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1

General Laser Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General Measurements for Laser Meters. ... 90 to 0 dBm. 0 to 30 dBm. AO 2005, Igor Vayshenker. Laser Dose, 193 nm, SP250-56, David Livigni. ...

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

2

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Laser Heat Treatment [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat Treatment Heat Treatment Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Laser Heat Treatment Project description: Optimization of laser beam heat treatment. Category: Project with industrial partner (Caterpillar and USCAR) Bookmark and Share Heat treatment optics

4

Heat transfer in excimer laser melting of thin polysilicon layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat transfer in excimer laser melting of thin polysilicon layers Title Heat transfer in excimer laser melting of thin polysilicon layers Publication Type Journal Article Year of...

5

Plasma heating effects during laser welding  

SciTech Connect

Laser welding is a relatively low heat input process used in joining precisely machined components with minimum distortion and heat affects to surrounding material. The CO/sub 2/ (10.6 ..mu..m) and Nd-YAG (1.06 ..mu..m) lasers are the primary lasers used for welding in industry today. Average powers range up to 20 kW for CO/sub 2/ and 400 W for Nd-YAG with pulse lengths of milliseconds to continuous wave. Control of the process depends on an understanding of the laser-plasma-material interaction and characterization of the laser beam being used. Inherent plasma formation above the material surface and subsequent modulation of the incident laser radiation directly affect the energy transfer to the target material. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the laser beam affect the available power density incident on the target, which is important in achieving repeatability in the process. Other factors such as surface texture, surface contaminants, surface chemistry, and welding environment affect plasma formation which determines the weld penetration. This work involves studies of the laser-plasma-material interaction process and particularly the effect of the plasma on the coupling of laser energy to a material during welding. A pulsed Nd-YAG laser was used with maximum average power of 400 W.

Lewis, G.K.; Dixon, R.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Generalized Divided Flow Heat Exchanger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of a "Divided-flow" heat exchanger is generalized by locating the shell inlet (or outlet) nozzle off-center such that the two shell sub-streams are unequal and traverse unequal flow paths. The governing equations for heat transfer in such an exchanger are derived and solved leading to an optimization problem. In this problem, the optimal subdivision of heat transfer surface to minimize required overall heat transfer surface, under certain restricted conditions, is sought. It is shown that the off-center nozzle location can be selected judiciously so as to maintain (or even improve heat transfer) while reducing the gross shellside pressure loss. Thus, the pumping costs are minimized without sacrificing heat transfer.

Singh, K. P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

High temperature thermographic measurements of laser heated silica  

SciTech Connect

In situ spatial and temporal surface temperature profiles of CO{sub 2} laser-heated silica were obtained using a long wave infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe camera. Solutions to the linear diffusion equation with volumetric and surface heating are shown to describe the temperature evolution for a range of beam powers, over which the peak surface temperature scales linearly with power. These solutions were used with on-axis steady state and transient experimental temperatures to extract thermal diffusivity and conductivity for a variety of materials, including silica, spinel, sapphire, and lithium fluoride. Experimentally-derived thermal properties agreed well with reported values and, for silica, thermal conductivity and diffusivity are shown to be approximately independent of temperature between 300 and 2800K. While for silica our analysis based on a temperature independent thermal conductivity is shown to be accurate, for other materials studied this treatment yields effective thermal properties that represent reasonable approximations for laser heating. Implementation of a single-wavelength radiation measurement in the semi-transparent regime is generally discussed, and estimates of the apparent temperature deviation from the actual outer surface temperature are also presented. The experimental approach and the simple analysis presented yield surface temperature measurements that can be used to validate more complex physical models, help discriminate dominant heat transport mechanisms, and to predict temperature distribution and evolution during laser-based material processing.

Elhadj, S; Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Cooke, D J; Bude, J D; Johnson, M; Feit, M; Draggoo, V; Bisson, S E

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

8

Fiber-optic-coupled, laser heated thermoluminescence dosimeter ...  

Fiber-optic-coupled, laser heated thermoluminescence dosimeter for remote radiation sensing Alan L. Hustona) and Brian L. Justus Optical Sciences ...

9

Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $200 Provider Portland General Electric Portland General Electric's (PGE) Heat Pump Rebate Program offers residential customers a $200 rebate for an energy-efficient heat pump installed to PGE's standards by a PGE-approved contractor. The rebate is also available for replacing older, inefficient heat pump units. See the program web site or contact the utility for additional information on program incentives and guidelines. Other Information Heat pumps: 7.7 HSPF and 13 SEER minimum

10

Rapid heating of solid density material by a petawatt laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time-resolved x-ray spectra from solid targets irradiated by the VULCAN Petawatt laser focused to 10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2} show that material at solid density is heated to temperatures above 500 eV to a depth of about 15 {mu}m and for a duration of more than 30 ps. Modeling with the implicit hybrid plasma code LSP shows that the heating is sensitive to the laser prepulse through resistive inhibition of the laser accelerated electrons in the blow off layer.

Evans, R.G.; Clark, E.L.; Eagleton, R.T.; Dunne, A.M.; Edwards, R.D.; Garbett, W.J.; Goldsack, T.J.; James, S.; Smith, C.C.; Thomas, B.R.; Clarke, R.; Neely, D.J.; Rose, S.J. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Central LaserFacility, CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

2005-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

11

Factors Affecting Heat Transport in an Ocean General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global ocean general circulation model with idealized geometry and coupled to a simple representation of atmospheric energy fluxes is used to investigate which physical factors determine meridional heat transport. A particular focus is on ...

Igor Kamenkovich; Jochem Marotzke; Peter H. Stone

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Diabatic Heating in the UCLA General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diabatic heating rates calculated in the UCLA general circulation model are analyzed. The heating rates are for the December–January–February season for the mean of four climatological runs and the mean of four runs with observed 1982/83 sea ...

Bryan C. Weare

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fast Heating of Cylindrically Imploded Plasmas by Petawatt Laser Light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We produced cylindrically imploded plasmas, which have the same density-radius product of the imploded plasma {rho}R with the compressed core in the fast ignition experiment and demonstrated efficient fast heating of cylindrically imploded plasmas with an ultraintense laser light. The coupling efficiency from the laser to the imploded column was 14%-21%, implying strong collimation of energetic electrons over a distance of 300 {mu}m of the plasma. Particle-in-cell simulation shows confinement of the energetic electrons by self-generated magnetic and electrostatic fields excited along the imploded plasmas, and the efficient fast heating in the compressed region.

Nakamura, H.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Yabuuchi, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 2-1, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Sentoku, Y. [Nevada Terawatt Facility, Department of Physics, MS-220, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Matsuoka, T.; Norimatsu, T.; Shiraga, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kondo, K.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 2-1, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kodama, R. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 2-1, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5-Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

2008-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

14

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid state laser technology is a very well developed field and numerous embodiments and modes of operation have been demonstrated. A more recent development has been the pumping of a solid state laser active medium with an array of diode lasers (diode pumping, for short). These diode pump packages have previously been developed to pump solid state lasers with good efficiency, but low average power. This invention is a method and the resulting apparatus for operating a solid state laser in the heat capacity mode. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself.

Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W. [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) girth welds  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using iridium capsules, TIG welded, to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Since experience in the past had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of the capsule weld is required. A ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors that exceeded the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C. [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Heat Tint Effects on General Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat tint is usually created during a welding operation. The heat tint creates an oxide ... Reformer Inlet Hair-pin-pipe Weld Cracking · Remedy of Deficiencies

17

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

19

Flash pyrolysis and gasification of coal through laser heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental results obtained from the rapid pyrolysis of finely powdered coal are presented. The experiments are designed to provide basic information on gas yield, gas composition, optimum fluxes, and temperature history of coal samples under high intensity laser radiation. The information obtained from these experiments will be used to test concepts for the use of concentrated sunlight to produce fuel gases from coal. Heating the coal at rates of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 4/ C/s in an inert atmosphere of argon results in pyrolysis at temperatures between 400 and 800/sup 0/C. The gases evolved are primarily CO, H/sub 2/, and CH/sub 4/ with lesser amounts of CO/sub 2/ and other light hydrocarbons. Mass spectrometry is used to determine the composition of the evolved gases. The optimum flux for laser pyrolysis of coal was found to be 250 W/cm/sup 2/. Results from experiments wherein the char created by pyrolysis is gasified to CO in an atmosphere of CO/sub 2/ are also presented.

Beattie, W.H.; Sullivan, J.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Army Solid State Laser Program: Design, Operation, and Mission Analysis for a Heat-Capacity Laser  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid-state lasers have held great promise for the generation of high-average-power, high-quality output beams for a number of decades. However, the inherent difficulty of scaling the active solid-state gain media while continuing to provide efficient cooling has limited demonstrated powers to <5kW. Even at the maximum demonstrated average powers, the output is most often delivered as continuous wave (CW) or as small energy pulses at high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and the beam divergence is typically >10X the diffraction limit. Challenges posed by optical distortions and depolarization arising from internal temperature gradients in the gain medium of a continuously cooled system are only increased for laser designs that would attempt to deliver the high average power in the form of high energy pulses (>25J) from a single coherent optical aperture. Although demonstrated phase-locking of multiple laser apertures may hold significant promise for the future scaling of solid-state laser systems,1 the continuing need for additional technical development and innovation coupled with the anticipated complexity of these systems effectively limits this approach for near-term multi-kW laser operation outside of a laboratory setting. We have developed and demonstrated a new operational mode for solid-state laser systems in which the cooling of the gain medium is separated in time from the lasing cycle. In ''heat-capacity'' operation, no cooling takes place during lasing. The gain medium is pumped very uniformly and the waste heat from the excitation process is stored in the solid-state gain medium. By depositing the heat on time scales that are short compared to thermal diffusion across the optical aperture, very high average power operation is possible while maintaining low optical distortions. After a lasing cycle, aggressive cooling can then take place in the absence of lasing, limited only by the fracture limit of the solid-state medium. This mode of operation is ideally suited for applications that require 1-30s engagements at very high average power. If necessary, multiple laser apertures can provide continuous operation. Land Combat mission analysis of a stressing air defense scenario including a dense attack of rockets, mortars, and artillery has indicated that multiple HEL weapon systems, based on the solid state, heat capacity laser concept, can provide significantly improved protection of high value battlefield assets. We will present EADSIM results for two government-supplied scenarios, one with temporally high threat density over a fairly large defended area, and one with fewer threats concentrating on a single defended asset. Implications for weapon system requirements will be presented. In order to demonstrate the operation of a high average power heat-capacity laser system, we have developed a flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass laser with output energies in the range of 500-1000J/pulse in a 10 x 10cm{sup 2} beam. With a repetition frequency of 20Hz, an average power of 13kW has been demonstrated for operational periods of up to 10s using a stable optical resonator (see enclosed figure). Using an M=1.4 unstable resonator, a beam divergence of 5X diffraction-limited has been measured with no active wavefront correction. An adaptively corrected unstable resonator that incorporates an intracavity deformable mirror controlled by feedback from an external wavefront sensor will provide <2X diffraction-limited output integrated over an entire 10s run at an average power of 10kW. A very similar laser architecture in which the Nd:glass is replaced by Nd:GGG and the flashlamps are replaced by large diode-laser arrays will enable the scaling of the output average power from the demonstrated 10kW to 100kW (500J/pulse at 200Hz). Risk reduction experiments for diode-pumped Nd:GGG, the fabrication of large Nd:GGG amplifier slabs, as well as the progress toward a sub-scale amplifier testbed pumped by diode arrays with total of 1MW peak power will also be presented.

