Irradiation and Testing of Fuels and Cladding Materials

292

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation in radiosensitive mice. Sumita Raha, Qiong Wang, Emily Mirkin, M. Beau Wanzer, Tatjana Paunesku and Gayle...

293

Impact of Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification and Chromatin Organization Hunter W. Richards Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal Our goal is to...

294

Impact of Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification and Chromatin Organization Hunter W. Richards, Steven D. Ayers, Shutao Cai, Yoshinori Kohwi, Gary Karpen, Sylvain Costes and...

295

Operational Awareness Tour of Building 3525 Irradiated Fuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Report for the Operational Awareness Tour of Building 3525 Irradiated Fuels Examination Hot Cell Laboratory Dates of Activity : 10212011 Report Preparer: Tim Mengers Activity...

296

A Rate-Theory Approach to Irradiation Damage Modeling with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors II. Presentation Title, A Rate-Theory Approach to Irradiation Damage Modeling...

297

Development of Microstructure and Irradiation Hardening of Zircaloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Wrought Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 were neutron irradiated at nominally 300C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at relatively low neutron ...

298

Program for Irradiation of Reactor Structural Materials at the ATR ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Program for Irradiation of Reactor Structural Materials at the ATR-National Scientific User Facility. Author(s), Heather J. MacLean Chichester, ...

299

Damage Structure Evolution in Ion Irradiated UO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Radiation Effects in Oxide Ceramics and Novel LWR Fuels ... To better understand low dose irradiation effects on defect creation in UO2, helium...

300

NIST SURF Long-Term Monitoring of the Ultraviolet Irradiance ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... converted into a dedicated primary irradiance source ... SR) is the only standard source available, since ... the range of the blackbody standard sources. ...

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Microstructure Stability in Irradiated Materials - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CASL: The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors: A U.S. ... Strategies for Studying High Dose Irradiation Effects in Reactor Components.

302

Intergranular Cracking of an Irradiated Ti-Stabilized Austenitic ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 1999 ... Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power ... Failure of an irradiated fuel assembly spacer grid sleeve was observed after three...

303

Estimation of Ultraviolet-A Irradiance from Measurements of 368-nm Spectral Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimation of ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation across the earths surface is needed to model plant productivity and future impacts of ultraviolet-B radiation on plant productivity. We have developed two models to estimate the UV-A irradiance ...

R. H. Grant; J. R. Slusser

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Evolution of the nanostructure OF VVER-1000 RPV materials under neutron irradiation and post irradiation annealing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high nickel VVER-1000 (15Kh2NMFAA) base metal (1.34 wt% Ni, 0.47% Mn, 0.29% Si and 0.05% Cu), and a high nickel (12Kh2N2MAA) weld metal (1.77 wt% Ni, 0.74% Mn, 0.26% Si and 0.07% Cu) have been characterized by atom probe tomography to determine the changes in the microstructure during neutron irradiation to high fluences. The base metal was studied in the unirradiated condition and after neutron irradiation to fluences between 2.4 and 14.9 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -2} (E > 0.5 MeV), and the weld metal was studied in the unirradiated condition and after neutron irradiation to fluences between 2.4 and 11.5 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -2} (E > 0.5 MeV). High number densities of 2-nm-diameter Ni-, Si- and Mn-enriched nanoclusters were found in the neutron irradiated base and weld metals. No significant copper enrichment was associated with these nanoclusters and no copper-enriched precipitates were observed. The number densities of these nanoclusters correlate with the shifts in the {Delta}T{sub 41 J} ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. These nanoclusters were present after a post irradiOffice of Science (US)C, but had dissolved into the matrix after 24 h at 450 C. Phosphorus, nickel, silicon and to a lesser extent manganese were found to be segregated to the dislocations.

Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Chernobaeva, A. A. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Shtrombakh, Ya. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Erak, D. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Zabusov, Oleg O. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Russell, Kaye F [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Optimisation of buildings' solar irradiation availability  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the sustainability of new and existing urban settlements it is desirable to maximise the utilisation of the solar energy incident on the building envelope, whether by passive or active means. To this end we have coupled a multi-objective optimisation algorithm with the backwards ray tracing program RADIANCE which itself uses a cumulative sky model for the computation of incident irradiation (W h/m{sup 2}) in a single simulation. The parameters to optimise are geometric (the height of buildings up to their facade and the height and orientation of roofs), but with the constraint of maintaining an overall built volume, and the objective function is heating season solar irradiation offset by envelope heat losses. This methodology has been applied to a range of urban typologies and produces readily interpretable results. The focus of this work is on the design of new urban forms but the method could equally be applied to examine the relative efficiency of existing urban settlements, by comparison of existing forms with the calculated optima derived from relevant specifications of the building envelope. (author)

Kaempf, Jerome Henri; Montavon, Marylene; Bunyesc, Josep; Robinson, Darren [Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory, Station 18, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bolliger, Raffaele [Industrial Energy Systems Laboratory, Station 9, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Hafnium radioisotope recovery from irradiated tantalum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hafnium is recovered from irradiated tantalum by: (a) contacting the irradiated tantalum with at least one acid to obtain a solution of dissolved tantalum; (b) combining an aqueous solution of a calcium compound with the solution of dissolved tantalum to obtain a third combined solution; (c) precipitating hafnium, lanthanide, and insoluble calcium complexes from the third combined solution to obtain a first precipitate; (d) contacting the first precipitate of hafnium, lanthanide and calcium complexes with at least one fluoride ion complexing agent to form a fourth solution; (e) selectively adsorbing lanthanides and calcium from the fourth solution by cationic exchange; (f) separating fluoride ion complexing agent product from hafnium in the fourth solution by adding an aqueous solution of ferric chloride to obtain a second precipitate containing the hafnium and iron; (g) dissolving the second precipitate containing the hafnium and iron in acid to obtain an acid solution of hafnium and iron; (h) selectively adsorbing the iron from the acid solution of hafnium and iron by anionic exchange; (i) drying the ion exchanged hafnium solution to obtain hafnium isotopes. Additionally, if needed to remove residue remaining after the product is dried, dissolution in acid followed by cation exchange, then anion exchange, is performed.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

LWRS ATR Irradiation Testing Readiness Status  

SciTech Connect

The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors. The LWRS Program is divided into four R&D Pathways: (1) Materials Aging and Degradation; (2) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels; (3) Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems; and (4) Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization. This report describes an irradiation testing readiness analysis in preparation of LWRS experiments for irradiation testing at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) under Pathway (2). The focus of the Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuels Pathway is to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental performance of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding in nuclear power plants during both nominal and off-nominal conditions. This information will be applied in the design and development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels with improved safety, cladding integrity, and improved nuclear fuel cycle economics

Kristine Barrett

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

A stochastic model for cell survival after irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the theory of cell survival after irradiation. It is based on the assumption that the cell is composed of two regions with different sensitivities and takes into account phenomena with general repair-time distribution different ... Keywords: Irradiation, mean life time, repair-time distribution

G. K. Agrafiotis

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

PROCESS FOR CONTINUOUSLY SEPARATING IRRADIATION PRODUCTS OF THORIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for separating uranium-233 and protactinium from thorium-232 containing compositions which comprises irradiating finely divided particles of said thorium with a neutron flux to form uranium-233 and protactinium, heating the neutron-irradiated composition in a fluorine and hydrogen atmosphere to form volatile fluorides of uranium and protactinium and thereafter separating said volatile fluorides from the thorium.

Hatch, L.P.; Miles, F.T.; Sheehan, T.V.; Wiswall, R.H.; Heus, R.J.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Total Solar Irradiance Measurements During Solar Cycles 22 and 23  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Total Solar Irradiance Measurements During Solar Cycles 22 and 23 Sabri Mekaoui Abstract The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) is a measure of the radiative output from the Sun. Its value and its long solar cycles. Cycle 22 lasted from late 1986 until 1996 while cycle 23 is currently ending

Glineur, François

311

Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From Irradiated Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in Irradiated and Bystander K562 Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in global transcript levels induced by direct irradiation and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-irradiated with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after irradiation (irradiation-conditioned medium). Global transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in irradiation-conditioned medium or irradiated, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and irradiated cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in irradiated and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-irradiated cells or directly irradiated show very similar changes. Signals released by irradiated cells may cause changes in the transcriptome of neighboring cells that sustain their survival.

Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Rogolinski, Jacek [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Jaksik, Roman [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Hancock, Ronald [Laval University Cancer Research Centre, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Quebec, QC (Canada); Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna, E-mail: jwolny@io.gliwice.p [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Relationships between Measured and Satellite-Estimated Solar Irradiance in Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of satellite-estimated surface solar irradiance and the relationship between irradiance at pairs of locations and distance between the pairs were examined. Daily measured and satellite-estimated irradiances were available for a 23 ...

William A. Dugas; Mark L. Heuer

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking is a key materials degradation issue in today's nuclear power reactor fleet and affects critical structural components within the reactor core. The effects of increased exposure to irradiation, stress, and/or coolant can substantially increase susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steels in high-temperature water environments. Despite 30 years of experience, the underlying mechanisms of Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) are unknown. Extended service conditions will increase the exposure

314

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials July 20, 2011 - 3:58pm Addthis Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects the mechanical properties of copper. By using a specialized in situ mechanical testing device in a transmission electron microscope at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, the team could examine — with nanoscale resolution — the localized nature of this deformation. | Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects

315

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials July 20, 2011 - 3:58pm Addthis Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects the mechanical properties of copper. By using a specialized in situ mechanical testing device in a transmission electron microscope at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, the team could examine — with nanoscale resolution — the localized nature of this deformation. | Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects

316

Recovery of niobium from irradiated targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for selective separation of niobium from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected form the group consisting of molybdenum, biobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the cationic resin; adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 5.0 to about 6.0; contacting the pH adjusting second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material for a time to selectively separate niobium from the solution and recovering the niobium from the dextran-based material.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Hamilton, Virginia T. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Strongly anisotropic Dirac quasiparticles in irradiated graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study quasiparticle dynamics in graphene exposed to a linearly-polarized electromagnetic wave of very large intensity. Low-energy transport in such system can be described by an effective time-independent Hamiltonian, characterized by multiple Dirac points in the first Brillouin zone. Around each Dirac point the spectrum is anisotropic: the velocity along the polarization of the radiation significantly exceeds the velocity in the perpendicular direction. Moreover, in some of the points the transverse velocity oscillates as a function of the radiation intensity. We find that the conductance of a graphene p-n junction in the regime of strong irradiation depends on the polarization as $G(\\theta)\\propto|\\sin\\theta|^{3/2}$, where $\\theta$ is the angle between the polarization and the p-n interface, and oscillates as a function of the radiation intensity.

S. V. Syzranov; Ya. I. Rodionov; K. I. Kugel; F. Nori

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

318

Controlled doping of graphene using ultraviolet irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The electronic properties of graphene are tunable via doping, making it attractive in low dimensional organic electronics. Common methods of doping graphene, however, adversely affect charge mobility and degrade device performance. We demonstrate a facile shadow mask technique of defining electrodes on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) thereby eliminating the use of detrimental chemicals needed in the corresponding lithographic process. Further, we report on the controlled, effective, and reversible doping of graphene via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with minimal impact on charge mobility. The change in charge concentration saturates at {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and the quantum yield is {approx}10{sup -5} e/photon upon initial UV exposure. This simple and controlled strategy opens the possibility of doping wafer-size CVD graphene for diverse applications.

Luo Zhengtang [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Pinto, Nicholas J.; Davila, Yarely [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Humacao, 00792 (Puerto Rico); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6396 (United States)

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

319

Damage and repair of irradiated mammalian brain  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated that focal charged particle irradiation of the rabbit brain can create well-defined lesions which are observable by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques. These are similar, in terms of location and characteristic NMR and PET features, to those that occur in the brain of about 10% of clinical research human subjects, who have been treated for intracranial vascular malformations with stereotactic radiosurgery. These lesions have been described radiologically as vasogenic edema of the deep white matter,'' and the injury is of variable intensity and temporal duration, can recede or progress to serious neurologic sequelae, and persist for a considerable period of time, frequently 18 mon to 3 yr. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Frankel, K.; Lo, E.; Phillips, M.; Fabrikant, J.; Brennan, K.; Valk, P.; Poljak, A.; Delapaz, R.; Woodruff, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Medical Center; Brookside Hospital, San Pablo, CA (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Instrumentation to Enhance Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors has been completed. Based on this review, recommendations are made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR and a strategy has been developed for obtaining these sensors. Progress toward implementing this strategy is reported in this document. It is anticipated that this report will be updated on an annual basis.

J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. E. Daw; S. C. Taylor

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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321

Post-Irradiation Examination of AREVA M5 Guide Tubes and Fuel Rods Irradiated in North Anna 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the hot cell examination of guide tubes and fuel rods fabricated with the advanced M5 alloy and irradiated in North Anna Units 1 and 2 to exposures beyond current fuel licensing limits. Collecting the relevant data required detailed poolside and hot cell examinations, which entailed outage coordination and shipment of irradiated fuel and components to multiple facilities.

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

The Effects of Interfaces on the Ultrafast Irradiation of Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Effects of Interfaces on the Ultrafast Irradiation of Thin Films ... Abstract Scope, The ultrafast laser irradiation of bulk materials is a...

323

A high-resolution, cloud-assimilating numerical weather prediction model for solar irradiance forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ofnumericalweatherpredictionsolarirradianceforecastsofnumericalweatherpredictionforintra?daysolarnumericalweatherpredictionmodelforsolarirradiance

Mathiesen, Patrick; Collier, Craig; Kleissl, Jan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Fracture and Impact Properties of HT-9 Steel Irradiated to High Dose ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fracture and Impact Properties of HT-9 Steel Irradiated to High ... 250, and the irradiation temperature in a servo-hydraulic testing machine.

325

A nanotube based electron microbeam cellular irradiator for radiobiology research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prototype cellular irradiator utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission electron source has been developed for microscopic image-guided cellular region irradiation. The CNT cellular irradiation system has shown great potential to be a high temporal and spatial resolution research tool to enable researchers to gain a better understanding of the intricate cellular and intercellular microprocesses occurring following radiation deposition, which is essential to improving radiotherapy cancer treatment outcomes. In this paper, initial results of the system development are reported. The relationship between field emission current, the dose rate, and the dose distribution has been investigated. A beam size of 23 {mu}m has been achieved with variable dose rates of 1-100 Gy/s, and the system dosimetry has been measured using a radiochromic film. Cell irradiation has been demonstrated by the visualization of H2AX phosphorylation at DNA double-strand break sites following irradiation in a rat fibroblast cell monolayer. The prototype single beam cellular irradiator is a preliminary step to a multipixel cell irradiator that is under development.

