National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for late 19th century

  1. Pennsylvania's 19th congressional district: Energy Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Registered Energy Companies in Pennsylvania's 19th congressional district Carlisle Construction Materials Enginuity Energy, LLC Keystone Biofuels PaceControls LLC Soy Energy...

  2. California's 19th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chowchilla Biomass Facility Fresno Biomass Facility Madera Biomass Facility SPI Sonora Biomass Facility Utility Companies in California's 19th congressional district Modesto...

  3. 20th Century Reanalysis Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20th Century Reanalysis Project 20th Century Reanalysis Project Key Challenges: Assimilate historical weather observations from sources as diverse as 19th century sea captains and...

  4. Illinois' 19th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Companies in Illinois' 19th congressional district DarkStar VI Illinois Commerce Commission Mid America Biodiesel LLC MAB National Trail Biodiesel Retrieved from...

  5. Texas's 19th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    district in Texas. Registered Energy Companies in Texas's 19th congressional district Big Daddy s Biodiesel Inc Cratech Inc Horn Wind Lauren Engineers amp Constructors Levelland...

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory sponsors 19th annual Hazmat Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hazardous materials response teams from New Mexico, Missouri and Nebraska test their skills in a series of graded, timed exercises at the 19th annual Hazmat Challenge. July 23,...

  7. 19th Annual conference & exposition: Global strategies for environmental issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The 19th Annual conference and exposition on Global Strategies for Environmental Issues was held June 12-15, 1994 in New Orleans, Louisiana. This volume contains abstracts of the oral presentations. They are organized into the following sections: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable Development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental Ethics/Equity; NEPA Symposium; International Environmental Issues; Global Environmental Effects; and, Risk Assessment. Abstracts of poster sessions are also included.

  8. Office of Fossil Energy Kicks Off 19th Year of Mickey Leland Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fellowship | Department of Energy Fossil Energy Kicks Off 19th Year of Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Office of Fossil Energy Kicks Off 19th Year of Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship June 27, 2014 - 9:09am Addthis Students in the Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship tour the National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown, WV. Students in the Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship tour the National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown, WV. What does this mean for me? "Being at DOE has

  9. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-07-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes.

  10. Students showcase research at 19th Supercomputing Challenge Expo at Los

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alamos National Laboratory Supercomputing Challenge Expo Students showcase research at 19th Supercomputing Challenge Expo at Los Alamos National Laboratory The goal is to increase knowledge of science and computing, expose students and teachers to computers and applied mathematics, and instill enthusiasm for science. April 14, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering

  11. 19th Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab June 1, 2011, 9:00am to June 3, 2011, 5:00pm Conference Newport, Rhode Island 19th Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas Target audience Fusion scientists and engineers, plasma physicists, RF engineers, theoretical physicists and specialists of plasma-wave interaction, students. Topics of the conference Wave interaction with plasmas, such as heating, current generation, diagnostics, and confinement and profile control. RF applications in fusion devices,

  12. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    none,

    2015-07-29

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km × 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biasesmore » versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United States and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.« less

  13. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-07-29

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km × 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biases versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United States and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.

  14. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Druzik, Jim

    2012-03-02

    This document is a report of observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The program supports demonstrations of high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products in order to develop empirical data and experience with in-the-field applications of this advanced lighting technology. The DOE GATEWAY Demonstration Program focuses on providing a source of independent, third-party data for use in decision-making by lighting users and professionals; this data should be considered in combination with other information relevant to the particular site and application under examination. Each GATEWAY Demonstration compares SSL products against the incumbent technologies used in that location. Depending on available information and circumstances, the SSL product may also be compared to alternate lighting technologies. Though products demonstrated in the GATEWAY program may have been prescreened for performance, DOE does not endorse any commercial product or in any way guarantee that users will achieve the same results through use of these products. This report reviews the installation and use of LED PAR38 lamps to light a collection of toned albument photographic prints at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California. Research results provided by the Getty Conservation Institute are incorporated and discussed.

  15. Logging Report for April 19th., and 20th., 1994, Temp/CCL Logs of EE-3A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, David W.

    1994-04-27

    Two Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL), logs of EE-3A were performed on April 19th., and 20th., 1994, in an effort to locate fractures where fluid exits the injection wellbore. The first log was run, to serve as background data for comparison to the second log, which was run after a period of injection. The first log was done under static conditions, (with the exceptions of fluid that escaped through the control head during the log, and the continuous venting of the annulus). The log was then repeated the next day, after an approximate six hours of injection, with the Rotojet pump (at a rate of approximately 24 gpm). It was hoped that the short injection period would create anomalies in temperature across fractures, which could be identified by the log. The results however, were less than hoped for. A depth-driven strip chart, recording both load-cell weight, and CCL was run on both logs. Also, it was planed to speed up the logging rate through the zone of 11,700' to 11,790', which was believed to be an area common to premature set-down. After looking at a variety of previously run logs however, it was determined that these set-downs could occur anywhere in the open hole. For this reason we logged the entire open hole, on both logs, at 75 ft., per minute, and experienced no premature set-downs on either log.

  16. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Druzik, J. R.

    2012-03-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, CA.

  17. Borehole temperatures and a baseline for 20th-century global warming estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.N.; Chapman, D.S.

    1997-03-14

    Lack of a 19th-century baseline temperature against which 20th-century warming can be referenced constitutes a deficiency in understanding recent climate change. Combination of borehole temperature profiles, which contain a memory of surface temperature changes in previous centuries, with the meteorologicl archive of surface air temperatures can provide a 19th-century baseline temperature tied to the current observational record. A test case in Utah, where boreholes are interspersed with meteorological stations belonging to the Historical Climatological network, Yields a noise reduction in estimates of 20th-century warming and a baseline temperature that is 0.6{degrees} {+-} 0.1{degrees}C below the 1951 to 1970 mean temperature for the region. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 19th Annual HAZMAT Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Past Challenge scenarios have included drug laboratory or chemical hazard identification, a complex valve tree, confined space rescue, compressed gas leaks, a leaking rail car ...

  19. ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based Spectroscopy ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based Spectroscopy Print Tuesday, 29 January 2013 16:28 Gratings - optical elements used to separate light in spectroscopy applications - have been in use since the early 19th century. Developments in the late 19th century led to the manufacture of gratings by highly precise ruling with a diamond onto a metallic surface. Many gratings

  20. ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based Spectroscopy ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based Spectroscopy Print Gratings - optical elements used to separate light in spectroscopy applications - have been in use since the early 19th century. Developments in the late 19th century led to the manufacture of gratings by highly precise ruling with a diamond onto a metallic surface. Many gratings are still produced today using

  1. Florida's 19th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Ener1 Inc EnerFuel Energy 5 0 Energy 5 0 LLC Enerize Corp Hydro Alternative Energy LPG Electrical, Inc NanoEner Technologies Power Tree Corp RAM Capital Management Group...

  2. ARM - 2016 AMS 19th Conference on Atmospheric Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This session solicits reports from both observational and modeling perspectives on air pollution in different regions within North America and around the globe. Presentations ...

  3. Pi Day of the Century

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pi Day of the Century Pi Day of the Century WHEN: Mar 14, 2015 11:00 AM - 1:00 PM WHERE: Bradbury Science Museum 1350 Central Ave, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA CONTACT: Jessica Privette 505 667-0375 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Pi Event Description A special day celebrating this once-in-a-century occasion. Pi Day is an annual celebration commemorating the mathematical constant π, a never-ending, transcendental number representing the ratio of a circle's circumference to its

  4. Solar Century Holdings Solarcentury | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Century Holdings Solarcentury Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Century Holdings (Solarcentury) Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: SE1 7AB Sector:...

  5. Century Asset Management | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Century Asset Management Jump to: navigation, search Name: Century Asset Management Place: Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Zip: 2000 Sector: Solar, Vehicles Product: String...

  6. Pi Day of the Century

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    505 667-0375 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Pi Event Description A special day celebrating this once-in-a-century occasion. Pi Day is an annual celebration...

  7. Fourth Fridays - Museum Open Late

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fourth Fridays - Museum Open Late Fourth Fridays - Museum Open Late WHEN: Oct 23, 2015 10:00 AM - 6:00 PM WHERE: Bradbury Science Museum 1350 Central Ave, Los Alamos, NM 87544 USA CONTACT: Jessica Privette 505 667-0375 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Fourth Fridays in Downtown Los Alamos Event Description The museum will be open late until 6 p.m. every Fourth Friday offering extended access to exhibits, special programming, and activities. The Los Alamos Creative District is

  8. Fourth Fridays - Museum Open Late

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fourth Fridays - Museum Open Late Fourth Fridays - Museum Open Late WHEN: Jan 22, 2016 10:00 AM - 6:00 PM WHERE: Bradbury Science Museum 1350 Central Ave, Los Alamos, NM 87544 USA CONTACT: Linda Anderman (505) 665-9196 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Fourth Fridays in Downtown Los Alamos Event Description The museum will be open late until 6 p.m. every Fourth Friday offering extended access to exhibits, special programming, and activities. The Los Alamos Creative District is

  9. Fourth Fridays - Museum Open Late

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Museum is participating by staying open late until 6:00 p.m. offering access to exhibits and special activities for all ages. Admission is free and open to the public...

  10. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Informatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Railroads transformed transportation beginning in the early 19th century, and the telephone transformed communication in the latter part of that century. The automobile transformed ...

  11. 21st century Green Solutions LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    21st century Green Solutions LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: 21st century Green Solutions, LLC Place: Grand Blanc, Michigan Zip: 48439 Sector: Wind energy Product: Exclusive...

  12. Renewable Energy: A Centuries-old Tradition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ItWe often associate renewable energy as future, forward-thinking technology. However, just as in the case of da Vinci’s curved mirror – many of these technologies are based on centuries old concepts and inventions.

  13. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  14. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  15. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  16. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  17. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  18. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  19. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  20. 20th Century Reanalysis Project Featured in HPCWire Podcast

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20th Century 20th Century Reanalysis Project Featured in HPCWire Podcast March 11, 2014 earthreanalysis The 20th Century Reanalysis Project is generating a six-hourly, four-dimensional global atmospheric dataset spanning 1871 to 2011 to place current atmospheric circulation patterns into a historical perspective. Long-time NERSC user Dr. Gil Compo and the 20th Century Reanalysis project were featured March 10 in an HPCWire podcast, "Powering the 20th Century Weather Reanalysis

  1. Energy business and technology sourcebook: Proceedings of the 19th world energy engineering congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This book represents the contributions of 87 authors who have presented their work at the World Energy Engineering Congress and the companion Plant & Facilities Expo, Environmental Technology Expo, OSHA Compliance Expo, and the Energy Service and Power Marketing Center. This sourcebook covers the total gamut of business and technological issues in adapting energy efficient technologies and improving the operations of buildings and plants. Latest strategies in energy management and user case studies of companies such as Mobil are included. Lighting, heat, ventilation and air conditioning, and thermal energy storage systems are some of the subjects covered. Emerging technologies such as fuel cells and solar also are addressed. This book outlines how to position a company in light of utility restructuring and how to take advantage of performance based contracts and innovative financing mechanisms now available. Improving the performance of buildings and plants is covered in detail with chapters devoted to indoor air quality, environmental compliance, and power quality. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Your're Invited: Join Our Supplier Outreach Event on August 19th

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On August 19, 2011, the Department of Energy will be co-sponsoring a suppliers outreach event for suppliers who wish to provide services to Service Disabled Veteran Owned Businesses. This event,...

  3. High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program: 19th Annual Report, October 1, 2005 - September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasto, Arvid

    2007-08-01

    Annual Report contains overview of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program and includes selected highlights of user activities for FY2006. Report is submitted to individuals within sponsoring DOE agency and to other interested individuals.

  4. The 19th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on Future Light...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... the system is excited with a conventional laser and the structure changes are probed ... Bio-fragments and bio-molecules are also an extension of this work. The radiation damage ...

  5. Office of Fossil Energy Kicks Off 19th Year of Mickey Leland...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    students joining one of the Department of Energy's premier educational programs. The students are science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors representing 40 ...

  6. Complex Systems: Science for the 21st Century (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Complex Systems: Science for the 21st Century Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Complex Systems: Science for the 21st Century The workshop was designed ...

  7. Complex Systems: Science for the 21st Century (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Complex Systems: Science for the 21st Century Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Complex Systems: Science for the 21st Century You are accessing a document from the ...

  8. The 21st Century Truck Partnership | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The 21st Century Truck Partnership The 21st Century Truck Partnership 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: 2002_deer_howden.pdf (268.3 KB) More Documents & Publications 21st Century Truck Partnership Roadmap Roadmap and Technical White Papers - 21CTP-0003, December 2006 Roadmap and Technical White Papers for 21st Century Truck Partnership Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  9. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O'Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  10. Science for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  11. Petrography of late cenozoic sediments, Raft River geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of late cenozoic sediments, Raft River geothermal field, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Petrography of late...

  12. Fermilab Cultural Events in Chicago's Far West Side

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for more than 25 years. Their unique programming of works for both 19th century and modern guitars provides rare insight into the evolution of this captivating art....

  13. The power grid of the future is a platform that

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to modernize the electricity delivery system, enhance ... manage their own energy consumption and save money because ... commercial power grid online at the end of the 19th century. ...

  14. Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Some historical records also report that King Kalkaua aspired to produce power from geothermal energy resources in the 19th century.6 Modern electricity production...

  15. Peter L. Andresen | Inventors | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What does he mean? In part, that structural design codes today reflect deadly 19th-century steam boiler explosions, the first widespread impact of environmentally assisted ...

  16. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  17. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  18. MIT- Center for 21st Century Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: MIT- Center for 21st Century Energy Address: 77 Massachusetts Avenue Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Zip: 02139 Region: Greater Boston Area Website: web.mit.educ21ce...

  19. Laboratories for the 21st Century Case Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These case studies feature examples of energy-efficient laboratories for the 21st century. The Featured Concepts Table outlines technologies covered in each case study.

  20. Food and Fuel for the 21st Century

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Food and Fuel for the 21st Century held its annual symposium March 12–13, 2015, at Atkinson Hall, University of California San Diego.

  1. Beijing Jingyi Century Automatic Equipment Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    beijing Jingyi Century Automatic Equipment Co Ltd Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100079 Product: A Chinese equipment manufacturer provides monosilicon ingot puller and...

  2. Century Concord Wind Power Investment Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Concord Wind Power Investment Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Century Concord Wind Power Investment Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Sector: Wind energy...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office: 21st Century Truck Partnership | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 21st Century Truck Partnership Vehicle Technologies Office: 21st Century Truck Partnership Logo for 21st Century Truck Partnership. Partial outline of three various size medium to heavy-duty trucks followed by the words, 21st Century Truck Partnership. Medium-duty and heavy-duty trucks play a vital role in moving freight and passengers, serving as the backbone of America's economy. These trucks also play essential roles in other parts of society, such as maintaining our electricity

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office: 21st Century Truck Technical Goals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 21st Century Truck Partnership aims to improve fuel efficiency in heavy trucks through improvements in engine efficiency, aerodynamics, and rolling resistance.

  5. 21st Century Truck Partnership Roadmap Roadmap and Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roadmap Roadmap and Technical White Papers - 21CTP-0003, December 2006 21st Century Truck Partnership Roadmap Roadmap and Technical White Papers - 21CTP-0003, December 2006 Report ...

  6. 21st Century Truck Partnership - Roadmap and Technical White...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Roadmap and Technical White Papers Appendix of Supporting Information - 21CTP-0003, December 2006 21st Century Truck Partnership - Roadmap and Technical White Papers Appendix of ...

  7. Half a Century of Physical Review Letters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Garisto, Robert

    2010-01-08

    Fifty years ago, Sam Goudsmit started an experiment: the journal Physical Review Letters.  Since 1958, the experiment has thrived. PRL has gone through many changes, published many important papers, and become a leader in international scientific publication.  I will trace the rise of PRL from its early 20th century roots as "Letters to the Editor," through changes in editorial process and advents of new technology. Along the way I'll show what has gone on behind the scenes, and give a glimpse of our plans for the future.  I'll also give some advice to would-be authors and referees, illustrated with interesting correspondence we've received.

  8. Acoustic emission: The first half century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drouillard, T.F.

    1994-08-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) is approaching the half century mark, having had its beginning in 1950 with the work of Joseph Kaiser. During the 1950s and 1960s researchers delved into the fundamentals of acoustic emission, developed instrumentation specifically for AE, and characterized the AE behavior of many materials. AE was starting to be recognized for its unique capabilities as an NDT method for monitoring dynamic processes. In the decade of the 1970s research activities became more coordinated and directed with the formation of the working groups, and its use as an NDT method continued to increase for industrial applications. In the 1980s the computer became a basic component for both instrumentation and data analysis, and today it has sparked a resurgence of opportunities for research and development. Today we are seeing a transition to waveform-based AE analysis and a shift in AE activities with more emphasis on applications than on research. From the beginning, we have been fortunate to have had so many dedicated savants with different fields of expertise contribute in a collective way to bring AE to a mature, fully developed technology and leave a legacy of knowledge recorded in its literature. AE literature has been a key indicator of the amount of activity, the proportion of research to application, the emphasis on what was of current interest, and the direction AE has taken. The following is a brief survey of the history of acoustic emission with emphasis on development of the infrastructure over the past half century.

  9. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  10. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-11-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.

  11. VERY LATE PHOTOMETRY OF SN 2011fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerzendorf, W. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Ruiter, A. J., E-mail: wkerzendorf@gmail.com [Max-Planck-Institut fr Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strae 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ?930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g=23.43 0.28, r=24.14 0.14, i=23.91 0.18, and z=23.90 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of {sup 56}Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs.

  12. Roadmap and Technical White Papers for 21st Century Truck Partnership...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roadmap and Technical White Papers for 21st Century Truck Partnership Roadmap and Technical White Papers for 21st Century Truck Partnership Roadmap document for 21st Century Truck ...

  13. DOE/BES Workshop on Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOEBES Workshop on Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels DOEBES Workshop on Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels ...

  14. Beijing Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power Co Ltd FCFCP | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power Co Ltd FCFCP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power Co Ltd (FCFCP) Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip:...

  15. National Academy of Sciences Reviews 21st Century Truck Partnership...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    For more than 15 years, the 21st Century Truck Partnership ... America's medium and heavy-duty vehicles to safely and ... proposed expansion of the hybrid team's scope to "lead to ...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: 21st Century Truck Partners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The 21st Century Truck Partnership is an industry-government collaboration among heavy-duty engine manufacturers, medium-duty and heavy-duty truck and bus manufacturers, heavy-duty hybrid...

  17. Building a 21st Century Electric Grid | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Editor's note: This article has been cross-posted from WhiteHouse.gov. As part of President Obama's initiative to make America a magnet for jobs by building a 21st century ...

  18. National Lab Celebrates a Century of Science | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NETL-RUA Scans for Improved Enhanced Oil Recovery Technique National Lab Celebrates a Century of Science New Breathalyzer Offers Hope of Pain-Free Diabetes Monitoring NETL-RUA ...

  19. 21st Century Truck Partnership - Roadmap and Technical White Papers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appendix of Supporting Information - 21CTP-0003, December 2006 | Department of Energy - Roadmap and Technical White Papers Appendix of Supporting Information - 21CTP-0003, December 2006 21st Century Truck Partnership - Roadmap and Technical White Papers Appendix of Supporting Information - 21CTP-0003, December 2006 Appendix containing supporting information to the 21st Century Partnership's Roadmap and Technical White Papers (21CTP-003). 21ctp_roadmap_appendix_2007.pdf (3.98 MB) More

  20. The instrumental climate history of southwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doesken, N.J.; McKee, T.B.