Dane, C B; Flath, L; Rotter, M; Fochs, S; Brase, J; Bretney, K

2001-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Petawatt-laser direct heating of uniformly imploded deuterated-polystyrene shell target  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A uniformly imploded deuterated polystyrene (CD) shell target is fast-heated by a Petawatt (PW) laser without cone guide. The best illumination timing is found to be in a narrow region around 80{+-}20 picoseconds from the onset of the stagnation phase, where thermal neutrons are enhanced four to five times by the PW laser of energy less than 10% of the implosion laser. The timing agrees with the timings of enhancement of the x-ray emission from the core and reduction of the bremsstrahlung radiation from scattered hot electrons. The PW laser, focused to the critical density point, generates the energetic electrons within as narrow an angle as 30 deg., which then heats the imploded CD shell to enhance thermal neutrons. These results first demonstrate that the PW laser directly heats the imploded core without any conelike laser guide.

Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi; Akamatsu, Shin; Sakamoto, Wataru; Tanaka, Kazuo A.; Kodama, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Inubushi, Yuichi; Nakai, Mitsuo; Watari, Takeshi; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Sunahara, Atsushi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sentoku, Yasuhiko [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89506 (United States)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

A Generalization of Gill's Heat-Induced Tropical Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this note, the local solution of Gill for the symmetric and the antisymmetric heat sources and sinks is extended to the entire global tropical belt by the authors. The symmetric and antisymmetric heating forced solutions of the motion field ...

Z. Zhang; T. N. Krishnamurti

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Process and Material Data Needed for Heat Treatment and Laser ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For heat treatment processes, thermocouple experiments and analysis required to determine the heat transfer boundary conditions are explained.

24

Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

Wiltsee, G.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils | Stanford...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils Tuesday, July 16, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Kelly Cone, PhD Engineering, Dept. of Applied Science,...

26

A generalized adaptive predictive controller design-based direct identification for district heating system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To realize accurate control for district heating system, a GPC (generalized predictive control) adaptive algorithm was presented that directly identified controller's parameters with two identifiers. The algorithm could adapt characteristics of district ... Keywords: adaptive, direct identification, district heating system, generalized predictive control

Zhao Youen

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Laser irradiation of carbon nanotube films: Effects and heat dissipation probed by Raman spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the thermal properties of thin films formed by single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes submitted to laser irradiation using Raman scattering as a probe of both the tube morphology and the local temperature. The nanotubes were submitted to heating/cooling cycles attaining high laser intensities ({approx}1.4 MW/cm{sup 2}) under vacuum and in the presence of an atmosphere, with and without oxygen. We investigate the heat diffusion of the irradiated nanotubes to their surroundings and the effect of laser annealing on their properties. The presence of oxygen during laser irradiation gives rise to an irreversible increase of the Raman efficiency of the carbon nanotubes and to a remarkable increase of the thermal conductivity of multi-walled films. The second effect can be applied to design thermal conductive channels in devices based on carbon nanotube films using laser beams.

Mialichi, J. R.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Iikawa, F. [Instituto de Fisica 'Gleb Wataghin,' Unicamp, Campinas, 13083-859 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Verissimo, C.; Moshkalev, S. A. [Centro de Componentes Semicondutores, Unicamp, Campinas, 13083-870 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2013-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

28

The General Circulation and Meridional Heat Transport of the Subtropical South Atlantic Determined by Inverse Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using hydrographic data of the IGY and METEOR expeditions, the inverse method of Wunsch (1978) has been applied to the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean to determine its general circulation and meridional heat transport. The method is based on the ...

Lee-Lueng Fu

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Numerical solution for Stokes' first problem for a heated generalized second grade fluid with fractional derivative  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider Stokes' first problem for a heated generalized second grade fluid with fractional derivative (SFP-HGSGF). An effective implicit numerical approximation scheme (INAS) for solving the SFP-HGSGF is presented. The stability and ... Keywords: Convergence, Generalized second grade fluid, Numerical method, Stability, Stokes' first problem

Chunhong Wu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Sinterable ceramic powders from laser heated gas phase reactions and rapidly solidified ceramic materials : annual report.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO[subscript 2] lasers have been employed to heat reactant gases to synthesize Si, Si[subscript 3] N[subscript 4] and SiC powders. The powders are small, uniform in size, nonagglomerated, highly pure and of controlled ...

Haggerty, John Scarseth

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Heating dynamics of CO{sub 2}-laser irradiated silica particles with evaporative shrinking: Measurements and modeling  

SciTech Connect

The heating dynamics of CO{sub 2}-laser heated micron-sized particles were determined for temperatures <3500 K measured using infrared imaging. A coupled mass and energy conservation model is derived to predict single particle temperatures and sizes, which were compared with data from particles deposited on non-absorbing substrates to assess the relevant heat transfer processes. Analysis reveals substrate conduction dominates all other heat losses, while laser absorption determined from Mie theory is strongly modulated by particle evaporative shrinking. This study provides insights into the light coupling and heating of particle arrays where the material optical properties are temperature-dependent and particle size changes are significant.

Elhadj, S.; Qiu, S. R.; Stolz, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Monterrosa, A. M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94704 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Electron heated target temperature measurements in petawatt laser experiments based on extreme ultraviolet imaging and spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three independent methods (extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy, imaging at 68 and 256 eV) have been used to measure planar target rear surface plasma temperature due to heating by hot electrons. The hot electrons are produced by ultraintense laser-plasma interactions using the 150 J, 0.5 ps Titan laser. Soft x-ray spectroscopy in the 50-400 eV region and imaging at the 68 and 256 eV photon energies give a planar deuterated carbon target rear surface pre-expansion temperature in the 125-150 eV range, with the rear plasma plume averaging a temperature approximately 74 eV.

Ma, T. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Beg, F. N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); MacPhee, A. G.; Chung, H.-K.; Key, M. H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K.; Hatchett, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Chen, C. D. [Plasma Science Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Freeman, R. R.; Link, A.; Offermann, D. T.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Van Woerkom, L. D. [College of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The Ohio State University, 425 Stillman Hall, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1123 (United States)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Modeling near-field radiative heat transfer from sharp objects using a general three-dimensional numerical scattering technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a general numerical method to calculate the nonequilibrium radiative heat transfer between a plate and compact objects of arbitrary shapes, making the first accurate theoretical predictions for the total heat ...

McCauley, Alexander Patrick

34

Isochoric heating of reduced mass targets by ultra-intense laser produced relativistic electrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present measurements of the chlorine K-alpha emission from reduced mass targets, irradiated with ultra-high intensity laser pulses. Chlorinated plastic targets with diameters down to 50 micrometers and mass of a few 10{sup -8} g were irradiated with up to 7 J of laser energy focused to intensities of several 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The conversion of laser energy to K-alpha radiation is measured, as well as high resolution spectra that allow observation of line shifts, indicating isochoric heating of the target up to 18 eV. A zero-dimensional 2-temperature equilibration model, combined with electron impact K-shell ionization and post processed spectra from collisional radiative calculations reproduces the observed K-alpha yields and line shifts, and shows the importance of target expansion due to the hot electron pressure.

Neumayer, P; Lee, H J; Offerman, D; Shipton, E; Kemp, A; Kritcher, A L; Doppner, T; Back, C A; Glenzer, S H

2009-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

35

Assessment of Latent Heat Reservoirs for Thermal Management of QCW Laser Diodes  

SciTech Connect

There is great interest in improving the thermal management of laser diodes intended for use as pumps in inertial confinement fusion systems. Laser diode power is currently constrained by heat dissipation in the diodes. Diodes typically dissipate a quantity of heat that is comparable to their optical power output. This heating of the diode junction causes a thermal rollover that prevents the output power from scaling linearly with current drive, and also results in reliability limits due to catastrophic failure at diode mirror facets. For the pulsed, quasi-continuous wave (QCW) operating mode employed for LIFE and certain DOD applications, {approx}5 kW/cm{sup 2} of heat must be removed on timescales of {approx}100{micro}s, which is determined by thermal paths located within {approx}200 {micro}m of the laser junction. For these reasons, QCW thermal management is extremely challenging. Reducing the diode junction temperature enables more efficient operation, reduced thermal chirp, and operation at higher output power without compromised reliability - which improves the diode costs as measured in $/W. We have proposed the use of latent heat reservoirs to improve thermal management of diodes used in pulsed, quasi-continuous wave (QCW) operation. Our basic concept involves placement of a reservoir of low-melting-point metal within a few hundred microns of the laser junction, as in Fig. 1-1. This metal's latent heat of fusion maintains a nearly constant temperature (like a cold plate) in the very near vicinity of the diode junction. This cold reservoir creates large thermal gradients, which in turn are anticipated to drive a large heat flow from the diode. In contrast, conventional QCW devices rely on thermal diffusion into a large solid mass which cannot be held at a fixed temperature, which significantly limits the thermal extraction. Our operational concept involves phase changes within the reservoir during every QCW pulse. During the early portion of the pulse, heating of the diode and its surrounding material initiates melting within the latent heat reservoir. This phase change results in a near-constant reservoir temperature that facilitates heat transfer. During the long ({approx}100 ms) time between QCW pulses, the reservoir metal resolidifies. A simple back-of-the-envelope calculation based on Gallium metal shows that a 50 {micro}m thick Gallium reservoir is sufficient to absorb all heat generated by a 350 {micro}s pulse at 5 kW/cm{sup 2}. While this calculation shows that a latent heat reservoir can provide sufficient capacity to handle the magnitude of heat generated, it does not address the transient change in the diode junction temperature, which depends on details the heat flow into and through the reservoir. For this reason, we undertook a set of numerical experiments to quantitatively assess the impact of latent heat reservoirs on junction temperature. This report documents the results of these simulations.

Deri, B; Kotovsky, J; Spadaccini, C

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Electron Heated Targets in Petawatt Laser Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of the transport of electrons, and the flow of energy into a solid target or dense plasma, is instrumental in the development of fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. An extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging diagnostic at 256 eV and 68 eV provides information about heating and energy deposition within petawatt laser-irradiated targets. XUV images of several irradiated solid targets are presented.