Bordelon, David E. [Curriculum in Applied and Materials Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhang Jian; Graboski, Sarah; Cox, Adrienne; Schreiber, Eric; Chang, Sha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhou, Otto Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Curriculum in Applied and Materials Sciences, and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Effect of crossed beams irradiation on parametric instabilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modification of the growth of scattering processes in the case of multiple beam irradiation compared to single beam irradiation has been investigated in a preformed plasma using Thomson scattrering of a short wavelength probe beam, and spectral and temporal analysis of reflected and transmitted light. First observations of the reduction of the amplitude of ion acoustic waves associated with stimulated Brillouin scattering, amplification of the amplitude of electron plasma waves associated with stimulated Raman scattering, and transfer of energy between crqssing beams with same frequency in a flowing plasma under crossed beam irradiation are reported.

Labaune, C., Ecole Polytechnique, France

1998-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

327

Radiochemistry Results from the IER-163 COMET Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The COMET assembly at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was used to irradiate twelve foils in September 2011. The intention of this irradiation was to measure 'peak yield' fission product activities, activation products, and so-called 'endpoint R values' for different foil materials in a non-thermal neutron spectrum. After irradiation, several of the foils were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for radiochemical analysis. The results from the non-destructive and radiochemical analyses of six of these foils are presented.

Jackman, Kevin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schake, Ann R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Attrep, Moses Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

328

Ion irradiation tolerance of graphene as studied by atomistic simulations  

SciTech Connect

As impermeable to gas molecules and at the same time transparent to high-energy ions, graphene has been suggested as a window material for separating a high-vacuum ion beam system from targets kept at ambient conditions. However, accumulation of irradiation-induced damage in the graphene membrane may give rise to its mechanical failure. Using atomistic simulations, we demonstrate that irradiated graphene even with a high vacancy concentration does not show signs of such instability, indicating a considerable robustness of graphene windows. We further show that upper and lower estimates for the irradiation damage in graphene can be set using a simple model.

Ahlgren, E. H.; Lehtinen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kotakoski, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1190 Wien (Austria); Krasheninnikov, A. V. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 1100, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

329

AGC-2 Irradiation Data Qualification Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment (AGC-2) began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 149A on April 12, 2011, and ended with ATR Cycle 151B on May 5, 2012. The purpose of this report is to qualify AGC-2 irradiation monitoring data following INL Management and Control Procedure 2691, Data Qualification. Data that are Qualified meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Data that do not meet the requirements are Failed. Some data may not quite meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. These data are labeled as Trend. No Trend data were identified for the AGC-2 experiment. All thermocouples functioned throughout the AGC-2 experiment. There was one instance where spurious signals or instrument power interruption resulted in a recorded temperature value being well outside physical reality. This value was identified and labeled as Failed data. All other temperature data are Qualified. All helium and argon gas flow data are within expected ranges. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during reactor shutdown. All gas flow data are Qualified. At the start of the experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line increased to 200 ppmv then declined to less than 10 ppmv over a period of 5 days. This increase in moisture coincides with the initial heating of the experiment and drying of the system. Moisture slightly exceeded 10 ppmv three other times during the experiment. While these moisture values exceed the 10 ppmv threshold value, the reported measurements are considered accurate and to reflect moisture conditions in the capsule. All moisture data are Qualified. Graphite creep specimens are subjected to one of three loads, 393 lbf, 491 lbf, or 589 lbf. Loads were consistently within 5% of the specified values throughout the experiment. Stack displacement increased consistently throughout the experiment with total displacement ranging from 1 to 1.5 inches. No anomalous values were identified. During reactor outages, a set of pneumatic rams are used to raise the stacks of graphite creep specimens to ensure the specimens have not become stuck within the test train. This stack raising was performed after all cycles when the capsule was in the reactor. All stacks were raised successfully after each cycle. The load and displacement data are Qualified

Laurence C. Hull

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Pyrolytic carbon free-radical evolution and irradiation damage of polyimide under low-energy proton irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Ionization and displacement effects are basic phenomena in damage processes of materials under space-particle irradiation. In this paper, the damage behaviors were investigated on the polyimide under proton irradiation using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra analysis and optical absorbance valuation. The results indicate that the proton irradiation induces the formation of pyrolytic carbon free-radical with a g value of 2.0025, and the population of free radicals increases with the irradiation fluence. The most important finding is that the irradiation-induced free-radical population increases linearly with the displacement damage dose, as does the optical degradation, whereas the ionization effect alone, during the irradiation, cannot induce the formation of pyrolytic carbon free radical. Furthermore, during the post storage, after irradiation, the free-radical population decreases following a sum of an exponential and a linear mode with the storage time. It is interesting that, during the post storage, the recovery of the degraded optical absorbance of the polyimide follows a similar mode to that of free radicals, and the characteristic time constant changes with the wavelength of the optical spectra.

Sun Chengyue; Wu Yiyong; Xiao Jingdong; Li Ruifeng; Yang Dezhuang; He Shiyu [National Key Lab in Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A 1990 GLOBAL INVENTORY FOR SO(X) AND NO(X) ON A 1(DEGREE) X 1(DEGREE) LATITUDE-LONGITUDE GRID.  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted to the atmosphere have been linked to the acidification of water bodies and soils and perturbations in the earth's radiation balance. In order to model the global transport and transformation of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}, detailed spatial and temporal emission inventories are required. Benkovitz et al. (1996) published the development of an inventory of 1985 global emissions of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from anthropogenic sources. The inventory was gridded to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} latitude-longitude grid and has served as input to several global modeling studies. There is now a need to provide modelers with an update of this inventory to a more recent year, with a split of the emissions into elevated and low level sources. This paper describes the development of a 1990 update of the SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} global inventories that also includes a breakdown of sources into 17 sector groups. The inventory development starts with a gridded global default EDGAR inventory (Olivier et al, 1996). In countries where more detailed national inventories are available, these are used to replace the emissions for those countries in the global default. The gridded emissions are distributed into two height levels (0-100m and >100m) based on the final plume heights that are estimated to be typical for the various sectors considered. The sources of data as well as some of the methodologies employed to compile and develop the 1990 global inventory for SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} are discussed. The results reported should be considered to be interim since the work is still in progress and additional data sets are expected to become available.

VAN HEYST,B.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Small-scale irradiated fuel electrorefining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the metallic fuel cycle development for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), a small scale electrorefiner was built and operated in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West. The initial purpose of this apparatus was to test the single segment dissolution of irradiated metallic fuel via either direct dissolution in cadmium or anodic dissolution. These tests showed that 99.95% of the uranium and 99.99% of the plutonium was dissolved and separated from the fuel cladding material. The fate of various fission products was also measured. After the dissolution experiments, the apparatus was upgraded to stady fission product behavior during uranium electrotransport. Preliminary decontamination factors were estimated for different fission products under different processing conditions. Later modifications have added the following capabilities: Dissolution of multiple fuel segments simultaneously, electrotransport to a solid cathode or liquid cathode and actinide recovery with a chemical reduction crucible. These capabilities have been tested with unirradiated uranium-zirconium fuel and will support the Fuel Cycle Demonstration program.

Benedict, R.W.; Krsul, J.R.; Mariani, R.D.; Park, K.; Teske, G.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Recovery of germanium-68 from irradiated targets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for selective separation of germanium-68 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 0.7 to about 3.0, adjusting the soluble metal halide concentration in the second ion-containing solution to a level adapted for subsequent separation of germanium, contacting the pH-adjusted, soluble metal halide-containing second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material whereby germanium ions are separated by the dextran-based material, and recovering the germanium from the dextran-based material, preferably by distillation.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Hamilton, Virginia T. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Recovery of germanium-68 from irradiated targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a process for selective separation of germanium-68 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium,vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 0.7 to about 3.0, adjusting the soluble metal halide concentration in the second ion-containing solution to a level adapted for subsequent separation of germanium, contacting the pH-adjusted, soluble metal halide-containing second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material whereby germanium ions are separated by the dextran-based material, and recovering the germanium from the dextran-based material, preferably by distillation.

Phillips, D.R.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Hamilton, V.T.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Post-irradiation Examination and Fission Product Inventory Analysis of AGR-1 Irradiation Capsules  

SciTech Connect

The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments designed to test TRISO fuel under High Temperature Gas Reactor irradiation conditions. This experiment was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is currently undergoing post-irradiation examination (PIE) at INLs Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). The inventory and distribution of fission products, especially Ag-110m, was assessed and analyzed for all the components of the AGR-1 capsules. This data should help inform the study of fission product migration in coated particle fuel. Gamma spectrometry was used to measure the activity of various different fission products in the different components of the AGR-1 test train. Each capsule contained: 12 fuel compacts, a graphite holder that kept the fuel compacts in place, graphite spacers that were above and below the graphite holders and fuel compacts, gas lines through which a helium neon gas mixture flowed in and out of each capsule, and the stainless steel shell that contained the experiment. Gamma spectrometry results and the experimental techniques used to capture these results will be presented for all the capsule components. The components were assayed to determine the total activity of different fission products present in or on them. These totals are compared to the total expected activity of a particular fission product in the capsule based on predictions from physics simulation. Based on this metric, a significant fraction of the Ag-110m was detected outside the fuel compacts, but the amount varied highly between the 6 capsules. Very small fractions of Cs-137 (<2E-5), Cs-134 (<1e-5), and Eu-154 (<4e-4) were detected outside of the fuel compacts. Additionally, the distribution of select fission products in some of the components including the fuel compacts and the graphite holders were measured and will be discussed.

J M Harp; P D Demkowicz; S A Ploger

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

SANS Study of Highly Irradiated RPV Steels - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, SANS Study of Highly Irradiated RPV Steels ... In this study, the evolution of Cu-, Ni-, and Mg-enriched precipitates is ... Phase-field Modeling of Grain Growth in Sintered Uranium Dioxide under High Temperature Gradients.

337

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model John Miller 1 , Seema Varma 1 , William Chrisler 2 , Xihai Wang 2 and Marianne Sowa 2 1 Washington State University Tri-Cities, Richland, WA 2 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA Monte Carlo simulations of electrons stopping in liquid water are being used to model electron- beam irradiation of the full-thickness (FT) EpiDerm TM skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). This 3D tissue model has a fully developed basement membrane separating an epidermal layer of keratinocytes from a dermal layer of fibroblasts embedded in collagen. The simulations have shown the feasibility of exposing the epidermal layer to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation in the presence of a non-irradiated dermal layer (Miller et al. 2011). The variable-

338

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model John Miller Washington State University Tri-Cities Abstract Monte Carlo simulations of electrons stopping in liquid water are being used to model electronbeam irradiation of the full-thickness (FT) EpiDermTM skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). This 3D tissue model has a fully developed basement membrane separating an epidermal layer of keratinocytes from a dermal layer of fibroblasts embedded in collagen. The simulations have shown the feasibility of exposing the epidermal layer to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation in the presence of a non-irradiated dermal layer (Miller et al. 2011). The variableenergy electron microbeam at PNNL (Sowa et al. 2005) was used as a model of device characteristics and

339

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Charles Limoli University of California, Irvine Abstract In the CNS, irradiation of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells has been shown to cause a persistent oxidative stress that impacts radiosensitivity, mitochondrial function, and cell fate. The nature, magnitude and duration of reactive species dictates whether these radiation-induced changes are harmful or beneficial to a variety of in vitro and in vivo endpoints of viability and function. We have shown that acute low dose irradiation (2-10 cGy) can elicit significant increases in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species over several days post-exposure. These changes can be attenuated when the dose is protracted over several weeks using a 57Co flood source having a surface dose rate of

340

Irradiation qualification testing of SNAP-10A components  

SciTech Connect

Selected SNAP 10A components were irradiated to about 10{sup14} nvt and 5{times} 10{sup 7} r at an average temperature of 136{degrees}F in a nominal vacuum of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} torr. The components were operated periodically and the electrical characteristics recorded. Pre-irradiationand post-irradiation tests were conducted. Catastropic degradation occurred only in the low-level neutron detection system and about 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} nvt and in the high-level neutron power supply at about 6{times} 10{sup 12} nvt. Marginal degradation occurred in the fusistors and in the silicone rubber insert material in connectors. The relays, low-voltage trip devices, expansion compensator position demodulator, resistance thermometer sensor and bridge, and the gamma detection system opearted within their respective specifications during and after irradiation. The insulation resistance of all components was adeqauate during and after irradiation.

Chesavage, A.J.

1964-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Method for mounting laser fusion targets for irradiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for preparing laser fusion targets of the ball-and-disk type are disclosed. Such targets are suitable for irradiation with one or two laser beams to produce the requisite uniform compression of the fuel material.

Fries, R. Jay (Los Alamos, NM); Farnum, Eugene H. (Los Alamos, NM); McCall, Gene H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1977-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

342

Chromosome- and Chromatid-type Aberrations after Irradiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chromosome- and Chromatid-type Aberrations after Irradiation of Various HRR or NHEJ Deficient Mutant Chinese Hamster Cells and Their Wild-type Counterparts in G0G1 or LateSG2...

343

The Observed Hemispheric Symmetry in Reflected Shortwave Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the concentration of landmasses and atmospheric aerosols on the Northern Hemisphere suggests that the Northern Hemisphere is brighter than the Southern Hemisphere, satellite measurements of top-of-atmosphere irradiances found that both ...

Aiko Voigt; Bjorn Stevens; Jrgen Bader; Thorsten Mauritsen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Alternative Parameterizations of Downward Irradiance and Their Dynamical Significance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of solar flux divergence on upper ocean dynamics and energetics under both low and high wind speeds was determined using four different parameterizations of downward irradiance. The first (case I) involved only one attenuation length, ...

J. J. Simpson; T. D. Dickey

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

FY 2013 Summary Report: Post-Irradiation Examination of Zircaloy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

In the future, baseline data generated from these activities will be used to benchmark hot-cell testing of actual high-burnup UNF cladding. FY13SumRprtPostIrradiationExaminatZir...