    1995-09-01

    Instrumental observations of the climate of southwestern Colorado date back to about 1880. Climatic conditions since the late 19th century will be described with emphasis on temperatures, temperature ranges and observed precipitation. Typical seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation will be shown, and variations and apparent trends over time will be discussed. Drought characteristics will be described based on a standardized precipitation index developed for Colorado. Finally, brief comments on the challenge of collecting accurate and consistent long-term data will be given.

  1. Early Proctoscopy is a Surrogate Endpoint of Late Rectal Toxicity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Early Proctoscopy is a Surrogate Endpoint of Late Rectal Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Treated ...

  2. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. 19th quarterly report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  3. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  4. Probing Late Neutrino Mass Properties With SupernovaNeutrinos...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Probing Late Neutrino Mass Properties With SupernovaNeutrinos Citation ... DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: ...

  5. Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Network for the 21st Century (REN21) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21) Name: Renewable Energy Policy Network for the...

  6. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century: Fact...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century: Fact Sheet Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century: Fact Sheet This fact sheet provides an overview of ...

  7. Appendix of Supporting Information for the 21st Century Truck Technology Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Appendix contains supporting information to the 21st Century Truck Partnership's Roadmap and Technical White Papers (21CTP-003)

  8. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century Fuel cells offer a highly effcient and fuel- fexible technology that cleanly produces power and heat with low or zero emissions. Using renewably produced fuels such as hydrogen fuel cells can reduce our nation's dependence on imported oil, leading to a secure energy future for America. With a multitude of end-uses-such as distributed power for backup, primary, and combined heat-and-power systems; automobiles, buses, forklifts and other

  9. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  10. Characterization of a Messer – The late-Medieval single-edged sword of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fajfar, Peter; Medved, Jožef; Klančnik, Grega; Lazar, Tomaž; Nečemer, Marijan; Mrvar, Primož

    2013-12-15

    Metallurgical characterization of a sword blade fragments dating from the second half of the 15th century found in central Slovenia was performed in order to determine its chemical composition, microstructure, microhardness, and to obtain insight into the methods of manufacture of a late-medieval Messer sword. As the artefact was broken, examinations were limited to six very small fragments that were allowed to be removed from the cutting edge, core and the back of the blade. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermodynamics approach and Vickers micro-hardness tests were employed to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that the sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet. The surface of the sword was carburized. No evidence of quenching was found. The ferritic microstructure is concentrated in the core, and the pearlitic in the outer layer of the blade. All metal fragments contained non-metallic inclusions that were derived mostly from slag and some from hammer scale. - Highlights: • A metallurgical characterization of a medieval sword blade has been performed. • The carbon content decreased from the surface to the core of the blade. • The dominant microstructure in the outer layer is pearlite and in the core is ferrite. • The presence of lump shaped and elongated non-metallic inclusions was observed. • The sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet.

  11. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  12. Have You Looked at Your Pipes Lately? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Looked at Your Pipes Lately? Have You Looked at Your Pipes Lately? March 14, 2011 - 1:27pm Addthis Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory You know, it doesn't matter that some of you are probably already thinking about spring. It doesn't matter that the bulk of winter is over for a lot of you. I'm going to say this anyway, because sometime, someday, it might be useful. Or, well, it might not be if you live in Florida. But for the rest of you, I will repeat this

  13. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  14. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). Sources of flexibility exist--and can be enhanced--across all of the physical and institutional elements of the power system, including system operations and markets, demand side resources and storage; generation; and transmission networks. Accessing flexibility requires significant planning to optimize investments and ensure that both short- and long-time power system requirements are met.

  15. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  16. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  17. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodra, Evan A; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  18. Radioactive demonstration of the late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  19. Radioactive demonstration of the ``late wash`` Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ``late wash`` flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  20. Bedford Farmhouse High Performance Retrofit Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-26

    In this case study, Building Science Corporation partnered with Habitat for Humanity of Greater Lowell on a retrofit of a mid-19th century farmhouse into affordable housing meeting Building America performance standards.

  1. Solid Cold - D

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    D. Einstein's solution illustrated The problem with 19th-century atomic theory was the assumption that atoms could vibrate with just any old energy. If atoms could only vibrate ...

  2. Electric vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    existence in the mid-19th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not...

  3. Argonne Now Magazine - Summer 2014 | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    addressing crime, social unrest, and buses by finding patterns in data in "City of Big Data," and take a trip back to 19th-century Chicago to get perspective on the ongoing ...

  4. America's Competitiveness Depends on a 21st Century Grid | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy America's Competitiveness Depends on a 21st Century Grid America's Competitiveness Depends on a 21st Century Grid May 30, 2012 - 12:30pm Addthis Secretary Chu Secretary Chu Former Secretary of Energy What are the key facts? America's continued global competiveness in the 21st century will be significantly affected by whether we can efficiently produce and distribute electricity to our businesses and consumers, seamlessly integrating new technologies and new sources of power. Most of

  5. 21st Century Truck Partnership Roadmap Roadmap and Technical White Papers -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    21CTP-0003, December 2006 | Department of Energy Roadmap Roadmap and Technical White Papers - 21CTP-0003, December 2006 21st Century Truck Partnership Roadmap Roadmap and Technical White Papers - 21CTP-0003, December 2006 Report on specific technology goals that will reduce fuel usage and emissions while increasing heavy vehicle safety. 21ctp_roadmap_2007.pdf (1.7 MB) More Documents & Publications Roadmap and Technical White Papers for 21st Century Truck Partnership The 21st Century

  6. EAC Presentation on the Policy Framework for a 21st Century Grid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EAC Presentation on the Policy Framework for a 21st Century Grid: Enabling our Secure Energy Future (July 12, 2011) Presentation by Assistant Secretary Patricia Hoffman of the ...

  7. Argonne OutLoud: Renewing Our Grid - Power for the 21st Century (Sept. 19,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013) | Argonne National Laboratory Renewing Our Grid - Power for the 21st Century (Sept. 19, 2013) Share Guenter Conzelmann

  8. CESM Century-Scale Climate Experiments with a High-Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The proposed experiments are at the highest resolution currently feasible for century-scale climate simulations and represent a sweet spot in the simulation of extreme events. ...

  9. Roadmap and Technical White Papers for 21st Century Truck Partnership

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Roadmap document for 21st Century Truck Partnership developed to pursue detailed goals for engine systems, heavy-duty hybrids, parasitic losses, idle reduction, and safety,

  10. World pipeline construction plans show increase into next century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koen, A.D.; True, W.R.

    1995-02-06

    Plans for worldwide pipeline construction into the next century increased in the past year, especially for developing regions of Latin America and Asia-Pacific. Many of the projects involve large capacity, international gas pipeline systems. By contrast, pipeline construction in Canada, The US, and Europe will decline. Those trends and others are revealed in the latest Oil and Gas Journal pipeline construction data, derived from a survey of world pipeline operators, industry sources, and published information. More than 61,000 miles of crude oil, product, and natural gas pipeline are to be built in 1995 and beyond. The paper discusses Europe's markets, North Sea pipelines, expansion of German pipeline, pipelines in the UK, European and African gas, the trans-Mediterranean gas pipeline, Caspian Sea pipeline, Middle East pipelines, Asia-Pacific activity, South American gas lines, pipelines in Colombia, TransCanada line, Gulf of Mexico pipelines, other Gulf activities, and other US activity.

  11. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a ``Late Wash` facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  12. Major Design Changes Late in Title II or early in Title III Can...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Changes Late in Title II or early in Title III Can Be Costly PMLL Identifier: ... design changes occur late in Title II or early in Title III Discussion: Numerous ...

  13. Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Grid Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Grid June 4, 2013 - 10:50am Q&A What do you...

  14. With 400th Ph.D. grad, UW-Madison celebrates a half century of fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab With 400th Ph.D. grad, UW-Madison celebrates a half century of fusion energy American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: With 400th Ph.D. grad, UW-Madison celebrates a half century of fusion energy

  15. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  16. Initial technical basis for late washing filter cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, M.F.; Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1992-07-23

    Bench scale filter cleaning tests at the Savannah River Technology Center have shown that cross-flow filter elements can be cleaned between late wash filtration runs and restored to original clean water flux conditions. The most effective cleaning technique was high flow axial recirculation, followed by flushing with caustic solution. Simple flushing with oxalic acid and caustic is less effective and is not recommended because of adverse experience in ITP filter cleaning and uncertainty in the.nature of radiolysis by-product contaminants.

  17. Energy transitions in the early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Meakin

    2013-01-01

    We are in the early stages of a long and complex transition from a global economy based on fossil energy to an economy based on low carbon renewable energy. However, fossil fuel resources are abundant and widely distributed, and they will remain the dominant source of primary energy for at least the next quarter century. In the United States, displacement of coal by natural gas for electric power generation has done more to reduce CO2 emissions than all new renewables combined, and this may occur globally for the next decade or two, even if the European Union does not take advantage of its large unconventional natural gas resources. Greater energy efficiency (not including the efficiencies associated with displacement of coal by gas) will also be more important than new renewables. Cost/benefit ratios are important for sustainability of the transition, and some energy efficiency technologies and displacement of coal by natural gas have lower cost/benefit ratios than wind power, solar power or biofuels. Money spent on the large scale deployment of wind, solar and especially biofuels would be better spent on research, development and demonstration of a broader suite of technologies that would support the energy transition, with a focus on improving the cost benefit ratios of already deployed technologies and developing alternatives. Advanced nuclear reactors, engineered geothermal systems, fossil fuel recovery coupled with CO2 sequestration and pre-combustion or post-combustion decarbonation of fossil fuels with geological CO2 sequestration are among the technologies that might be more cost effective than wind, solar or biofuels, and biofuels have serious adverse societal and environment consequences.

  18. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century: Fact Sheet |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century: Fact Sheet Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century: Fact Sheet This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century (1.19 MB) More Documents & Publications QER - Comment of Honda Motor Co., Inc. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2012 2010 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Global

  19. Creating the Clean Energy Jobs of the 21st Century | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fact Sheet on clean energy jobs in Nevada Creating the Clean Energy Jobs of the 21st Century (127.41 KB) More Documents & Publications Nevada Recovery Act State Memo Expansion of ...

  20. A Century of Physics—The Future of Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A brief history of the development of solar and wind energy. Although windmills have been around for centuries and the sun has warmed buildings in many parts of the world for ...

  1. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  2. A POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR THE 21st CENTURY GRID: Enabling Our Secure Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Future | Department of Energy A POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR THE 21st CENTURY GRID: Enabling Our Secure Energy Future A POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR THE 21st CENTURY GRID: Enabling Our Secure Energy Future This policy framework focuses on the deployment of information and communications technologies in the electricity sector. As they are developed and deployed, these smart grid technologies and applications will bring new capabilities to utilities and their customers. In tandem with the development and

  3. How Synchrophasors are Bringing the Grid into the 21st Century | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Synchrophasors are Bringing the Grid into the 21st Century How Synchrophasors are Bringing the Grid into the 21st Century April 16, 2014 - 12:10pm Addthis Power lines carry electricity across Washington State. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. Power lines carry electricity across Washington State. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. Patricia A. Hoffman Patricia A. Hoffman Assistant Secretary, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability What is a

  4. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  5. Hydrolysis of late-washed, irradiated tetraphenylborate slurry simulants I: Phenylboric acid hydrolysis kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marek, J.C.

    2000-02-10

    The attached report details the kinetics of phenylboric acid reaction at 90 degrees C during precipitate hydrolysis processing of late-washed, irradiated tetraphenylborate slurry simulants.

  6. Late Cenozoic fault kinematics and basin development, Calabrian arc, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knott, S.D.; Turco, E.

    1988-08-01

    Current views for explaining the present structure of the Calabrian arc emphasize bending or buckling of an initially straight zone by rigid indentation. Although bending has played an important role, bending itself cannot explain all structural features now seen in the arc for the following reasons: (1) across-arc extension is inconsistent with buckling, (2) north-south compression predicted by a bending mechanism to occur in the internal part of a curved mountain belt is not present in the Calabrian arc, and (3) lateral shear occurs throughout the arc, not just along the northern and southern boundaries. The model presented here is based on lateral bending of mantle and lower crust (demonstrated by variation in extension in the Tyrrhenian basin) and semibrittle faulting and block rotation in the upper crust. These two styles of deformation are confined to the upper plate of the Calabrian subduction system. This deformation is considered to have been active from the beginning of extension in the Tyrrhenian basin (late Tortonian) and is still active today (based on Holocene seismicity). Block rotations are a consequence of lateral heterogeneous shear during extension. Therefore, some of the observed rotation of paleo-magnetic declinations may have occurred in areas undergoing extension and not just during thrusting. Inversion of sedimentary basins by block rotation is predicted by the model. The model will be a useful aid in interpreting reflection seismic data and exploring and developing offshore and onshore sedimentary basins in southern Italy.

  7. Century-Midas steps slowly into the RV (recreational vehicles) LPG conversion market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kincaid, J.

    1980-02-01

    Midas International will obtain LPG carburetion equipment from Century for installation in up to 20,000 RV. The market for gasoline-powered RV has been depressed since the surge in gasoline prices, and the installation of Century's equipment represents an attempt to attract customers by reducing RV operating costs. According to J. Kincaid (Midas Inst.), propane, besides being cheaper than gasoline, is also cheaper than diesel fuel, despite the better mileage obtained with diesel fuel, because the use of diesel fuel requires the installation of a diesel engine, which is far more expensive than installation of LPG carburetion. Although most of the LPG carburetion manufacturers, with a backlog of orders, did not evince interest in Midas' search for conversion equipment for RV, Century responded, at least partly because Midas also manufactures fleet delivery trucks, which represent a potentially much larger market for LPG conversion and use.

  8. EAC Recommendations on Expanding and Modernizing the Electric Power Delivery System for the 21st Century (September 2014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EAC Recommendations from the September 2014 meeting on Expanding and Modernizing the Electric Power Delivery System for the 21st Century

  9. Smart Grid Week: How the Transition to 21st Century Grid Impacts You |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy How the Transition to 21st Century Grid Impacts You Smart Grid Week: How the Transition to 21st Century Grid Impacts You June 5, 2013 - 2:18pm Addthis Smart meter technology plays a key role in the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon competition. <a href="/node/300517">The Team Tidewater Virginia's smart meter</a>, as seen on opening day, indicates the team generated 5 kW hours of electricity in the first several hours of the competition. |

  10. Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricity Market Design for 21st Century Power Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1stCenturyPower.org Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-57477 October 2013 Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricity Market Design for 21 st Century Power Systems Jaquelin Cochran, Mackay Miller, Michael Milligan, Erik Ela, Douglas Arent, and Aaron Bloom National Renewable Energy Laboratory Matthew Futch IBM Juha Kiviluoma and Hannele Holtinnen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Antje Orths Energinet.dk Emilio Gómez-Lázaro and Sergio Martín-Martínez Universidad

  11. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Greg Goff Chairman, President and CEO "Mitt Romney's energy policy is a relic of the 19th century. We need a 21st century plan. The fate of the planet is at stake." - Bernie Sanders "I believe in natural gas as a clean, cheap alternative to fossil fuels," - Nancy Pelosi

  12. EARLY- AND LATE-TIME OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2008ha: ADDITIONAL CONSTRAINTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We also present late-time imaging and spectroscopy that are consistent with this scenario. Authors: Foley, Ryan J. ; Challis, Peter J. ; Kirshner, Robert P. 1 ; Brown, Peter J. ...

  13. Theoretical physicist Evgeny Epelbaum joined Jefferson Lab late in 2003 as

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the inaugural Nathan Isgur Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellow | Jefferson Lab Theoretical physicist Evgeny Epelbaum joined Jefferson Lab late in 2003 as the inaugural Nathan Isgur Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellow Theoretical physicist Evgeny Epelbaum joined Jefferson Lab late in 2003 as the inaugural Nathan Isgur Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellow. May 12, 2004 The Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab and the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) established the Nathan Isgur

  14. Observed 20th Century Desert Dust Variability: Impact on Climate and Biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahowald, Natalie; Kloster, Silvia; Engelstaedter, S.; Moore, Jefferson Keith; Mukhopadhyay, S.; McConnell, J. R.; Albani, S.; Doney, Scott C.; Bhattacharya, A.; Curran, M. A. J.; Flanner, Mark G.; Hoffman, Forrest M; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Mayewski, P. A.; Neff, Jason; Rothenberg, D.; Thomas, E.; Thornton, Peter E; Zender, Charlie S.

    2010-01-01

    Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be -0.14 {+-} 0.11 W/m{sup 2} (1990-1999 vs. 1905-1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980-1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955-1964 time periods (-0.57 {+-} 0.46 W/m{sup 2}), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding

  15. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  16. Visioning the 21st Century Electricity Industry: Outcomes and Strategies for America

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lauren Azar Senior Advisor to the Secretary U. S. Department of Energy 8 February 2012 Visioning the 21 st Century Electricity Industry: Strategies and Outcomes for America http://teeic.anl.gov/er/transmission/restech/dist/index.cfm We all have "visions," in one form or another: * Corporations call them strategic plans * RTOs ... transmission expansion plans or Order 1000 plans * State PUCs ... integrated resource plans * Employees ... career goals Artist: Paolo Frattesi Artist: Paolo

  17. Hans Bethe and Physics in/of the 20th Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweber, Silvan

    2012-12-12

    I will present some facets of Hans Bethe’s life to illustrate how I have used biography to narrate certain aspects of the history of twentieth century physics. I will focus on post World War II quantum field theory, on the relation between solid state/condensed matter physics and high energy physics, and make some observations regarding certain “top down” views in solid state physics in postmodernity.

  18. FY2016 Budget Request: Positioned for the 21st Century Mission Delivery |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) 6 Budget Request: Positioned for the 21st Century Mission Delivery February 02, 2015 Washington, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Under Secretary for Nuclear Security and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Administrator Lt. Gen. (Ret) Frank Klotz highlighted the strong support for NNSA in President Obama's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Request. Delivered to Congress today, the FY 2016 President's budget request for the NNSA of

  19. Impact of Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions on 21st Century Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page

    2007-08-04

    The impact of light-duty passenger vehicle emissions on global carbon dioxide concentrations was estimated using the MAGICC reduced-form climate model combined with the PNNL contribution to the CCSP scenarios product. Our central estimate is that tailpipe light duty vehicle emissions of carbon-dioxide over the 21st century will increase global carbon dioxide concentrations by slightly over 12 ppmv by 2100.

  20. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  1. 21st Century Truck Partnership Roadmap Roadmap and Technical White Papers - 21CTP-0003, December 2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The 21 st Century Truck Partnership would like to acknowledge the time and resource investment that all our partners have made in developing this roadmap and technical white paper document, and in remaining committed to the goals and objectives outlined herein. We would also like to extend our appreciation to the industry and government teams that produced the individual technical white papers, and the leaders of those teams who are listed below. Engines: Ron Graves (Oak Ridge

  2. OSTIblog Articles in the 21st century Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information 21st century Topic Energy Quadrennial Technology Review Released by Kate Bannan 28 Sep, 2011 in Science Communications "The Department is uniquely situated to serve as a resource for energy and technology data, information, and analysis that can enhance understanding, operation and planning across all organizations... ." - From the Energy Quadrennial Technology Review "...the Department's role as a source of information... is

  3. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AC36-08GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-62611 February 2015 Power Systems of the Future A 21 st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report Owen Zinaman, Mackay Miller, Ali Adil, Douglas Arent, Jaquelin Cochran, and Ravi Vora National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sonia Aggarwal Energy Innovation: Policy and Technology LLC Minnesh Bipath South Africa National Energy Development Institute Carl Linvill Regulatory Assistance Project Ari David Columbia University Business School Richard

  4. AmeriFlux US-LPH Little Prospect Hill

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hadley, Julian [Ecovative Design, LLC

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-LPH Little Prospect Hill. Site Description - The site was cleared for pasture, but not deeply plowed or planted, in the 18th and 19th centuries. Agriculture on the site was abandoned near the end of the 19th century. The forest within 200 to 300 m of the eddy covariance tower to the NW, W, SW, and S burned in an intense fire in 1957, which left few or no surviving trees.