Ma, T; MacPhee, A; Key, M; Akli, K; Mackinnon, A; Chen, C; Barbee, T; Freeman, R; King, J; Link, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Stephens, R; VanWoerkom, L; Zhang, B; Beg, F

2007-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

37

An in situ approach to study trace element partitioning in the laser heated diamond anvil cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data on partitioning behavior of elements between different phases at in situ conditions are crucial for the understanding of element mobility especially for geochemical studies. Here, we present results of in situ partitioning of trace elements (Zr, Pd, and Ru) between silicate and iron melts, up to 50 GPa and 4200 K, using a modified laser heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). This new experimental set up allows simultaneous collection of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) data as a function of time using the high pressure beamline ID27 (ESRF, France). The technique enables the simultaneous detection of sample melting based to the appearance of diffuse scattering in the XRD pattern, characteristic of the structure factor of liquids, and measurements of elemental partitioning of the sample using XRF, before, during and after laser heating in the DAC. We were able to detect elements concentrations as low as a few ppm level (2-5 ppm) on standard solutions. In situ measurements are complimented by mapping of the chemical partitions of the trace elements after laser heating on the quenched samples to constrain the partitioning data. Our first results indicate a strong partitioning of Pd and Ru into the metallic phase, while Zr remains clearly incompatible with iron. This novel approach extends the pressure and temperature range of partitioning experiments derived from quenched samples from the large volume presses and could bring new insight to the early history of Earth.

Petitgirard, S.; Mezouar, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Borchert, M.; Appel, K.; Liermann, H.-P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Andrault, D. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire des Magmas and Volcans, 5 rue Kessler 63038, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

TEMPLUM: a process adapted numerical simulation code for the 3D predictive assessment of laser surface heat treatments in planar geometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process adapted numerical simulation code for the 3D predictive assessment of laser heat treatment of materials has been developed. Primarily intended for the analysis of the laser transformation hardening of steels, the code has been successfully ... Keywords: finite element, heat conduction, laser surface treatments, modeling, numerical analysis, optical glass polishing, simulation, transformation hardening

A. A. García-Beltrán; J. L. Ocaña; C. L. Molpeceres

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/.

George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

Mark Borland; Steve Frank

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Generalized assessment of heat-storage accumulators based on energy profiles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The analytical and experimental work described in this paper has to do with the development of a new and practical method for designing and rating heat-storage systems operating on a heat-capacity duty cycle of several days. It was carried out as part of a broader project evaluating equipment for exploiting solar energy and heat produced by animals on animal farms. Water-type heat accumulators were found to be an essential component of these systems; however, no generalized or specialized criteria were available for their effective design. Therefore, design optimization was carried out analytically, and the resulting approach was experimentally verified. This process led to the development of generalized criteria for rating the efficiency of stored heat utilization and to the development of reservoir design guidelines that, for practical design purposes, eliminated the need for knowing storage temperature histograms. The analysis is based on defining the storage quality as the degree of perfection ({zeta}{sub e}) in terms of the initial and final exergy (available energy) ratios of the stored heat during the storage period. This function was determined analytically, experimentally verified for four design cases (with and without insulation), and related to the normalized design parameters, rate of temperature degradation, and fluid properties by time-dependent Fourier similarity number Fo. The resulting relationship of the form -- {zeta}{sub e} = k log Fo + q was correlated with the measurements. For a specified storage, the ``degree of perfection`` ({zeta}{sub e}) can then be optimized and the desirable dimensions of a reservoir selected by calculating the characteristic (or normalized) dimension from the Fourier number (Fo).

Hemzal, K. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Wurm, J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Process evaluation, fuel pellet GF-47  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general-purpose heat source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions has documented the response of the GPHS heat source to a variety of fragment-impact, aging, atmospheric reentry, and Earth-impact conditions. Although heat sources for previous missions were fabricated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), GPHS fueled-clads required for the Cassini mission to Saturn will be fabricated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This evaluation is part of an ongoing program to determine the similarity of GPHS fueled clads and fuel pellets fabricated at LANL to those fabricated at WSRC. Pellet GF-47, which was fabricated at LANL in late 1994, was submitted for chemical and ceramographic analysis. The results indicated that the pellet had a chemical makeup and microstructure within the range of material fabricated at WSRC in the early 1980s.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

General approach to few-cycle intense laser interactions with complex atoms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general ab initio and nonperturbative method to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) for the interaction of a strong attosecond laser pulse with a general atom, i.e., beyond the models of quasi-one-electron or quasi-two-electron targets, is described. The field-free Hamiltonian and the dipole matrices are generated using a flexible B-spline R-matrix method. This numerical implementation enables us to construct term-dependent, nonorthogonal sets of one-electron orbitals for the bound and continuum electrons. The solution of the TDSE is propagated in time using the Arnoldi-Lanczos method, which does not require the diagonalization of any large matrices. The method is illustrated by an application to the multiphoton excitation and ionization of Ne atoms. Good agreement with R-matrix Floquet calculations for the generalized cross sections for two-photon ionization is achieved.

Guan Xiaoxu; Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States); Schneider, B. I. [Physics Division, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Feist, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Noble, C. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States); Computational Science and Engineering Department, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects by pulsed laser heating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Melting of nanocrystals embedded in a crystal matrix heated by nanosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of phase transformations of nanocrystals in a crystal matrix is considered upon non-stationary heating by laser pulses. The melting and crystallization kinetics of nanocrystals is described taking into account their size, shape, elemental composition, and elastic deformations appearing due to the mismatch of the lattice constants for nanocrystals and the matrix. The possibility of decreasing the dispersion of nanocrystals over their size in heterostructures with quantum dots is predicted. As an example, melting of Ge nanocrystals in a Si matrix is considered.

Zinoviev, V. A., E-mail: zinoviev@isp.nsc.ru; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Smagina, Zh. V., E-mail: smagina@isp.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Ivlev, G. D.; Gatskevich, E. I.; Malevich, V. L. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Evidence for ultra-fast heating in intense-laser irradiated reduced-mass targets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on an experiment irradiating individual argon droplets of 20 {mu}m diameter with laser pulses of several Joule energy at intensities of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. K-shell emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the hot electron energy fraction and the time-integrated charge-state distribution. Spectral fitting indicates that bulk temperatures up to 160 eV are reached. Modelling of the hot-electron relaxation and generation of K-shell emission with collisional hot-electron stopping only is incompatible with the experimental results, and the data suggest an additional ultra-fast (sub-ps) heating contribution. For example, including resistive heating in the modelling yields a much better agreement with the observed final bulk temperature and qualitatively reproduces the observed charge state distribution.

Neumayer, P.; Gumberidze, A.; Hochhaus, D. C. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Aurand, B.; Stoehlker, T. [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Costa Fraga, R. A.; Kalinin, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ecker, B. [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Grisenti, R. E. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kaluza, M. C. [Helmholtz Institute Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); IOQ Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Jena (Germany); Kuehl, T. [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Polz, J. [IOQ Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Jena (Germany); Reuschl, R. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Winters, D.; Winters, N.; Yin, Z. [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Evaluation and characterization of General Purpose Heat Source girth welds for the Cassini mission  

SciTech Connect

General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs) are components of Radioisotopic thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for deep space missions. Each GPHS consists of a {sup 238}Pu oxide ceramic pellet encapsulated in a welded iridium alloy shell which forms a protective barrier against the release of plutonia in the unlikely event of a launch-pad failure or reentry incident. GPHS fueled clad girth weld flaw detection was paramount to ensuring this safety function, and was accomplished using both destructive and non-destructive evaluation techniques. The first girth weld produced from each welding campaign was metallographically examined for flaws such as incomplete weld penetration, cracks, or porosity which would render a GPHS unacceptable for flight applications. After an acceptable example weld was produced, the subsequently welded heat sources were evaluated non-destructively for flaws using ultrasonic immersion testing. Selected heat sources which failed ultrasonic testing would be radiographed, and/or, destructively evaluated to further characterize and document anomalous indications. Metallography was also performed on impacted heat sources to determine the condition of the welds.

Lynch, C.M.; Moniz, P.F.; Reimus, M.A.H.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

General-Purpose Heat Source: Research and development program: Cold-Process Verification Test Series  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because any space mission could experience a launch abort or return from orbit, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs and individual GPHS capsules fueled with {sup 238}UO{sub 2} ({sup 235}U-depleted) to a variety of explosive overpressure and impact events. In the early 1990s, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resumed fabrication of {sup 238}UO{sub 2} GPHS pellets. The Cold-Process Verification (CPV) Test Series was designed to compare the response of GPHS heat sources loaded with recently fabricated hot- and cold-pressed {sup 238}UO{sub 2} pellets to the response of urania pellets used in the Galileo and Ulysses performance tests. This report documents eleven bare-capsule impacts and one impact of a fully loaded GPHS module. All of the failures observed in the bare-clad impact tests were similar to failures observed in previous safety tests. No failures occurred in the module impact test.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Reversible Electron Beam Heating for Suppression of Microbunching Instabilities at Free-Electron Lasers  

SciTech Connect

The presence of microbunching instabilities due to the compression of high-brightness electron beams at existing and future x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) results in restrictions on the attainable lasing performance and renders beam imaging with optical transition radiation impossible. The instability can be suppressed by introducing additional energy spread, i.e., heating the electron beam, as demonstrated by the successful operation of the laser heater system at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The increased energy spread is typically tolerable for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs but limits the effectiveness of advanced FEL schemes such as seeding. In this paper, we present a reversible electron beam heating system based on two transverse deflecting radio-frequency structures (TDSs) upstream and downstream of a magnetic bunch compressor chicane. The additional energy spread is introduced in the first TDS, which suppresses the microbunching instability, and then is eliminated in the second TDS. We show the feasibility of the microbunching gain suppression based on calculations and simulations including the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation. Acceptable electron beam and radio-frequency jitter are identified, and inherent options for diagnostics and on-line monitoring of the electron beam's longitudinal phase space are discussed.

Behrens, Christopher; /DESY; Huang, Zhirong; Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

50

Carbon ion beam focusing using laser irradiated heated diamond hemispherical shells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments preformed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Trident Laser Facility were conducted to observe the acceleration and focusing of carbon ions via the TNSA mechanism using hemispherical diamond targets. Trident is a 200TW class laser system with 80J of 1 {micro}m, short-pulse light delivered in 0.5ps, with a peak intensity of 5 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Targets where Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamonds formed into hemispheres with a radius of curvature of 400{micro}m and a thickness of 5{micro}m. The accelerated ions from the hemisphere were diagnosed by imaging the shadow of a witness copper mesh grid located 2mm behind the target onto a film pack located 5cm behind the target. Ray tracing was used to determine the location of the ion focal spot. The TNSA mechanism favorably accelerates hydrogen found in and on the targets. To make the carbon beam detectable, targets were first heated to several hundred degrees Celsius using a CW, 532nm, 8W laser. Imaging of the carbon beam was accomplished via an auto-radiograph of a nuclear activated lithium fluoride window in the first layer of the film pack. The focus of the carbon ion beam was determined to be located 630 {+-} 110 {micro}m from the vertex of the hemisphere.

Offermann, Dustin T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaillard, Sandrine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

5. Kodama, R. et al. Fast heating of ultrahigh-density plasma as a step towards laser fusion ignition. Nature 412, 798802 (2001).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5. Kodama, R. et al. Fast heating of ultrahigh-density plasma as a step towards laser fusion. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23567­23581 (1995). 13. Hirahara, M. et al. Acceleration and heating of cold

Davis, James C.