346

Low dose irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early onset of tissue aging Lingling Ding 1,2 , Xuan Zheng 1,3 , Wendy W. Kuhne 4 , David E. Hinton 5 , Jeffrey R. Lee 6 , and...

347

Influence of Urban Aerosol on Spectral Solar Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From a dataset of spectral distribution of global and disuse solar irradiances measured in Barcelona during the last three years, the influence of turbidity caused by urban aerosol on spectral composition of solar radiation and transmissivity of ...

J. Lorente; A. Reda; X. De Cabo

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Carbon Characterization Laboratory Readiness to Receive Irradiated Graphite Samples  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Labs C19 and C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. The CCL was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project to support graphite and ceramic composite research and development activities. The research conducted in this laboratory will support the Advanced Graphite Creep experimentsa major series of material irradiation experiments within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite program. The CCL is designed to characterize and test low activated irradiated materials such as high purity graphite, carbon-carbon composites, silicon-carbide composite, and ceramic materials. The laboratory is fully capable of characterizing material properties for both irradiated and nonirradiated materials. Major infrastructural modifications were undertaken to support this new radiological facility at Idaho National Laboratory. Facility modifications are complete, equipment has been installed, radiological controls and operating procedures have been established and work management documents have been created to place the CCL in readiness to receive irradiated graphite samples.

Karen A. Moore

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal irradiance...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b>
Global Horizontal Irradiance
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

350

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal irradiance GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

>
Direct Normal Irradiance (kWhm2day)
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

351

Optimal Measurement of Surface Shortwave Irradiance Using Current Instrumentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although most measurements of total downwelling shortwave irradiance are made with pyranometers, the World Climate Research Programs Baseline Surface Radiation Network has recommended the use of the summation of shortwave components in which the ...

J. Michalsky; E. Dutton; M. Rubes; D. Nelson; T. Stoffel; M. Wesley; M. Splitt; J. DeLuisi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The irradiation facilities for testing SSC components and detector systems are described. Very high intensity proton, neutron, and pion fluxes are available with beam kinetic energies of up to 800 MeV. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Sandberg, V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

High Dose Heavy Ion Irradiation of Austenitic Stainless Steels ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ab Initio Study of Radiation-Induced Amorphization Mechanisms in SiC and ZrC ... of Zircaloy during Low Dose Neutron Irradiation at Nominally 375-440C.

354

Turbidity Determination from Broadband Irradiance Measurements: A Detailed Multicoefficient Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A physically modeled method is presented to obtain accurate turbidity determinations from broadband direct irradiance measurements. The method uses parameterizations of various extinction processes affecting the transfer of shortwave radiation in ...

Christian A. Gueymard

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts associated with the U.S. Department of Energy proposed action to conduct a lead test assembly program to confirm the viability of using a commercial light water reactor to produce tritium. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 22, 1997 EA-1210: Finding of No Significant Impact Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington July 22, 1997 EA-1210: Final Environmental Assessment

356

Program for alloy development for irradiation performance in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

The use of fission reactors as irradiation test facilities for structural materials for a fusion environment is discussed. A comparison is made of displacement damage and helium production in fast fission and fusion reactors for stainless steel. (MOW)

Stiegler, J.O.; Reuther, T.C.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Estimation of Ultraviolet-B Irradiance under Variable Cloud Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods to estimate the irradiance of ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280320 nm) radiation are needed to assess biological effects of changes in atmospheric composition. Measurements of the spatial distribution of sky cloud cover, temporal variability of ...

Richard H. Grant; Gordon M. Heisler

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Gas-cooled fast breeder reactor steady-state irradiation testing program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The requirements for the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor irradiation program are specified, and an irradiation program plan which satisfies these requirements is presented. The irradiation program plan consists of three parts and includes a schedule and a preliminary cost estimate: (1) a steady-state irradiation program, (2) irradiations in support of the design basis transient test program, and (3) irradiations in support of the GRIST-2 safety test program. Data from the liquid metal fast breeder reactor program are considered, and available irradiation facilities are examined.

Acharya, R.T.; Campana, R.J.; Langer, S.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Micro-bulge testing applied to neutron irradiated materials  

SciTech Connect

Micro-bulge testing was conducted on several Fe--Ni--Cr alloys irradiated as 0.3 mm thick disks to 10 dpa at 603 and 773 K in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Miniature tensile tests were performed on specimens of the same alloys irradiated concurrently. Good correlation between the tensile yield strength and the bulge yield load was observed in unirradiated specimens, however, the correlation was not simple for irradiated specimens. Good correlation was also observed between the ultimate tensile strength and the maximum bulge load. While irradiation produced a significant reduction in total elongation in the tensile test, irradiation caused only a small decrease in the deflection corresponding to the maximum bulge load compared to that observed on thinner disks used in earlier experiments. The results suggest that the thinner disk is better suited for ductility evaluations than the thicker disk. The area bounded by the load-deflection traces of the bulge tests shows a systematic variation with both alloy composition and irradiation condition which is not observed in the tensile data. It is anticipated that this parameter may prove useful in the evaluation of material toughness.

Okada, A. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)); Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Delayed neutrons from the neutron irradiation of ?U  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of experiments was performed with the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR) to verify ?U delayed neutron emission rates. A custom device was created to accurately measure a sample's pneumatic flight time and the Nuclear Science Center's (NSC's) pneumatic transfer system (PTS) was redesigned to reduce a sample's pneumatic flight time from over 1,600 milliseconds to less than 450 milliseconds. Four saturation irradiations were performed at reactor powers of 100 and 200 kW for 300 seconds and one burst irradiation was performed using a $1.61 pulse producing 19.11 MW-s of energy. Experimental results agreed extremely well with those of Keepin. By comparing the first ten seconds of collected data, the first saturation irradiation deviated ~1.869% with a dead time of 2 microseconds, while the burst irradiation deviated ~0.303% with a dead time of 5 microseconds. Saturation irradiations one, three and four were normalized to the initial count rate of saturation irradiation two to determine the system reproducibility, and deviated ~0.449%, ~0.343% and ~0.389%, respectively.

Heinrich, Aaron David

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

362

Magnetic properties of graphite irradiated with MeV ions  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the change in the magnetic properties produced on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite samples by irradiation of H, C, and N ions in the mega-electron-volt energy range. The use of specially made sample holders for the magnetic measurements provided high reproducibility allowing us to obtain directly the irradiation effects without any corrections or subtractions. Our results show that three magnetic phenomena are triggered by the defects produced by the irradiation, namely, Curie-type paramagnetism, ferromagnetism and an anomalous paramagnetic state that appears as precursor of the magnetic ordered state. Using SRIM simulations to estimate the amount of vacancies produced by the irradiation, the Curie-type paramagnetic response indicates an effective Bohr magneton number per nominally produced vacancy p=0.27+-0.02mu{sub B}. Direct measurements of the surface sample temperature during irradiation and the decrease in the (as-received) paramagnetic as well as ferromagnetic contributions after irradiation indicate that self-heating is one of the causes for small yield of ferromagnetism. Taking into account the hydrogen distribution in the virgin samples, the obtained results indicate that the induced ferromagnetism appears when the average vacancy distance is {approx}2 nm in the near surface region.

Ramos, M. A.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Climent-Font, A. [CMAM and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales 'Nicolas Cabrera', Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Esquinazi, P. [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Garcia-Hernandez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

USE OF SILICON CARBIDE MONITORS IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. For example, silicon carbide (SiC) monitors are now available to detect peak irradiation temperatures between 200C and 800C. Using a resistance measurement approach, specialized equipment installed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) and specialized procedures were developed to ensure that accurate peak irradiation temperature measurements are inferred from SiC monitors irradiated at the ATR. Comparison examinations were completed by INL to demonstrate this capability, and several programs currently rely on SiC monitors for peak temperature detection. This paper discusses the use of SiC monitors at the ATR, the process used to evaluate them at the HTTL, and presents representative measurements taken using SiC monitors.

K. L. Davis; B. Chase; T. Unruh; D. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Slag remelt purification of irradiated vanadium alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes theoretical and scoping experimental efforts to investigate the decontamination potential of a slag remelting process for decontaminating irradiated vanadium alloys. Theoretical calculations, using a commercial thermochemical computer code HSC Chemistry, determined the potential slag compositions and slag-vanadium alloy ratios. The experiment determined the removal characteristics of four surrogate transmutation isotopes (Ca, Y - to simulate Sc, Mn, and Ar) from a V-5Ti-5Cr alloy with calcium fluoride slag. An electroslag remelt furnace was used in the experiment to melt and react the constituents. The process achieved about a 90 percent removal of calcium and over 99 percent removal of yttrium. Analyses indicate that about 40 percent of the manganese may have been removed. Argon analyses indicates that 99.3% of the argon was released from the vanadium alloy in the first melt increasing to 99.7% during the second melt. Powder metallurgy techniques were used to incorporate surrogate transmutation products in the vanadium. A powder mixture was prepared with the following composition: 90 wt % vanadium, 4.7 wt % titanium, 4.7 wt % chromium, 0.35 wt % manganese, 0.35 wt % CaO, and 0.35 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This mixture was packed into 2.54 cm diameter stainless steel tubes. Argon was introduced into the powder mixture by evacuating and backfilling the stainless steel containers to a pressure of 20 kPa (0.2 atm). The tubes were hot isostatically pressed at 207 MPa (2000 atm) and 1473 K to consolidate the metal. An electroslag remelt furnace (crucible dimensions: 5.1 cm diameter by 15.2 cm length) was used to process the vanadium electrodes. Chemical analyses were performed on samples extracted from the slags and ingots. Ingot analyses results are shown below. Values are shown in percent removal of the four targeted elements of the initial compositions.

Carmack, W.J.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Gorman, P.K.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON EPDM ELASTOMERS (REVISION 1)  

SciTech Connect

Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas to compare their radiation stability. Stainless steel containers having rupture disks were designed for this task. After 130 MRad dose of cobalt-60 radiation in the SRNL Gamma Irradiation Facility, a significant amount of gas was created by radiolysis; however the composition indicated by mass spectroscopy indicated an unexpected increase in the total amount deuterium in both formulations. The irradiated samples retained their ductility in a bend test. No change of sample weight, dimensions, or density was observed. No change of the glass transition temperature as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis was observed, and most of the other dynamic mechanical properties remained unchanged. There appeared to be an increase in the storage modulus of the irradiated samples containing the UV stabilizer above the glass transition, which may indicate hardening of the material by radiation damage. Revision 1 adds a comparison with results of a study of tritium exposed EPDM. The amount of gas produced by the gamma irradiation was found to be equivalent to about 280 days exposure to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere. The glass transition temperature of the tritium exposed EPDM rose about 10 ?C. over 280 days, while no glass transition temperature change was observed for gamma irradiated EPDM. This means that gamma irradiation in deuterium cannot be used as a surrogate for tritium exposure.

Clark, E.

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

367

Three-Dimensional Volumetric Analysis of Irradiated Lung With Adjuvant Breast Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the dose-volume histogram data of irradiated lung in adjuvant breast radiotherapy (ABR) using a three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT)-guided planning technique; and to investigate the relationship between lung dose-volume data and traditionally used two-dimensional (2D) parameters, as well as their correlation with the incidence of steroid-requiring radiation pneumonitis (SRRP). Methods and Materials: Patients beginning ABR between January 2005 and February 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included were women aged >=18 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-III invasive carcinoma, who received radiotherapy using a 3D-CT technique to the breast or chest wall (two-field radiotherapy [2FRT]) with or without supraclavicular irradiation (three-field radiotherapy [3FRT]), to 50 Gy in 25 fractions. A 10-Gy tumor-bed boost was allowed. Lung dose-volume histogram parameters (V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 40}), 2D parameters (central lung depth [CLD], maximum lung depth [MLD], and lung length [LL]), and incidence of SRRP were reported. Results: A total of 89 patients met the inclusion criteria: 51 had 2FRT, and 38 had 3FRT. With 2FRT, mean ipsilateral V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 40} and CLD, MLD, LL were 20%, 14%, 11%, and 8% and 2.0 cm, 2.1 cm, and 14.6 cm, respectively, with strong correlation between CLD and ipsilateral V{sub 10-V40} (R{sup 2} = 0.73-0.83, p < 0.0005). With 3FRT, mean ipsilateral V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, and V{sub 40} were 30%, 22%, 17%, and 11%, but its correlation with 2D parameters was poor. With a median follow-up of 14.5 months, 1 case of SRRP was identified. Conclusions: With only 1 case of SRRP observed, our study is limited in its ability to provide definitive guidance, but it does provide a starting point for acceptable lung irradiation during ABR. Further prospective studies are warranted.