  5. Southwestern piñon forests likely to disappear by end of century

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STEM skills Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Southwestern piñon forests likely to disappear by end of century Conifers throughout much of Northern Hemisphere possibly on similar path February 1, 2016 PBS NewsHour reporter Miles O'Brien (l) and Los Alamos scientist Nate McDowell discuss how climate change is killing trees. PBS NewsHour reporter Miles O'Brien (l) and Los

  6. Models and correlations of the DEBRIS Late-Phase Melt Progression Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, R.C.; Gasser, R.D.

    1997-09-01

    The DEBRIS Late Phase Melt Progression Model is an assembly of models, embodied in a computer code, which is designed to treat late-phase melt progression in dry rubble (or debris) regions that can form as a consequence of a severe core uncover accident in a commercial light water nuclear reactor. The approach is fully two-dimensional, and incorporates a porous medium modeling framework together with conservation and constitutive relationships to simulate the time-dependent evolution of such regions as various physical processes act upon the materials. The objective of the code is to accurately model these processes so that the late-phase melt progression that would occur in different hypothetical severe nuclear reactor accidents can be better understood and characterized. In this report the models and correlations incorporated and used within the current version of DEBRIS are described. These include the global conservation equations solved, heat transfer and fission heating models, melting and refreezing models (including material interactions), liquid and solid relocation models, gas flow and pressure field models, and the temperature and compositionally dependent material properties employed. The specific models described here have been used in the experiment design analysis of the Phebus FPT-4 debris-bed fission-product release experiment. An earlier DEBRIS code version was used to analyze the MP-1 and MP-2 late-phase melt progression experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  7. Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

    2013-03-06

    This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of peoples annual incomes.

  8. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is illustrated

  9. Exploration of cloud computing late start LDRD #149630 : Raincoat. v. 2.1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echeverria, Victor T.; Metral, Michael David; Leger, Michelle A.; Gabert, Kasimir Georg; Edgett, Patrick Garrett; Thai, Tan Q.

    2010-09-01

    This report contains documentation from an interoperability study conducted under the Late Start LDRD 149630, Exploration of Cloud Computing. A small late-start LDRD from last year resulted in a study (Raincoat) on using Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) to enhance security in a hybrid cloud environment. Raincoat initially explored the use of OpenVPN on IPv4 and demonstrates that it is possible to secure the communication channel between two small 'test' clouds (a few nodes each) at New Mexico Tech and Sandia. We extended the Raincoat study to add IPSec support via Vyatta routers, to interface with a public cloud (Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)), and to be significantly more scalable than the previous iteration. The study contributed to our understanding of interoperability in a hybrid cloud.

  10. Enforcement Policy Statement: Treatment of Late-Arriving Goods Due to West

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Treatment of Late-Arriving Goods Due to West Coast Port Closure February 27, 2015 Closures at 29 West Coast marine ports in February 2015 due to a labor dispute have resulted in significant delays for certain goods entering the United States through those ports, including covered products and equipment subject to DOE energy or water conservation standards. Covered products and equipment subject to energy or water conservation standards must meet the standard(s) that are effective on the date

  11. TESTING THE METAL OF LATE-TYPE KEPLER PLANET HOSTS WITH IRON-CLAD METHODS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Hilton, Eric J.; Gaidos, Eric; Kraus, Adam

    2013-06-10

    It has been shown that F, G, and early K dwarf hosts of Neptune-sized planets are not preferentially metal-rich. However, it is less clear whether the same holds for late K and M dwarf planet hosts. We report metallicities of Kepler targets and candidate transiting planet hosts with effective temperatures below 4500 K. We use new metallicity calibrations to determine [Fe/H] from visible and near-infrared spectra. We find that the metallicity distribution of late K and M dwarfs monitored by Kepler is consistent with that of the solar neighborhood. Further, we show that hosts of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets have metallicities consistent with those lacking detected planets and rule out a previously claimed 0.2 dex offset between the two distributions at 6{sigma} confidence. We also demonstrate that the metallicities of late K and M dwarfs hosting multiple detected planets are consistent with those lacking detected planets. Our results indicate that multiple terrestrial and Neptune-sized planets can form around late K and M dwarfs with metallicities as low as 0.25 solar. The presence of Neptune-sized planets orbiting such low-metallicity M dwarfs suggests that accreting planets collect most or all of the solids from the disk and that the potential cores of giant planets can readily form around M dwarfs. The paucity of giant planets around M dwarfs compared to solar-type stars must be due to relatively rapid disk evaporation or a slower rate of planet accretion, rather than insufficient solids to form a core.

  12. On the late-time behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAGGERTY,ROY; MCKENNA,SEAN A.; MEIGS,LUCY C.

    2000-06-12

    The authors investigated the late-time (asymptotic) behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves (BTCs) with rate-limited mass transfer (e.g., in dual or multi-porosity systems) and found that the late-time concentration, c, is given by the simple expression: c = t{sub ad} (c{sub 0}g {minus} m{sub 0}{partial_derivative}g/{partial_derivative}t), for t >> t{sub ad} and t{sub a} >> t{sub ad} where t{sub ad} is the advection time, c{sub 0} is the initial concentration in the medium, m{sub 0} is the 0th moment of the injection pulse; and t{sub a} is the mean residence time in the immobile domain (i.e., the characteristic mass transfer time). The function g is proportional to the residence time distribution in the immobile domain, the authors tabulate g for many geometries, including several distributed (multirate) models of mass transfer. Using this expression they examine the behavior of late-time concentration for a number of mass transfer models. One key results is that if rate-limited mass transfer causes the BTC to behave as a power-law at late-time (i.e., c {approximately} t{sup {minus}k}), then the underlying density function of rate coefficients must also be a power-law with the form a{sup k{minus}}, as a {r_arrow}0. This is true for both density functions of first-order and diffusion rate coefficients. BTCs with k < 3 persisting to the end of the experiment indicate a mean residence time longer than the experiment and possibly infinite, and also suggest an effective rate coefficient that is either undefined or changes as a function of observation time. They apply their analysis to breakthrough curves from Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico.

  13. Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm From Late Type II Endoleak Treated by Transarterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunasekaran, Senthil; Funaki, Brian Lorenz, Jonathan

    2013-02-15

    Endoleak is the most common complication after endovascular aneurysm repair. The most common type of endoleak, a type II endoleak, typically follows a benign course and is only treated when associated with increasing aneurysm size. In this case report, we describe a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm due to a late, type II endoleak occurring 10 years after endovascular aneurysm repair that was successfully treated by transarterial embolization.

  14. Confirmation of a late Oligocene-early Miocene age of the Deseadan Salla Beds of Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naeser, C.W.; McKee, E.H.; Johnson, N.M.; MacFadden, B.J.

    1987-11-01

    Three new fission-track (zircon) and four new K-Ar (biotite) dates corroborate a late Oligocene-early Miocene age (22-28 Ma) for the Salla Beds of Bolivia. These ages contrast markedly with the previously accepted age of about 35 Ma for these strata and their contained faunas, and recasts of order and chronology of interchange between New World and Old World mammals.

  15. Late Cenozoic paleomagnetism and chronology of Andean basins of Bolivia: Evidence for possible oroclinal bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacFadden, B.J. ); Anaya, F.; Perez, H. ); Naeser, C.W. ); Zeitler, P.K. ); Campbell, K.E. Jr. )

    1990-07-01

    New paleomagnetic and radioisotopic data are reported from two late Tertiary high-elevation, non-marine basins in the eastern Cordillera of Bolivia. (1) Quebrada Honda, located at 22{degree}S lat., consists of a 300 m thick section containing abundant Santacrucian or Friasian (middle Miocene) fossil mammals. This locality is constrained by mean {sup 40}K/{sup 40}Ar ages of 12.83 {plus minus} 0.11 Ma and 11.96 {plus minus} 0.11 Ma, and the local magnetostratigraphy is correlated to chrons C5AA through C5A on the Magnetic Polarity Time Scale (MPTS). The fossil mammals from Quebrada Honda have an extrapolated age of about 13.0 to 12.7 Ma. (2) Micana, located at 17{degree}S lat., consists of a 205 m thick section containing late Miocene fossil mammals, including a megatheriid sloth and the tiny mesothere Microtypotherium cf. M. choquecotense. The locality is constrained by a fission-track age determination of 6.9 {plus minus} 1.1 Ma, and the local magnetostratigraphy is correlated to Chron 7 on the MPTS. The fossil mammals from this section have an extrapolated age of about 7.3 to 7.4 Ma. In conjunction with two other published data sets (Ocros, 13{degree}S, and Salla, 17{degree}S), these late Tertiary Andean localities indicate counterclockwise rotation at 13{degree}S, negligible rotation at 17{degree}S, and clockwise rotation at 22{degree}S. These data could represent local small-block rotations on a scale greater than about 6 km{sup 2}. However, these data are also consistent with a model of late Neogene bending of the Bolivian Orocline.

  16. The origin of the plateau and late rebrightening in the afterglow of GRB 120326A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, S. J.; Lu, J. F.; Geng, J. J.; Wang, K.; Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G.; Wu, X. F.

    2014-04-20

    GRB 120326A is an unusual gamma-ray burst (GRB) that has a long plateau and a very late rebrightening in both X-ray and optical bands. The similar behavior of the optical and X-ray light curves suggests that they may share a common origin. The long plateau starts at several hundred seconds and ends at tens of thousands of seconds, and the peak time of the late rebrightening is about 30,000 s. We analyze the energy injection model by means of numerical and analytical solutions, considering both the wind environment and the interstellar medium environment for GRB afterglows. We particularly study the influence of the injection starting time, ending time, stellar wind density (or density of the circumburst environment), and injection luminosity on the shape of the afterglow light curves, respectively. In the wind model, we find that the light curve is largely affected by the parameters and that there is a 'bump' in the late stage. In the wind environment, we found that the longer the energy is injected, the more obvious the rebrightening will be. We also find that the peak time of the bump is determined by the stellar wind density. We use the late continuous injection model to interpret the unusual afterglow of GRB 120326A. The model fits the observational data well; however, we find that the timescale of the injection must be higher than 10,000 s, which implies that the timescale of the central engine activity must also be more than 10,000 s. This information can give useful constraints on the central engines of GRBswe consider a newborn millisecond pulsar with a strong magnetic field to be the central engine. On the other hand, our results suggest that the circumburst environment of GRB 120326A is very likely a stellar wind.

  17. Structure and geologic history of late Cenozoic Eel River basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, S.H. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    The Eel River basin formed as a late Cenozoic forearc basin floored by late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic allochthonous terranes (central and coastal belts of the Franciscan complex). Regionally, basement rocks are unconformably overlain on land by a sedimentary sequence as much as about 4200 m thick that comprises the Bear River Formation (early and middle Miocene) and the Wildcat Group (late Miocene to middle Pleistocene) and offshore by broadly coeval upper Tertiary and Quaternary deposits as much as 3300 m thick. Offshore, the southern part of the basin is typified by the seaward extensions of youthful northeast-dipping thrust and reverse faults and northwest-trending anticlines. The latest period of deformation in this part of the basin began during the middle Pleistocene and probably reflects north-northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction and encroachment of the Pacific plate. Farther north, the western basin margin and adjacent upper continental slope are separated from the axial part of the offshore basin by a narrow zone of north-northwest-trending, right-stepping en echelon folds. These folds indicate that northeast-southwest compression characteristic of the southern part of the basin is accompanied toward the north by right-lateral shear between the accretionary complex to the west and the basin to the east. The northeastern margin of the offshore basin is cut by north to north-northwest-trending high-angle reverse faults that vertically offset basement rocks as much as 1300 m, west side down. These faults, which may merge northward, coincide with older terrane boundaries and locally show evidence of late Cenozoic reactivation with possible right-lateral slip.

  18. Late Permian to mid-Cretaceous carbonate platform along the passive margin of the southeastern Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derin, B.; Garfunkel, Z.

    1988-08-01

    Starting from the Late Permian and throughout most of the Mesozoic, up to 5 km of shallow-water carbonates formed in a subsiding belt along the northern fringe of the Arabo-African continent, passing inland into thinner and clastic-rich sections. This sedimentation pattern was established in the Late Permian and evolved in several distinct stages that depended on global oscillations of sea level and local tectonic events. In Middle Triassic to early Liassic times, several pulses of faulting and magmatism, interpreted as rifting, occurred along the subsiding belt of carbonate deposition and produced a passive continental margin. Tectonic activity ended by the Roarcian, and since then a rather uniform shallow-water carbonate shelf formed. It was delimited by shoals of high-energy sediments and fringing reefs, inland of which low-energy carbonate muds and sometimes dolomite accumulated. By the Late Jurassic a more than 1.5 km-high continental slope developed, separating the shallow-water domain from a starved deep-water basin. In latest Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous time the activity of an intraplate hot spot caused extensive magmatism, uplifting, and erosion. The eroded material formed a thick sediment body in front of the continental slope. Since late Valanginian time, renewed regional subsidence and a rise in sea level led to a new phase of carbonate deposition over a wide shallow-water shelf. This was fringed by an accentuated continental slope covered by a basinward-thinning wedge-shaped apron of calciclastic sediments. This region was terminated by Senonian and later deformation related to plate collision in the Alpine orogenic belt.

  19. Clues to the nature of SN 2009ip from photometric and spectroscopic evolution to late times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, M. L. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sand, D. J. [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; Parrent, J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Halford, M.; Zaritsky, D. [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bianco, F. [Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dilday, B., E-mail: melissagraham@berkeley.edu [North Idaho College, 1000 W. Garden Avenue, Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present time series photometric and spectroscopic data for the transient SN 2009ip from the start of its outburst in 2012 September until 2013 November. These data were collected primarily with the new robotic capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, a specialized facility for time domain astrophysics, and includes supporting high-resolution spectroscopy from the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Gemini Observatory. Based on our nightly photometric monitoring, we interpret the strength and timing of fluctuations in the light curve as interactions between fast-moving ejecta and an inhomogeneous circumstellar material (CSM) produced by past eruptions of this massive luminous blue variable (LBV) star. Our time series of spectroscopy in 2012 reveals that, as the continuum and narrow H? flux from CSM interactions declines, the broad component of H? persists with supernova (SN)-like velocities that are not typically seen in LBVs or SN impostor events. At late times, we find that SN 2009ip continues to decline slowly, at ? 0.01 mag day{sup 1}, with small fluctuations in slope similar to Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) or SN impostors but no further LBV-like activity. The late-time spectrum features broad calcium lines similar to both late-time SNe and SN impostors. In general, we find that the photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2009ip is more similar to SNe IIn than either continued eruptions of an LBV star or SN impostors but we cannot rule out a nonterminal explosion. In this context, we discuss the implications for episodic mass loss during the late stages of massive star evolution.

  20. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: 2003 Annual Technical Status Report DOE/AL68284-TSR03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lembit Salasoo

    2004-01-09

    The 21st Century Locomotive program objective is to develop 25% more efficient freight locomotives by 2010. Diesel engine-related research addresses advanced fuel injection, electric turbocharger and abradable seals. Assembly of a common rail fuel injection test system is underway, and a CFD combustion model has been validated. An electrically assisted turbocharger has been constructed and operated, meeting the generator mode design rating. System characterization and optimization is ongoing. Candidate abradable seal materials have been identified and test coupons prepared. Locomotive system-related research addresses capturing, storing and utilizing regenerative braking energy in a hybrid locomotive, and fuel optimization control. Hybrid locomotive energy storage requirements have been identified and studies on specific energy storage solutions are in progress. Energy management controls have been defined and testing initiated. Train and track parameter identification necessary for fuel optimization has been demonstrated.

  1. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing switches modulate gene expression in late erythropoiesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Miki L.; Clark, Tyson A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Kang, Jeong-Ah; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Wickrema, Amittha; Conboy, John G.

    2009-02-03

    Differentiating erythroid cells execute a unique gene expression program that insures synthesis of the appropriate proteome at each stage of maturation. Standard expression microarrays provide important insight into erythroid gene expression but cannot detect qualitative changes in transcript structure, mediated by RNA processing, that alter structure and function of encoded proteins. We analyzed stage-specific changes in the late erythroid transcriptome via use of high-resolution microarrays that detect altered expression of individual exons. Ten differentiation-associated changes in erythroblast splicing patterns were identified, including the previously known activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 splicing. Six new alternative splicing switches involving enhanced inclusion of internal cassette exons were discovered, as well as 3 changes in use of alternative first exons. All of these erythroid stage-specific splicing events represent activated inclusion of authentic annotated exons, suggesting they represent an active regulatory process rather than a general loss of splicing fidelity. The observation that 3 of the regulated transcripts encode RNA binding proteins (SNRP70, HNRPLL, MBNL2) may indicate significant changes in the RNA processing machinery of late erythroblasts. Together, these results support the existence of a regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing program that is critical for late erythroid differentiation.

  2. Modeling Study of the Effect of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Late Spring Drought in South China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Ning; Liu, Xiaohong

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the mechanisms underlying the decadal variability of late spring precipitation in south China are investigated using the latest version 1 of Community Earth System Model (CESM1). We aim to unravel the effects of different climate forcing agents, such as aerosols and greenhouse gases (GHGs), on the decadal variation of precipitation with transient experiments from pre-industry (for year 1850) to present-day (for year 2000). Our results reveal that: (1) CESM1 can reproduce the climatological features of atmospheric circulation and precipitation for the late spring in south China; (2) Only simulations including the forcing of anthropogenic aerosols can reproduce the observed decreasing trend of late spring precipitation from 1950-2000 in south China; (3) Aerosols affect the decadal change of precipitation mainly by altering the large scale atmospheric circulation, and to a less extent by increasing the lower-tropospheric stability to inhibit the convective precipitation; and (4) In comparison, other climate forcing agents, such as GHGs, have much smaller effects on the decadal change of spring precipitation in south China. Key words: precipitation, aerosols, climate change, south China, Community Earth System Model

  3. A paleoclimatic simulation of the Late Permian greenhouse world and its consequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, G.T.; Jacobson, S.R.; Hayashida, D.N. )

    1991-03-01

    Sea-floor spreading assembled all the major cratonic blocks into a single supercontinent once in the Phanerozoic Eon. This unique Late Permian crustal tectonic event produced Pangaea and an enormous oceanic basin volume that dropped sea level to a global lowstand unrivaled in the Phanerozoic. Two paleoclimatic simulations using a numerical three-dimensional general circulation model tested changes in the greenhouse effect. The authors conclude that for a simulation to fit the Late Permian geologic record, the paleoatmosphere must contain an enhanced greenhouse gas effect. A third simulation tested changes of paleogeography in southern Pangaea (Gondwana) that did not appreciably alter the harsh continental paleoclimate. The simulated paleoclimatic changes provide extraordinarily warm ocean and atmosphere, and a significant reduction in continental rainfall and runoff. These conditions inevitably lead to more aridity and less vegetation on land, gradually reduce the delivery of vital nutrients from continental sources to marine margins, systematically liberate CO{sub 2} dissolved in ocean water, and incrementally increase stress on marine and terrestrial biotas. These consequences severely disrupted rates of oxygen and carbon cycling. Their quantitative paleoclimatic simulation is consistent with distributions of red beds, evaporites, coals, marine shelf areas, seawater isotope trends, and paleontologic originations and extinctions. Thus, the Pangaean plate assembly probably triggered an inexorable sequence of geophysical, geochemical, and biological events that forced an elevated greenhouse effect in the Late Permian, nearly annihilating the Phanerozoic biota.