52

GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) uranium oxide encapsulations supporting satellite safety tests  

SciTech Connect

General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulant-fueled capsules were assembled, welded, nondestructively examined, and shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for satellite safety tests. Simulant-fueled iridium capsules contain depleted uranium oxide pellets that serve as a stand-in for plutonium-238 oxide pellets. Information on forty seven capsules prepared during 1987 and 1988 is recorded in this memorandum along with a description of the processes used for encapsulation and evaluation. LANL expects to use all capsules for destructive safety tests, which are under way. Test results so far have demonstrated excellent integrity of the Savannah River capsule welds. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Kanne, W.R.

1989-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

53

Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Reimus, M.A.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Moyer, M.W. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Building 9203, MS-8084, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Placr, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Building 305-A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results.

Reimus, M. A. H.; George, T. G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M. W.; Placr, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Building 9203, MS-8084, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Building 305-A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Assessment of passive decay heat removal in the General Atomics Modular Helium Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to present the results of the study and analysis of loss-of-coolant and loss-of-flow simulations performed on the Modular Helium Reactor developed by General Atomics using the thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5-3D/ATHENA. The MHR is a high temperature gas cooled reactor. It is a prismatic core concept for New Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). Very few reactors of that kind have been designed in the past. Furthermore, the MHR is supposed to be a highly passively safe concept. So there are high needs for numerical simulations in order to confirm the design. The project is dedicated to the assessment of the passive decay heat capabilities of the reactor under abnormal transient conditions. To comply with the requirements of the NGNP, fuel and structural temperatures must be kept under design safety limits under any circumstances. During the project, the MHR has been investigated: first under steady-state conditions and then under transient settings. The project confirms that satisfying passive decay heat removal by means of natural heat transfer mechanisms (convection, conduction and radiation) occurs.

Cocheme, Francois Guilhem

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Synthesis of Non-molecular Nitrogen Phases at Mbar Pressures by Direct Laser-heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Direct laser heating of molecular N2 to above 1400 K at 120-130 GPa results in the formation of a reddish amorphous phase and a transparent crystalline solid above 2000 K. Raman and x-ray data confirm that the transparent phase is cubic-gauche nitrogen (cg-N), while the reddish color of the amorphous phase might indicate the presence of N=N dish bonds. The quenched amorphous phase is stable down to at least 70GPa, analogous to cg-N, and could be a new non-molecular phase or an extension of the already known {eta}-phase. A chemo-physical phase diagram is presented which emphasizes the difference between pressure- and temperature-induced transitions from molecular to non-molecular solids, as found in other low Z systems.

Lipp, M J; Klepeis, J P; Baer, B J; Cynn, H; Evans, W J; Iota, V; Yoo, C

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

57

Space and Time Resolved Measurements of the Heating of Solids to Ten Million Kelvin by a Petawatt Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heating of plane solid targets by the Vulcan petawatt laser at powers of 0.32-0.73 PW and intensities of up to 4 x 10^20 W cm^-2 has been diagnosed with a temporal resolution of 17 ps and a spatial resolution of 30 um, by measuring optical emission from the opposite side of the target to the laser with a streak camera. Second harmonic emission was filtered out and the target viewed at an angle to eliminate optical transition radiation. Spatial resolution was obtained by imaging the emission onto a bundle of fibre optics, arranged into a one-dimensional array at the camera entrance. The results show that a region 160 um in diameter can be heated to a temperature of ~10^7 K (kT/e ~ keV) in solid targets from 10 to 20 um thick and that this temperature is maintained for at least 20 ps, confirming the utility of PW lasers in the study of high energy density physics. Hybrid code modelling shows that magnetic field generation prevents increased target heating by electron refluxing above a certain target thickness and that the absorption of laser energy into electrons entering the solid target was between 15-30%, and tends to increase with laser energy.

Nakatsutsumi, M.; Davies, J.R.; Kodama, R.; Green, J.S.; Lancaster, K.L.; Akli, K.U.; Beg, F.N.; Chen, S.N.; Clark, D.; Freeman, R.R.; Gregory, C.D.; Habara, H.; Heathcote, R.; Hey, D.S.; Highbarger, K.; Jaanimagi, P.; Key, M.H.; Krushelnick, K.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Nakamura, H.; Stephens, R.B.; Storm, M.; Tampo, M.; Theobald, W.; Van Woerkom, L.; Weber, R.L.; Wei, M.S.; Woolsey, N.C.; Norreys, P.A.

2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

58

Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE`s mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of STYPu -decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four STYPuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s.

George, T.G.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO/sub 2/ as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel.

Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

general  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ANSYS Fluent software contains the broad physical modeling capabilities needed to model flow, turbulence, heat transfer, and reactions for a wide variety of ...

62

Microfabrication of controlled-geometry samples for the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell using focused ion beam technology  

SciTech Connect

The pioneering of x-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating in the diamond-anvil cell has revolutionized the field of high-pressure mineral physics, expanding the ability to determine high-pressure, high-temperature phase boundaries and equations of state. Accurate determination of high-pressure, high-temperature phases and densities in the diamond-anvil cell rely upon collinearity of the x-ray beam with the center of the laser-heated spot. We present the development of microfabricated samples that, by nature of their design, will have the sample of interest in the hottest portion of the sample. We report initial successes with a simplified design using a Pt sample with dimensions smaller than the synchrotron-based x-ray spot such that it is the only part of the sample that absorbs the heating laser ensuring that the x-rayed volume is at the peak hotspot temperature. Microfabricated samples, synthesized using methods developed at The Ohio State University's Mineral Physics Laboratory and Campus Electron Optics Facility, were tested at high P-T conditions in the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell at beamline 16 ID-B of the Advanced Photon Source. Pt layer thicknesses of {le} 0.8 {micro}m absorb the laser and produce accurate measurements on the relative equations of state of Pt and PtC. These methods combined with high-purity nanofabrication techniques will allow for extension by the diamond-anvil cell community to multiple materials for high-precision high-pressure, high-temperature phase relations, equations of state, melting curves, and transport properties.

Pigott, Jeffrey S.; Reaman, Daniel M.; Panero, Wendy R. (OSU)

2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

63

Hot-electron production and suprathermal heat flux scaling with laser intensity from the two-plasmon-decay instability  

SciTech Connect

The fully kinetic reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) method has been applied to simulations of two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability, driven by crossed laser beams, in an inhomogeneous plasma for parameters consistent with recent direct-drive experiments related to laser-driven inertial fusion. The nonlinear saturated state is characterized by very spiky electric fields, with Langmuir cavitation occurring preferentially inside density channels produced by the ponderomotive beating of the crossed laser beams and the primary TPD Langmuir waves (LWs). The heated electron distribution function is, in all cases, bi-Maxwellian, with instantaneous hot-electron temperatures in the range 60-100 keV. The net hot-electron energy flux out of the system is a small fraction ({approx}1% to 2%) of the input laser intensity in these simulations. Scalings of the hot-electron temperature and suprathermal heat flux as functions of the laser intensity are obtained numerically from RPIC simulations. These simulations lead to the preliminary conclusion that Langmuir cavitation and collapse provide dissipation by producing suprathermal electrons, which stabilize the system in saturation and drive the LW spectrum to the small dissipation scales at the Landau cutoff. The Langmuir turbulence originates at an electron density 0.241 Multiplication-Sign the laser's critical density, where the crossed laser beams excite a 'triad' mode-a common forward LW plus a pair of backward LWs. Remnants of this 'triad' evolve in k-space and dominate the time-averaged energy spectrum. At times exceeding 10 ps, the excited Langmuir turbulence spreads toward lower densities. Comparisons of RPIC simulations with the extended Zakharov model are presented in appropriate regimes, and the necessary requirements for the validity of a quasi-linear Zakharov model (where the spatially averaged electron-velocity distribution is evolved) are verified by RPIC simulation results.

Vu, H. X. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); DuBois, D. F. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Myatt, J. F. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Russell, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Advanced Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for General Purpose Heat Source Fueled Clad Closure Welds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A radioisotope thermoelectric generator is used to provide a power source for long-term deep space missions. This General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is fabricated using iridium clad vent sets to contain the plutonium oxide fuel pellets. Integrity of the closure weld is essential to ensure containment of the plutonium. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant took the lead role in developing the ultrasonic inspection for the closure weld and transferring the inspection to Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in fueled clad inspection for the Cassini mission. Initially only amplitude and time-of-flight data were recorded. However, a number of benign geometric conditions produced signals that were larger than the acceptance threshold. To identify these conditions, a B-scan inspection was developed that acquired full ultrasonic waveforms. Using a test protocol the B-scan inspection was able to identify benign conditions such as weld shield fusion and internal mismatch. Tangential radiography was used to confirm the ultrasonic results. All but two of 29 fueled clads for which ultrasonic B-scan data was evaluated appeared to have signals that could be attributed to benign geometric conditions. This report describes the ultrasonic inspection developed at Y-12 for the Cassini mission.

Moyer, M.W.

2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

66

Measurements of electron and proton heating temperatures from extreme-ultraviolet light images at 68 eV in petawatt laser experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 68 eV extreme-ultraviolet light imaging diagnostic measures short pulse isochoric heating by electrons and protons in petawatt laser experiments. Temperatures are deduced from the absolute intensities and comparison with modeling using a radiation hydrodynamics code.

Gu Peimin; Zhang, B.; Key, M. H.; Hatchett, S. P.; Barbee, T.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K.; Hey, D.; King, J. A.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Snavely, R. A.; Stephens, R. B. [College of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Ohio State University, 425 Stillman Hall, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1123 (United States); Department of Applied Science, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); College of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Ohio State University, 425 Stillman Hall, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1123 (United States); Department of Applied Science, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

General-Purpose Heat Source development: Extended series test program large fragment tests  

SciTech Connect

General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electric power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electric power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory was modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents, and an extended series safety test program was initiated. The program included a series of large fragment tests that simulated the collision of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragments, generated in an SRB motor case rupture or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action, with the GPHS-RTG. The tests indicated that fueled clads, inside a converter, will not breach or release fuel after a square (142 cm on a side) SRB fragment impacts flat-on at velocities up to 212 m/s, and that only the leading fueled capsules breach and release fuel after the square SRB fragment impacts the modules, inside the converter, edge-on at 95 m/s. 8 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

Cull, T.A.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Development of Laser Weld Repair, Cladding, and Heat Treatment Technology for Alloy 600 RPV Penetrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has developed innovative laser weld repair technology for Alloy 600 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) head penetrations in pressure water reactors (PWRs). The repair technology consists of an Nd:YAG laser, fiber optic delivery system, optical assembly (weld head), welding filler metal feed system, and manipulator. The laser system will be used to address the repair of axially oriented cracks, stress relief, and cladding operations.