Teh, Amy Yuen Meei, E-mail: amy.teh@petermac.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Park, Eileen J.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Shen Liang [Biostatistics Unit, Yang Loo Ling School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Chung, Hans T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

THE BEHAVIOUR OF VASCILAR REACTIONS IN ACUTE IRRADIATION DISEASE  

SciTech Connect

Acute experiments were made with cats, and chronic experiments with dogs. The a cute experiments numbered 377 and concerned 65 rats of either sex and different weights in urethan anesthesia. Another 22 cats were used for 65 control experiments. The cats received a total dose of 1500 r from a therapeutic x-ray unit. The conditions were: distance, 60 cm; O.5 mm copper filter; 160 kv; 20 ma; 29 r/min. The cats were examined on the third day after irradiation, when the irradiation disease picture was developed. Vascular reflexes from the interoceptors of the carotid sinus were investigated after Heymans's method, reflexes from the interoceptors of spleen and intestinal loop vessels after Czernigowski's method, and reflexes from interoceptors of hind-leg vessels after the author's method. Adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, acetylcho-line, potassium chloride, and lactic acid were used to stimulate interoceptors. To stimulate the proximal section of the sciatic nerve and peripheral part of the splanchnic nerve, electric current was used --3 to 6 volts, 20 ma, 20 sec. Furthermore, arterial blood pressure was measured in irradiated cats after intravenous administration of adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, acetylcholine, or histamine. Experiments were also made with cats poisoned with phentolamine, atropine, or pendiomid. The experimental material was analyzed statistically. Chronic experiments numbered 165 and concerned 6 dogs. Before irradiation, the dogs were opperated upon after the author's method to enable blood pressure to be measured by intravascular technique, and subsequently standards of arterial blood pressure reaction to adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, acetylcholine, and histamine were determin+d. In the experiments, the dogs received a total dose of 800 r from a therapeutic x ray unit. Conditions were: distance, 80 cm; O.5 mm Cu filter; l60 Kv; 20 ma; 21 r/min. Alrterial blood pressure reaction to the above neurohormones was investigated in the irradiated dogs daily. Experiments with dogs poisoned with phentolamine or pendiomid were also carried out. The experiments referred to showed ionizing radiation to reduce considerably reflexes from vascular chemoreceptors to neurohormones, potassium chloride, and lactic acid. In irradiated cats, pressor reflexes from carotid sinus mechanoreceptors were diminished, and so were pressor reflexes to electric stimulation of the sciatic and splanchnic nerves. Neurohormones, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, caused in cats and dogs lower-than-standard effects. Depressor effects of serotonin were in irradiated and noniirradiated cats equal in strength. In dogs, on the other hand, pressor effects of serotonin diminished in strength with the progress of irradiation disease. Pressure fall evoked by aby acetylcholine and histamine was the same in irradiated and nonirradiated cats and dogs, but of considerably longer duration in irradiated animals. Phentolamine diminished pressor effects of adrenaline in irradiated cats and dogs, and also weakened in dogs the pressor effects of serotonin. Atropine and phentolamine increased in irradiated cats and dogs pressor effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and pressor effects of serotonin in dogs. It was concluded that in acute irradiation disease the adrenergic part of the autonomic nervous system, first of all sensory and vasomotor terminals, is injured. Also, preserved vasomotor reflexes, even though weakened, enable in this disease an influence to be exerted on the functional efficiency of the circulatory system. (auth)

Ryzewski, J.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

370

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

371

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

372

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

373

Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A'iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); School of Chemicals and Material Engineering, NUST Islamabad (Pakistan); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

374

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: RadOnCol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

project involving flat plate collectors. Might also be of interest to solar engineers, solar installers. Input Local Latitude, altitude, and azimuth and tilt of collector....

375

An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance Rutledge, Charles NASA Langley Research Center Schuster, Greg NASA Langley Research Center Category: Instruments Recent effort towards the development of a diffuse horizontal solar irradiance standard group [Michalsky et.al. 2005] using well calibrated pyranometers suggested that inter-instrument differences in cosine response characteristics may be problematic. They showed a calibration method using overcast skies (an approximately uniform radiance distribution) produced superior diffuse radiometer performance when compared to a calibration method using clear skies (which have a radiance distribution systematically varying from horizon to the near vicinity of the sun). The proposed instrument offers a significantly different basic design compared to

376

Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing Facility (IMET) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing Facility Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing Facility May 30, 2013 The Irradiated Material Examination and Testing (IMET) Facility was designed and built as a hot cell facility. It is a two-story block and brick structure with a two-story high bay that houses six heavily shielded cells and an array of sixty shielded storage wells. It includes the Specimen Prep Lab (SPL) with its associated laboratory hood and glove boxes, an Operating Area, where the control and monitoring instruments supporting the in-cell test equipment are staged, a utility corridor, a hot equipment storage area, a tank vault room, office space, a trucking area with access to the high bay, and an outside steel building for storage. The tests and examinations are conducted in six examination "hot" cells

377

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS Bertrand Tseng University of California Abstract Radiation-induced oxidative stress can impact the physiologic function of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells by activating redox-sensitive signaling cascades that can alter radiosensitivity, mitochondrial function, and cell fate. Many of these signaling pathways depend on the nature, magnitude and duration of the specific reactive species involved, features that dictate in large part whether radiation-induced changes are harmful or beneficial to the organism. We have shown that acute low dose irradiation (2-20 cGy) can elicit significant increases in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species over several days to weeks. These redox changes can

378

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Progeny of Irradiated Mammary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Characteristic of Malignancy Mary H. Barcellos-Hoff, R.L. Henshall-Powell, M.J. Bissell, and B. Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Life Sciences Division We have proposed that the ability of radiation to induce altered microenvironments affects the frequency and features of neoplastic progression. Thus, we have sought to characterize the irradiated microenvironment and determine how these events contribute to mammary carcinogenesis. By using imaging bioinformatics to analyze mouse and human models of breast cancer we have now examined cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) critical for tissue-specific organization and function. We found that 1) radiation-induced microenvironments can contribute to neoplastic potential

379

Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1x10{sup 13} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emission of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.

Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Aziz [Materials Technology Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Karim, Julia Abdul [Reactor Physics Section, Nuclear Power Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

380

Effects of laser irradiation on the morphology of Cu(110)  

SciTech Connect

The effects of pulsed laser irradiation on the morphology of the Cu(110) surface were investigated by means of reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) and spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The laser light induces surface defects (adatoms and islands) as well as subsurface dislocation lines. The high surface mobility leads to efficient annealing of the surface defects even at room temperature, whereas the subsurface dislocation lines persist up to temperatures T>800 K. SPA-LEED profiles of the (00) diffraction spot from the laser irradiated surface suggest an anisotropic distribution of the subsurface line defects related to the geometry of the fcc easy glide system, which is corroborated by STM measurements. Comparative experiments using conventional Ar ion bombardment point out the distinctiveness of the morphological changes induced by laser irradiation.

Brandstetter, T.; Draxler, M.; Hohage, M.; Zeppenfeld, P.; Stehrer, T.; Heitz, J.; Georgiev, N.; Martinotti, D.; Ernst, H.-J. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); CEA Saclay, DSM/Drecam/SPCSI, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

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381

AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained 12 compacts of a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. No fuel particles failed during the AGR-1 irradiation. Final burnup values on a per compact basis ranged from 11.5 to 19.6 %FIMA, while fast fluence values ranged from 2.21 to 4.39 ?1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV). Well say something here about temperatures once thermal recalc is done. Thermocouples performed well, failing at a lower rate than expected. At the end of the irradiation, nine of the originally-planned 19 TCs were considered functional. Fission product release-to-birth (R/B) ratios were quite low. In most capsules, R/B values at the end of the irradiation were at or below 10-7 with only one capsule significantly exceeding this value. A maximum R/B of around 2?10-7 was reached at the end of the irradiation in Capsule 5. Several shakedown issues were encountered and resolved during the first three cycles. These include the repair of minor gas line leaks; repair of faulty gas line valves; the need to position moisture monitors in regions of low radiation fields for proper functioning; the enforcement of proper on-line data storage and backup, the need to monitor thermocouple performance, correcting for detector spectral gain shift, and a change in the mass flow rate range of the neon flow controllers.

Blaise P. Collin

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

TEST RESULTS FROM GAMMA IRRADIATION OF ALUMINUM OXYHYDROXIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrated metal oxides or oxyhydroxides boehmite and gibbsite that can form on spent aluminum-clad nuclear fuel assemblies during in-core and post-discharge wet storage were exposed as granular powders to gamma irradiation in a {sup 60}Co irradiator in closed laboratory test vessels with air and with argon as separate cover gases. The results show that boehmite readily evolves hydrogen with exposure up to a dose of 1.8 x 10{sup 8} rad, the maximum tested, in both a full-dried and moist condition of the powder, whereas only a very small measurable quantity of hydrogen was generated from the granular powder of gibbsite. Specific information on the test setup, sample characteristics, sample preparation, irradiation, and gas analysis are described.

Fisher, D.; Westbrook, M.; Sindelar, R.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

ORR irradiation experiment OF-1: accelerated testing of HTGR fuel  

SciTech Connect

The OF-1 capsule, the first in a series of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel irradiations in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor, was irradiated for more than 9300 hr at full reactor power (30 MW). Peak fluences of 1.08 x 10/sup 22/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ (> 0.18 MeV) were achieved. General Atomic Company's magazine P13Q occupied the upper two-thirds of the test space and the ORNL magazine OF-1 the lower one-third. The ORNL portion tested various HTGR recycle particles and fuel bonding matrices at accelerated flux levels under reference HTGR irradiation conditions of temperature, temperature gradient, and fast fluence exposure (> 0.18 MeV).

Tiegs, T.N.; Long, E.L. Jr.; Kania, M.J.; Thoms, K.R.; Allen, E.J.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Physiological Interaction of Heart and Lung in Thoracic Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: The risk of early radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) limits the dose and efficacy of radiation therapy of thoracic tumors. In addition to lung dose, coirradiation of the heart is a known risk factor in the development RILT. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying physiology of the interaction between lung and heart in thoracic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Rat hearts, lungs, or both were irradiated to 20 Gy using high-precision proton beams. Cardiopulmonary performance was assessed using breathing rate measurements and F{sup 18}-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) scans biweekly and left- and right-sided cardiac hemodynamic measurements and histopathology analysis at 8 weeks postirradiation. Results: Two to 12 weeks after heart irradiation, a pronounced defect in the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the left ventricle (LV) was observed. At 8 weeks postirradiation, this coincided with LV perivascular fibrosis, an increase in LV end-diastolic pressure, and pulmonary edema in the shielded lungs. Lung irradiation alone not only increased pulmonary artery pressure and perivascular edema but also induced an increased LV relaxation time. Combined irradiation of lung and heart induced pronounced increases in LV end-diastolic pressure and relaxation time, in addition to an increase in right ventricle end-diastolic pressure, indicative of biventricular diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, enhanced pulmonary edema, inflammation and fibrosis were also observed. Conclusions: Both lung and heart irradiation cause cardiac and pulmonary toxicity via different mechanisms. Thus, when combined, the loss of cardiopulmonary performance is intensified further, explaining the deleterious effects of heart and lung coirradiation. Our findings show for the first time the physiological mechanism underlying the development of a multiorgan complication, RILT. Reduction of dose to either of these organs offers new opportunities to improve radiation therapy treatment of thoracic tumors, potentially facilitating increased treatment doses and tumor control.

Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Veen, Sonja van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bartelds, Beatrijs [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Boer, Rudolf A. de [Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dickinson, Michael G. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Faber, Hette; Niemantsverdriet, Maarten [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Berger, Rolf M.F. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijk, Peter van, E-mail: p.van.luijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Effect of gamma irradiation on emission characteristics of laser heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the threshold current and slope efficiency are studied under conditions of gamma-ray irradiation by injection InGaAsP/InP lasers emitting at 1.3 {mu}m (irradiation dose is {approx}10{sup 14} - 10{sup 17} photon cm{sup -2}). We observed an improved performance at low values of the quantum flux density and degradation at doses greater than 10{sup 14} photon cm{sup -2}. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Makhsudov, B I [Tajik State National University, Dushanbe (Tajikistan)

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

388

Tensile Hoop Behavior of Irradiated Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding  

SciTech Connect

A method for evaluating the room temperature ductility behavior of irradiated Zircaloy-4 nuclear fuel cladding has been developed and applied to evaluate tensile hoop strength of material irradiated to different levels. The test utilizes a polyurethane plug fitted within a tubular cladding specimen. A cylindrical punch is used to compress the plug axially, which generates a radial displacement that acts upon the inner diameter of the specimen. Position sensors track the radial displacement of the specimen outer diameter as the compression proceeds. These measurements coupled with ram force data provide a load-displacement characterization of the cladding response to internal pressurization. The development of this simple, cost-effective, highly reproducible test for evaluating tensile hoop strain as a function of internal pressure for irradiated specimens represents a significant advance in the mechanical characterization of irradiated cladding. In this project, nuclear fuel rod assemblies using Zircaloy-4 cladding and two types of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel pellets were irradiated to varying levels of burnup. Fuel pellets were manufactured with and without thermally induced gallium removal (TIGR) processing. Fuel pellets manufactured by both methods were contained in fuel rod assemblies and irradiated to burnup levels of 9, 21, 30, 40, and 50 GWd/MT. These levels of fuel burnup correspond to fast (E > 1 MeV) fluences of 0.27, 0.68, 0.98, 1.4 and 1.7 1021 neutrons/cm2, respectively. Following irradiation, fuel rod assemblies were disassembled; fuel pellets were removed from the cladding; and the inner diameter of cladding was cleaned to remove residue materials. Tensile hoop strength of this cladding material was tested using the newly developed method. Unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding was also tested. With the goal of determining the effect of the two fuel types and different neutron fluences on clad ductility, tensile hoop strength tests were performed on cladding for these varying conditions. Experimental data revealed negligible performance differences for cladding containing TIGR vs non-TIGR processed fuel pellets. Irradiation hardening was observed in tensile hoop data as the strength of the cladding increased with increasing neutron dose and appeared to saturate for a fast fluence of 1.7 1021 neutrons/cm2.

Jaramillo, Roger A [ORNL; Hendrich, WILLIAM R [ORNL; Packan, Nicolas H [ORNL

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Light water reactor mixed-oxide fuel irradiation experiment  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is sponsoring and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading an irradiation experiment to test mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel made from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium. In this multiyear program, sealed capsules containing MOX fuel pellets fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The planned experiments will investigate the utilization of dry-processed plutonium, the effects of WG plutonium isotopics on MOX performance, and any material interactions of gallium with Zircaloy cladding.

Hodge, S.A.; Cowell, B.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Effect of irradiation parameters on defect aggregation during thermal annealing of LiF irradiated with swift ions and electrons  

SciTech Connect

Absorption spectroscopy were performed to study the effects of thermal annealing on the aggregation of color centers in LiF crystals irradiated with different ions between carbon and uranium of megaelectron volt-gigaelectron volt energy. The beam parameters such as energy, energy loss, and fluence have a pronounced influence on the initial defect composition and concentration as well as their evolution upon thermal annealing. A distinct phenomenon was observed, viz., the enhancement of F{sub n} centers for annealing temperatures between 500 and 700 K, followed by Li colloid formation above 700 K. The phenomenon requires specific irradiation conditions whereas the formation of Mg colloids from Mg impurities occurs in all irradiated crystals. The mechanisms of annealing and colloid formation are discussed.

Schwartz, K.; Neumann, R.; Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Volkov, A. E.; Sorokin, M. V. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Measurement of Broadband Diffuse Solar Irradiance Using Current Commercial Instrumentation with a Correction for Thermal Offset Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diffuse-sky solar irradiance is an important quantity for radiation budget research, particularly as it relates to climate. Diffuse irradiance is one component of the total downwelling solar irradiance and contains information on the amount of ...