  4. Eolian evidence for climatic fluctuations during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaylord, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of eolian features, particularly sand dunes, in the Ferris-Lost Solider area of south-central Wyoming demonstrates the dynamic character of late Pleistocene and Holocene climatic fluctuations in a high altitude, intermontane basin. Directly- and indirectly-dated stratigraphic, sedimentary, and geomorphic evidence documents recurrent late Quaternary eolian activity as well as the timing and severity of episodic aridity during the Altithermal. Eolian activity in the Ferris-Lost Solider area began under cool and arid conditions by the late Pleistocene. Radiocarbon-dated dune and interdune strata reveal that Holocene sand dune building at Ferris-Lost Solider peaked between ca. 7660 and 4540 years b.p. The first phase of dune building was the most extensive and lasted until ca. 6460 years b.p. Warm, persistently arid conditions during this time favored active dunes with slipfaces, even in historically well-vegetated locales subject to high water tables. Increased effective moisture from ca. 6460 to 5940 years b.p. promoted dune stabilizing vegetation; but renewed dune building, lasting until ca. 4540 years b.p., followed this climatic moderation. Subsequent dune and interdune deposits reveal a return to climatic conditions where only sporadic and localized dune reactivations have interrupted overall dune stability. The most significant recent reactivation, probably associated with a regional decrease in effective moisture, occurred ca. 290 years b.p.

  5. The late endosome/lysosome-anchored p18-mTORC1 pathway controls terminal maturation of lysosomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Nada, Shigeyuki; Mori, Shunsuke; Soma-Nagae, Taeko; Oneyama, Chitose; Okada, Masato

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p18 is a membrane adaptor that anchors mTORC1 to late endosomes/lysosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the role of the p18-mTORC1 pathway in lysosome biogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss of p18 causes accumulation of intact late endosomes by arresting lysosome maturation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mTORC1 activity with rapamycin phenocopies the defects of p18 loss. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The p18-mTORC1 pathway plays crucial roles in the terminal maturation of lysosomes. -- Abstract: The late endosome/lysosome membrane adaptor p18 (or LAMTOR1) serves as an anchor for the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and is required for its activation on lysosomes. The loss of p18 causes severe defects in cell growth as well as endosome dynamics, including membrane protein transport and lysosome biogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects on lysosome biogenesis remain unknown. Here, we show that the p18-mTORC1 pathway is crucial for terminal maturation of lysosomes. The loss of p18 causes aberrant intracellular distribution and abnormal sizes of late endosomes/lysosomes and an accumulation of late endosome specific components, including Rab7, RagC, and LAMP1; this suggests that intact late endosomes accumulate in the absence of p18. These defects are phenocopied by inhibiting mTORC1 activity with rapamycin. Loss of p18 also suppresses the integration of late endosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the defective degradation of tracer proteins. These results suggest that the p18-mTORC1 pathway plays crucial roles in the late stages of lysosomal maturation, potentially in late endosome-lysosome fusion, which is required for processing of various macromolecules.

  6. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Geet, O.

    2010-04-01

    As a Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) partner, NREL set aggressive goals for energy savings, daylighting, and achieving a LEED Gold rating (through the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program) for its S&TF building.

  7. 20th Century Reanalysis Project Ensemble Gateway: 56 Estimates of World Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, and Wind, 1871-2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    This site provides data from the 20th Century Reanalysis Project, offering temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind predictions in 200 km sections all around the earth from 1871 to 2010, every 6 hours, based on historical data. The ensemble mean and standard deviation for each value were calculated over a set of 56 simulations. Data for each of the 56 ensemble members are included here. The dataset consists of files in netCDF 4 format that are available for download from the National Energy Research. The goal of the 20th Century Reanalysis Project is to use a Kalman filter-based technique to produce a global trophospheric circulation dataset at four-times-daily resolution back to 1871. The only dataset available for the early 20th century consists of error-ridden hand-drawn analyses of the mean sea level pressure field over the Northern Hemisphere. Modern data assimilation systems have the potential to improve upon these maps, but prior to 1948, few digitized upper-air sounding observations are available for such a reanalysis. The global tropospheric circulation dataset will provide an important validation check on the climate models used to make 21st century climate projections....[copied from http://portal.nersc.gov/project/20C_Reanalysis/

  8. Late Mesozoic crustal extension and rifting on the western edge of the Parana Basin, Paraguay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGraff, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Geophysical and geological evidence indicates that the western edge of the Parana basin in Paraguay was a site of NE-SW directed crustal extension during late Mesozoic time. Major zones of normal faulting in south-eastern Paraguay trend northwesterly on average, and mafic dikes of probable late Mesozoic age have similar orientations. At least two NW-trending zones of tectonic subsidence, each over 200 km long, are now recognized in eastern Paraguay. Most alkalic rocks of south-eastern Paraguay are concentrated along this rift, and occur as simple to composite stocks and ring complexes composed of rocks ranging from foid-syenite to essexite. NW-trending, lamprophyric to phonolitic dikes are associated with some alkalic complexes. The southern zone, located about 125 km southwest, is a composite tectonic basin about 60 km wide and nearly devoid of alkalic rocks. The timing of crustal extension and rifting in eastern Paraguay is largely based on isotopic ages of associated alkalic rocks, which cluster between 150 and 100 Ma (latest Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous). Geologic evidence for the age of faulting and subsidence is consistent with this age range; tectonic depressions were being filled in late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic time. The age range of alkalic rocks in Paraguay contain that of the Serra Geral basalts and spans the time when South America Separated from Africa. This suggests that alkalic activity and crustal extension in eastern Paraguay are grossly related to the Serra Geral extrusive event, and were a manifestation of the breakup of South America and Africa far from the site of final separation.

  9. Growth in global oil inventories slows, drawdown in stocks expected in late 2017

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Growth in global oil inventories slows, drawdown in stocks expected in late 2017 The growth in global oil inventories is expected to slow in response to stronger growth in world oil demand, with inventories now expected to be drawn down during the second half of next year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said oil inventories will grow by just under 1 million barrels per day this year. Inventories will continue to grow during the first half of 2017 though

  10. SOLAR CYCLE PROPAGATION, MEMORY, AND PREDICTION: INSIGHTS FROM A CENTURY OF MAGNETIC PROXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; DeLuca, Edward E.; Dasi-Espuig, Maria; Balmaceda, Laura A. E-mail: edeluca@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: lbalmaceda@icate-conicet.gob.ar

    2013-04-20

    The solar cycle and its associated magnetic activity are the main drivers behind changes in the interplanetary environment and Earth's upper atmosphere (commonly referred to as space weather). These changes have a direct impact on the lifetime of space-based assets and can create hazards to astronauts in space. In recent years there has been an effort to develop accurate solar cycle predictions (with aims at predicting the long-term evolution of space weather), leading to nearly a hundred widely spread predictions for the amplitude of solar cycle 24. A major contributor to the disagreement is the lack of direct long-term databases covering different components of the solar magnetic field (toroidal versus poloidal). Here, we use sunspot area and polar faculae measurements spanning a full century (as our toroidal and poloidal field proxies) to study solar cycle propagation, memory, and prediction. Our results substantiate predictions based on the polar magnetic fields, whereas we find sunspot area to be uncorrelated with cycle amplitude unless multiplied by area-weighted average tilt. This suggests that the joint assimilation of tilt and sunspot area is a better choice (with aims to cycle prediction) than sunspot area alone, and adds to the evidence in favor of active region emergence and decay as the main mechanism of poloidal field generation (i.e., the Babcock-Leighton mechanism). Finally, by looking at the correlation between our poloidal and toroidal proxies across multiple cycles, we find solar cycle memory to be limited to only one cycle.

  11. Recognizing 21. century citizenship: 1997 federal energy and water management award winners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Energy is a luxury that no one can afford to waste, and many Federal government agencies are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of using energy wisely. Thoughtful use of energy resources is important, not only to meet agency goals, but because energy efficiency helps improve air quality. Sound facility management offers huge savings that affect the agency`s bottom line, the environment, and workplace quality. Hard work, innovation, and vision are characteristic of those who pursue energy efficiency. That is why the Department of Energy, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is proud to salute the winners of the 1997 Federal Energy and Water Management Award. The 1997 winners represent the kind of 21st century thinking that will help achieve widespread Federal energy efficiency. In one year, the winners, through a combination of public and private partnerships, saved more than $100 million and 9.8 trillion Btu by actively identifying and implementing energy efficiency, water conservation, and renewable energy projects. The contributions of these individuals, small groups, and organizations are presented in this report.

  12. Intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on the projection of precipitation extremes has either focused on conceptual physical mechanisms that generate heavy precipitation or rigorous statistical methods that extrapolate tail behavior. However, informing both climate prediction and impact assessment requires concurrent physically and statistically oriented analysis. A combined examination of climate model simulations and observation-based reanalysis data sets suggests more intense and frequent precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios. Utilization of statistical extreme value theory and resampling-based uncertainty quantification combined with consideration of the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship reveals consistently intensifying trends for precipitation extremes at a global-average scale. However, regional and decadal analyses reveal specific discrepancies in the physical mechanisms governing precipitation extremes, as well as their statistical trends, especially in the tropics. The intensifying trend of precipitation extremes has quantifiable impacts on intensity-duration-frequency curves, which in turn have direct implications for hydraulic engineering design and water-resources management. The larger uncertainties at regional and decadal scales suggest the need for caution during regional-scale adaptation or preparedness decisions. Future research needs to explore the possibility of uncertainty reduction through higher resolution global climate models, statistical or dynamical downscaling, as well as improved understanding of precipitation extremes processes.

  13. Dynamic EROI Assessment of the IPCC 21st Century Electricity Production Scenario

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Neumeyer, Charles; Goldston, Robert

    2016-04-28

    Abstract: The Energy Return on Investment (EROI) is an important measure of the energy gain of an electrical power generating facility that is typically evaluated based on the life cycle energy balance of a single facility. The EROI concept can be extended to cover a collection of facilities that comprise a complete power system and used to assess the expansion and evolution of a power system as it transitions from one portfolio mix of technologies to another over time. In this study we develop a dynamic EROI model that simulates the evolution of a power system and we perform anmore » EROI simulation of one of the electricity production scenarios developed under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) covering the global supply of electricity in the 21st century. Our analytic tool provides the means for evaluation of dynamic EROI based on arbitrary time-dependent demand scenarios by modeling the required expansion of power generation, including the plowback needed for new construction and to replace facilities as they are retired. The results provide insight into the level of installed and delivered power, above and beyond basic consumer demand, that is required to support construction during expansion, as well as the supplementary power that may be required if plowback constraints are imposed. In addition, sensitivity to EROI parameters, and the impact of energy storage efficiency are addressed.« less

  14. IDENTIFYING NEARBY, YOUNG, LATE-TYPE STARS BY MEANS OF THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Adam; Song, Inseok; Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Bessell, Mike E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-10-01

    It has recently been shown that a significant fraction of late-type members of nearby, very young associations (age {approx}<10 Myr) display excess emission at mid-IR wavelengths indicative of dusty circumstellar disks. We demonstrate that the detection of mid-IR excess emission can be utilized to identify new nearby, young, late-type stars including two definite new members ('TWA 33' and 'TWA 34') of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA). Both new TWA members display mid-IR excess emission in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer catalog and they show proper motion and youthful spectroscopic characteristics-namely, H{alpha} emission, strong lithium absorption, and low surface gravity features consistent with known TWA members. We also detect mid-IR excess-the first unambiguous evidence of a dusty circumstellar disk-around a previously identified UV-bright, young, accreting star (2M1337) that is a likely member of the Lower-Centaurus Crux region of the Scorpius-Centaurus Complex.

  15. LATE-TIME OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 080319B: JET BREAK, HOST GALAXY, AND ACCOMPANYING SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanvir, N. R.; O'Brien, P. T.; Wiersema, K.; Starling, R. L. C.; Rol, E.; Levan, A. J.; Svensson, K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Granot, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Fynbo, J.; Hjorth, J.; Curran, P. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Genet, F.

    2010-12-10

    The Swift-discovered GRB 080319B was by far the most distant source ever observed at naked-eye brightness, reaching a peak apparent magnitude of 5.3 at a redshift of z = 0.937. We present our late-time optical (Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini, and Very Large Telescope) and X-ray (Chandra) observations, which confirm that an achromatic break occurred in the power-law afterglow light curve at {approx}11 days post-burst. This most likely indicates that the gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflow was collimated, which for a uniform jet would imply a total energy in the jet E{sub jet} {approx}> 10{sup 52} erg. Our observations also show a late-time excess of red light, which is well explained if the GRB was accompanied by a supernova (SN), similar to those seen in some other long-duration GRBs. The latest observations are dominated by light from the host and show that the GRB took place in a faint dwarf galaxy (r(AB) {approx} 27.0, rest frame M{sub B} {approx} -17.2). This galaxy is small even by the standards of other GRB hosts, which is suggestive of a low-metallicity environment. Intriguingly, the properties of this extreme event-a small host and bright SN-are entirely typical of the very low luminosity bursts such as GRB 980425 and GRB 060218.

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Harper, F.T.; Hora, S.C.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  17. Lung Irradiation Increases Mortality After Influenza A Virus Challenge Occurring Late After Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, Casey M.; Johnston, Carl J.; Reed, Christina K.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Finkelstein, Jacob N.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To address whether irradiation-induced changes in the lung environment alter responses to a viral challenge delivered late after exposure but before the appearance of late lung radiation injury. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice received either lung alone or combined lung and whole-body irradiation (0-15 Gy). At 10 weeks after irradiation, animals were infected with 120 HAU influenza virus strain A/HKx31. Innate and adaptive immune cell recruitment was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine and chemokine production and protein leakage into the lung after infection were assessed. Results: Prior irradiation led to a dose-dependent failure to regain body weight after infection and exacerbated mortality, but it did not affect virus-specific immune responses or virus clearance. Surviving irradiated animals displayed a persistent increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and edema. Conclusions: Lung irradiation increased susceptibility to death after infection with influenza virus and impaired the ability to complete recovery. This altered response does not seem to be due to a radiation effect on the immune response, but it may possibly be an effect on epithelial repair.

  18. Upper Permian fluviolacustrine deposits of southern Africa and the late Permian climate southern Gondwana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yemane, K. . Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Upper Permian-age fluviolacustrine deposits are widespread throughout southern Africa. In the southern part of the subcontinent, where deposition took place in foreland basin settings, the sequences are thicker and fluvial-dominated whereas, lacustrine-dominated deposits accumulated in settings of low relief, broad warping and mild faulting at the northern end. The geographic extent and lateral correlatability of these deposits suggest the existence of concurrent, perhaps interconnected, giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks throughout the subcontinent, thousands of miles inland from the sea. This period of major lake development within fluvial depositional settings suggests climatic conditions that sustained a uniquely wet continental environment, deep in the heart of the Gondwanan supercontinent. Simulations based on various general circulation and energy balance climate models predict extreme seasonal temperatures and aridity for Gondwana at the palaeolatitudes of southern Africa during the Late Permian. On the other hand, distribution of climate-sensitive rocks, palynologic and palaeobotanic data and vertebrate fossils, coroborate the temperature climate documented by sedimentologic studies. The erroneous modeling results may have arisen from the fact that the models do not employ palaeogeographies that accommodate the existence of the vast lakes and rivers of Gondwana. The Late Permian palaeogeography of series of giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks would have had considerable influences on the regional climate. This suggests that it is imperative that numerical modeling studies incorporate accurate palaeogeographies, constructed based on available geological data, in order to recreate past climates with acceptable degree of accuracy.

  19. Stratigraphic evidence for late Quaternary dune activity near Hudson on the Piedmont of northern Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forman, S.L.; Maat, P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Stabilized dune fields are common features near Hudson, on the Piedmont of northern Colorado. Exposures in dune and interdune sites expose a sequence of eolian sediments and paleosols that record a complex history of eolian activity during the late Quaternary. Radiocarbon and thermoluminescence age estimates on A horizons buried by eolian sand indicate that dunes were reactivated sometime between 7 and 9 ka. On the basis of morphology of surface soils, the dunes were most recently stabilized <3 ka. At present that are no data to indicate if there were multiple periods of dune movement and stabilization during the Holocene. The penultimate pre-Holocene dune-forming episode probably terminated ca. 13 ka and may be coincident with the Pinedale glaciation. The stratigraphy at interdune sites shows at least two eolian depositional events prior to the penultimate event; they were separated by periods of pedogenesis, one of which may have exceeded 40 ka. This analysis indicates that dunes in northern Colorado were active during both cold-arid and warn-arid periods in the late Quaternary.

  20. Proxy late Holocene climatic record deduced from northwest Alaska beach ridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, O.K.; Jordan, J.W.

    1992-03-01

    A climatically sensitive, oscillatory pattern of progradation and erosion is revealed in late Holocene accretionary sand ridge and barrier island complexes of Seward Peninsula, northwest Alaska. Archaeological and geological radiocarbon dates constrain the chronology for the Cape Espenberg beach ridge plain and the Shishmaref barrier islands, 50 km to the southwest. Cape Espenberg, the depositional sink for the northeastward longshore transport system, contains the oldest sedimentary deposits: 3700 +/- 90 B.P. (B-23170) old grass from a paleosol in a low dune. The oldest date on the Shishmaref barrier islands is 1550 +/- 70 B.P. (B-23183) and implies that the modern barrier is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Late Holocene sedimentation along the Seward Peninsula varied between intervals of rapid progradation and erosion. Rapid progradation predominated from 4000-3300 B.P. and from 2000-1200 B.P., with the generation of low beach ridges without dunes, separated by wide swales. During erosional periods higher dunes built atop beach ridges: as between 3300-2000 B.P. and intermittently from 1000 B.P. to the present. Dune formation correlates with the Neoglacial and Little Ice Age glacial advances and increased alluviation in northern and central Alaska, while rapid progradation is contemporaneous with warmer intervals of soil and/or, peat formation atop alluvial terraces, dated to 4000-3500 and 2000-1000 B.P.

  1. Hypopharyngeal Dose Is Associated With Severe Late Toxicity in Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer: An RTOG Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machtay, Mitchell; Moughan, Jennifer; Farach, Andrew; University of Texas Health Science Center Martin-O'Meara, Elizabeth; Galvin, James; Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Garden, Adam S.; Weber, Randal S.; Cooper, Jay S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) increases local tumor control but at the expense of increased toxicity. We recently showed that several clinical/pretreatment factors were associated with the occurrence of severe late toxicity. This study evaluated the potential relationship between radiation dose delivered to the pharyngeal wall and toxicity. Methods and Materials: This was an analysis of long-term survivors from 3 previously reported Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials of CCRT for locally advanced SCCHN (RTOG trials 91-11, 97-03, and 99-14). Severe late toxicity was defined in this secondary analysis as chronic grade 3-4 pharyngeal/laryngeal toxicity and/or requirement for a feeding tube {>=}2 years after registration and/or potential treatment-related death (eg, pneumonia) within 3 years. Radiation dosimetry (2-dimensional) analysis was performed centrally at RTOG headquarters to estimate doses to 4 regions of interest along the pharyngeal wall (superior oropharynx, inferior oropharynx, superior hypopharynx, and inferior hypopharynx). Case-control analysis was performed with a multivariate logistic regression model that included pretreatment and treatment potential factors. Results: A total of 154 patients were evaluable for this analysis, 71 cases (patients with severe late toxicities) and 83 controls; thus, 46% of evaluable patients had a severe late toxicity. On multivariate analysis, significant variables correlated with the development of severe late toxicity, including older age (odds ratio, 1.062 per year; P=.0021) and radiation dose received by the inferior hypopharynx (odds ratio, 1.023 per Gy; P=.016). The subgroup of patients receiving {<=}60 Gy to the inferior hypopharynx had a 40% rate of severe late toxicity compared with 56% for patients receiving >60 Gy. Oropharyngeal dose was not associated with this outcome. Conclusions: Severe late toxicity following CCRT is

  2. Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-10-21

    Ongoing, centennial-scale flow variability within the Ross ice streams of West Antarctica suggests that the present-day positive mass balance in this region may reverse in the future. Here we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model to simulate ice flow in this region over 250 years. The flow responds to changing basal properties, as a subglacial till layer interacts with water transported in an active subglacial hydrological system. We show that a persistent weak bed beneath the tributaries of the dormant Kamb Ice Stream is a source of internal ice flow instability, which reorganizes all ice streams in this region, leading to a reduced (positive) mass balance within decades and a net loss of ice within two centuries. This hitherto unaccounted for flow variability could raise sea level by 5 mm this century. Furthermore, better constraints on future sea level change from this region will require improved estimates of geothermal heat flux and subglacial water transport.