1998-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

69

Analytical model of a microscale heat exchanger: ambient interaction and general end-wall boundary conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Developments in manufacturing have led to progressively smaller and more complex micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), many of which employ heat exchangers to enhance performance. Due to… (more)

Spann, Bryan T

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test  

SciTech Connect

The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests: RTG-1 and RTG-2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.; George, T.G.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

A stable three-level finite difference scheme for solving the parabolic two-step model in a 3D micro-sphere heated by ultrashort-pulsed lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultrashort-pulsed lasers with pulse durations of the order of sub-picosecond to femtosecond domain possess exclusive capabilities in limiting the undesirable spread of the thermal process zone in the heated sample. Parabolic two-step micro heat transport ... Keywords: Finite difference scheme, Micro heat transport equations, Micro-sphere, Stability, Ultrashort-pulsed laser

Ibrahima K. Kaba; Weizhong Dai

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Memorandum To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) Date: 1/12/2012 Subject: EX PARTE COMMUNICATION MEMO DOE ATTENDEES: Ashley Armstrong, John Cymbalsky, David Case, Laura Barhydt HARDI ATTENDEES: Talbot Gee, Jonathan Melchi AREAS OF DISCUSSION: DOE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. The meeting took place on Thursday January 5 th , 2012 from 2pm to 3-pm. The following topics were discussed. 1.) Sell-Through. HARDI asked for clarification on the DOE's notation on the Framework Document

74

Monoenergetic acceleration of a target foil by circularly polarized laser pulse in RPA regime without thermal heating  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic model of the monoenergetic acceleration of a target foil irradiated by the circularly polarized laser pulse is developed. The target moves without thermal heating with constant acceleration which is provided by chirping the frequency of the laser pulse and correspondingly increasing its intensity. In the accelerated reference frame, bulk plasma in the target is neutral and its parameters are stationary: cold ions are immobile while nonrelativistic electrons bounce back and forth inside the potential well formed by ponderomotive and electrostatic potentials. It is shown that a positive charge left behind of the moving target in the ion tail and a negative charge in front of the target in the electron sheath form a capacitor whose constant electric field accelerates the ions of the target. The charge separation is maintained by the radiation pressure pushing electrons forward. The scalings of the target thickness and electromagnetic radiation with the electron temperature are found.

Khudik, V.; Yi, S. A.; Siemon, C.; Shvets, G. [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, One University Station C1500, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

75

Electron-Heated Target Temperature Measurements in Petawatt Laser Experiments Based on Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging and Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three independent methods (XUV spectroscopy, imaging at 68 eV and 256 eV) have been used to measure planar target rear surface plasma temperature due to heating by hot electrons. The hot electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser plasma interactions using the 150 J, 0.5 ps Titan laser. Soft x-ray spectroscopy in the 50-400 eV region and imaging at the 68 eV and 256 eV photon energies were used to determine the rear surface temperature of planar CD targets. Temperatures were found to be in the 60-150 eV range, with good agreement between the three diagnostics.

Ma, T; Beg, F; Macphee, A; Chung, H; Key, M; Mackinnon, A; Patel, P; Hatchett, S; Akli, K; Stephens, R; Chen, C; Freeman, R; Link, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; VanWoerkom, L; Zhang, B

2008-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

76

Scale Dependence of Solar Heating Rates in Convective Cloud Systems with Implications to General Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors examine 3D solar radiative heating rates within tropical convective–cirrus systems to identify the scales that contribute significantly to the spatial average over a climate model’s grid cell (i.e., its grid mean), and determine their ...

A. M. Vogelmann; V. Ramanathan; I. A. Podgorny

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Spectroscopic Studies of Pulsed-Laser-Induced Damage Sites in Heated CaF2 Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Proceedings contain all papers presented at the 13th Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Powered Lasers, held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, CO, 28 Sept. - 1 Oct. 1998.

Bozlee, Brian J.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Teel, Randy W.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

The Local Balances of Vorticity and Heat for Blocking Anticyclones in a Spectral General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blocking anticyclones that appear in perpetual January simulations of a spectral general circulation model are examined. Blocks in three geographical regions are studied: the North Pacific, the North Atlantic and western North America. Local time-...

Steven L. Mullen

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

GPHS-RTG system explosion test direct course experiment 5000. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

The General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) has been designed and is being built to provide electrical power for spacecrafts to be launched on the Space Shuttle. The objective of the RTG System Explosion Test was to expose a mock-up of the GPHS-RTG with a simulated heat source to the overpressure and impulse representative of a potential upper magnitude explosion of the Space Shuttle. The test was designed so that the heat source module would experience an overpressure at which the survival of the fuel element cladding would be expected to be marginal. Thus, the mock-up was placed where the predicted incident overpressure would be 1300 psi. The mock-up was mounted in an orientation representative of the launch configuration on the spacecraft to be used on the NASA Galileo Mission. The incident overpressure measured was in the range of 1400 to 2100 psi. The mock-up and simulated heat source were destroyed and only very small fragments were recovered. This damage is believed to have resulted from a combination of the overpressure and impact by very high velocity fragments from the ANFO sphere. Post-test analysis indicated that extreme working of the iridium clad material occurred, indicative of intensive impulsive loading on the metal.

Not Available

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Heat Conduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Differential equations for heat conduction in solids...conduction in solids General form with variable thermal properties General form with constant thermal properties General form, constant properties, without heat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program  

SciTech Connect

As asked by the U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one-dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety, Analysis Report (USAR) are discussed in this document.

Conn, D.W.; Brenza, P.T.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Estimates of Surface Heat Flux from Sodar and Laser Scintillation Measurements in the Unstable Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of acoustic backscatter in the lower planetary boundary layer and optical line-of-sight scintillation in the surface layer are each used to compute sensible heat fluxes in the unstable surface layer. Comparisons with simultaneous low-...

R. L. Coulter; M. L. Wesely

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Southward Eddy Heat Transport Occurring along Southern Flanks of the Kuroshio Extension and the Gulf Stream in a 1/10° Global Ocean General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study investigates meridional heat transport induced by oceanic mesoscale variability in the World Ocean using a 1/10° global Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) running on the Earth Simulator. The results indicate prominent ...

Kunihiro Aoki; Shoshiro Minobe; Youichi Tanimoto; Yoshikazu Sasai

84

The Effects of Condensational Heating on Midlatitude Transient Waves in Their Mature Stage: Control Experiments with a GFDL General Circulation model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of condensational heating on midlatitude transient waves in their mature stage are re-examined by comparing moist and dry GFDL spectral general circulation models, both of which have all ocean surfaces with prescribed zonally uniform ...

Y. Hayashi; D. G. Golder

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

High average power CW FELs (Free Electron Laser) for application to plasma heating: Designs and experiments  

SciTech Connect

A short period wiggler (period {approximately} 1 cm), sheet beam FEL has been proposed as a low-cost source of high average power (1 MW) millimeter-wave radiation for plasma heating and space-based radar applications. Recent calculation and experiments have confirmed the feasibility of this concept in such critical areas as rf wall heating, intercepted beam ( body'') current, and high voltage (0.5 - 1 MV) sheet beam generation and propagation. Results of preliminary low-gain sheet beam FEL oscillator experiments using a field emission diode and pulse line accelerator have verified that lasing occurs at the predicted FEL frequency. Measured start oscillation currents also appear consistent with theoretical estimates. Finally, we consider the possibilities of using a short-period, superconducting planar wiggler for improved beam confinement, as well as access to the high gain, strong pump Compton regime with its potential for highly efficient FEL operation.

Booske, J.H.; Granatstein, V.L.; Radack, D.J.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Bidwell, S.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Latham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Zhang, Z.X. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA). Lab. for Plasma Research); Freund, H.P. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Li{sup +} ion emission from a hot-plate alumina-silicate source stimulated by flash heating with an infrared laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II accelerator under construction at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been designed to employ a lithium-doped alumino-silicate (Al-Si) hot-plate surface-ionization ion source. In order to achieve the design 1 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, the emitter must be constantly kept at a high temperature, leading to the accelerated loss of Li material as ions or neutrals. As a result, the estimated lifetime of the source is 50 h. This lifetime can be extended if the source is kept at low temperature during standby, and pulse heated to the high temperature during the ion extraction phase only. A pulsed heating technique based on an infrared laser (CO{sub 2} gas discharge, {lambda}= 10.6 {mu}m) is described in this paper. The feasibility of ion current emission stimulated by flash heating with an infrared (IR) laser was demonstrated. High repeatability of the laser-stimulated ion current was observed, creating an opportunity for modulation and gating of the ion current with a laser pulse. It was found that with the available low power ({approx_equal}115 W/cm{sup 2}) IR laser, current densities as high as 0.8 mA/cm{sup 2} could be achieved with a 2.8 mm diameter source. Various approaches for scaling to a larger (10 cm diameter) source and the application of short pulse, high power lasers are discussed. The results and conclusions of this paper may apply to various species of hot-plate ion sources.

Ni, P. A.; Kwan, J. W.; Roy, P. K.; Waldron, W. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboraotry, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Determination of electron-heated temperatures of petawatt laser-irradiated foil targets with 256 and 68 eV extreme ultraviolet imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of plasma temperature at the rear surface of foil targets due to heating by hot electrons, which were produced in short pulse high intensity laser matter interactions using the 150 J, 0.5 ps Titan laser, are reported. Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging at 256 and 68 eV energies is used to determine spatially resolved target rear surface temperature patterns by comparing absolute intensities to radiation hydrodynamic modeling. XUV mirrors at these two energies were absolutely calibrated at the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Temperatures deduced from both imagers are validated against each other within the range of 75-225 eV.

Ma, T. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); MacPhee, A. G.; Key, M. H.; Hatchett, S. P.; Barbee, T. W.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Chen, C. D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Freeman, R. R.; Link, A.; Offermann, D. T.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Van Woerkom, L. D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); King, J. A.; Beg, F. N. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Zhang, B. [University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Heat transfer research in General Electric, 1910-1960; Examples of the product-driven innovation cycle  

SciTech Connect

General Electric has a long and varied history of doing research on heat transfer, and using the results in its products and processes. Lessons it has learned during the half-century from 1910 to 1950 suggest a need for revision in the standard models used by economists to describe the way industry generates new technology and uses it to achieve innovations. The generation of new technology or the better use of old technology begins, not with a demand from the marketplace or a push from research, but from consideration of an already existing product. Problems or opportunities involving that product drive engineers or scientists to search for new knowledge. That knowledge proves useful in the development of a product, perhaps the one that initiated the search for knowledge, or perhaps a very different one. The important point is that however esoteric or mundane is the research in the middle of the cycle, the beginning and end are always products (or the processes used to make products), not scientists' ideas or customers demands.

Wise, G. (General Electric R and D Center, Schenectady, NY (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Creep properties of forged 2219 T6 aluminum alloy shell of general-purpose heat source-radioisotope thermoelectric generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The shell (2219 T6 aluminum forging) of the General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator was designed to retain the generator under sufficient elastic stress to secure it during space flight. A major concern was the extent to which the elastic stress would relax by creep. To determine acceptability of the shell construction material, the following proof tests simulating service were performed: 600 h of testing at 270/sup 0/C under 24.1 MPa stress followed by 10,000 h of storage at 177/sup 0/C under 55.1 MPa, both on the ground; and 10,000 h of flight in space at 270/sup 0/C under 34.4 MPa stress. Additionally, systematic creep testing was performed at 177 and 260/sup 0/C to establish creep design curves. The creep tests performed at 177/sup 0/C revealed comparatively large amounts of primary creep followed by small amounts of secondary creep. The early creep is believed to be abetted by unstable substructures that are annealed out during testing at this temperature. The creep tests performed at 270/sup 0/C showed normal primary creep followed by large amounts of secondary creep. Duplicate proof tests simulating the ground exposure conditions gave results that were in good agreement. The proof test simulating space flight at 270/sup 0/C gave 0.11% primary creep followed by 0.59% secondary creep. About 10% of the second-stage creep was caused by four or five instantaneous strains, which began at the 4500-h mark. One or two of these strain bursts, occurred in each of several other tests at 177 and 260/sup 0/C but were assessed as very moderate in magnitude. The effect is attributable to a slightly microsegregated condition remaining from the original cast structure.