Ellsworth G. Dutton; Joseph J. Michalsky; Thomas Stoffel; Bruce W. Forgan; John Hickey; Donald W. Nelson; Timothy L. Alberta; Ibrahim Reda

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Estimating Hourly All-Sky Solar Irradiation Components from Meteorological Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method to calculate hourly direct beam and diffuse irradiation on a horizontal surface using 3-h standard meteorological data is described. Comparisons of computed and observed irradiations are made with hourly data obtained in Carpentras ...

F. Kermel

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Development and Characterization of a New Solar Ultraviolet-B Irradiance Detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characteristics of an instrument for measuring solar ultraviolet-B irradiance are presented together with a description of the instrument. The instrument measures direct and scattered broadband ultraviolet irradiance (wavelengths between 280 and ...

B. K. Dichter; A. F. Beaubien; D. J. Beaubien

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Accounting for the Solar Radiation Influence on Downward Longwave Irradiance Measurements by Pyrgeometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of broadband downward longwave (LW) irradiance are carried out at Lampedusa, Italy, in the Mediterranean, jointly with solar irradiance, since 2004 using shaded and unshaded Eppley Precision Infrared Radiometers (PIRs) and Kipp & ...

Daniela Meloni; Claudia Di Biagio; Alcide di Sarra; Francesco Monteleone; Giandomenico Pace; Damiano Massimiliano Sferlazzo

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Analysis of a Method to Estimate Chlorophyll-a Concentration from Irradiance Measurements at Varying Depths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model to estimate chlorophyll-a concentration and yellow substance absorption at 440 nm from irradiance measurements made at varying depths is examined. The derivation of the model, requiring irradiance measurements at three wavebands, is ...

Jasmine S. Nahorniak; Mark R. Abbott; Ricardo M. Letelier; W. Scott Pegau

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Physical and Chemical Changes of Polystyrene Nanospheres Irradiated with Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been reported that polymer resist such as PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate) which is a well known and commonly used polymer resist for fabrication of electronic devices can show zwitter characteristic due to over exposure to electron beam radiation. Overexposed PMMA tend to changes their molecular structure to either become negative or positive resist corresponded to electron beam irradiation doses. These characteristic was due to crosslinking and scissors of the PMMA molecular structures, but till now the understanding of crosslinking and scissors of the polymer resist molecular structure due to electron beam exposure were still unknown to researchers. Previously we have over exposed polystyrene nanospheres to various radiation sources, such as electron beam, solar radiation and laser, which is another compound that can act as polymer resist. We investigated the physical and chemical structures of the irradiated polystyrene nanospheres with FTIR analysis. It is found that the physical and chemical changes of the irradiated polystyrene were found to be corresponded with the radiation dosages. Later, combining Laser irradiation and Reactive Ion Etching manipulation, created a facile technique that we called as LARIEA NSL (Laser and Reactive Ion Etching Assisted Nanosphere Lithography) which can be a facile technique to fabricate controllable carbonaceous nanoparticles for applications such as lithographic mask, catalysts and heavy metal absorbers.

Mustafa, Mohd Ubaidillah; Juremi, Nor Rashidah Md.; Mohamad, Farizan; Wibawa, Pratama Jujur [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology-Shamsudin Research Centre, Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Agam, Mohd Arif; Ali, Ahmad Hadi [Faculty of Science, Art and Heritage, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia)

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

397

Displacement Damage in Silicon Carbide Irradiated in Fission Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Calculations are performed for displacement damage in SiC due to irradiation in the neutron environments of various types of nuclear reactors using the best available models and nuclear data. The displacement damage calculations use recently developed damage functions for SiC that are based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations of displacement events1. Displacements per atom (DPA) cross sections for SiC have been calculated as a function of neutron energy, and they are presented here in tabular form to facilitate their use as the standard measure of displacement damage for irradiated SiC. DPA cross sections averaged over the neutron energy spectrum are calculated for neutron spectra in the cores of typical commercial reactors and in the test sample irradiation regions of several materials test reactors used in both past and present irradiation testing. Particular attention is focused on a next-generation high-temperature gas-cooled pebble bed reactor, for which the high-temperature properties of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites are well suited. Calculated transmutations and activation levels in a pebble bed reactor are compared to those in other reactors.

Heinisch, Howard L.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Weber, William J.; Williford, Rick E.

2004-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

398

Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, November 1956  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

1956-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

399

Post Irradiation Capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) oversees the research, development, and demonstration activities that ensure nuclear energy remains a viable energy option for the United States. Fuel and material development through fabrication, irradiation, and characterization play a significant role in accomplishing the research needed to support nuclear energy. All fuel and material development requires the understanding of irradiation effects on the fuel performance and relies on irradiation experiments ranging from tests aimed at targeted scientific questions to integral effects under representative and prototypic conditions. The DOE recently emphasized a solution-driven, goal-oriented, science-based approach to nuclear energy development. Nuclear power systems and materials were initially developed during the latter half of the 20th century and greatly facilitated by the United States ability and willingness to conduct large-scale experiments. Fifty-two research and test reactors with associated facilities for performing fabrication and pre and post irradiation examinations were constructed at what is now Idaho National Laboratory (INL), another 14 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and a few more at other national laboratory sites. Building on the scientific advances of the last several decades, our understanding of fundamental nuclear science, improvements in computational platforms, and other tools now enable technological advancements with less reliance on large-scale experimentation.

Schulthess, J.L.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Local phase transformation in alloys during charged-particle irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Among the various mechanisms and processes by which energetic irradiation can alter the phase stability of alloys, radiation-induced segregation is one of the most important phenomena. Radiation-induced segregation in alloys occurs as a consequence of preferential coupling between persistent fluxes of excess defects and solute atoms, leading to local enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Thus, this phenomenon tends to drive alloy systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium, on a local scale. During charged-particle irradiations, the spatial nonuniformity in the defect production gives rise to a combination of persistent defect fluxes, near the irradiated surface and in the peak-damage region. This defect-flux combination can modify the alloy composition in a complex fashion, i.e., it can destabilize pre-existing phases, causing spatially- and temporally-dependent precipitation of new metastable phases. The effects of radiation-induced segregation on local phase transformations in Ni-based alloys during proton bombardment and high-voltage electron-microscope irradiation at elevated temperatures are discussed.

Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

RMF MEASUREMENTS ON MTR-IRRADIATED EUROPIUM OXIDE  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum capsules with Al inserts and He atmospheres and containing 4 strips of Eu/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stainless steel were measured in the Reactivity Measurement Facility at MTR, both before and after irradiation. (T.R.H.)

Henscheid, J.W.; Fast, E.

1957-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

402

Radiation-disorder and aperiodicity in irradiated ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final technical report documents the accomplishments of the program of research entitled Radiation Disorder and Aperiodicity in Irradiated Ceramics'' for the period June 22, 1989--June 21, 1992. This research forms the latest part on an on-going program, begun at MIT in 1983 under DOE support, which has had as its objectives investigation of the responses in radiation environments of ceramics heavily-irradiated with electrons, neutrons and ions, with potential applications to fusion energy technology and high-level nuclear waste storage. Materials investigated have included SiO{sub 2}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 23}O{sub 27}N{sub 5}, SiC, BeO, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, CaTiO{sub 3}KTaO{sub 3} and Ca(Zr, Pu)Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The program initially proposed for 1989 had as its major objectives two main thrusts: (1) research on defect aggregation in irradiated non-oxide ceramics, and (2) research on irradiation-induced amorphization of network silicas and phosphates.

Hobbs, L.W.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Is mediastinal irradiation necessary for stage I testicular seminoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is a review of 39 patients with testicular seminoma, Stage I, treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, James Graham Brown Cancer Center from 1959 to 1978. The age of the patients ranged from 16 to 70 years with a median of 37. Thirty-two (82%) patients presented with swelling or mass in the testis, four patients with pain, and three patients had seminoma diagnosed incidentally. Twenty (51%) patients had the tumor on the right side and 19 (49%) patients had the tumor on the left side. All patients received irradiation to the ipsilateral inguinal, iliac, and bilateral para-aortic nodes with ''hockey stick'' type fields. The majority of the patients received a midplane dose of 3,200 to 3,600 rad in 3-4 weeks time. None of the patients received prophylactic irradiation to the mediastinum and supraclavicular region. The 5-year actuarial survival rate is 96%. There is no additional benefit in giving prophylactic irradiation to the mediastinum and supraclavicular regions in Stage I testicular seminoma. A brief review of the literature regarding the role of prophylactic irradiation in this group of patients is done.

Jose, B.; Perkins, L.P.; Kays, H.; Chu, A.M.; Sharma, S.C.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Role of Slip Behavior in the Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crack Growth Rates of Irradiated Commercial Stainless Steels in BWR and PWR ... Detailed Root Cause Analysis of SG Tube ODSCC Indications within the Tube Sheets of NPP Biblis Unit A .... Radiation Damage in Fe-C-Met Model Alloys ... Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior near the Fusion Boundary of Dissimilar Weld

405

Electrical conductivity of. gamma. -irradiated and chemically oxidized wool  

SciTech Connect

Examples of wool fibers were irradiated with gamma rays and chemically oxidized with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ to study the effect on their electrical conductivity. In both cases, electrical conductivity increased whereas the activation cnergy decreased with increases in diameter, moisture content and intrensic ash content of the wool samples.

Moharram, M.A. (Tanta Univ., Cairo, Egypt); Abou Sekkina, M.M.; Rabie, S.M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, September 1959  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of September, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

Greninger, A.B.

1959-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

407

RETHINKING SATELLITE BASED SOLAR IRRADIANCE MODELLING R. W. Mueller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Solar irra- diance schemes provide these data using weather satellites such as METEOSAT and MSGRETHINKING SATELLITE BASED SOLAR IRRADIANCE MODELLING R. W. Mueller , K.F. Dagestad ¡ , R of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg; 2-University of Bergen; 3-Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems; 4

Heinemann, Detlev

408

Program on Technology Innovation: A Mechanistic Basis for Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) refers to intergranular stress corrosion cracking that is accelerated under the action of irradiation in light water reactor core components. It is referred to as assisted because irradiation enhances, or accelerates, the IGSCC process over the non-irradiated state. IASCC has been a problem in the nuclear industry for the last 40 years and continues to occur due to a lack of understanding of its underlying mechanism. It is the single most important...

2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

409

Superlattice-like stacking fault array in ion-irradiated GaN  

SciTech Connect

Controlling defects in crystalline solids is of technological importance for realizing desirable materials properties. Irradiation with energetic particles is useful for designing the spatial distribution and concentration of defects in materials. Here, we performed ion irradiation into hexagonal GaN with the wurtzite structure and demonstrated the spontaneous formation of superlattice-like stacking fault arrays. It was found that the modulation period can be controlled by irradiation conditions and post-irradiation heat treatments.

Ishimaru, Dr. Manabu [Osaka University; Usov, Igor Olegovich [ORNL; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Weber, William J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Irradiation Effects on High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Structural Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

G. Irradiation Behavior / Status of Metallic Materials Development for Application in Advanced High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor / Material

James R. Lindgren

411

Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts  

SciTech Connect

The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Five compacts have been examined so far, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose between approximately 40-80 individual particles on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer-IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, over 800 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in approximately 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel swelling into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer-IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only three particles, all in conjunction with IPyC-SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures, IPyC-SiC debonds, and SiC fractures.

Scott Ploger; Paul Demkowicz; John Hunn; Robert Morris

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Irradiation-Induced Magnetism in Graphite: A Density Functional Study P. O. Lehtinen,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

either passivated with hydro- gen atoms [8,9,14] or free [6,9]. Structural defects, in general, give rise irradiation dose, particle energy, and irradiation temperature. Thus, if irradiation of the originally. A kinetic energy cutoff of 400 eV was found to converge the total energy of our systems to within meV. All

Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

413

Recent Accomplishments in the Irradiation Testing of Engineering-Scale Monolithic Fuel Specimens  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US fuel development team is focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum monolithic fuel including irradiation testing of engineering-scale specimens. The team has recently accomplished the successful irradiation of the first monolithic multi-plate fuel element assembly within the AFIP-7 campaign. The AFIP-6 MKII campaign, while somewhat truncated by hardware challenges, exhibited successful irradiation of a large-scale monolithic specimen under extreme irradiation conditions. The channel gap and ultrasonic data are presented for AFIP-7 and AFIP-6 MKII, respectively. Finally, design concepts are summarized for future irradiations such as the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiment campaigns.

N.E. Woolstenhulme; D.M. Wachs; M.K. Meyer; H.W. Glunz; R.B. Nielson

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Nano structuring of GaAs(100) surface using low energy ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructuring of semi insulating GaAs (100) has been observed after irradiation of 50 keV Ar{sup +} ion beam in a wide angular range of 0 deg. to 60 deg. with respect to surface normal. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis shows the formation of nano dots at smaller angle of irradiation. At higher angle of irradiation, self organized ripples were developed on the surface. The rms roughness estimated from the AFM analysis shows exponential growth with angle of irradiation. In the high frequency regime, PSD analysis suggests that surface morphology of the irradiated samples is governed by the surface diffusion and mass transport dominated processes.

Kumar, Tanuj; Khan, S. A.; Verma, S.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter-university Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067 (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

415

EYE STRAIN AND EYE PROTECTION DURING IRRADIATION THERAPY AND DIAGNOSIS  

SciTech Connect

Sensitivity of various components of the eye is surveyed and means for preventing injury to them discussed. Pertinent experiments by the author on rabbits are described. The lens is the most radiation-sensitive part of the eye; two dependent changes take place after irradiation: clouding, and weight alterations of the lens. Cataract starts as a clouding of the posterior commissure, extends into the capsule, and it high doses there may- be clouding of the entire lens. Once clouding of the lens has begun it does not disappear. The threshold dose producing cataracts in young animals is about 200 r. Weight alterations of the lens, due to changes in water content or possibly growth inhibition or destructive changes, appear at doses far below those needed to produce clouding. The threshold dose for clouding of the cornea is about 10 times that for the lens. Doses in excess of 2000 r result in corneal clouding in 70% of the cases, but are reversible. The conjunctiva is also relatively insensitive to irradiation. When the eyes of young animals are irradiated, development of the whole eye is retarded. A 12% reduction in the weight of the eye follows absorption of 1000 rad, and this rises to 40% at 2000 rad. The RBE of different forms of radiation on damage to the lens is tabulated. Effects of radiation on the eye vary directly with the dose absorbed, and inversely with the age of the animal at the time or irradiation, both of which reduce the time of onset and intensity of manifestations. Age determines both the latent period before onset of symptoms, and the time to develop full damage. Radiation injury occurs in four stages that are identified. Any necessary xray examinations of the eye may be undertaken and repeated when required, without fear of complications, as no methods of x-ray diagnosis give a surface dose approaching 200 r, but caution is required in therapeutic irradiation of the head region. The radiation dose at the lens during treatment of tumors of the antra, orbits, nasopharynx and palate, and of the brain show that the threshold dose for irradiation cataract is exceeded by some methods. Also discussed is the extent to which the eyes of a radiologist in a diagnostic department are endangered by radiation exposure. (BBB)

Krokowski, E.