  3. Disrupting the (Energy) Status Quo: ARPA-E Helping the U.S. Face 21st Century Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The United States faces extraordinary challenges in the 21st century, from creating jobs to protecting the environment and reducing our energy dependency, but with strategic and smart investment we can create game-changing new technologies that overcome these challenges. The question is, will the U.S. make the choices necessary to “win the future?” Dr. Arun Majumdar -- the director of our advanced research agency, ARPA-E -- believes we can and should.

  4. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-10-26

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

  5. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  6. Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-02-01

    Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

  7. Climate mitigation’s impact on global and regional electric power sector water use in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan

    2013-08-05

    Over the course of this coming century, global electricity use is expected to grow at least five fold and if stringent greenhouse gas emissions controls are in place the growth could be more than seven fold from current levels. Given that the electric power sector represents the second largest anthropogenic use of water and given growing concerns about the nature and extent of future water scarcity driven by population growth and a changing climate, significant concern has been expressed about the electricity sector’s use of water going forward. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that an often overlooked but absolutely critical issue that needs to be taken into account in discussions about the sustainability of the electric sector’s water use going forward is the tremendous turn over in electricity capital stock that will occur over the course of this century; i.e., in the scenarios examined here more than 80% of global electricity production in the year 2050 is from facilities that have not yet been built. The authors show that because of the large scale changes in the global electricity system, the water withdrawal intensity of electricity production is likely to drop precipitously with the result being relatively constant water withdrawals over the course of the century even in the face of the large growth in electricity usage. The ability to cost effectively reduce the water intensity of power plants with carbon dioxide capture and storage systems in particular is key to constraining overall global water use.

  8. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN THE EJECTA OF OLD CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM LATE-EPOCH SPITZER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Vacca, William D.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles E.; Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Wagner, R. Mark; Evans, Aneurin; Krautter, Joachim; Schwarz, Greg J.; Starrfield, Sumner

    2012-08-10

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared IRS spectra, supplemented by ground-based optical observations, of the classical novae V1974 Cyg, V382 Vel, and V1494 Aql more than 11, 8, and 4 years after outburst, respectively. The spectra are dominated by forbidden emission from neon and oxygen, though in some cases, there are weak signatures of magnesium, sulfur, and argon. We investigate the geometry and distribution of the late time ejecta by examination of the emission line profiles. Using nebular analysis in the low-density regime, we estimate lower limits on the abundances in these novae. In V1974 Cyg and V382 Vel, our observations confirm the abundance estimates presented by other authors and support the claims that these eruptions occurred on ONe white dwarfs (WDs). We report the first detection of neon emission in V1494 Aql and show that the system most likely contains a CO WD.

  9. Late-time structure of the Bunch-Davies de Sitter wavefunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Konstantinidis, George

    2015-11-30

    We examine the late time behavior of the Bunch-Davies wavefunction for interacting light fields in a de Sitter background. We use perturbative techniques developed in the framework of AdS/CFT, and analytically continue to compute tree and loop level contributions to the Bunch-Davies wavefunction. We consider self-interacting scalars of general mass, but focus especially on the massless and conformally coupled cases. We show that certain contributions grow logarithmically in conformal time both at tree and loop level. We also consider gauge fields and gravitons. The four-dimensional Fefferman-Graham expansion of classical asymptotically de Sitter solutions is used to show that the wavefunction contains no logarithmic growth in the pure graviton sector at tree level. Finally, assuming a holographic relation between the wavefunction and the partition function of a conformal field theory, we interpret the logarithmic growths in the language of conformal field theory.

  10. Tumor histology and location predict deep nuclei toxicity: Implications for late effects from focal brain irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plaga, Alexis; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Sun, David A.; Vitaz, Todd W.; Spalding, Aaron C.

    2012-10-01

    Normal tissue toxicity resulting from both disease and treatment is an adverse side effect in the management of patients with central nervous system malignancies. We tested the hypothesis that despite these improvements, certain tumors place patients at risk for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory late effects. Defining patient groups at risk for these effects could allow for development of preventive strategies. Fifty patients with primary brain tumors underwent radiation planning with magnetic resonance imaging scan and computed tomography datasets. Organs at risk (OAR) responsible for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory function were defined. Inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy was optimized with priority given to target coverage while penalties were assigned to exceeding normal tissue tolerances. Tumor laterality, location, and histology were compared with OAR doses, and analysis of variance was performed to determine the significance of any observed correlation. The ipsilateral hippocampus exceeded dose limits in frontal (74%), temporal (94%), and parietal (100%) lobe tumor locations. The contralateral hippocampus was at risk in the following tumor locations: frontal (53%), temporal (83%), or parietal (50%) lobe. Patients with high-grade glioma were at risk for ipsilateral (88%) and contralateral (73%) hippocampal damage (P <0.05 compared with other histologies). The pituitary gland and hypothalamus exceeded dose tolerances in patients with pituitary tumors (both 100%) and high-grade gliomas (50% and 75%, P <0.05 compared with other histologies), respectively. Despite application of modern radiation therapy, certain tumor locations and histologies continue to place patients at risk for morbidity. Patients with high-grade gliomas or tumors located in the frontal, temporal, or parietal lobes are at risk for neurocognitive decline, likely because of larger target volumes and higher radiation doses. Data from this study

  11. Great Basin semi-arid woodland dynamics during the late quaternary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigand, P.E.; Hemphill, M.L.; Sharpe, S.E.

    1995-09-01

    Semi-arid woodlands have dominated the middle elevations of Great Basin mountain ranges during the Holocene where subalpine woodlands prevailed during the Pleistocene. Ancient woodrat middens, and in a few cases pollen records indicate in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene woodland history lowered elevation of subalpine woodland species. After a middle Holocene retrenchment at elevations in excess of 500 meters above today, Juniper-dominated semi-arid woodland reached its late Holocene maximum areal extent during the Neoglacial (2 to 4 ka). These records, along with others indicate contracting semi-arid woodland after the Neoglacial about 1.9 ka. Desert shrub community expansion coupled with increased precariousness of wetland areas in the southern Great Basin between 1.9 and 1.5 ka coincide with shrinking wet-lands in the west-central and northern Great Basin. Coincident greater grass abundance in northern Great Basin sagebrush steppe, reaching its maximum between 1.5 and 1.2 ka, corresponds to dramatic increases in bison remains in the archaeological sites of the northern Intermontane West. Pollen and woodrat midden records indicate that this drought ended about 1.5 ka. Succeeding ameliorating conditions resulted in the sudden northward and downward expansion of pinon into areas that had been dominated by juniper during the Neoglacial. Maximum areal extent of pinon dominated semi-arid woodland in west-central Nevada was centered at 1.2 ka. This followed by 100 years the shift in dominance from juniper to pinon in southern Nevada semi-arid woodlands. Great Basin woodlands suffered from renewed severe droughts between .5 to .6 ka. Effectively wetter conditions during the {open_quotes}Little Ice Age{close_quotes} resulted in re-expansion of semi-arid woodland. Activities related to European settlement in the Great Basin have modified prehistoric factors or imposed new ones that are affecting woodland response to climate.

  12. Early-Late Heterobimetallic Complexes Linked by Phosphinoamide Ligands. Tuning Redox Potentials and Small Molecule Activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Christine M.

    2015-08-01

    Recent attention in the chemical community has been focused on the energy efficient and environmentally benign conversion of abundant small molecules (CO2, H2O, etc.) to useful liquid fuels. This project addresses these goals by examining fundamental aspects of catalyst design to ultimately access small molecule activation processes under mild conditions. Specifically, Thomas and coworkers have targetted heterobimetallic complexes that feature metal centers with vastly different electronic properties, dictated both by their respective positions on the periodic table and their coordination environment. Unlike homobimetallic complexes featuring identical or similar metals, the bonds between metals in early/late heterobimetallics are more polarized, with the more electron-rich late metal center donating electron density to the more electron-deficient early metal center. While metal-metal bonds pose an interesting strategy for storing redox equivalents and stabilizing reactive metal fragments, the polar character of metal-metal bonds in heterobimetallic complexes renders these molecules ideally poised to react with small molecule substrates via cleavage of energy-rich single and double bonds. In addition, metal-metal interactions have been shown to dramatically affect redox potentials and promote multielectron redox activity, suggesting that metal-metal interactions may provide a mechanism to tune redox potentials and access substrate reduction/activation at mild overpotentials. This research project has provided a better fundamental understanding of how interactions between transition metals can be used as a strategy to promote and/or control chemical transformations related to the clean production of fuels. While this project focused on the study of homogeneous systems, it is anticipated that the broad conclusions drawn from these investigations will be applicable to heterogeneous catalysis as well, particularly on heterogeneous processes that occur at interfaces in

  13. Groundwater flow, late cementation, and petroleum accumulation the Permian Lyons Sandstone, Denver basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.K.; Bethke, C.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The gray diagenetic facies of the Permian Lyons Sandstone, associated with all known petroleum accumulations in the formation, formed late in the history of the Denver basin as an alteration product of the formation's red facies. The red facies that makes up most of the sandstone contains iron oxide coating, quartz overgrowths and calcite cements. The gray facies, which occurs locally in the deep basin, is distinguished by pore-filling dolomite and anhydrite cements and by a lack of iron oxide and calcite. The dolomite and anhydrite cements overlie bitumen that was deposited by migrating oil, and hence formed after oil was first generated in the basin, late in the Cretaceous or early in the Tertiary. The isotopic composition of oxygen in the dolomite ranges to such light values that the cement must have formed deep in the basin in the presence of meteoric water. The gray facies likely formed in a regime of groundwater flow resulting from Laramide uplift of the Front Range during the Tertiary. In our model, saline groundwater flowed eastward through the Pennsylvanian Fountain Formation and then upwelled along the basin axis, where is discharged into the Lyons Sandstone. The saline water mixed with more dilute groundwater in the Lyons, driving a reaction that dissolved calcite and, by a common-ion effect, precipitated dolomite and anhydrite. The facies' gray color resulted from reduction of ferric oxide in the presence of migrating oil or the Fountain brine. Underlying source beds by this time had begun to generate petroleum, which migrated by buoyancy into the Lyons. The association of the gray facies with petroleum accumulations can be explained if the Fountain brines discharged across aquitards along the same fractures that transmitted oil. As petroleum accumulated in the Lyons, the newly formed cements prevented continued migration, as is observed in shallower strata, by sealing oil into the reservoirs from which it is produced today. 77 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. WE-D-BRE-03: Late Toxicity Following Photon Or Proton Radiotherapy in Patients with Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munbodh, R; Ding, X; Yin, L; Anamalayil, S; Dorsey, J; Lustig, R; Alonso-Basanta, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To identify indicators of Late Grade 3 (LG3) toxicity, late vision and hearing changes in patients treated for primary brain tumors with photon (XRT) or proton radiotherapy (PRT). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 102 patients who received brain XRT or PRT to doses of 54 or 59.6 Gy in daily fractions of 1.8–2 Gy. Of the 80 patients (34 XRT, 39 PRT and 7 both modalities) reviewed for indicators of LG3 toxicity, 25 developed LG3 toxicity 90 to 500 days after radiotherapy completion. 55 patients had less than LG3 toxicity > 500 days after treatment. In that time, late vision and hearing changes were seen in 44 of 75 and 25 of 78 patients, respectively. The correlation between late toxicity and prescription dose, planning target volume (PTV) size, and doses to the brainstem, brain, optic chiasm, optic nerves, eyes and cochlea was evaluated. A two-tailed Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for the statistical analysis for XRT, PRT and all patients combined. Results: Exceeding the 54 Gy-5% dose-volume brainstem constraint, but not the optic structure constraints, was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with late vision changes in all three groups. Exceeding maximum and mean cochlear doses of 45 and 30 Gy, respectively, was a significant indicator of hearing changes (p < 0.05) in PRT patients and all patients combined. In a sub-group of 52 patients in whom the brain was contoured, the absolute brain volume receiving ≤ 50 Gy and > 60 Gy was significantly larger in patients with LG3 toxicity for all patients combined (p < 0.05). Prescription dose, brainstem dose and PTV volume were not correlated to LG3 toxicity. Conclusion: Our results indicate the importance of minimizing the brain volume irradiated, and brainstem and cochlea doses to reduce the risk of late toxicities following brain radiotherapy.

  15. Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, Joseph C; Stevens, Patrice A; Branstetter, Linda; Hoover, Edward; O' Brien, Kevin; Slavin, Adam; Caswell, David

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear weapons? Many

  16. Very late nonfatal consequences of fractionated TBI in children undergoing bone marrow transplant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faraci, Maura; Cohen, Amnon; Lanino, Edoardo; Sacco, Oliviero; Cabria, Manlio; De Marco, Riccardo; Stella, Gilberto; Dallorso, Sandro; Vitale, Vito; Dini, Giorgio

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To describe long-term late consequences in children who received total body irradiation (TBI) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 10 years earlier. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 42 children treated with TBI between 1985 and 1993, still alive at least 10 years after fractionated TBI (FTBI), was evaluated. Twenty-five patients received FTBI at 330 cGy/day for 3 days (total dose 990 cGy), whereas 17 children were administered fractions of 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days (total dose 1200 cGy). Twenty-seven patients received autologous and 16 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Median age at TBI was 6.3 years, and 18.4 years at most recent follow-up. Results: Cataract was diagnosed in 78% of patients after a median of 5.7 years. Hypothyroidism was detected in 12%, whereas thyroid nodules were observed in 60% of our population after a median interval of 10.2 years. Patients treated with 990 cGy developed thyroid nodules more frequently than those treated with 1200 cGy (p = 0.0002). Thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in 14% of the total population. Females who received FTBI after menarche more frequently developed temporary ovarian dysfunction than those treated before menarche, but cases of persistent ovarian dysfunction did not differ between the two groups. Indirect signs of germinal testicular dysfunction were detected in 87% of males. Restrictive pulmonary disease was observed in 74% of patients. Osteochondroma was found in 29% of patients after a median interval of 9.2 years. This latter complication appeared more frequently in patients irradiated before the age of 3 years (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study shows that late effects that are likely permanent, although not fatal, are frequent in survivors 10 years after TBI. However, some of the side effects observed shortly after TBI either disappeared or remained unchanged without signs of evolution. Monitoring is recommended to pursue secondary prevention strategies and counseling

  17. EVALUATING SHORT-TERM CLIMATE VARIABILITY IN THE LATE HOLOCENE OF THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph H. Hartman

    1999-09-01

    This literature study investigated methods and areas to deduce climate change and climate patterns, looking for short-term cycle phenomena and the means to interpret them. Many groups are actively engaged in intensive climate-related research. Ongoing research might be (overly) simplified into three categories: (1) historic data on weather that can be used for trend analysis and modeling; (2) detailed geological, biological (subfossil), and analytical (geochemical, radiocarbon, etc.) studies covering the last 10,000 years (about since last glaciation); and (3) geological, paleontological, and analytical (geochemical, radiometric, etc.) studies over millions of years. Of importance is our ultimate ability to join these various lines of inquiry into an effective means of interpretation. At this point, the process of integration is fraught with methodological troubles and misconceptions about what each group can contribute. This project has met its goals to the extent that it provided an opportunity to study resource materials and consider options for future effort toward the goal of understanding the natural climate variation that has shaped our current civilization. A further outcome of this project is a proposed methodology based on ''climate sections'' that provides spatial and temporal correlation within a region. The method would integrate cultural and climate data to establish the climate history of a region with increasing accuracy with progressive study and scientific advancement (e. g., better integration of regional and global models). The goal of this project is to better understand natural climatic variations in the recent past (last 5000 years). The information generated by this work is intended to provide better context within which to examine global climate change. The ongoing project will help to establish a basis upon which to interpret late Holocene short-term climate variability as evidenced in various studies in the northern Great Plains, northern

  18. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    This publication is one in series of case studies for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program. It is intended for those who plan to design and construct public and private-sector laboratory buildings. This case study describes the Science and Technology Facility, a new laboratory at NREL that incorporated energy-efficient and sustainable design features including underfloor air distribution in offices, daylighting, and process cooling.

  19. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Francois; Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu; Liu, Geoffrey

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help

  20. Novel, highly expressed late nodulin gene (LjNOD16) from Lotus japonicus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapranov, P.; Bruijn, F.J. de; Szczyglowski, K.

    1997-04-01

    We have isolated a Lotus japonicus cDNA corresponding to a highly abundant, late nodule-specific RNA species that encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.6 kD. The protein and its corresponding gene were designated NIj16 and LjNOD16, respectively. LjNOD16 was found to be expressed only in the infected cells of L. japonicus nodules. Related DNA sequences could be identified in the genomes of both Glycine max and Medicago sativa. In the latter, a homologous mRNA species was detected in the nodules. Unlike LiNOD16, its alfalfa homologs appear to represent low-abundance mRNA species. However, the proteins corresponding to the LjNOD16 and its alfalfa homolog could be detected at similar levels in nodules but not in roots of both legume species. The predicted amino acid sequence analysis of nodulin NIj16 revealed the presence of a long {alpha}-helical region and a positively charged C terminus. The former domain has a very high propensity to form a coiled-coil type structure, indicating that nodulin NIj16 may interact with an as-yet-unidentified protein target(s) in the nodule-infected cells. Homology searches revealed no significant similarities to any known sequences in the databases, with the exception of two related, anonymous Arabidopsis expressed sequence tags.

  1. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Fengjuan Qi, Shengdong Li, Hui Liu, Pu Li, Pengcheng Wu, Changai Zheng, Chengchao Huang, Jinguang

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: It is the first time to investigate the biological function of AtLEA14 in salt stress response. AtLEA14 enhances the salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and yeast. AtLEA14 responses to salt stress by stabilizing AtPP2-B11, an E3 ligase, under normal or salt stress conditions. - Abstract: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

  2. The abundance properties of nearby late-type galaxies. I. The data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Kniazev, A. Y. E-mail: grebel@ari.uni-heidelberg.de

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the oxygen and nitrogen abundance distributions across the optical disks of 130 nearby late-type galaxies using around 3740 published spectra of H II regions. We use these data in order to provide homogeneous abundance determinations for all objects in the sample, including H II regions in which not all of the usual diagnostic lines were measured. Examining the relation between N and O abundances in these galaxies we find that the abundances in their centers and at their isophotal R {sub 25} disk radii follow the same relation. The variation in N/H at a given O/H is around 0.3 dex. We suggest that the observed spread in N/H may be partly caused by the time delay between N and O enrichment and the different star formation histories in galaxies of different morphological types and dimensions. We study the correlations between the abundance properties (central O and N abundances, radial O and N gradients) of a galaxy and its morphological type and dimension.