Hammond, J.P.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Glazing of Railroad Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails Project description: Laser glazing of rails. Category: Project with industrial partner (American Association of Railroads) Bookmark and Share

92

Laser Welding of Metals [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Welding of Metals Laser Welding of Metals Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Laser Welding of Metals Project description: High-speed laser welding of metals. Category: Project with industrial partner (Delphi Energy and Engine Management Systems) Bookmark and Share

93

Light Wars: The Bright Future of Laser Weapons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

October 15, 2007). 3. Heat Capacity Laser. 2007. http://water to The Solid-State Heat Capacity Laser at LLNL removethe equipment (Parker Heat capacity lasers are solid-state

Mistry, Hemma

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Effects of Tropical Cyclones on Ocean Heat Transport in a High-Resolution Coupled General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the interplay between tropical cyclones (TCs) and the Northern Hemispheric ocean heat transport (OHT) is investigated. In particular, results from a numerical simulation of the twentieth-century and twenty-first-century climates, ...

Enrico Scoccimarro; Silvio Gualdi; Alessio Bellucci; Antonella Sanna; Pier Giuseppe Fogli; Elisa Manzini; Marcello Vichi; Paolo Oddo; Antonio Navarra

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Remote three-dimensional temperature sensing using planar laser induced fluorescence : development and applications to microwave heated liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microwave heating is an important technology that has been hampered in application by difficulties in measuring temperatures and temperature distributions during the microwave heating process. This thesis describes the ...

Finegan, Timothy Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Longitudinal discharge laser baffles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Longitudinal discharge laser baffles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

98

Physics Experiments and Abstract Harmonic Analysis: A Generalized Peano Kernel Theorem for Estimating Errors in Laser Interferometry  

SciTech Connect

This slide-show discusses the use of the Local Polynomial Approximation (LPA) to smooth signals from photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) applying a generalized Peano kernel theorem.

Luttman, A.

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

99

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. High-siliocon fuel characterization study: Half module impact tests 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because any space mission could experience a launch abort or return from orbit, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs to a variety of fragment-impact, aging, atmospheric reentry, and earth-impact conditions. The evaluations documented in this report are part of an ongoing program to determine the effect of fuel impurities on the response of the heat source to conditions baselined during the Galileo/Ulysses test program. In the first two tests in this series, encapsulated GPHS fuel pellets containing high levels of silicon were aged, loaded into GPHS module halves, and impacted against steel plates. The results show no significant differences between the response of these capsules and the behavior of relatively low-silicon fuel pellets tested previously.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Numerical Investigation of Laser-Assisted Nanoimprinting on a Copper Substrate from a Perspective of Heat Transfer Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The technique of laser-assisted nanoimprinting lithography (LAN) has been proposed to utilize an excimer laser to irradiate through a quartz mold and melts a thin polymer film on the substrate for micro- to nano-scaled fabrications. In the present study, the novel concept of that copper was adopted as the substrate instead of silicon, which is conventionally used, was proposed. The micro/nano structures on the copper substrate could be fabricated by chemical/electrochemical etching or electroforming ; following by the patterns have been transferred onto the substrate using LAN process. Alternatives of the substrate materials could lead versatile applications in micro/nano-fabrication. To demonstrate the feasibility of this concept numerically, this study introduced optical multiple reflection theory to perform both analytical and numerical modeling during the process and to predict the thermal response theoretically.

Jen, Chun-Ping

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Direct evaluation of transient surface temperatures and heat fluxes  

SciTech Connect

Evaluations of transient surface temperatures resulting from the absorption of radiation are required in laser fusion reactor systems studies. A general method for the direct evaluation of transient surface temperatures and heat fluxes on the boundaries of bounded media is developed by constructing fundamental solutions of the scalar Helmholtz equation and performing certain elementary integrations. (auth)

Axford, R.A.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Study of nonlinear ohmic heating and ponderomotive force effects on the self-focusing and defocusing of Gaussian laser beams in collisional underdense plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present paper, the propagation characteristics of a linearly polarized gaussian laser beam in a non-isothermal underdense collisional plasma is studied. By considering the effects of the ponderomotive force and ohmic heating of plasma electrons as the nonlinear mechanisms, the second order differential equation of the dimensionless beam width parameter has been obtained and solved at several initial ion temperatures. Furthermore, by using the nonlinear dielectric permittivity of the mentioned plasma medium in the paraxial approximation and its dependence on the propagation characteristics of the gaussian laser pulse, the perturbed electron density n{sub e}/n{sub 0e} is obtained and its variation in terms of the dimensionless plasma length is analyzed at different initial ion temperatures. Our results show that the dimensionless beam width parameter is strongly influenced by the initial plasma ion temperature. It is found that, for the self-focusing regime, the plasma electron density perturbation continuously oscillates between the initial density distribution and a minimum, and for the defocusing regime, the plasma electron density perturbation continuously oscillates between the initial density distribution and a maximum.

Etehadi Abari, M.; Shokri, B. [Physics Department and Laser-Plasma Research Institute of Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Analysis of laser beam weldability of Inconel 738 superalloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The susceptibility of pre-weld heat treated laser beam welded IN 738 superalloy to heat affected zone (HAZ) cracking was studied. A pre-weld heat treatment that produced the minimal grain boundary liquation resulted in a higher level of cracking compared to those with more intergranular liquation. This deviation from the general expectation of influence of intergranular liquation extent on HAZ microfissuring is attributable to the reduction in the ability of the base alloy to accommodate welding tensile stress that accompanied a pre-weld heat treatment condition designed to minimize intergranular liquation. Furthermore, in contrast to what has been generally reported in other nickel-based superalloys, a decrease in laser welding speed resulted in increased HAZ cracking in the IN 738, which can be attributed to exacerbated process instability at lower welding speeds.

Egbewande, A.T. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Buckson, R.A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); Ojo, O.A., E-mail: ojo@cc.umanitoba.ca [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Direct fired heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Other Projects [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Other Projects Other Projects Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Other projects Bookmark and Share HIGH POWER LASER BEAM DELIVERY High-power laser-beam delivery with conventional and fiber optics DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING Laser processing technology for decontamination of surfaces

106

Industry Related Projects [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industry Related Projects Industry Related Projects Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Industry related projects Bookmark and Share LASER OIL & GAS WELL DRILLING Using high-power lasers to drill and complete gas & oil wells LASER HEAT TREATMENT Optimization of laser beam heat treatment (Caterpillar and USCAR)

107

Hydronic Heating: A Practical Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This booklet is a hydronic-heating primer for utility representatives, contractors, and homeowners. Its purpose is to foster a general knowledge and interest in modem hydronic heating.

2000-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

108

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

109

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

113

Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialogroaphic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone.

Chang, Jim J. (Dublin, CA); Dragon, Ernest P. (Danville, CA); Warner, Bruce E. (Pleasanton, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

High Energy Laser for Space Debris Removal  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has substantial relevant experience in the construction of high energy lasers, and more recently in the development of advanced high average power solid state lasers. We are currently developing new concepts for advanced solid state laser drivers for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) application, and other high average power laser applications that could become central technologies for use in space debris removal. The debris population most readily addressed by our laser technology is that of 0.1-10 cm sized debris in low earth orbit (LEO). In this application, a ground based laser system would engage an orbiting target and slow it down by ablating material from its surface which leads to reentry into the atmosphere, as proposed by NASA's ORION Project. The ORION concept of operations (CONOPS) is also described in general terms by Phipps. Key aspects of this approach include the need for high irradiance on target, 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which favors short (i.e., picoseconds to nanoseconds) laser pulse durations and high energy per pulse ({approx} > 10 kJ). Due to the target's orbital velocity, the potential duration of engagement is only of order 100 seconds, so a high pulse repetition rate is also essential. The laser technology needed for this application did not exist when ORION was first proposed, but today, a unique combination of emerging technologies could create a path to enable deployment in the near future. Our concepts for the laser system architecture are an extension of what was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), combined with high repetition rate laser technology developed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and heat capacity laser technology developed for military applications. The 'front-end' seed pulse generator would be fiber-optics based, and would generate a temporally, and spectrally tailored pulse designed for high transmission through the atmosphere, as well as efficient ablative coupling to the target. The main amplifier would use either diode-pumped or flashlamp-pumped solid state gain media, depending on budget constraints of the project. A continuously operating system would use the gas-cooled amplifier technology developed for Mercury, while a burst-mode option would use the heat capacity laser technology. The ground-based system that we propose is capable of rapid engagement of targets whose orbits cross over the site, with potential for kill on a single pass. Very little target mass is ablated per pulse so the potential to create additional hazardous orbiting debris is minimal. Our cost estimates range from $2500 to $5000 per J depending on choices for laser gain medium, amplifier pump source, and thermal management method. A flashlamp-pumped, Nd:glass heat-capacity laser operating in the burst mode would have costs at the lower end of this spectrum and would suffice to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach as a prototype system. A diode-pumped, gas-cooled laser would have higher costs but could be operated continuously, and might be desirable for more demanding mission needs. Maneuverability can be incorporated in the system design if the additional cost is deemed acceptable. The laser system would need to be coupled with a target pointing and tracking telescope with guide-star-like wavefront correction capability.

Barty, C; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Beach, R; Rubenchik, A

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

115

High Energy Laser for Space Debris Removal  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has substantial relevant experience in the construction of high energy lasers, and more recently in the development of advanced high average power solid state lasers. We are currently developing new concepts for advanced solid state laser drivers for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) application, and other high average power laser applications that could become central technologies for use in space debris removal. The debris population most readily addressed by our laser technology is that of 0.1-10 cm sized debris in low earth orbit (LEO). In this application, a ground based laser system would engage an orbiting target and slow it down by ablating material from its surface which leads to reentry into the atmosphere, as proposed by NASA's ORION Project. The ORION concept of operations (CONOPS) is also described in general terms by Phipps. Key aspects of this approach include the need for high irradiance on target, 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which favors short (i.e., picoseconds to nanoseconds) laser pulse durations and high energy per pulse ({approx} > 10 kJ). Due to the target's orbital velocity, the potential duration of engagement is only of order 100 seconds, so a high pulse repetition rate is also essential. The laser technology needed for this application did not exist when ORION was first proposed, but today, a unique combination of emerging technologies could create a path to enable deployment in the near future. Our concepts for the laser system architecture are an extension of what was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), combined with high repetition rate laser technology developed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and heat capacity laser technology developed for military applications. The 'front-end' seed pulse generator would be fiber-optics based, and would generate a temporally, and spectrally tailored pulse designed for high transmission through the atmosphere, as well as efficient ablative coupling to the target. The main amplifier would use either diode-pumped or flashlamp-pumped solid state gain media, depending on budget constraints of the project. A continuously operating system would use the gas-cooled amplifier technology developed for Mercury, while a burst-mode option would use the heat capacity laser technology. The ground-based system that we propose is capable of rapid engagement of targets whose orbits cross over the site, with potential for kill on a single pass. Very little target mass is ablated per pulse so the potential to create additional hazardous orbiting debris is minimal. Our cost estimates range from $2500 to $5000 per J depending on choices for laser gain medium, amplifier pump source, and thermal management method. A flashlamp-pumped, Nd:glass heat-capacity laser operating in the burst mode would have costs at the lower end of this spectrum and would suffice to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach as a prototype system. A diode-pumped, gas-cooled laser would have higher costs but could be operated continuously, and might be desirable for more demanding mission needs. Maneuverability can be incorporated in the system design if the additional cost is deemed acceptable. The laser system would need to be coupled with a target pointing and tracking telescope with guide-star-like wavefront correction capability.