1963-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Grain boundary effects on defect production and mechanical properties of irradiated nanocrystalline SiC  

SciTech Connect

Grain boundaries (GBs) are known to play an important role in determining the mechanical and functional properties of nanocrystalline materials. In this study, we used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of damaged GBs on the mechanical properties of SiC that is irradiated by 10 keV Si atoms. The results reveal that irradiation promotes GB sliding and reduces the ability of GBs to block dislocations, which improves the deformation ability of nanocrystalline SiC. However, irradiation causes local rearrangements in disordered clusters and pinning of dislocations in the grain region, which restrains its deformation. These two mechanisms arise from the irradiation effects on GBs and grains, and these mechanisms compete in nanocrystalline SiC during irradiation. The irradiation effects on GBs dominate at low irradiation doses, and the effects on grains dominate at high doses; the result of these combined effects is a peak ductility of 0.09 dpa in nanocrystalline SiC.

Jin Enze; Niu Lisha; Lin Enqiang; Song Xiaoxiong [AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Irradiation-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmentally Assisted Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Ni-Base Alloys Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Overview Light Water Reactors Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Ni-Base Alloys Irradiation-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys Fossil Energy Fusion Energy Metal Dusting Publications List Irradiated Materials Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials Light Water Reactors Bookmark and Share

418

Mechanisms for total and spectral solar irradiance variations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The total and spectral irradiance varies over short time scales, i.e. from days to months, and longer time scales from years to decades, centuries, and beyond. In this talk we review the current understanding of irradiance changes from days to decades. We present the current status of observations and discuss proposed reconstruction approaches to understand these variations. The main question that ultimately needs to be answered is what are the physical processes that could explain the enhanced heating of the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona, leading to a change in the solar radiative output at various wavelengths. As semi-empirical models allow us to reproduce the solar spectrum over a broad wavelength range, they offer a powerful tool to determine the energy necessary to heat certain layers and at the same time balance the radiative losses.

Haberreiter, M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Environmental Assessment LEAD TEST ASSEMBLY IRRADIATION AND ANALYSIS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10 10 Environmental Assessment LEAD TEST ASSEMBLY IRRADIATION AND ANALYSIS WATTS BAR NUCLEAR PLANT, TENNESSEE AND HANFORD SITE, RICHLAND, WASHINGTON U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY RICHLAND OPERATIONS OFFICE COOPERATING AGENCY: TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY July 1997 ~~~~ Portions o f this dorunrat may be iIlegiile in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original doaxnenL DOE/EA-12 10 Environmental Assessment LEAD TEST ASSEMBLY IRRADIATION AND ANALYSIS WATTS BAR NUCLEAR PLANT, TENNESSEE AND HANFORD SITE, RICHLAND, WASHINGTON U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY RICHLAND OPERATIONS OFFICE COOPERATING AGENCY: TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY July 1997 U.S. Department of Energy ALARA ANL-W BWR CFR CEDE CEQ Ci CLWR DOE DOT EA EDE EFPD EIS FFTF

420

Results of the Second Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Results of the Second Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance IOP Results of the Second Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance IOP J. J. Michalsky Air Resources Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado R. Dolce and A. Los Kipp & Zonen, Inc. Bohemia, New York E. G. Dutton and D. A. Nelson Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado M. P. Haeffelin Ecole Polytechnique/ Laboratorie de Meteorologie Dynamique Palaiseau Cedex, France W. Q. Jeffries Yankee Environmental System, Inc. Turners Falls, Massachusetts T. L. Stoffel and I. Reda National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado J. Hickey Eppley Laboratory Inc. Newport, Rhode Island D. Mathias Carter-Scott Design Victoria, Australia L. J. B. McArthur

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures in Cadmium Niobate Pyrochlores  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports the formation processes of crystalline Cd nanostructures on ion-cut surfaces of cadmium niobate pyrochlores (Cd{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 7}). Irradiation with 3 MeV He{sup +} ions has been performed at low temperatures (295 K) to induce material decomposition and aggregation of host atoms. The irradiation also leads to surface exfoliation due to rupture of gas (He and O{sub 2}) filled blisters. Nanoparticles and nanowires are observed on the ion-cut surfaces at low and higher doses, respectively. These structures are examined and characterized using a suite of experimental tools. Both the particles and wires are found to be single crystals that primarily consist of metallic Cd.

Jiang, Weilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Weber, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Young, J. S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Lian, Jie [University of Michigan; Wang, L. M. [University of Michigan; Ewing, Rodney C. [University of Michigan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capabilities Alternatives Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

An alternatives analysis was performed for the Advanced Post-Irradiation Capabilities (APIEC) project in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. The Alternatives Analysis considered six major alternatives: ? No Action ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities capabilities distributed among multiple locations ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities capabilities consolidated at a few locations ? Construct New Facility ? Commercial Partnership ? International Partnerships Based on the alternatives analysis documented herein, it is recommended to DOE that the advanced post-irradiation examination capabilities be provided by a new facility constructed at the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory.

Jeff Bryan; Bill Landman; Porter Hill

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Irradiation Induced Dimensional Changes in Bulk Graphite; The theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basing on experimental data on irradiation-induced deformation of graphite we introduced a concept of diffuse domain structure developed in reactor graphite produced by extrusion. Such domains are considered as random continuous deviations of local graphite texture from the global one. We elucidate the origin of domain structure and estimate the size and the degree of orientational ordering of its domains. Using this concept we explain the well known radiation-induced size effect observed in reactor graphite. We also propose a method for converting the experimental data on shape-change of finite-size samples to bulk graphite. This method gives a more accurate evaluation of corresponding data used in estimations of reactor graphite components lifetime under irradiation.

Panyukov, S V; Arjakov, M V

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Tunable nanometer electrode gaps by MeV ion irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the use of MeV ion-irradiation-induced plastic deformation of amorphous materials to fabricate electrodes with nanometer-sized gaps. Plastic deformation of the amorphous metal Pd{sub 80}Si{sub 20} is induced by 4.64 MeV O{sup 2+} ion irradiation, allowing the complete closing of a sub-micrometer gap. We measure the evolving gap size in situ by monitoring the field emission current-voltage (I-V) characteristics between electrodes. The I-V behavior is consistent with Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. We show that using feedback control on this signal permits gap size fabrication with atomic-scale precision. We expect this approach to nanogap fabrication will enable the practical realization of single molecule controlled devices and sensors.

Cheang-Wong, J.-C.; Narumi, K.; Schuermann, G. M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Aziz, M. J. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Golovchenko, J. A. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

425

Radiation retinopathy after orbital irradiation for Graves' ophthalmopathy  

SciTech Connect

Recent reports indicate that orbital irradiation for Graves' ophthalmopathy is sometimes beneficial, particularly for dysthyroid optic neuropathy, and is not associated with serious complications. We are aware, however, of four patients who were found to have radiation retinopathy after orbital irradiation for Grave's ophthalmopathy. All four patients have decreased central acuity, and three of the four are legally blind in one or both eyes. Computer reconstruction of the dosimetry, based on computed tomography and beam profiles, shows that errors in dosage calculations and radiotherapy technique probably account for the radiation retinopathy in three of the four patients. Radiotherapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy should be administered only by competent radiotherapists who are experienced in the treatment of this disease. Similar errors in dosage calculations and treatment techniques may account for other reports of radiation retinopathy after reportedly safe dosages.

Kinyoun, J.L.; Kalina, R.E.; Brower, S.A.; Mills, R.P.; Johnson, R.H.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

PRODUCING SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES IN COMPLEX ARID TERRAIN  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASES 2003, Austin TX and submitted for publication in Solar Energy ASES 2003, Austin TX and submitted for publication in Solar Energy PRODUCING SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES IN COMPLEX ARID TERRAIN Richard Perez & Marek Kmiecik ASRC, the University at Albany 251 Fuller Rd. Albany, NY 12203 perez@asrc.cestm.albany.edu Pierre Ineichen, CUEPE, University of Geneva 7 Route de Drize 1227 Carouge, Switzerland Pierre.Ineichen@cuepe.unige.ch Marek Kmiecik, ASRC Kathleen Moore, IED 251 Fuller Rd. Albany, NY 12203 moore@iedat.com David Renne & Ray George NREL 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 drenne / ray_george@nrel.nrel.gov ABSTRACT This paper describes a methodology to correct satellite- derived irradiances over complex terrain. The correction applies to satellite models using visible images from geostationary satellites. 1. DESCRIPTION OF CURRENT MODEL

427

Irradiation Induced Dimensional Changes in Bulk Graphite; The theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basing on experimental data on irradiation-induced deformation of graphite we introduced a concept of diffuse domain structure developed in reactor graphite produced by extrusion. Such domains are considered as random continuous deviations of local graphite texture from the global one. We elucidate the origin of domain structure and estimate the size and the degree of orientational ordering of its domains. Using this concept we explain the well known radiation-induced size effect observed in reactor graphite. We also propose a method for converting the experimental data on shape-change of finite-size samples to bulk graphite. This method gives a more accurate evaluation of corresponding data used in estimations of reactor graphite components lifetime under irradiation.

S. V. Panyukov; A. V. Subbotin; M. V. Arjakov

2012-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

428

Updated FY12 Ceramic Fuels Irradiation Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program is currently devoting resources to study of numerous fuel types with the aim of furthering understanding applicable to a range of reactors and fuel cycles. In FY11, effort within the ceramic fuels campaign focused on planning and preparation for a series of rabbit irradiations to be conducted at the High Flux Isotope Reactor located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The emphasis of these planned tests was to study the evolution of thermal conductivity in uranium dioxide and derivative compositions as a function of damage induced by neutron damage. Current fiscal realities have resulted in a scenario where completion of the planned rabbit irradiations is unlikely. Possibilities for execution of irradiation testing within the ceramic fuels campaign in the next several years will thus likely be restricted to avenues where strong synergies exist both within and outside the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. Opportunities to augment the interests and needs of modeling, advanced characterization, and other campaigns present the most likely avenues for further work. These possibilities will be pursued with the hope of securing future funding. Utilization of synthetic microstructures prepared to better understand the most relevant actors encountered during irradiation of ceramic fuels thus represents the ceramic fuel campaign's most efficient means to enhance understanding of fuel response to burnup. This approach offers many of the favorable attributes embraced by the Separate Effects Testing paradigm, namely production of samples suitable to study specific, isolated phenomena. The recent success of xenon-imbedded thick films is representative of this approach. In the coming years, this strategy will be expanded to address a wider range of problems in conjunction with use of national user facilities novel characterization techniques to best utilize programmatic resources to support a science-based research program.

Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

429

Irradiated fuel monitoring by Cerenkov glow intensity measurements  

SciTech Connect

Attribute measurement techniques for confirmation of declared irradiated fuel inventories at nuclear installations under safeguards surveillance are being investigated. High-gain measurements of the intensity of the Cerenkov glow from exposed assemblies in water-filled storage ponds are promising for this purpose. Such measurements have been made of Materials Testing Reactor plate-type fuel assemblies and Pressurized Water Reactor pin-type fuel assemblies. The measured intensities depend on cooling times as calculations predict.

Dowdy, E.J.; Nicholson, N.; Caldwell, J.T.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Method for improving performance of irradiated structural materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for extending service life of nuclear reactor components prepared from ductile, high strength crystalline alloys obtained by devitrification of metallic glasses. Two variations of the method are described: (1) cycling the temperature of the nuclear reactor between the operating temperature which leads to irradiation damage and a l The U.S. Government has rights in this invention by virtue of Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, Grant No. DE-AC02-78ER-10107.

Megusar, Janez (Belmont, MA); Harling, Otto K. (Hingham, MA); Grant, Nicholas J. (Winchester, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Ceramographic Examinations of Irradiated AGR-1 Fuel Compacts  

SciTech Connect

The AGR 1 experiment involved irradiating 72 cylindrical fuel compacts containing tri-structural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures observed out of almost 300,000 particles. Five irradiated AGR 1 fuel compacts were selected for microscopy that span a range of irradiation conditions (temperature, burnup, and fast fluence). These five compacts also included all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR experiment. The five compacts were cross-sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, mounted, ground, and polished after development of careful techniques for preserving particle structures against preparation damage. Approximately 40 to 80 particles within each cross section were exposed near enough to mid-plane for optical microscopy of kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. The microstructural analysis focused on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracture, debonding between the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layers, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Three basic particle morphologies were established according to the extent of bonding between the buffer and IPyC layers: complete debonding along the interface (Type A), no debonding along the interface (Type B), and partial debonding (Type AB). These basic morphologies were subdivided according to whether the buffer stayed intact or fractured. The resulting six characteristic morphologies were used to classify particles within each cross section, but no spatial patterns were clearly observed in any of the cross-sectional morphology maps. Although positions of particle types appeared random within compacts, examining a total of 830 classified particles allowed other relationships among morphological types to be established.