  3. Gold deposits in the late Archaean Nzega-Igunga greenstone belt, central plateau of tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feiss, P.G.; Siyomana, S.

    1985-01-01

    2.2 m oz of gold have been produced, since 1935, from late Archaean (2480-2740 Ma) greenstone belts of the Central Plateau, Tanzania. North and east of Nzega (4/sup 0/12'S, 3/sup 0/11'E), 18% of the exposed basement, mainly Dodoman schists and granites, consists of metavolcanics and metasediments of the Nyanzian and Kavirondian Series. Four styles of mineralization are observed. 1. Stratabound quartz-gold veins with minor sulfides. Host rocks are quartz porphyry, banded iron formation (BIF), magnetite quartzite, and dense, cherty jasperite at the Sekenke and Canuck mines. The Canuck veins are on strike from BIF's in quartz-eye porphyry of the Igusule Hills. 2. Stratabound, disseminated gold in coarse-grained, crowded feldspar porphyry with lithic fragments and minor pyrite. At Bulangamilwa, the porphyry is conformable with Nyanzian-aged submarine (.) greenstone, volcanic sediment, felsic volcanics, and sericite phyllite. The deposits are on strike with BIF of the Wella Hills, which contains massive sulfide with up to 15% Pb+Zn. 3. Disseminated gold in quartz-albite metasomes in Nyanzian greenstones. At Kirondatal, alteration is associated with alaskites and feldspar porphyry dikes traceable several hundred meters into post-Dodoman diorite porphyry. Gold is with pyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, minor chalcopyrite, and sphalerite as well as tourmalinite and silica-cemented breccias. 4. Basal Kavirondian placers in metaconglomerates containing cobbles and boulders of Dodoman and Nyanzian rocks several hundred meters up-section from the stratabound, disseminated mineralization at Bulangamilwa.

  4. MOA-2010-BLG-328Lb: A sub-Neptune orbiting very late M dwarf?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furusawa, K.; Abe, F.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Udalski, A.; Sumi, T.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H.; Gould, A.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Snodgrass, C.; Prester, D. Dominis; Albrow, M. D.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Chote, P.; Harris, P.; Fukui, A. E-mail: liweih@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: rzellem@lpl.arizona.edu; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; RoboNet Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; and others

    2013-12-20

    We analyze the planetary microlensing event MOA-2010-BLG-328. The best fit yields host and planetary masses of M {sub h} = 0.11 ± 0.01 M {sub ☉} and M {sub p} = 9.2 ± 2.2 M {sub ⊕}, corresponding to a very late M dwarf and sub-Neptune-mass planet, respectively. The system lies at D {sub L} = 0.81 ± 0.10 kpc with projected separation r = 0.92 ± 0.16 AU. Because of the host's a priori unlikely close distance, as well as the unusual nature of the system, we consider the possibility that the microlens parallax signal, which determines the host mass and distance, is actually due to xallarap (source orbital motion) that is being misinterpreted as parallax. We show a result that favors the parallax solution, even given its close host distance. We show that future high-resolution astrometric measurements could decisively resolve the remaining ambiguity of these solutions.

  5. Diagenetic features of Trenton Limestone in northern Indiana: petrographic evidence for Late (Mesogenetic) Dolostone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fara, D.R.

    1986-08-01

    Three conventional cores of the entire Trenton section were examined in detail by in-depth visual description, analysis of more than 250 thin sections, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The cores are located in the northern half of Indiana where they span the major dolostone pinch-out that is the trap for the prolific Trenton oil and gas field. The Trenton Limestone is completely dolomitized in northern Indiana. Dolostone abundance decreases to the south where the dolostone is restricted to the upper few feet of the formation. Two major types of dolostone are recognized. The top 5-20 ft of the Trenton cores consists of medium crystalline nonporous xenotopic ferroan dolostone. Mesogenetic dewatering of the overlying Maquoketa shale is the proposed dolomitizing mechanisms for this ferroan dolostone cap. Below the ferroan dolostone cap in northern Indiana is coarsely crystalline dolostone, which consists of thin intercalated subfacies of porous idiotopic and nonporous xenotopic dolostone. This is the dominant dolostone type and is the reservoir in the Trenton field. The coarsely crystalline dolostone postdates the ferroan dolostone cap, chert nodule formation, and initial pressure solution. Therefore, this dolostone is considered to have formed relatively late in the diagenetic history of the Trenton under mesogenetic conditions. In the northernmost core, nearly all of the secondary dolomitic porosity is plugged by poikilotopic gypsum and minor amounts of calcite and celestite. Other diagenetic features observed in Trenton are also discussed, including silicification, ferroan calcite cement, upper Trenton contact formation, hardgrounds, and pressure solution.

  6. Synsedimentary tectonics in Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary pelagic basin of northern Apennines, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanari, A.; Chan, L.S.; Alvarez, W.

    1987-05-01

    The sequence of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary pelagic limestones in the Umbria-Marches Apennines of Italy have recorded, with remarkable continuity, the geologic history of an epeiric sea on the eastern continental margin of the Ligurian Ocean during a time of widespread tectonism in the western Tethys domain. Sedimentary facies and paleocurrent analyses indicate that intrabasinal depocenters and structural highs have formed in response to extensional tectonic movements which started to affect the central part of the paleobasin in the early Turonian. The topography of the paleobasin was probably controlled by a complex pattern of buried fault blocks formed during the passive margin phase of the western Tethys and then reactivated in the Turonian after a prolonged time (Aptian to Cenomanian) of tectonic quiescence. Calcareous turbidites essentially made of remobilized pelagic mud were generated on the newly formed intrabasinal slopes and deposited in the adjacent depocenters. Conspicuous sedimentary events such as maxima in turbiditic deposition and soft-sediment slumps in these intrabasinal depocenters are attributed to major syndepositional earthquakes of regional extent. A detailed event-stratigraphy based on these sedimentary features indicates that the level of syndepositional tectonic activity reached a peak in the late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene and rapidly diminished in the Eocene.

  7. KELT-3b: A HOT JUPITER TRANSITING A V = 9.8 LATE-F STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepper, Joshua; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Dhital, Saurav; Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Eastman, Jason; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Collins, Karen; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Berlind, Perry; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Manner, Mark; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R.; and others

    2013-08-10

    We report the discovery of KELT-3b, a moderately inflated transiting hot Jupiter with a mass of 1.477{sub -0.067}{sup +0.066} M{sub J}, radius of 1.345 {+-} 0.072 R{sub J}, and an orbital period of 2.7033904 {+-} 0.000010 days. The host star, KELT-3, is a V = 9.8 late F star with M{sub *} = 1.278{sub -0.061}{sup +0.063} M{sub sun}, R{sub *} = 1.472{sub -0.067}{sup +0.065} R{sub sun}, T{sub eff}= 6306{sub -49}{sup +50} K, log (g) = 4.209{sub -0.031}{sup +0.033}, and [Fe/H] = 0.044{sub -0.082}{sup +0.080}, and has a likely proper motion companion. KELT-3b is the third transiting exoplanet discovered by the KELT survey, and is orbiting one of the 20 brightest known transiting planet host stars, making it a promising candidate for detailed characterization studies. Although we infer that KELT-3 is significantly evolved, a preliminary analysis of the stellar and orbital evolution of the system suggests that the planet has likely always received a level of incident flux above the empirically identified threshold for radius inflation suggested by Demory and Seager.

  8. BUILDING LATE-TYPE SPIRAL GALAXIES BY IN-SITU AND EX-SITU STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillepich, Annalisa; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the formation and evolution of the stellar components in ''Eris'', a 120pc resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of a late-type spiral galaxy. The simulation includes the effects of a uniform UV background, a delayed-radiative-cooling scheme for supernova feedback, and a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold. It allows a detailed study of the relative contributions of ''in-situ'' (within the main host) and ''ex-situ'' (within satellite galaxies) star formation to each major Galactic component in a close Milky Way analog. We investigate these two star-formation channels as a function of galactocentric distance, along different lines of sight above and along the disk plane, and as a function of cosmic time. We find that: (1) approximately 70% of today's stars formed in-situ; (2) more than two thirds of the ex-situ stars formed within satellites after infall; (3) the majority of ex-situ stars are found today in the disk and in the bulge; (4) the stellar halo is dominated by ex-situ stars, whereas in-situ stars dominate the mass profile at distances ? 5 kpc from the center at high latitudes; and (5) approximately 25% of the inner, r ? 20 kpc, halo is composed of in-situ stars that have been displaced from their original birth sites during Eris' early assembly history.

  9. The Araucaria project. The distance to the small Magellanic Cloud from late-type eclipsing binaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graczyk, Dariusz; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Villanova, Sandro; Gallenne, Alexandre; Thompson, Ian B.; Konorski, Piotr; Udalski, Andrzej; Soszyński, Igor; Górski, Marek; Suchomska, Ksenia; Karczmarek, Paulina; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    We present a distance determination to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on an analysis of four detached, long-period, late-type eclipsing binaries discovered by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) survey. The components of the binaries show negligible intrinsic variability. A consistent set of stellar parameters was derived with low statistical and systematic uncertainty. The absolute dimensions of the stars are calculated with a precision of better than 3%. The surface brightness-infrared color relation was used to derive the distance to each binary. The four systems clump around a distance modulus of (m – M) = 18.99 with a dispersion of only 0.05 mag. Combining these results with the distance published by Graczyk et al. for the eclipsing binary OGLE SMC113.3 4007, we obtain a mean distance modulus to the SMC of 18.965 ± 0.025 (stat.) ± 0.048 (syst.) mag. This corresponds to a distance of 62.1 ± 1.9 kpc, where the error includes both uncertainties. Taking into account other recent published determinations of the SMC distance we calculated the distance modulus difference between the SMC and the Large Magellanic Cloud equal to 0.458 ± 0.068 mag. Finally, we advocate μ{sub SMC} = 18.95 ± 0.07 as a new 'canonical' value of the distance modulus to this galaxy.

  10. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus entry mechanism requires late endosome formation and resists cell membrane cholesterol depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolokoltsov, Andrey A.; Fleming, Elisa H.; Davey, Robert A. . E-mail: radavey@utmb.edu

    2006-04-10

    Virus envelope proteins determine receptor utilization and host range. The choice of receptor not only permits specific targeting of cells that express it, but also directs the virus into specific endosomal trafficking pathways. Disrupting trafficking can result in loss of virus infectivity due to redirection of virions to non-productive pathways. Identification of the pathway or pathways used by a virus is, thus, important in understanding virus pathogenesis mechanisms and for developing new treatment strategies. Most of our understanding of alphavirus entry has focused on the Old World alphaviruses, such as Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus. In comparison, very little is known about the entry route taken by more pathogenic New World alphaviruses. Here, we use a novel contents mixing assay to identify the cellular requirements for entry of a New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Expression of dominant negative forms of key endosomal trafficking genes shows that VEEV must access clathrin-dependent endocytic vesicles for membrane fusion to occur. Unexpectedly, the exit point is different from Old World alphaviruses that leave from early endosomes. Instead, VEEV also requires functional late endosomes. Furthermore, unlike the Old World viruses, VEEV entry is insensitive to cholesterol sequestration from cell membranes and may reflect a need to access an endocytic compartment that lacks cholesterol. This indicates fundamental differences in the entry route taken by VEEV compared to Old World alphaviruses.

  11. Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-10-21

    Ongoing, centennial-scale flow variability within the Ross ice streams of West Antarctica suggests that the present-day positive mass balance in this region may reverse in the future. Here we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model to simulate ice flow in this region over 250 years. The flow responds to changing basal properties, as a subglacial till layer interacts with water transported in an active subglacial hydrological system. We show that a persistent weak bed beneath the tributaries of the dormant Kamb Ice Stream is a source of internal ice flow instability, which reorganizes all ice streams in this region, leadingmore » to a reduced (positive) mass balance within decades and a net loss of ice within two centuries. This hitherto unaccounted for flow variability could raise sea level by 5 mm this century. Furthermore, better constraints on future sea level change from this region will require improved estimates of geothermal heat flux and subglacial water transport.« less

  12. Anomalous mid-twentieth century atmospheric circulation change over the South Atlantic compared to the last 6000 years

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turney, Chris S. M.; Jones, Richard T.; Lister, David; Jones, Phil; Williams, Alan N.; Hogg, Alan; Thomas, Zoe A.; Compo, Gilbert P.; Yin, Xungang; Fogwill, Christopher J.; et al

    2016-06-09

    Determining the timing and impact of anthropogenic climate change in data-sparse regions is a considerable challenge. Arguably, nowhere is this more difficult than the Antarctic Peninsula and the subantarctic South Atlantic where observational records are relatively short but where high rates of warming have been experienced since records began. Here we interrogate recently developed monthly-resolved observational datasets from the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and extend the records back using climate-sensitive peat growth over the past 6000 years. Investigating the subantarctic climate data with ERA-Interim and Twentieth Century Reanalysis, we find that a stepped increase in precipitation across the 1940smore » is related to a change in synoptic atmospheric circulation: a westward migration of quasi-permanent positive pressure anomalies in the South Atlantic has brought the subantarctic islands under the increased influence of meridional airflow associated with the Amundsen Sea Low. Analysis of three comprehensively multi-dated (using 14C and 137Cs) peat sequences across the two islands demonstrates unprecedented growth rates since the mid-twentieth century relative to the last 6000 years. Comparison to observational and reconstructed sea surface temperatures suggests this change is linked to a warming tropical Pacific Ocean. Lastly, our results imply 'modern' South Atlantic atmospheric circulation has not been under this configuration for millennia.« less

  13. The Importance of Establishing and Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge during 21st Century Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Chris A; Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R; Wishard, Bernard; Bean, Robert; Blair, Dianna; Lawson, Ray; Weeks, George; Tolk, Keith

    2012-01-01

    During this century, the entire nuclear fuel cycle will expand and become increasingly more global, taxing both the resources and capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to maintain an effective Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) and its ability to provide timely detection of diversion. Uranium that currently is mined and milled in one country will be converted, enriched, and fabricated into fuel for reactors in an expanding set of new countries. This expansion will make it harder to guarantee that regional activities stay regional and that diversion detection is timely unless new and sustainable tools are developed to improve inspector effectiveness. To deal with this emerging reality, the IAEA must increase its use of unattended monitoring and employ new tools and methods that enhance CoK during all phases of the fuel cycle. This approach will help provide useful information to aid in detecting undeclared activities and create opportunities for timely and appropriate responses to events well before they enter phases of greater concern (e.g., enrichment). The systems that maintain CoK of safeguarded assets rely on containment and surveillance (C/S) technologies. The 21st century fuel cycle will require increased use of these technologies and systems, plus greater implementation of unattended systems that can securely collect data when inspectors are not present.

  14. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This guide regarding energy recovery is one in a series on best practices for laboratories. It was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs 21'), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. Laboratories typically require 100% outside air for ventilation at higher rates than other commercial buildings. Minimum ventilation is typically provided at air change per hour (ACH) rates in accordance with codes and adopted design standards including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standard 1910.1450 (4 to 12 ACH - non-mandatory) or the 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook, Chapter 16 - Laboratories (6 to 12 ACH). While OSHA states this minimum ventilation rate 'should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory' it specifically indicates that it is intended to 'provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (e.g., chemical fume hoods or exhausted bio-safety cabinets), to ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced preventing the increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day, direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.' The heating and cooling energy needed to condition and move this outside air can be 5 to 10 times greater than the amount of energy used in most office buildings. In addition, when the required ventilation rate exceeds the airflow needed to meet the cooling load in low-load laboratories, additional heating energy may be expended to reheat dehumidified supply air from the supply air condition to prevent over cooling. In addition to these low-load laboratories, reheat may also be required in adjacent spaces such as corridors that provide makeup air to replace air being pulled into negative-pressure laboratories. Various types of energy recovery

  15. FORMING REALISTIC LATE-TYPE SPIRALS IN A {Lambda}CDM UNIVERSE: THE ERIS SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guedes, Javiera; Madau, Piero [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Callegari, Simone [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-9057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mayer, Lucio [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich, Wolgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-12-01

    Simulations of the formation of late-type spiral galaxies in a cold dark matter ({Lambda}CDM) universe have traditionally failed to yield realistic candidates. Here we report a new cosmological N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamic simulation of extreme dynamic range in which a close analog of a Milky Way disk galaxy arises naturally. Named 'Eris', the simulation follows the assembly of a galaxy halo of mass M{sub vir} = 7.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} with a total of N = 18.6 million particles (gas + dark matter + stars) within the final virial radius, and a force resolution of 120 pc. It includes radiative cooling, heating from a cosmic UV field and supernova explosions (blastwave feedback), a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold (n{sub SF} = 5 atoms cm{sup -3} rather than the canonical n{sub SF} = 0.1 atoms cm{sup -3}), and neglects any feedback from an active galactic nucleus. Artificial images are generated to correctly compare simulations with observations. At the present epoch, the simulated galaxy has an extended rotationally supported disk with a radial scale length R{sub d} = 2.5 kpc, a gently falling rotation curve with circular velocity at 2.2 disk scale lengths of V{sub 2.2} = 214 km s{sup -1}, an i-band bulge-to-disk ratio B/D = 0.35, and a baryonic mass fraction within the virial radius that is 30% below the cosmic value. The disk is thin, has a typical H I-to-stellar mass ratio, is forming stars in the region of the {Sigma}{sub SFR}-{Sigma}{sub HI} plane occupied by spiral galaxies, and falls on the photometric Tully-Fisher and the stellar-mass-halo-virial-mass relations. Hot (T > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K) X-ray luminous halo gas makes up only 26% of the universal baryon fraction and follows a 'flattened' density profile {proportional_to}r{sup -1.13} out to r = 100 kpc. Eris appears then to be the first cosmological hydrodynamic simulation in which the galaxy structural properties, the mass budget in the

  16. Thermonuclear supernovae: probing magnetic fields by positrons and late-time IR line profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penney, R.; Hoeflich, P. E-mail: rpenney@g.clemson.edu

    2014-11-01

    We show the importance of γ and positron transport for the formation of late-time spectra in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The goal is to study the imprint of magnetic fields (B) on late-time IR line profiles, particularly the [Fe II] feature at 1.644 μm, which becomes prominent two to three months after the explosion. As a benchmark, we use the explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass (M {sub Ch}) white dwarf (WD) and, specifically, a delayed detonation model that can reproduce the light curves and spectra for a Branch-normal SN Ia. We assume WDs with initial magnetic surface fields between 1 and 10{sup 9} G. We discuss large-scale dipole and small-scale magnetic fields. We show that positron transport effects must be taken into account for the interpretation of emission features starting at about one to two years after maximum light, depending on the size of B. The [Fe II] line profile and its evolution with time can be understood in terms of the overall energy input by radioactive decay and the transition from a γ-ray to a positron-dominated regime. We find that the [Fe II] line at 1.644 μm can be used to analyze the overall chemical and density structure of the exploding WD up to day 200 without considering B. At later times, positron transport and magnetic field effects become important. After about day 300, the line profile allows one to probe the size of the B-field. The profile becomes sensitive to the morphology of B at about day 500. In the presence of a large-scale dipole field, a broad line is produced in M {sub Ch} mass explosions that may appear flat-topped or rounded depending on the inclination at which the SN is observed. Small or no directional dependence of the spectra is found for small-scale B. We note that narrow-line profiles require central {sup 56}Ni as shown in our previous studies. Persistent broad-line, flat-topped profiles require high-density burning, which is the signature of a WD close to M {sub Ch}. Good time coverage is required to

  17. Late Pleistocene landslide-dammed lakes along the Rio Grande, White Rock Canyon, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reneau, S.L.; Dethier, D.P.