Barty, C; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Beach, R; Rubenchik, A

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Technical challenges for the future of high energy lasers  

SciTech Connect

The Solid-State, Heat-Capacity Laser (SSHCL) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a multi-generation laser development effort scalable to the megawatt power levels with current performance approaching 100 kilowatts. This program is one of many designed to harness the power of lasers for use as directed energy weapons. There are many hurdles common to all of these programs that must be overcome to make the technology viable. There will be a in-depth discussion of the general issues facing state-of-the-art high energy lasers and paths to their resolution. Despite the relative simplicity of the SSHCL design, many challenges have been uncovered in the implementation of this particular system. An overview of these and their resolution are discussed. The overall system design of the SSHCL, technological strengths and weaknesses, and most recent experimental results will be presented.

LaFortune, K N; Hurd, R L; Fochs, S N; Rotter, M D; Pax, P H; Combs, R L; Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Yamamoto, R M

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

Thermally induced wave-front distortions in laser windows  

SciTech Connect

A simple analytical expression is given for wave-front distortions and birefringence due to heating in laser windows. (AIP)

Greninger, C.E.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

RadHeat V1 User's Manual  

SciTech Connect

RadHeat is a one dimensional finite difference heat transfer code that can determine the transient temperature evolution of layered targets in pulsed penetrating radiation environments. It makes use of energy dependent opacity and stopping data to model the volumetric deposition of any number of photon or ion spectra each incident at arbitrary angles. Convective and radiative boundary conditions are handled as well as the ability to impose any initial temperature profile. The heat diffusion equation is formulated implicitly to eliminate timestep dependent stability issues. Simulations are, therefore, able to achieve high fidelity during times of thermal activity and greater speed elsewhere. The prototypical physical situation simulated by RadHeat is illustrated. RadHeat was originally written to study the temperature response of tungsten-armored target-facing walls to the pulsed photon and ion radiation emanating from fusion microexplosions in future IFE power plants. RadHeat's implementation is quite general, though, and the code can be applied to a very broad range of problems. Anything from the heating of the Earth's crust on a warm summer day to the temperature rise in a mirror after a laser pulse could potentially be modeled. This manual was written to help new users learn how to run the code and introduce them to the simulation tools it provides.

Abbott, R P

2005-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

119

Laser Applications Laboratory - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities > Engineering Capabilities > Engineering Experimentation > Laser Applications Laboratory Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory The Laser Applications Laboratory (LAL) houses two high-power laser systems, complete with diagnostics for materials-processing functions - a 6 kW CO2 laser and a 1.6 kW pulsed Nd:YAG laser.

120

Use advisability of heat pumps for building heating and cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the actual economic and energetic juncture, the reduction of thermal energy consumption in buildings became a major, necessary and opportune problem, general significance. The heat pumps are alternative heating installations more energy efficiency ... Keywords: "Geoterm" system, building heating/cooling, energy and economic analysis, heat pump performances, heat pumps, renewable energy sources

Ioan Sârbu; C?lin Sebarchievici

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

LaserFest Celebration  

SciTech Connect

LaserFest was the yearlong celebration, during 2010, of the 50th anniversary of the demonstration of the first working laser. The goals of LaserFest were: to highlight the impact of the laser in its manifold commercial, industrial and medical applications, and as a tool for ongoing scientific research; to use the laser as one example that illustrates, more generally, the route from scientific innovation to technological application; to use the laser as a vehicle for outreach, to stimulate interest among students and the public in aspects of physical science; to recognize and honor the pioneers who developed the laser and its many applications; to increase awareness among policymakers of the importance of R&D funding as evidenced by such technology as lasers. One way in which LaserFest sought to meet its goals was to encourage relevant activities at a local level all across the country -- and also abroad -- that would be identified with the larger purposes of the celebration and would carry the LaserFest name. Organizers were encouraged to record and advertise these events through a continually updated web-based calendar. Four projects were explicitly detailed in the proposals: 1) LaserFest on the Road; 2) Videos; 3) Educational material; and 4) Laser Days.

Dr. Alan Chodos; Elizabeth A. Rogan

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

122

BNL | ATF Laser Safety  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ATF Laser Safety ATF Laser Safety To be present in a secured laser area at ATF, a person must either have the required laser training, or be continuously escorted by someone who has such training: The training consists of an eye exam, BNL general laser safety lecture, and formal ATF laser familiarization. Untrained personnel should not be instructed to enter interlocked areas or be escorted into an area and left unattended. If someone without training must enter a secured area, they must be continuously escorted, and are considered spectators, which means they may not perform any work in the area. At ATF, there are 3 classes of personnel authorized to enter secured areas: Experimental operators may secure areas, perform approved experiments with beams from facility lasers (YAG + CO2) or FEL beams, and

123

Acro Solar Lasers | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name Acro Solar Lasers Place El Paso, Texas Zip 79936 Sector Solar Product Makes solar water heating devices based on parabolic dish concentrators. References Acro Solar...

124

Interaction of Lasers with Silicon Wafers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... momentum and energy, was used to simulate the heat transfer and fluid flow in ... Investigation of Material Removal Behavior during Industrial Laser Drilling of ...

125

Explorations of the Annual Mean Heat Budget of the Tropical Indian Ocean. Part II: Studies with a Simplified Ocean General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Present-day OGCMs give low values of annual mean net heat flux (AMNHF) in the tropical Indian Ocean, compared to climatologies. AMNHF generation is examined in an open-boundary model of this region with realistic coastlines. In the first two of ...

Rui-Jin Hu; J. Stuart Godfrey

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Laser Ignition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ignition Laser Ignition A first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel...

127

Laser ablation based fuel ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

128

Laser Welding and Post Weld Treatment of Modified 9Cr-1MoVNb Steel [Laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Welding of Metals > Laser Welding of Metals > Laser Welding and Post Weld Treatment of Modified 9Cr-1MoVNb Steel Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Laser Welding of Metals Laser Welding and Post Weld Treatment of Modified 9Cr-1MoVNb Steel Zhiyue Xu Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory

129

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

130

Laser fusion pulse shape controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for controlling the pulse shape, i.e., the pulse duration and intensity pattern, of a pulsed laser system, and which is particularly well adapted for controlling the pellet ignition pulse in a laser-driven fusion reaction system. The apparatus comprises a laser generator for providing an optical control pulse of the shape desired, a pulsed laser triggered by the control pulse, and a plurality of optical Kerr-effect gates serially disposed at the output of the pulsed laser and selectively triggered by the control pulse to pass only a portion of the pulsed laser output generally corresponding in shape to the control pulse.

Siebert, Larry D. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Laser Controlled Area Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

79 79 01 Effective: Page 1 of 17 05/13/11 Subject: X17B3 Laser Safety Program Documentation 1 AUTHORIZATION | Princeton University BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY LASER CONTROLLED AREA STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) This document defines the safety management program for the laser system listed below. All American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Hazard Class 3B and 4 laser systems must be documented, reviewed, and approved through use of this form. Each system must be reviewed annually. System description: A laser heating system for diamond anvil cell experiments has been installed at X17B3. A class 4 ytterbium fiber laser (IPG model YLR-100-SM-CS) is used to perform high-pressure laser heating of samples contained in diamond anvil cells. Included within this laser is a guide laser

132

Heat pipe technology quarterly literature review. Volume 1, Number 3  

SciTech Connect

A bibliography containing 110 citations is presented. The citations are arranged in five sections on general information on heat pipes, heat pipe applications, heat pipe theory, heat pipe design, development, and fabrication, and heat pipe testing and operation.

Srinivasan, R.; Gonzales, R.W. (eds.)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Industrial Plate Exchangers Heat Recovery and Fouling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers have special characteristics for both fouling and heat recovery. These are discussed in general then related to two industrial examples.

Cross, P. H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Preformed transient gas channels for laser wakefield particle acceleration  

SciTech Connect

Acceleration of electrons by laser-driven plasma wake fields is limited by the range over which a laser pulse can maintain its intensity. This distance is typically given by the Rayleigh range for the focused laser beam, usually on the order of 0.1 mm to 1 mm. For practical particle acceleration, interaction distances on the order of centimeters are required. Therefore, some means of guiding high intensity laser pulses is necessary. Light intensities on the order of a few times 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} are required for laser wakefield acceleration schemes using near IR radiation. Gas densities on the order of or greater than 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3} are also needed. Laser-atom interaction studies in this density and intensity regime are generally limited by the concomitant problems in beam propagation introduced by the creation of a plasma. In addition to the interaction distance limit imposed by the Rayleigh range, defocusing of the high intensity laser pulse further limits the peak intensity which can be achieved. To solve the problem of beam propagation limitations in laser-plasma wakefield experiments, two potential methods for creating transient propagation channels in gaseous targets are investigated. The first involves creation of a charge-neutral channel in a gas by an initial laser pulse, which then is ionized by a second, ultrashort, high-intensity pulse to create a waveguide. The second method involves the ionization of a gas column by an ultrashort pulse; a transient waveguide is formed by the subsequent expansion of the heated plasma into the neutral gas.

Wood, W.M.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

High-power copper vapour lasers and applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expanded applications of copper vapor lasers has prompted increased demand for higher power and better beam quality. This paper reports recent progress in laser power scaling, MOPA operation, beam quality improvement, and applications in precision laser machining. Issues such as gas heating, radial delay, discharge instability, and window heating will also be discussed.

Chang, J.J.; Warner, B.E.; Boley, C.D.; Dragon, E.P.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Heating by the Raman instability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computer simulations are presented of the reflection and heating due to stimulated Raman backscatter of intense laser light in large regions of underdense plasma. The heated electron distribution is found to be approximately a Maxwellian of temperature (m/sub e//2)v/sub p//sup 2/, where v/sub p/ is the phase velocity of the electron plasma wave. A simple model of the reflection is presented. Raman may cause a pre-heat problem with large laser fusion reactor targets.

Estabrook, K.G.; Kruer, W.L.