Paul Demkowicz; Scott Ploger; John Hunn

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Ceramographic Examinations of Irradiated AGR-1 Fuel Compacts  

SciTech Connect

The AGR 1 experiment involved irradiating 72 cylindrical fuel compacts containing tri-structural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures observed out of almost 300,000 particles. Six irradiated AGR 1 fuel compacts were selected for microscopy that span a range of irradiation conditions (temperature, burnup, and fast fluence). These six compacts also included all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR experiment. The six compacts were cross-sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, mounted, ground, and polished after development of careful techniques for preserving particle structures against preparation damage. From 36 to 79 particles within each cross section were exposed near enough to midplane for optical microscopy of kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. The microstructural analysis focused on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracture, debonding between the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layers, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Three basic particle morphologies were established according to the extent of bonding between the buffer and IPyC layers: complete debonding along the interface (Type A), no debonding along the interface (Type B), and partial debonding (Type AB). These basic morphologies were subdivided according to whether the buffer stayed intact or fractured. The resulting six characteristic morphologies were used to classify particles within each cross section, but no spatial patterns were clearly observed in any of the cross-sectional morphology maps. Although positions of particle types appeared random within compacts, examining a total of 931 classified particles allowed other relationships among morphological types to be established.

Paul Demkowicz; Scott Ploger; John Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection from laser-irradiated target  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is directed to a vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection of a laser-irradiated target. Within a vacuum chamber are disposed a beam focusing element, a disc having an aperture and a recollimating element. The edge of the focused beam impinges on the edge of the aperture to produce a plasma which refracts any retroreflected light from the laser's target.

Benjamin, Robert F. (Los Alamos, NM); Mitchell, Kenneth B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Post Irradiation Capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) oversees the efforts to ensure nuclear energy remains a viable option for the United States. A significant portion of these efforts are related to post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of highly activated fuel and materials that are subject to the extreme environment inside a nuclear reactor. As the lead national laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a rich history, experience, workforce and capabilities for performing PIE. However, new advances in tools and techniques for performing PIE now enable understanding the performance of fuels and materials at the nano-scale and smaller level. Examination at this level is critical since this is the scale at which irradiation damage occurs. The INL is on course to adopt these advanced tools and techniques to develop a comprehensive nuclear fuels and materials characterization capability that is unique in the world. Because INL has extensive PIE capabilities currently in place, a strong foundation exist to build upon as new capabilities are implemented and work load increases. In the recent past, INL has adopted significant capability to perform advanced PIE characterization. Looking forward, INL is planning for the addition of two facilities that will be built to meet the stringent demands of advanced tools and techniques for highly activated fuels and materials characterization. Dubbed the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL) and Advanced Post Irradiation Examination Capability , these facilities are next generation PIE laboratories designed to perform the work of PIE that cannot be performed in current DOE facilities. In addition to physical capabilities, INL has recently added two significant contributors to the Advanced Test Reactor-National Scientific User Facility (ATR-NSUF), Oak Ridge National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley.

J. L. Schulthess; K. E. Rosenberg

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Microstructure of RERTR DU-Alloys Irradiated with Krypton Ions  

SciTech Connect

Fuel development for reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in many research and test reactors worldwide. Radiation stability of the interaction product formed at fuel-matrix interface has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast that consist of the following 5 phases of interest to be investigated: U(Si,Al)3, (U,Mo)(Si,Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43 and UAl4. Irradiation of TEM disc samples with 500 keV Kr ions at 200?C to high doses up to ~100 dpa were conducted using an intermediate voltage electron microscope equipped with an ion accelerator. The irradiated microstructure of the 5 phases is characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The results will be presented and the implication of the observed irradiated microstructure on the fuel performance will be discussed.

J. Gan; D. Keiser; D. Wachs; B. Miller; T. Allen; M. Kirk; J. Rest

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

The effect of gamma irradiation on optical isolators. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The effects of gamma radiation on optical isolators have been investigated. This study has included the simultaneous irradiation and measurement of the individual emitters and detectors making up the isolators. In this manner, the net effect of irradiation on the isolators could be attributed to the degradation of either the emitter or detector, or both. As expected, isolators containing photodiodes are more radiation resistant than those containing phototransistors. In the photodiode isolator the LED is responsible for essentially all the gamma-induced isolator degradation. The performance of phototransistor isolators depends strongly on the phototransistor bias, V sub CE, and the LED input current, I sub LED. At high I sub LED and low V sub CE where gamma-induced surface effects in the phototransistor are minimized, the degradation of the isolator is due primarily to the LED which is more sensitive than the LED in the photodiode isolator. In contrast, at low I sub LED and high V sub CE, gamma-induced surface damage in the phototransistor is the dominant effect and the isolator is quite sensitive to irradiation. (GRA)

Soda, K.J.; Barnes, C.E.; Kiehl, R.A.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN TEM CHARACTERIZATION OF IRRADIATED RERTR FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The recent development on TEM work of irradiated RERTR fuels includes microstructural characterization of the irradiated U-10Mo/alloy-6061 monolithic fuel plate, the RERTR-7 U-7Mo/Al-2Si and U-7Mo/Al-5Si dispersion fuel plates. It is the first time that a TEM sample of an irradiated nuclear fuel was prepared using the focused-ion-beam (FIB) lift-out technical at the Idaho National Laboratory. Multiple FIB TEM samples were prepared from the areas of interest in a SEM sample. The characterization was carried out using a 200kV TEM with a LaB6 filament. The three dimensional orderings of nanometer-sized fission gas bubbles are observed in the crystalline region of the U-Mo fuel. The co-existence of bubble superlattice and dislocations is evident. Detailed microstructural information along with composition analysis is obtained. The results and their implication on the performance of these fuels are discussed.

J. Gan; B.D. Miller; D.D. Keiser Jr.; A.B. Robinson; J.W. Madden; P.G. Medvedev; D.M. Wachs

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

BLISTERING AND EXPLOSIVE DESORPTION OF IRRADIATED AMMONIA-WATER MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

We present laboratory studies on the thermal evolution of a solid ammonia-water mixture after it has been irradiated at 20, 70, and 120 K. In samples irradiated at {<=}70 K, we observed fast outbursts that appear to indicate grain ejection and correlate well with the formation of micron-sized scattering centers. The occurrence of this phenomenon at the lower irradiation temperatures indicates that our results may be most relevant for understanding the release of gas and grains by comets and the surfaces of some of the colder icy satellites. We observe outgassing at temperatures below those where ice sublimates, which suggests that comets containing radiolyzed material may have outbursts farther from the Sun that those that are passive. In addition, the estimated size of the grains ejected from our sample is on the order of the size of E-ring particles, suggesting that our results give a plausible mechanism for how micron-sized grains could be formed from an icy surface. Finally, we propose that the presence of the {approx}4.5 {mu}m N{sub 2}O absorption band on an icy surface in outer space will serve to provide indirect evidence for radiation-processed ices that originally contained ammonia or nitrogen, which could be particularly useful since nitrogen is such a weak absorber in the infrared and ammonia is rapidly decomposed by radiolysis.

Loeffler, M. J.; Baragiola, R. A., E-mail: mark.loeffler@nasa.gov, E-mail: raul@virginia.edu [Laboratory for Atomic and Surface Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 29904 (United States)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

439

Irradiation performance of fast reactor MOX fuel pins with ferritic/martensitic cladding irradiated to high burnups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ACO-3 irradiation test, which attained extremely high burnups of about 232 GWd/t and resisted a high neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV) of about 39 1026 n/m2 as one of the lead tests of the Core Demonstration Experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility, demonstrated that the fuel pin cladding made of ferritic/martensitic HT-9 alloy had superior void swelling resistance. The measured diameter profiles of the irradiated ACO-3 fuel pins showed axially extensive incremental strain in the MOX fuel column region and localized incremental strain near the interfaces between the MOX fuel and upper blanket columns. These incremental strains were as low as 1.5% despite the extremely high level of the fast neutron fluence. Evaluation of the pin diametral strain indicated that the incremental strain in the MOX fuel column region was substantially due to cladding void swelling and irradiation creep caused by internal fission gas pressure, while the localized strain near the MOX fuel/upper blanket interface was likely the result of the pellet/cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) caused by cesium/fuel reactions. The evaluation also suggested that the PCMI was effectively mitigated by a large gap size between the cladding and blanket column.

Tomoyuki Uwaba; Masahiro Ito; Kozo Katsuyama; Bruce J. Makenas; David W. Wootan; Jon Carmack

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Irradiation performance of fast reactor MOX fuel pins with ferritic/martensitic cladding irradiated to high burnups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ACO-3 irradiation test, which attained extremely high burnups of about 232 GWd/t and resisted a high neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV) of about 39E26 n/m2 as one of the lead tests of the Core Demonstration Experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility, demonstrated that the fuel pin cladding made of ferritic/martensitic HT-9 alloy had superior void swelling resistance. The measured diameter profiles of the irradiated ACO-3 fuel pins showed axially extensive incremental strain in the MOX fuel column region and localized incremental strain near the interfaces between the MOX fuel and upper blanket columns. These incremental strains were as low as 1.5% despite the extremely high level of the fast neutron fluence. Evaluation of the pin diametral strain indicated that the incremental strain in the MOX fuel column region was substantially due to cladding void swelling and irradiation creep caused by internal fission gas pressure, while the localized strain near the MOX fuel/upper blanket interface was likely the result of the pellet/cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) caused by cesium/fuel reactions. The evaluation also suggested that the PCMI was effectively mitigated by a large gap size between the cladding and blanket column.

Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Katsuyama, Kozo; Makenas, Bruce J.; Wootan, David W.; Carmack, Jon

2011-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "latitude tilt irradiance" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Effect of Neutron Irradiation on the Fracture Toughness of Graphite  

SciTech Connect

As part of our irradiated graphite recycle program a small quantity of PCEA grade graphite was irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. The graphite will provide the raw material for future recycle experiments. The geometry of the irradiated graphite allowed us to study the effects of neutron irradiation on the Critical Stress Intensity Factor, KIc, of graphite. The specimens where irradiated in two groups of 6 at an irradiation temperature of 900 C in rabbit capsules to doses of 6.6 and 10.2 DPA, respectively. Following a full suite of pre-and post-irradiation examination, which included dimensions, mass, electrical resistivity, elastic constants, and thermal expansion (to 800 C) the samples were notched and tested to determine their KIc using the newly approved ATSM test method for SENB fracture toughness of graphite. Here we report the irradiation induced changes in the dimensions, elastic constants, resistivity, and coefficient of thermal expansion of PCEA graphite. Moreover, irradiation induced changes in the Critical Stress Intensity Factor, KIc, or fracture toughness, are reported and discussed. Very little work on the effect of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness of graphite has previously be performed or reported.

Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Strizak, Joe P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Effects of Irradiation and Post-Irradiation Annealing on the Thermal Conductivity/ Diffusivity of Monolithic SIC and SIC/SIC Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser flash thermal diffusivity measurements were made on high-purity monolithic CVD-SiC (impurity concentration layup made by the isothermal chemical vapor infiltration process and with either a thick 1.0 m or a thin 0.11 m PyC fiber coating) before and after irradiation in the HFIR reactor (250 to 800C, 4-8 dpa-SiC) and after post-irradiation annealing composite samples to 1200C. Thermal conductivity in SiC is controlled by phonon transport. Point defects introduced into SiC during neutron irradiation are effective scattering centers for phonons, and as a consequence the thermal conductivity is sharply reduced. For irradiation temperatures below ~800C, the accumulation of point defects (in SiC mostly single or small clusters of interstitials and isolated vacancies) saturates when the interstitial-vacancy recombination rate equals the defect production rate. For saturation conditions, the relative reduction in the SiC thermal conductivity decreases in a manner similar to its swelling reduction with increasing irradiation temperature. Examination of SiC swelling data at various irradiation temperatures and doses indicates that saturation occurs for ~2 dpa-SiC at 200C and decreases continuously to ~0.4 dpa-SiC at 800C. Based on a model that assumes a uniform distribution of the phonon scattering defects, the calculated defect concentration for unirradiated CVD-SiC was less than 1 appm, which is consistent with the manufacturers value of <5 wppm impurities. The defect concentrations estimated for the irradiated CVD-SiC samples decreased continuously from ~25,000 to 940 appm as the irradiation temperature increased from 252 to 800C. The small intrinsic defect concentration in comparison to the rather large extrinsic irradiation-induced defect concentrations illustrates why CVD-SiC makes an ideal irradiation damage monitor.

Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Magneto-optical study of flux penetration and critical current densities in [001] tilt YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} thin-film bicrystals  

SciTech Connect

Magneto-optical (MO) imaging has been used to visualize and calculate magnetic flux and current distributions at temperatures {ital T} ranging from 7 to 80 K in thin-film [001] tilt YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} bicrystals with misorientation angles 3{degree}{le}{theta}{le}10{degree}. A characteristic cusp in the flux distribution {ital B}{sub {ital z}}({ital x},{ital y}) was observed for 5{degree}{le}{theta}{le}7{degree}, which is shown to indicate that the critical current density {ital J}{sub {ital b}} across the boundary is smaller than the intragrain {ital J}{sub {ital c}}. We use the Bean model for thin-film superconductors to calculate the observed features of the {ital B}{sub {ital z}}({ital x},{ital y}) distribution and to separate both the intragrain {ital J}{sub {ital c}} and intergrain {ital J}{sub {ital b}}({theta}) independently from the MO data. The study of angular and temperature dependencies of {ital J}{sub {ital b}}({ital T},{theta}) in bicrystals with different {theta} shows that {ital J}{sub {ital b}}({theta}) strongly decreases with {theta} above {theta}{approx_equal}5{degree}. The decrease of {ital J}{sub {ital b}}({ital T},{theta}) with temperature becomes weaker as the misorientation angle {theta} is increased, so the substantial difference in {ital J}{sub {ital b}} for 5{degree} and 7{degree} boundaries at low {ital T} turns out to be less pronounced at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. In addition, the ratio {ital J}{sub {ital b}}({theta},{ital T})/{ital J}{sub {ital c}}({ital T}) for low-angle grain boundaries is shown to exhibit an anomalous increase with {ital T}, thus indicating that the grain boundaries can provide additional flux pinning. This is plausibly associated with the grain boundary dislocations that accommodate the misorientation of the grains. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Polyanskii, A.A.; Gurevich, A.; Pashitski, A.E.; Heinig, N.F.; Redwing, R.D.; Nordman, J.E.; Larbalestier, D.C. [Applied Superconductivity Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Applied Superconductivity Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Design and Status of RERTR Irradiation Tests in the Advanced Test Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Irradiation testing of U-Mo based fuels is the central component of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program fuel qualification plan. Several RERTR tests have recently been completed or are planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, ID. Four mini-plate experiments in various stages of completion are described in detail, including the irradiation test design, objectives, and irradiation conditions. Observations made during and after the in-reactor RERTR-7A experiment breach are summarized. The irradiation experiment design and planned irradiation conditions for full-size plate test are described. Progress toward element testing will be reviewed.