    1996-11-01

    Massive slump complexes composed of Pliocene basaltic rocks and underlying Miocene and Pliocene sediments flank the Rio Grande along 16 km of northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. The toe area of at least one slump complex was active in the late Pleistocene, damming the Rio Grande at least four times during the period from 18 to 12 {sup 14}C ka and impounding lakes that extended 10-20 km upriver. Stratigraphic relationships and radiocarbon age constraints indicate that three separate lakes formed between 13.7 and 12.4 {sup 14}C ka. The age and dimensions of the ca. 12.4 ka lake are best constrained; it had an estimated maximum depth of {approx}30 m, a length of {approx}13 km, a surface area of {approx}2.7 km{sup 2}, and an initial volume of {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}. The youngest landslide-dammed lakes formed during a period of significantly wetter regional climate, strongly suggesting that climate changes were responsible for reactivation of the slump complexes. We are not certain about the exact triggering mechanisms for these landslides, but they probably involved removal of lateral support due to erosion of the slope base by the Rio Grande during periods of exceptionally high flood discharge or rapid incision; increased pore pressures associated with higher water tables; higher seepage forces at sites of ground-water discharge; or some combination of these processes. Seismic shaking could also have contributed to triggering of some of the landslides, particularly if aided by wet antecedent conditions. 54 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Ramu basin, Papua New Guinea: A record of late Miocene terrane collision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullen, A.B.

    1996-05-01

    The Ramu basin lies along a plate boundary where the Finisterre terrane is colliding with the Indo-Australian plate. Estimates for the age of initial collision range from early Miocene to middle Pliocene. Two unsuccessful wells (Keram 1 and Tsumba 1) drilled to basement and two-dimensional seismic data show that folded and faulted early to middle Miocene carbonates and clastics (the Wogamush sequence) are overlain by relatively undeformed Pliocene marine clastics (the Wewak sequence) along a regional unconformity. The pre-Pliocene section, which is at the crux of resolving the age of initial collision, has been correlated previously to the Finisterre terrane. Clastics within that section, derived from older terranes south of the basin, imply an early Miocene age for collision. I propose that Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks in the two wells are correlative with the Wogamush beds of the Maramuni arc. The Ramu basin can then be viewed as having a two-stage evolution. During the Miocene, the basin was part of the Maramuni arc, the polarity of which is unresolved. A collisional successor basin developed in the late Miocene as the Finisterre terrane (Adelbert block) collided with the arc. Thrust faults on the northeastern side of the basin, truncated by a regional unconformity, are interpreted to mark the suture of the Adelbert block. A northern earliest Pliocene sediment source for the basal Wewak sequence was probably the Finisterre terrane, but multiple source areas are inferred for the rest of that sequence. Middle Pliocene inversion of the basin`s northeastern flank, characterized by reverse faulting and forced folding, is attributed to plate boundary reorganization caused by rifting in the Bismarck Sea. The Ramu basin has numerous untested structures related to both collision and basin inversion. Gas-prone source rocks are present, but are largely immature. Reservoir and charge considerations place the Ramu basin in the very high risk sector for exploration.

  19. Similarities in shoreline response to Late Holocene lake-level variations in Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, T.A.; Baedke, S.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Beach ridges dating back to 2600 B.P. occur in embayments throughout Lake Michigan. Similarities in their geomorphic development are interpreted to be the product of three scales of lake-level variation. The largest of these embayments is roughly coincident with the Indiana shore of Lake Michigan known as the Toleston Beach. In the western part of the Toleston Beach, more than 150 beach ridges have formed in response to short-term variations in lake level occurring at a quasi-periodic interval of about 30 years. Bundles of five of these ridges merge eastward to form higher relief beach ridges that record an intermediate-term lake-level variation of about 150 years. Both the 30-year and 150-year lake-level events are superimposed on a longer term lake-level variation of about 600 years. Beach-ridge development in northern Lake Michigan reflects a similar response to late Holocene lake-level variations. For example, the southern embayment of the Platte Bay Unit of the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore also contains a series of beach ridges that record three scales of lake-level variation. In this area, most of the beach ridges formed between 2600 and 1200 B.P., with individual ridges forming about every 29 years. Also recorded in this embayment are the time equivalent groupings of beach ridges every 150 and 600 years. Although embayments containing beach ridges in Lake Michigan may record different short-term lake-level variations in response to local depositional conditions within the embayment, the 150-year and 600-year variations appear to be represented throughout the lake. Relative lake-level curves for the Toleston Beach and the Platte Bay embayment are displaced by approximately 1.5 m. This displacement is accounted for under current models of isostasy for Lake Michigan.

  20. Climatic change and the planktonic foraminiferal species - coincidences in some Late Neogene clades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malmgren, B.A.; Berggren, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Planktonic foraminifera adjust their position in the water column through modifications in size, shape, and external ornamention (keel, costae, etc.); this is useful in exploiting new ecologic niches. Evolutionary change may be triggered by paleoceanographic change, for example, low sea level, often associated with cool climate, may result in enhanced vertical mixing in the upper water column, decrease in density stratification and available niches. Phyletic evolution is well documented in several clades of Late Neogene planktonic foraminifera. Accelerated or decelerated evolutionary rates in these clades may be due to change in selection pressure in response to changing paleoceanographic conditions. The latest Miocene was marked by low sea level and cool climate; the earliest Pliocene by higher sea level and warmer, more stable climate. In response, size (cross-sectional area) in the Globorotalia tumida clade trebled, test acquired thicker encrustation, ventral/dorsal height proportions changed; the keel was lost in the Globorotalia inflata clade, and chambers became rounded rather than conical; and supplementary apertures appeared in the Sphaeroidinellopsis-Sphaeroidinella clade. The beginning of gradually increasing conicality in the G. inflata clade, which continued to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, coincided with falling sea level and depletion of delta/sup 13/C in sea water at about 6 ma. Lowered sea level and cooler climate in the middle Pliocene (3.2 Ma) may be responsible for a relatively rapid increase in frequency of supplementary apertures (from 20 to 100 %) in the Sphaeroidinellopsis-Sphaeroidinella clade. This event also coincided with a stepwise increase in benthonic delta/sup 18/O and a brief interval of increased planktonic delta/sup 18/O.

  1. Climate Change in Lowland Central America During the Late Deglacial and Early Holocene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillesheim, M B; Hodell, D A; Leyden, B W; Brenner, M; Curtis, J H; Anselmetti, F S; Ariztegui, D; Buck, D G; Guilderson, T P; Rosenmeier, M F; Schnurrenberger, D W

    2005-02-08

    The transition from arid glacial to moist early Holocene conditions represented a profound change in northern lowland Neotropical climate. Here we report a detailed record of changes in moisture availability during the latter part of this transition ({approx}11,250 to 7,500 cal yr BP) inferred from sediment cores retrieved in Lake Peten Itza, northern Guatemala. Pollen assemblages demonstrate that a mesic forest had been largely established by {approx}11,250 cal yr BP, but sediment properties indicate that lake level was more than 35 m below modern stage. From 11,250 to 10,350 cal yr BP, during the Preboreal period, lithologic changes in sediments from deep-water cores (>50 m below modern water level) indicate several wet-dry cycles that suggest distinct changes in effective moisture. Four dry events (designated PBE1-4) occurred at 11,200, 10,900, 10,700, and 10,400 cal yr BP and correlate with similar variability observed in the Cariaco Basin titanium record and glacial meltwater pulses into the Gulf of Mexico. After 10,350 cal yr BP, multiple sediment proxies suggest a shift to a more persistently moist early Holocene climate. Comparison of results from Lake Peten Itza with other records from the circum-Caribbean demonstrates a coherent climate response during the entire span of our record. Furthermore, lowland Neotropical climate during the late deglacial and early Holocene period appears to be tightly linked to climate change in the high-latitude North Atlantic. We speculate that the observed changes in lowland Neotropical precipitation were related to the intensity of the annual cycle and associated displacements in the mean latitudinal position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and Azores-Bermuda high-pressure system. This mechanism operated on millennial-to-submillennial timescales and may have responded to changes in solar radiation, glacial meltwater, North Atlantic sea ice, and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC).

  2. Geologic evolution of the Late Permian Capitan shelf margin, northern Delaware basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, G.A. )

    1991-03-01

    A two-phase model, based on outcrop and subsurface data rimming the northern half of the Delaware basin, characterizes the evolution of the late Guadalupian Capitan shelf margin, a margin that prograded up to 19 km basinward while an interval of over 700 m accumulated. Phase 1, during Seven Rivers shelf (early Capitan) deposition, accounts for 70-80% of the total progradation, over 50% of the total aggradation, and corresponds with shelf facies devoid of siliciclastics, emplacement of abundant carbonate debris on the slope and basin margin, and deposition of 50-70% of the Bell Canyon siliciclastic interval in the basin. The clastics bypassed the growing Capitan margin and were equally important to that of the allochthonous carbonate debris in filling accommodation space to facilitate progradation of the margin. The second phase, during Yates-Tansill (middle-upper Capitan) time, was dominated by aggradation, steepening of the shelf margin, deepening of the basin, and deposition of abundant siliciclastics on the shelf. This model differs from previous reconstructions that show uniform growth of the Capitan reef, and it contradicts the long-standing dogma of reciprocal sedimentation. This two-phase growth model adds insight into deposition of the two principle Guadalupian reservoir facies that account for nearly 50% of the Permian basin in-place oil reserves. Offlapping sheets of inner shelf carbonates (e.g., San Andres Formation, McElroy field) relate to periods of shelf progradation whereas widespread sheets of shelf clastics (e.g., Yates Formation, N. Ward Estes field) reflect periods of shelf aggradation. The model should be useful in evaluating the evolution of other shelves, particularly mixed shelves.

  3. Late Quaternary paleodune deposits in Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAF: Paleoclimatic implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouwers, E.M.; Bown, T.M. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Hadley, D.G. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Remnants of late Quaternary paleodunes are exposed near the coast of the Arabian Gulf and in large inland playas and interdunal areas in central and western Abu Dhabi Emirate over a distance of >45 km normal to the coast. Paleodunes occur south of Madinat Zayed (lat. 23[degree]35 N), which marks the northern limit of a modern dune field that grades into the mega-dune sand sea of the ar Rub al Khali, Saudi Arabia. Coastal paleodunes are composed of weakly cemented millolid foraminifers, ooids, and rounded biogenic grains, whereas inland and southward the paleodunes show a progressive increase in the proportion of eolian quartz sand. The paleodunes exhibit large-scale trough foresets in remnant exposures 0.5 to 10 m thick, indicating paleowind directions from 65[degree] to 184[degree] (dominantly southeast transport). Scattered paleoplaya remnants provide paleodune scale. Paleoplaya deposits form buttes 30--50 m high. If coeval with the Paleodunes, large-scale paleodune fields are implied (100+ m high), comparable to star dunes and sand mountains at the northwestern edge of the ar Rub al Khali. Based on U-Th isotopic analyses, the carbonate paleodune sands are >160ka and probably >250ka. The carbonate source was a shallow, nearly dry Arabian Gulf at a time when large areas were exposed during a low sea-level stand. Paleowind direction indicates that Pleistocene prevailing winds were northwesterly, the direction of the dominant (winter shamal) wind today. The geographic extend and implied magnitude of the paleodunes suggest large-scale eolian transport of carbonate sand during the Pleistocene disiccation, and admixed quartz sand identifies a youthful stage of contemporaneous evolution of the ar Rub al Khali. Wave-eroded paleodunes probably floor much of the present-day Gulf and extend beneath the modern dunes and sand mountains.

  4. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Normal-Appearing White Matter as Biomarker for Radiation-Induced Late Delayed Cognitive Decline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Christopher H.; Nagesh, Vijaya; Sundgren, Pia C.; Buchtel, Henry; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Junck, Larry; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina I.; Cao, Yue

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether early assessment of cerebral white matter degradation can predict late delayed cognitive decline after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients undergoing conformal fractionated brain RT participated in a prospective diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were acquired before RT, at 3 and 6 weeks during RT, and 10, 30, and 78 weeks after starting RT. The diffusivity variables in the parahippocampal cingulum bundle and temporal lobe white matter were computed. A quality-of-life survey and neurocognitive function tests were administered before and after RT at the magnetic resonance imaging follow-up visits. Results: In both structures, longitudinal diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line }) decreased and perpendicular diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Up-Tack }) increased after RT, with early changes correlating to later changes (p < .05). The radiation dose correlated with an increase in cingulum {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 weeks, and patients with >50% of cingula volume receiving >12 Gy had a greater increase in {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 and 6 weeks (p < .05). The post-RT changes in verbal recall scores correlated linearly with the late changes in cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} (30 weeks, p < .02). Using receiver operating characteristic curves, early cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} changes predicted for post-RT changes in verbal recall scores (3 and 6 weeks, p < .05). The neurocognitive test scores correlated significantly with the quality-of-life survey results. Conclusions: The correlation between early diffusivity changes in the parahippocampal cingulum and the late decline in verbal recall suggests that diffusion tensor imaging might be useful as a biomarker for predicting late delayed cognitive decline.

  5. Predictive Factors for Acute and Late Urinary Toxicity After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy: Long-Term Outcome in 712 Consecutive Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, Mira Miller, Stacy; Moravan, Veronika; Pickles, Tom; McKenzie, Michael; Pai, Howard; Liu, Mitchell; Kwan, Winkle; Agranovich, Alexander; Spadinger, Ingrid; Lapointe, Vincent; Halperin, Ross; Morris, W. James

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To describe the frequency of acute and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) urinary toxicity, associated predictive factors, and resolution of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) in 712 consecutive prostate brachytherapy patients. Methods and Materials: Patients underwent implantation between 1998 and 2003 (median follow-up, 57 months). The IPSS and RTOG toxicity data were prospectively collected. The patient, treatment, and implant factors were examined for an association with urinary toxicity. The time to IPSS resolution was examined using Kaplan-Meier curves, and multivariate modeling of IPSS resolution was done using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with urinary toxicity. Results: The IPSS returned to baseline at a median of 12.6 months. On multivariate analysis, patients with a high baseline IPSS had a quicker resolution of their IPSS. Higher prostate D90 (dose covering 90% of the prostate), maximal postimplant IPSS, and urinary retention slowed the IPSS resolution time. The rate of the actuarial 5-year late urinary (>12 months) RTOG Grade 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 32%, 36%, 24%, 6.2%, and 0.1%, respectively. At 7 years, the prevalence of RTOG Grade 0-1 was 92.5%. Patients with a larger prostate volume, greater number of needles, greater baseline IPSS, and use of hormonal therapy had more acute toxicity. On multivariate analysis, the significant predictors for late greater than or equal to RTOG toxicity 2 were a greater baseline IPSS, maximal postimplant IPSS, presence of acute toxicity, and higher prostate V150 (volume of the prostate covered by 150% of the dose). More recently implanted patients had less acute urinary toxicity and patients given hormonal therapy had less late urinary toxicity (all p < 0.02). Conclusion: Most urinary symptoms resolved within 12 months after prostate brachytherapy, and significant long-term urinary toxicity was very low

  6. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 557, January 1991. Part 1 (prompt reports). Data for December, November 1990 and late data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    ;Contents: Detailed index for 1990; Data for December 1990--Solar-terrestrial environment, IUWDS alert periods (Advance and Worldwide), Solar activity indices, Solar flares, Solar radio emission, Stanford mean solar magnetic field; Data for November 1990--Solar active regions, Sudden ionospheric disturbances, Solar radio spectral observations, Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, Geomagnetic indices; Late data--Cosmic rays Huancayo September 1990, Thule July-October 1990, Geomagnetic indices, Provisional values of hourly equatorial Dst September 1989-May 1990.

  7. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 556, December 1990. Part 1 (prompt reports). Data for November, October 1990, and late data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    ;Contents: Detailed Index for 1990; Data for November 1990--Solar-Terrestrial Environment, IUWDS Alert Periods (Advance and Worldwide), Solar Activity Indices, Solar Flares, Solar Radio Emission, Standford Mean Solar Magnetic Field; Data for October 1990--Solar Active Regions, Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances, Solar Radio Spectral Observations, Cosmic Ray Measurements by Neutron Monitor, Geomagnetic Indices; Late Data--Cosmic Rays Huancayo August 1990, Geomagnetic Activity Indices September 1990, International Geophysical Calendar 1991 with recommended scientific programs.

  8. AmeriFlux US-Oho Oak Openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Oho Oak Openings. Site Description - The Ohio Oak Openings site is located within the Oak Openings Preserve Metropark of northwest Ohio, one of the few remaining oak woodlands/savanna/prairie complexes in the Midwest. Declared one of the "One of America's Last Great Places" by the Nature Conservancy the area consists of four main vegetation types: Oak Woodlands, Oak Savanna, Floodplain Forests and Wet Prairies. The stand surrounding the tower is mainly Oak Woodlands dominated by red, white and black oaks with a relatively abundant population of red maples indicating high soil moisture retention and a history of limited fire disturbances. Most of the area was cleared for agriculture at the time of Euro-American settlements in the mid to late-19th century. A large fraction of the cleared land was later abandoned due to the poor sandy soils. These areas reverted to Oak Savannas and in cases where fire was limited progressively made the transition to Oak Woodlands. Today patches of the forest are burned every few years as part of prescribed burning cycle to control stand density.

  9. AmeriFlux US-Dix Fort Dix

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Clark, Ken [USDA Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Dix Fort Dix. Site Description - The Fort Dix site is located in the upland forests of the New Jersey Pine Barrens, the largest continuous forested landscape on the Northeastern coastal plain. Upland forests occupy 62% of the 1.1 million acre Pine Barrens and can be divided into three dominant stand types, Oak/Pine (19.1%), Pine/Oak (13.1%), and Pitch Pine/Scrub oak (14.3%). The majority of mature upland forests are the product of regeneration following late 19th century logging and charcoaling activities. Gypsy moths first appeared in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey in 1966. Since the time of arrival, the upland forest stands have undergone several episodes of defoliation, the most significant occurred in 1972, 1981, and 1990. In recent years, the overstory oaks and understory oaks and shrubs of the Fort Dix stand, underwent two periods of defoliation by Gypsy moth, in 2006 and 2007. During these two years, maximum leaf area reached only 70% of the 2005 summer maximum.

  10. Prospective Study of Local Control and Late Radiation Toxicity After Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, David W.; Marvelde, Luc te; Chua, Boon H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the local recurrence rate and late toxicity of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) boost to the tumor bed using the Intrabeam System followed by external-beam whole-breast irradiation (WBI) in women with early-stage breast cancer in a prospective single-institution study. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer ?3 cm were recruited between February 2003 and May 2005. After breast-conserving surgery, a single dose of 5 Gy IORT boost was delivered using 50-kV x-rays to a depth of 10 mm from the applicator surface. This was followed by WBI to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Patients were reviewed at regular, predefined intervals. Late toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring systems. Results: Fifty-five patients completed both IORT boost and external-beam WBI. Median follow-up was 3.3 years (range, 1.4-4.1 years). There was no reported locoregional recurrence or death. One patient developed distant metastases. Grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis was detected in 29 (53%) and 8 patients (15%), respectively. Conclusions: The use of IORT as a tumor bed boost using kV x-rays in breast-conserving therapy was associated with good local control but a clinically significant rate of grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis.

  11. A New Biology for the 21st Century; Ensuring the United States Leads the Coming Biology Revolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Committee on a New Biology for the 21st Century; Ensuring the United States Leads the Coming Biology Revolution; National Research Council

    2012-05-10

    In July, 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), and Department of Energy (DOE) asked the National Research Council’s Board on Life Sciences to convene a committee to examine the current state of biological research in the United States and recommend how best to capitalize on recent technological and scientific advances that have allowed biologists to integrate biological research findings, collect and interpret vastly increased amounts of data, and predict the behavior of complex biological systems. From September 2008 through July of 2009, a committee of 16 experts from the fields of biology, engineering and computational science undertook to delineate those scientific and technological advances and come to a consensus on how the U.S. might best capitalize on them. This report, authored by the Committee on a New Biology for the 21st Century, describes the committee’s work and conclusions.

  12. The Need for a Strong Science and Technology Program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garaizar, X

    2010-01-06

    In this paper I argue for the need for a strong Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex as the basis for maintaining a credible deterrence capability. The current Nuclear Posture Review establishes a New Triad as the basis for the United States deterrence strategy in a changing security environment. A predictive science capability is at the core of a credible National Nuclear Weapons program in the 21st Century. In absence of nuclear testing, the certification of our current Nuclear Weapons relies on predictive simulations and quantification of the associated simulation uncertainties. In addition, a robust nuclear infrastructure needs an active research and development program that considers all the required nuclear scenarios, including new configurations for which there is no nuclear test data. This paper also considers alternative positions to the need for a Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons complex.

  13. Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 20% and 27% of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in areas (grid cells) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

  14. A late-time flattening of light curves in gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sironi, Lorenzo; Giannios, Dimitrios E-mail: dgiannio@purdue.edu

    2013-12-01

    The afterglow emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is usually interpreted as synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons accelerated at the GRB external shock. We investigate the temporal decay of the afterglow emission at late times, when the bulk of the shock-accelerated electrons are non-relativistic (the 'deep Newtonian phase', as denoted by Huang and Cheng). We assume that the electron spectrum in the deep Newtonian phase is a power-law distribution in momentum with slope p, as dictated by the theory of Fermi acceleration in non-relativistic shocks. For a uniform circumburst medium, the deep Newtonian phase begins at t{sub DN}?3 ?{sub e,?1}{sup 5/6}t{sub ST}, where t {sub ST} marks the transition of the blast wave to the non-relativistic, spherically symmetric Sedov-Taylor (ST) solution, and ? {sub e} = 0.1 ? {sub e,1} quantifies the amount of shock energy transferred to the electrons. For typical parameters, the deep Newtonian stage starts ?0.5 to several years after the GRB. The radio flux in this phase decays as F {sub ?}?t {sup 3(p+1)/10}?t {sup (0.91.2)}, for a power-law slope 2 < p < 3. This is shallower than the scaling F {sub ?}?t {sup 3(5p7)/10}?t {sup (0.92.4)} derived by Frail et al., which only applies if the GRB shock is non-relativistic, but the electron distribution still peaks at ultra-relativistic energies (a regime that is relevant for a narrow time interval, and only if t {sub DN} ? t {sub ST}, namely, ? {sub e} ? 0.03). We discuss how the deep Newtonian phase can be reliably used for GRB calorimetry, and we comment on the good detection prospects of trans-relativistic blast waves at 0.110 GHz with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and LOw-Frequency ARray.

  15. Studies of Ocean Predictability at Decade to Century Time Scales Using a Global Ocean General Circulation Model in a Parallel Computing Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, T.P.

    1998-11-30

    The objectives of this report are to determine the structure of oceanic natural variability at time scales of decades to centuries, characterize the physical mechanisms responsible for the variability; determine the relative importance of heat, fresh water, and moment fluxes on the variability; determine the predictability of the variability on these times scales. (B204)

  16. Dosimetric and Late Radiation Toxicity Comparison Between Iodine-125 Brachytherapy and Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Juxtapapillary Choroidal Melanoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krema, Hatem

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To compare the dose distributions and late radiation toxicities for {sup 125}I brachytherapy (IBT) and stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) in the treatment of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. Methods: Ninety-four consecutive patients with juxtapapillary melanoma were reviewed: 30 have been treated with IBT and 64 with SRT. Iodine-125 brachytherapy cases were modeled with plaque simulator software for dosimetric analysis. The SRT dosimetric data were obtained from the Radionics XKnife RT3 software. Mean doses at predetermined intraocular points were calculated. Kaplan-Meier estimates determined the actuarial rates of late toxicities, and the logrank test compared the estimates. Results: The median follow-up was 46 months in both cohorts. The 2 cohorts were balanced with respect to pretreatment clinical and tumor characteristics. Comparisons of radiation toxicity rates between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded actuarial rates at 50 months for cataracts of 62% and 75% (P=.1), for neovascular glaucoma 8% and 47% (P=.002), for radiation retinopathy 59% and 89% (P=.0001), and for radiation papillopathy 39% and 74% (P=.003), respectively. Dosimetric comparisons between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded mean doses of 12.8 and 14.1 Gy (P=.56) for the lens center, 17.6 and 19.7 Gy (P=.44) for the lens posterior pole, 13.9 and 10.8 Gy (P=.30) for the ciliary body, 61.9 and 69.7 Gy (P=.03) for optic disc center, and 48.9 and 60.1 Gy (P<.0001) for retina at 5-mm distance from tumor margin, respectively. Conclusions: Late radiation-induced toxicities were greater with SRT, which is secondary to the high-dose exposure inherent to the technique as compared with IBT. When technically feasible, IBT is preferred to treat juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma.

  17. Shelf margin bioherms and associated facies in the Lower Permian Hueco Group (Late Wolfcampian), Hueco Mountains, West Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahlman, G.P.; Tasker, D.R.; St. John, J.W.; Werle, K.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Late Wolfcampian phylloid algal/Tubiphytes biohermal complexes are exposed in three erosional oilers lying about 3 miles west of and parallel to the main Hueco Mountains in far West Texas. The biohermal complexes are located paleogeographically along the shelf margin between the Diablo Platform and Orogrande Basin. Based on fusulinids the shelf margin buildups correlate with well-bedded shelf carbonates of the type Hueco Group in the main Hueco Mountains. The phylloid algal/Tubiphytes shelf margin bioherms contain an upward shallowing facies succession, which, in ascending order, consists of: (1) phylloid algal wackestone-bafflestone, (2) phylloid algal-fusulinid bafflestone-packstone, and (3) Tubiphytes boundstone and Tubiphytes-fusulinid-phylloid algal packstone-grainstone. The crest of the southernmost outlier has a different type of bioherm that consists of nodular boundstones composed of calcisponges, encrusting bryozoans and laminar red algae. The shelf margin complexes prograded over slope facies of dark-gray cherty limestones, which generally lack skeletal fossils, but contain common ichnofossils in upper slope beds. Overlapping tongues and channels of lithoclastic-skeletal packstones and grainstones extend seaward from the phylloid algal/Tubiphytes bioherms into the dark-gray slope facies. Proximal backreef facies consist of mainly skeletal-peloidal packstones and wackestones. The Hueco Mountains outlier exposures are important because: (1) they confirm a Late Wolfcampian shelf margin with distinct topographic relief in the southern Orogrande Basin, and (2) they provide an easily accessible field laboratory where Wolfcampian shelf-to-basin facies relationships and shelf margin bioherms can be studied. Wolfcampian bioherms represent a significant stage in the evolutionary history of Late Paleozoic reef communities and form important petroleum reservoirs in the adjacent Permian Basin.

  18. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-08-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining

  19. Ocean acidification over the next three centuries using a simple global climate carbon-cycle model: projections and sensitivities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Patel, Pralit; Mundra, Anupriya

    2016-08-01

    Continued oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is projected to significantly alter the chemistry of the upper oceans over the next three centuries, with potentially serious consequences for marine ecosystems. Relatively few models have the capability to make projections of ocean acidification, limiting our ability to assess the impacts and probabilities of ocean changes. In this study we examine the ability of Hector v1.1, a reduced-form global model, to project changes in the upper ocean carbonate system over the next three centuries, and quantify the model's sensitivity to parametric inputs. Hector is run under prescribed emission pathways from the Representative Concentrationmore » Pathways (RCPs) and compared to both observations and a suite of Coupled Model Intercomparison (CMIP5) model outputs. Current observations confirm that ocean acidification is already taking place, and CMIP5 models project significant changes occurring to 2300. Hector is consistent with the observational record within both the high- (> 55°) and low-latitude oceans (< 55°). The model projects low-latitude surface ocean pH to decrease from preindustrial levels of 8.17 to 7.77 in 2100, and to 7.50 in 2300; aragonite saturation levels (ΩAr) decrease from 4.1 units to 2.2 in 2100 and 1.4 in 2300 under RCP 8.5. These magnitudes and trends of ocean acidification within Hector are largely consistent with the CMIP5 model outputs, although we identify some small biases within Hector's carbonate system. Of the parameters tested, changes in [H+] are most sensitive to parameters that directly affect atmospheric CO2 concentrations – Q10 (terrestrial respiration temperature response) as well as changes in ocean circulation, while changes in ΩAr saturation levels are sensitive to changes in ocean salinity and Q10. We conclude that Hector is a robust tool well suited for rapid ocean acidification projections and sensitivity analyses, and it is capable of emulating both current observations

  20. Vadim Banine ASML

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EUV lithography: now and in the future Vadim Banine ASML September 23, 2015 4:00 p.m. Lithography, in the form of carved type printing, can be dated as far back as the 3rd century AD. Starting from the 19th century it played a major role as the basis for dissemination and preservation of knowledge in the form of printed books, maps, newspapers, etc. In the mid 20th century, with the invention of the micro- and nano- electronics, it took on a new meaning and became the basis for the patterning

  1. Multi-century Changes to Global Climate and Carbon Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C

    2005-02-17

    In this paper, we use a coupled climate and carbon cycle model to investigate the global climate and carbon cycle changes out to year 2300 that would occur if CO{sub 2} emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By year 2300, the global climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric CO{sub 2} reaches 1423 ppmv. The warming is higher than anticipated because the sensitivity to radiative forcing increases as the simulation progresses. In our simulation, the rate of emissions peak at over 30 PgC yr{sup -1} early in the 22nd century. Even at year 2300, nearly 50% of cumulative emissions remain in the atmosphere. In our simulations both soils and living biomass are net carbon sinks throughout the simulation. Despite having relatively low climate sensitivity and strong carbon uptake by the land biosphere, our model projections suggest severe long-term consequences for global climate if all the fossil-fuel carbon is ultimately released to the atmosphere.

  2. Judging Edward Teller: A Closer Look at One of the Most Influential Scientists of the Twentieth Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libby, S B

    2010-12-29

    Much has been written about Edward TEller, but little of it is objective. Given, on the one hand, his position as one of the most inventive theoretical physicists of the 20th century, and on the other, his central role in the development and advocacy of thermonuclear weapons, one might imagine it impossible at this point in history to write a scholarly, impartial account of Teller's life and his impact. Now, however, Istvan Hargittai, a prominent Hungarian physical chemist and historian of science, has written a balanced, thoughtful, and beautifully research biography that comes closest. Hargittai is uniquely qualified for this difficult task. Coming a generation and a half later from a similar Hungarian-Jewish background, Hargittai understands well the influences and terrible events that shaped Teller. The advent of virulent, political anti-Semitism, first in Hungary and then in Germany, made Teller twice a refugee. Both Teller and Hargittai lost close family in the Holocaust; Hargittai was himself liberated from a Nazi concentration camp as a child. While Teller was in the US by then, his and Hargittai's surviving family members in Hungary suffered mistreatment at the hands of the postwar Hungarian Communist dictatorship. Hargittai's informed Eastern European perspective also provides a fresh viewpoint to the cold war context of the second half of Teller's career. Furthermore, Hargittai's own scientific work in molecular structure clearly makes him appreciate of Teller's breakthroughs in that field in the 1930s.

  3. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Design (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions. In addition, the guide describes methodologies that can be employed to operate laboratory exhaust systems in a safe and energy efficient manner by using variable air volume (VAV) technology. The guide, one in a series on best practices for laboratories, was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, the guides contain information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories. Studies show a direct relationship between indoor air quality and the health and productivity of building occupants. Historically, the study and protection of indoor air quality focused on emission sources emanating from within the building. For example, to ensure that the worker is not exposed to toxic chemicals, 'as manufactured' and 'as installed' containment specifications are required for fume hoods. However, emissions from external sources, which may be re-ingested into the building through closed circuiting between the building's exhaust stacks and air intakes, are an often overlooked aspect of indoor air quality.

  4. Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century (EIRR21): Description of an Innovative Research Training Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P'ng, Christine; Ito, Emma; Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario ; How, Christine; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Bezjak, Andrea; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Bristow, Rob; Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Catton, Pam; Fyles, Anthony; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Jaffray, David; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Kelley, Shana; Wong Shun; Odette Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario ; Liu Feifei

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To describe and assess an interdisciplinary research training program for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and clinical fellows focused on radiation medicine; funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research since 2003, the program entitled 'Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century' (EIRR21) aims to train the next generation of interdisciplinary radiation medicine researchers. Methods and Materials: Online surveys evaluating EIRR21 were sent to trainees (n=56), mentors (n=36), and seminar speakers (n=72). Face-to-face interviews were also conducted for trainee liaisons (n=4) and participants in the international exchange program (n=2). Results: Overall response rates ranged from 53% (mentors) to 91% (trainees). EIRR21 was well received by trainees, with the acquisition of several important skills related to their research endeavors. An innovative seminar series, entitled Brainstorm sessions, imparting 'extracurricular' knowledge in intellectual property protection, commercialization strategies, and effective communication, was considered to be the most valuable component of the program. Networking with researchers in other disciplines was also facilitated owing to program participation. Conclusions: EIRR21 is an innovative training program that positively impacts the biomedical community and imparts valuable skill sets to foster success for the future generation of radiation medicine researchers.

  5. Whitehead Policy Symposium. The Human Genome Project: Science, law, and social change in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, E.K.

    2000-02-17

    Advances in the biomedical sciences, especially in human genomics, will dramatically influence law, medicine, public health, and many other sectors of our society in the decades ahead. The public already senses the revolutionary nature of genomic knowledge. In the US and Europe, we have seen widespread discussions about genetic discrimination in health insurance; privacy issues raised by the proliferation of DNA data banks; the challenge of interpreting new DNA diagnostic tests; changing definitions of what it means to be healthy; and the science and ethics of cloning animals and human beings. The primary goal of the Whitehead/ASLME Policy Symposium was to provide a bridge between the research community and professionals, who were just beginning to grasp the potential impact of new genetic technologies on their fields. The ''Human Genome Project: Science, Law, and Social Change in the 21st Century'' initially was designed as a forum for 300-500 physicians, lawyers, consumers, ethicists, and scientists to explore the impact of new genetic technologies and prepare for the challenges ahead.

  6. Nuclear substructure reorganization during late stageerythropoiesis is selective and does not involve caspase cleavage ofmajor nuclear substructural proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Koury, MarkJ.; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2005-04-06

    Enucleation, a rare feature of mammalian differentiation, occurs in three cell types: erythroblasts, lens epithelium and keratinocytes. Previous investigations suggest that caspase activation functions in lens epithelial and keratinocyte enucleation, as well as in early erythropoiesis encompassing BFU-E differentiation to proerythroblast. To determine whether caspase activation contributes to later erythropoiesis and whether nuclear substructures other than chromatin reorganize, we analyzed distributions of nuclear subcompartment proteins and assayed for caspase-induced cleavage of subcompartmental target proteins in mouse erythroblasts. We found that patterns of lamin B in the filamentous network interacting with both the nuclear envelope and DNA, nuclear matrix protein NuMA, and splicing factors Sm and SC35 persisted during nuclear condensation, consistent with effective transcription of genes expressed late in differentiation. Thus nuclear reorganization prior to enucleation is selective, allowing maintenance of critical transcriptional processes independent of extensive chromosomal reorganization. Consistent with these data, we found no evidence for caspase-induced cleavage of major nuclear subcompartment proteins during late erythropoiesis, in contrast to what has been observed in early erythropoiesis and in lens epithelial and keratinocyte differentiation. These findings imply that nuclear condensation and extrusion during terminal erythroid differentiation involve novel mechanisms that do not entail major activation of apoptotic machinery.

  7. A closer look at the fluctuations in the brightness of SN 2009IP during its late 2012 eruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J. C. [Barber Observatory, University of Illinois Springfield, Springfield, IL 62704 (United States); Hambsch, F.-J. [Remote Observatory, Atacama Desert, Chile Vereniging Voor Sterrenkunde (VVS), Oude Bleken 12, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02318 (United States); Tan, T. G. [Perth Exoplanet Survey Telescope, Perth (Australia); Curtis, I., E-mail: jmart5@uis.edu [Adelaide (Australia)

    2015-01-01

    The supernova (SN) impostor SN 2009ip has re-brightened several times since its initial discovery in 2009 August. During its last outburst in late 2012 September, it reached a peak brightness of m{sub v} ?13.5 (M{sub v} brighter than ?18), causing some to speculate that it had undergone a terminal core-collapse SN. Relatively high-cadence multi-wavelength photometry of the post-peak decline revealed bumps in brightness infrequently observed in other SNe IIn. These bumps occurred synchronously in all ultraviolet (UV) and optical bands with amplitudes of 0.10.4 mag at intervals of 1030 days. Episodic continuum brightening and dimming in the UV and optical with these characteristics is not easily explained within the context of models that have been proposed for the late September 2012 outburst of SN 2009ip. We also present evidence that the post-peak fluctuations in brightness occur at regular intervals and raise more questions about their origin.

  8. Characterization of a 12-pdr wrought-iron cannonball from the Akko 1 shipwreck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cvikel, D.; Ashkenazi, D.; Stern, A.; Kahanov, Y.

    2013-09-15

    The Akko 1 shipwreck, discovered in Akko harbor, Israel, is the remains of an eastern Mediterranean brig built at the beginning of the 19th century. Among other finds, eleven cannonballs were found in the shipwreck and three of them were retrieved. Two of the cannonballs, the 9- and 24-pdrs, have been studied previously. The present study of the 12-pdr cannonball included γ-rays radiographic testing, XRF analysis, density measurements, optical microscopy and SEM-EDS observation, OES analysis and microhardness tests. The investigation included characterization of the composition, microstructure and slag analysis. The results revealed a quite homogenous microstructure of α-ferrite phase, with glassy, wüstite and fayalite slags, as typical for a wrought-iron—annealed product, a more complicated and an earlier technology, compared to the 9- and 24-pdr that were made of cast-iron. Ferritic cannonballs are extremely rare, especially in the 19th century, when cannonballs were manufactured of cast iron by the sand casting process. The different manufacturing methods may indicate a different place of fabrication, and an apparently earlier production date for the 12-pdr, which might have even been used as ballast. - Highlights: • Three cannonballs were retrieved from the 19th century Akko 1 shipwreck. • The 12-pdr differs from the 9- and 24-pdr cannonballs previously studied. • The 12-pdr was made of high quality annealed wrought-iron, not of cast-iron. • The technology used indicates a date earlier than the middle of the 19th century. • Perhaps the 12-pdr belonged to another navy than the other two or used as ballast.

  9. A field guide to American windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, B.T.

    1985-01-01

    The first part of this work offers a history of turbine-wheel mills in the United States from their mid-19th century origins to their present status. The next section is a field guide to over 100 kinds of windmills, each depicted in text, drawing, and photograph. The final part of the text comprises an appendix listing all known North American windmill makers, and appendix listing every known model, notes, bibliography, and index.

  10. Another Side of Light - D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D. Three quantum phenomena In fluorescence, matter absorbs light waves of a high frequency and then emits light of the same or lower frequency. This process was studied and named by George Gabriel Stokes in the mid-19th century. Today, fluorescence is familiar to us from fluorescent light bulbs. A fluorescent bulb's filament produces ultraviolet light, which is absorbed by the bulb's inner coating, which then emits lower-frequency visible light-more visible light than an incandescent bulb