Daniel M. Wachs; Richard G. Ambrosek; Gray Chang; Mitchell K. Meyer

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

The effect of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of C/SiC composites  

SciTech Connect

The effects of neutron irradiation to 3.5 and 9.5 dpa at 730 C on a 2D plain woven carbon fiber reinforced polymer derived SiC matrix composite are presented. For both fluences, the irradiation caused in-plane contraction and trans-plane expansion. Irradiation also caused substantial reduction in composite flexural strength (54%) and increase in flexural tangent modulus (+85%). The extents of dimensional/ mechanical property changes were greater for the higher fluence irradiated samples. Those changes suggest the instability of the polymer derived SiC matrix following irradiation. The nature of the mechanical property changes suggest increased clamping stress between the fiber and the matrix. The composite property changes are explained in terms of irradiation effects on composite constituents and are compared with carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite as a reference material.

Shih, Chunghao [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Steinbeck, John [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Irradiation-controlled giant magnetoresistance of PtMn-based spin valve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

He{sup +}-ion irradiation resulted in the direct ordering of PtMn without postannealing. Samples were irradiated with 2 MeV He{sup +} ions and a beam current of 1.08 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} such that the corresponding surface temperature was 190 deg. C. The exchange bias direction was set in situ during irradiation in a field of 900 Oe. A high giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio of 11% was obtained in PtMn-based spin valves after He{sup +} irradiation. The GMR is completely eliminated after it is irradiated with oxygen ions at 42 keV. Combining He{sup +} with oxygen-ion irradiation can provide magnetic patterning for GMR sensors.

Huang, S.-H.; Lai, C.-H.; Chiang, C. C.; Yang, C.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Huang University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Solar irradiance models and measurements: a comparison in the 220 nm to 240 nm wavelength band  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar irradiance models that assume solar irradiance variations to be due to changes in the solar surface magnetic flux have been successfully used to reconstruct total solar irradiance on rotational as well as cyclical and secular time scales. Modelling spectral solar irradiance is not yet as advanced, and also suffers from a lack of comparison data, in particular on solar-cycle time scales. Here we compare solar irradiance in the 220 nm to 240 nm band as modelled with SATIRE-S and measured by different instruments on the UARS and SORCE satellites. We find good agreement between the model and measurements on rotational time scales. The long-term trends, however, show significant differences. Both SORCE instruments, in particular, show a much steeper gradient over the decaying part of cycle 23 than the modelled irradiance or that measured by UARS/SUSIM.

Unruh, Yvonne C; Krivova, Natalie A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

A New Operational Model for Satellite-Derived Irradiances: Description and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A New Operational Model for Satellite-Derived Irradiances: Description and A New Operational Model for Satellite-Derived Irradiances: Description and Validation Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): We present a new simple model capable of exploiting geostationary satellite visible images for the production of site/time specific global and direct irradiances The new model features new clear sky global and direct irradiance functions, a new cloud-index-to-irradiance index function, a new global-to-direct-irradiance conversion model. The model can also exploit operationally available snow cover resource data, while deriving local ground specular reflectance characteristics from the stream of incoming satellite data. Validation against 10 US locations representing a wide range of climatic environments indicates that model performance is

449

Temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel neutron-irradiated up to 145 dpa  

SciTech Connect

The temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel irradiated to high doses was investigated using miniature three-point bend (TPB) fracture specimens. These specimens were from the ACO-3 fuel duct wall of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), in which irradiation doses were in the range of 3.2 144.8 dpa and irradiation temperatures in the range of 380.4 502.6 oC. A miniature specimen reuse technique has been established for this investigation: the specimens used were the tested halves of miniature Charpy impact specimens (~13 3 4 mm) with diamond-saw cut in the middle. The fatigue precracking for specimens and fracture resistance (J-R) tests were carried out in a MTS servo-hydraulic testing machine with a vacuum furnace following the standard procedure described in the ASTM Standard E 1820-09. For each of five irradiated and one archive conditions, 7 to 9 J-R tests were performed at selected temperatures ranging from 22 C to 600 C. The fracture toughness of the irradiated HT9 steel was strongly dependent on irradiation temperatures rather than irradiation dose. When the irradiation temperature was below about 430 C, the fracture toughness of irradiated HT9 increased with test temperature, reached an upper shelf of 180 200 MPa m at 350 450 C and then decreased with test temperature. When the irradiation temperature 430 C, the fracture toughness was nearly unchanged until about 450 C and decreased with test temperature in higher temperature range. Similar test temperature dependence was observed for the archive material although the highest toughness values are lower after irradiation. Ductile stable crack growth occurred except for a few cases where both the irradiation temperature and test temperature are relatively low.

Baek, Jong-Hyuk [KAERI] [KAERI; Byun, Thak Sang [ORNL] [ORNL; Maloy, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Toloczko, M [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

PRELIMINARY DESIGN STUDY FOR A SODIUM-GRAPHITE-REACTOR IRRADIATION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The results of an investigation to integrate a Na/sup 24/ irradiation processing facility with an operating sodium graphite reactor are presented. An irradiation facility incorporated into a reference SGR (Hallam Nuclear Power Facility, Hallam, Nebraska) is described. Development of the facility application, preliminary design criteria and capital and operating costs are discussed. Recommendations for further development of the technology and economics of this type of irradiation facility are included. (auth)

Thompson, D.S.; Benaroya, V.

1959-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

451

Multiscale Simulation of Thermo-mechanical Processes in Irradiated Fission-reactor Materials  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a summary of progress made on the subtask area on phase field model development for microstructure evolution in irradiated materials, which was a part of the Computational Materials Science Network (CMSN) project entitled: Multiscale Simulation of Thermo-mechanical Processes in Irradiated Fission-reactor Materials. The model problem chosen has been that of void nucleation and growth under irradiation conditions in single component systems.

Anter El-Azab

2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

452

A Review of Irradiation Effects on Organic-Matrix Insulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This review assesses the data base on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation to determine whether organic electric insulation systems can be used in the toroidal field (TF) magnets of next generation fusion devices such as ITER* and TPX*. Owing to the difficulties of testing insulation under fusion reactor conditions, there is a considerable mismatch between the ITER requirements and the data that are currently available. For example, nearly all of the high-dose (5 x 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 8} Gy) data obtained on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation employed gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, or reactor irradiation with a fast neutron fluence far below 10{sup 23}/m{sup 2}, the fluence expected for the insulation at the TF magnets, as set forth in ITER conceptual design documents. Also, the neutron spectrum did not contain a very high energy (E {ge} 5 MeV) component. Such data underestimate the actual damage that would be obtained with the neutron fluence and spectrum expected at a TF magnet. Experiments on a polyimide (Kapton) indicate that gamma or electron doses or mixed gamma and neutron reactor doses would have to be downgraded by a factor of up to ten to simulate fusion neutron doses. Even when neutrons did constitute a significant portion of the total dose, B-containing E-glass reinforcement was often used; therefore, excess damage from the {sup 10}B + n {yields} {sup 7}Li + {alpha} reaction occurred near the glass-epoxy interface. This problem can easily be avoided by substituting B-free glass (R, S, or T types).

Simon, N.J.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

Hodges, Gary

454

Microstructural and Mechanical Property Changes in Ion Irradiated Tunsgten  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sustainable fusion power is within reach; however, more research is needed in the field of material science and engineering. One critical component of a fusion reactor is the plasma facing material. Very little literature exists on the sustainability of tungsten as a plasma facing material (PFM). During operation, PFM must withstand harsh conditions with combined effects from high temperature, mechanical stress, irradiation, transmutation, and the production of hydrogen (H) and helium (He) from nuclear reactions. Therefore, this thesis will focus on co-implantation of H and He into tungsten to investigate the mechanical and microstructural material response. For the first part of this study, Molecular Dynamics (MD) was used to qualitatively understand defect migration and mechanical property changes in tungsten. A Brinell hardness test was simulated using MD in tungsten to study the dependence on void size and void density hardness. It was found that hardness changes vary as the square root of the void size and void density. Also the movement of dislocations and its interaction with voids were investigated. For the second part of the study, H and He were co-implanted into tungsten to look at the mechanical and microstructural changes. Hardness changes were measured using a nano-indenter ex-situ on post-irradiated specimen. Results show that the hardness of tungsten after co-implantation is proportional to the square root of the fluence. Additionally, the microstructure of irradiated tungsten samples was investigated by using a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). It was observed that the defect microstructure in tungsten, after co-implantation, is quite complex, with a number of intriguing features, such as the presence of the nano-bubbles and dislocation loops. Also it was observed that there was an effect that H has on the nucleation of He nano-bubbles. The results from this work suggest that the effect of co-implanting H and He into tungsten is crucial to fully understand its viability as a PFM.

General, Michael

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Irradiation performance of low-enriched uranium fuel elements  

SciTech Connect

The status of the testing and evaluation of full-sized experimental low- and medium-enriched uranium fuel elements in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor is presented. Medium-enriched elements containing oxide and aluminide have been completely evaluated at burnups up to 75%. A low-enriched U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ element has been evaluated at 41% burnup. Other silicide and oxide elements have completed irradiation satisfactorily to burnups of 75% and are now being evaluated. All results to date confirm the expected good performance of these elements in the medium power research reactor environment.

Copeland, G.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.

1984-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

456

Plate-shape voids in neutron irradiated boron carbide  

SciTech Connect

From symposium on pore structures and properties of materials; Prague, Czechoslovakia (18 Sep 1973). Several processes are known to produce lattice vacancies in sufficient excess of the thermal equilibrium concentration that they precipitate out as voids. In the case of certain nuclear transmutations, a solid solution of gas is simultaneously produced at a concentration corresponding to a high equilibrium pressure and, if this gas diffuses into the voids, the equilibrium shape for the void is a thin flat cavity. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine both the nucleation of such voids in neutron- irradiated boron carbide and their transformation to more compact shapes during fission gas release. (auth)

Ashbee, K.H.G.; DuBose, C.K.H.

1974-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

457

Characterization of a 20 curie, cesium-137 irradiator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) located at the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is charged with evaluating and accrediting personnel dosimetry systems for a variety of research and engineering facilities nationwide. [] irradiating are used in DOELAP to deliver accident-and protection-level doses to personal dosimeters. It is absolutely paramount that the calibration radiation fiends are well characterized. During the summer of 1997, the DOELAP Calibration Laboratory Facility was remodeled to accommodate an increasing workload. Remodeling the laboratory facility and the installation of a new, automated control calibration system required a complete characterization of DOELAP'S 20 Ci [] beam, irradiated verify that the new DOELAP configuration was in compliance with the DOE Standard for Performance Testing of Personnel Dosimetry Systems. A rail mapping experiment determined that scatter from ancillary equipment and wails minimally affected exposure along the axis of the source beam, with the experimental exposure varying only 0.25% to 1% from the theoretical exposure. In addition, a new procedure was authored to provide guidelines for future DOELAP rail mapping experiments. To ensure that all dosimeters receive the same dose during DOELAP irradiations, beam uniformity measurements were also source using both an ionization chamber and a film exposure. Beam uniformity results, using an ion chamber, showed a pronounced penumbra at the edge of a whole body phantom at 100 centimeters. The beam was fairly uniform at 200 centimeters. Beam uniformity results the DOELAP dosimeter mounting area showed that the beam was uniform at both 100 and 200 centimeters with maximum deviation of approximately 1-1.5%. Comparing beam uniformity results between the ionization chamber and the film exposures determined that using film was an acceptable practice for determining beam uniformity and requires less time. As an extension of this experiment, a new internal procedure for verifying beam uniformity was authored for future DOELAP use. Factors that convert exposure to dose equivalent (Cx) for the 20 Ci, irradiated were within DOELAP standards (DOE 1986). Characterization the DOELAP 20 Ci, [] source has verified that the new DOELAP configuration is in compliance with the DOE Standard for Performance Testing of Personnel Dosimetry Systems.

Quan, Diep Quan

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Surface plasma wave excitation via laser irradiated overdense plasma foil  

SciTech Connect

A laser irradiated overdense plasma foil is seen to be susceptible to parametric excitation of surface plasma wave (SPW) and ion acoustic wave (IAW) on the ion plasma period time scale. The SPW is localised near the front surface of the foil while IAW extends upto the rear. The evanescent laser field and the SPW exert a ponderomotive force on electrons driving the IAW. The density perturbation associated with the latter beats with the laser induced oscillatory electron velocity to drive the SPW. At relativistic laser intensity, the growth rate is of the order of ion plasma frequency.

Kumar, Pawan; Tripathi, V. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

459

Portable instrument for inspecting irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable instrument for measuring induced Cerenkov radiation associated with irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in a water-filled storage pond is disclosed. The instrument includes a photomultiplier tube and an image intensifier which are operable in parallel and simultaneously by means of a field lens assembly and an associated beam splitter. The image intensifier permits an operator to aim and focus the apparatus on a submerged fuel assembly. Once the instrument is aimed and focused, an illumination reading can be obtained with the photomultiplier tube. The instrument includes a lens cap with a carbon-14/phosphor light source for calibrating the apparatus in the field.

Nicholson, Nicholas (Los Alamos, NM); Dowdy, Edward J. (Los Alamos, NM); Holt, David M. (Los Alamos, NM); Stump, Jr., Charles J. (Santa Fe, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Thermal analysis of the FSP-1 fuel pin irradiation test  

SciTech Connect

Thermal analysis of a pin from the FSP-1 fuels irradiation test has been completed. The purpose of the analysis was to provide predictions of fuel pin temperatures, determine the flow regime within the lithium annulus of the test assembly, and provide a standardized model for a consistent basis of comparison between pins within the test assembly. The calculations have predicted that the pin is operating at slightly above the test design temperatures and that the flow regime within the lithium annulus is a laminar buoyancy driven flow. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Lyon, W.F. III.

1990-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Carbon--silicon coating alloys for improved irradiation stability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

For ceramic nuclear fuel particles, a fission product-retaining carbon-- silicon alloy coating is described that exhibits low shrinkage after exposure to fast neutron fluences of 1.4 to 4.8 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E = 0.18 MeV) at irradiation temperatures from 950 to 1250 deg C. Is