1980-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

137

Relativistic Dynamics of Non-ideal Fluids: Viscous and heat-conducting fluids I. General Aspects and 3+1 Formulation for Nuclear Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relativistic non-ideal fluid dynamics is formulated in 3+1 space--time dimensions. The equations governing dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics are given in terms of the time and the 3-space quantities which correspond to those familiar from non-relativistic physics. Dissipation is accounted for by applying the causal theory of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics. As a special case we consider a fluid without viscous/heat couplings in the causal system of transport/relaxation equations. For the study of physical systems we consider pure (1+1)-dimensional expansion in planar geometry, (1+1)-dimensional spherically symmetric ({\\em fireball}) expansion, (1+1)-dimensional cylindrically symmetric expansion and a (2+1)-dimensional expansion with cylindrical symmetry in the transverse plane ({\\em firebarell} expansion). The transport/relaxation equations are given in terms of the spatial components of the dissipative fluxes, since these are not independent. The choice for the independent components is analogous to the non-relativistic equations.

Azwinndini Muronga

2006-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

138

Heat pipe heat amplifier  

SciTech Connect

In a heat pipe combination consisting of a common condenser section with evaporator sections at either end, two working fluids of different vapor pressures are employed to effectively form two heat pipe sections within the same cavity to support an amplifier mode of operation.

Arcella, F.G.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Surface Decontamination [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Decontamination Surface Decontamination Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Surface Decontamination Project description: Laser processing technology for decontamination of surfaces. Category: internal R&D project Bookmark and Share Fiber-optic beam-delivery systems for multi-kilowatt Nd:YAG laser beams are

140

The Oceanic Eddy Heat Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rectified eddy heat transport is calculated from a global high-resolution ocean general circulation model. The eddy heat transport is found to be strong in the western boundary currents, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the equatorial ...

Steven R. Jayne; Jochem Marotzke

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Laser Ignition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Ignition Laser Ignition Laser Ignition A first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Laser Ignition A first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In two embodiments the beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion

142

Radiant Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat...

143

Laser Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... over a wide range of powers, energies, and wavelengths. ... the SI units for laser power and energy. ... Novel power meter for high-efficiency laser diode ...

2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

144

Work and heat probability distribution of an optically driven Brownian particle: Theory and experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the equations governing the evolution of distributions of the work and the heat exchanged with the environment by a manipulated stochastic system, by means of a compact and general derivation. We obtain explicit solutions for these equations for the case of a dragged Brownian particle in a harmonic potential. We successfully compare the resulting predictions with the outcomes of experiments, consisting in dragging a micron-sized colloidal particle through water with a laser trap.

A. Imparato; L. Peliti; G. Pesce; G. Rusciano; A. Sasso

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

145

Refractory Alloy Welding [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refractory Alloy Welding Refractory Alloy Welding Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Refractory Alloy Welding Project description: Welding of refractory metals such as vanadium alloys. Category: internal R&D project Bookmark and Share Butt weld of two 4 mm thick V-4Cr-4Ti plates made by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser

146

Definition: Heat pump | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pump pump Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Heat pump Heating and/or cooling equipment that, during the heating season, draws heat into a building from outside and, during the cooling season, ejects heat from the building to the outside[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a heat source to a heat sink against a temperature gradient. Heat pumps are designed to move thermal energy opposite the direction of spontaneous heat flow. A heat pump uses some amount of external high-grade energy to accomplish the desired transfer of thermal energy from heat source to heat sink. While compressor-driven air conditioners and freezers are familiar examples of heat pumps, the term "heat pump" is more general and applies to

147

General Category  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

travels (or conducts) from the stove top directly into your fingers. Another means of heat transfer is through convection, in which heat is transferred through air flow. If you...

148

General Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environment Feature Stories Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Phonebook Calendar Video Business Small Business General Information General...

149

Heating Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...are used in many varied applications--from small household appliances to large industrial process heating systems and furnaces. In appliances or industrial process heating, the heating elements are usually either open

150

4-Diamond Formation from Amorphouse Carbon and Graphite in the Presence of COH Fluids : An InSitu High-Pressure and -Temperature Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cell Experimental Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microdiamonds from orogenic belts contain nanometer-size fluid inclusions suggesting diamond formation from supercritical carbon - oxygen - hydrogen (COH) fluids. Here we report experimental results of diamond nucleation from amorphous carbon and polycrystalline graphite in the presence of COH fluids in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Our results show that: (i) diamonds can nucleate from graphite or amorphous carbon at pressures of 9-11 GPa and temperatures of 1200-1400 K in the presence of COH fluids; (ii) it is easier to nucleate diamond from amorphous carbon than from graphite with or without the COH fluids; and (iii) the fluid from decomposition of glucose is more efficient in promoting the graphite-to-diamond transformation than the fluid from decomposition of oxalic acid dihydrate. Carbon crystallinity has strong effects on the kinetics of diamond nucleation and growth. The experimental results demonstrated the critical role of presence and composition of supercritical COH fluids for promoting the graphite-to-diamond transformation.

Zhang, J.; Prakapenka, V.; Kubo, A.; Kavner, A.; Green, H.W.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L. (China University of Geosciences)

2011-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

151

Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A variety of heating technologies are available today. In addition to heat pumps, which are discussed separately, many homes and buildings use the following approaches:

152

Guest Editorial: Laser Damage  

SciTech Connect

Laser damage of optical materials, first reported in 1964, continues to limit the output energy and power of pulsed and continuous-wave laser systems. In spite of some 48 years of research in this area, interest from the international laser community to laser damage issues remains at a very high level and does not show any sign of decreasing. Moreover, it grows with the development of novel laser systems, for example, ultrafast and short-wavelength lasers that involve new damage effects and specific mechanisms not studied before. This interest is evident from the high level of attendance and presentations at the annual SPIE Laser Damage Symposium (aka, Boulder Damage Symposium) that has been held in Boulder, Colorado, since 1969. This special section of Optical Engineering is the first one devoted to the entire field of laser damage rather than to a specific part. It is prepared in response to growing interest from the international laser-damage community. Some papers in this special section were presented at the Laser Damage Symposium; others were submitted in response to the general call for papers for this special section. The 18 papers compiled into this special section represent many sides of the broad field of laser-damage research. They consider theoretical studies of the fundamental mechanisms of laser damage including laser-driven electron dynamics in solids (O. Brenk and B. Rethfeld; A. Nikiforov, A. Epifanov, and S. Garnov; T. Apostolova et al.), modeling of propagation effects for ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses (J. Gulley), an overview of mechanisms of inclusion-induced damage (M. Koldunov and A. Manenkov), the formation of specific periodic ripples on a metal surface by femtosecond laser pulses (M. Ahsan and M. Lee), and the laser-plasma effects on damage in glass (Y. Li et al). Material characterization is represented by the papers devoted to accurate and reliable measurements of absorption with special emphasis on thin films (C. Mühlig and S. Bublitz; B. Cho, E. Danielewicz, and J. Rudisill; W. Palm et al; and J. Lu et al.). Statistical treatment of measurements of the laser-damage threshold (J. Arenberg) and the relationship to damage mechanisms (F. Wagner et al.) represent the large subfield of laser-damage measurements. Various aspects of multilayer coating and thin-film characterization are considered in papers by B. Cho, J. Rudisill, and E. Danielewicz (spectral shift in multilayer mirrors) and R. Weber et al. (novel approach to damage studies based on third-harmonic generation microscopy). Of special interest for readers is the paper by C. Stolz that summarizes the results of four “thin-film damage competitions” organized as a part of the Laser Damage Symposium. Another paper is devoted to thermal annealing of damage precursors (N. Shen et al.). Finally, the influence of nano-size contamination on initiation of laser damage by ultrashort pulses is considered in paper of V. Komolov et al.

Vitaly Gruzdev, Michelle D. Shinn

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Stimulated radiative laser cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host, into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

Muys, Peter

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Relativistic Laser Plasma Research for Fast Ignition Laser Fusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reviewed are the present status and future prospects of the laser fusion research at the ILE (Institute of Laser Engineering) Osaka. The Gekko XII and Peta Watt laser system have been operated for investigating the fast ignition, the relativistic laser plasma interactions and so on. In particular, the fast ignition experiments with cone shell target have been in progress as the UK and US-Japan collaboration programs. In the experiments, the imploded high density plasmas are heated by irradiating 500 J level peta watt laser pulse. The thermal neutron yield is found to increase by three orders of magnitude by injecting the peta watt laser into the cone shell target. Transport of relativistic high density electron is the critical issue as the basic physics for understanding the dense plasma heating process. By the theory, simulation and experiment, the collective phenomena in the interactions of intense relativistic electron current with dense plasmas has been investigated to find the formation of self organized flow as the result of filamentation (Weibel) instability. Through the present understanding, the new project, FIREX-I has started recently to prove the principle of the fast ignition scheme. Keywords: fast ignition, peta watt laser, relativistic electron, weibel instability

Mima Kunioki; Tanaka Kazuo. A; Kodama Ryosuke; Johzaki Tomohiro; Nagatomo Hideo; Shiraga Hiroyuki; Miyanaga Noriaki; Azechi Hiroshi; Nakai Mitsuo; Norimatsu Takayoshi; Nagai Keiji; Sunahara Atsushi; Nishihara Katsunobu; Taguchi Toshihiro; Sakagami Hitoshi; Sentoku Yasuhiko; Ruhl Hartmut

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Laser Spectro.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For more information about my work on laser spectroscopy, consult the following papers: Sansonetti, CJ, Gillaspy, JD, and ...

156

LASER Welding Survey for Power Generation Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has developed technology for laser weld repair of steam generator tubes in light water reactors. This technology has promise for other specialized welding and heat treatment applications in the power generation industry.

1998-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

157

Laser diode package with enhanced cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

Deri, Robert J.; Kotovsky, Jack; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

158

Laser diode package with enhanced cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Oakland, CA)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

159

Classical Heat Exchanger Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The industry methodology for heat exchanger performance and uncertainty analysis has been successful in dealing with the requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued in 1989 for safety-related service water systems, but has been found to have several significant limitations. The general objective of this report is to improve the industry performance and uncertainty analysis methodology and guidelines for implementation and analysis of heat exchanger performance. ...

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

Exploring the Limits of Boiling and Evaporative Heat Transfer Using Micro/Nano Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparison of various heat transfer coefficient models inpool boiling In summary, high heat transfer coefficientin boiling heat transfer can be generally explained by the

Lu, Ming-Chang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The athermal Laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new laser concept is presented, called the athermal laser, unifying all the hitherto known implementations of radiative laser cooling.

Muys, Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Laser device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

163

Assessment of Hybrid Geothermal Heat Pump Systems - Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cool- ing needs of the building and offers general guidelines Assessment of Hybrid Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Geothermal heat pumps offer attractive choice for space...

164

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

Daman, Ernest L. (Westfield, NJ); McCallister, Robert A. (Mountain Lakes, NJ)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Heat pipe applications workshop report  

SciTech Connect

The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems.

Ranken, W.A.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Dynamics of global ocean heat transport variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A state-of-the-art, high-resolution ocean general circulation model is used to estimate the time-dependent global ocean heat transport and investigate its dynamics. The north-south heat transport is the prime manifestation ...

Jayne, Steven Robert

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Laser Catalyst  

INL’s Laser Catalyst is a method for removing contaminant matter from a porous material. A polymer material is applied to a contaminated surface and ...

168

Ytterbium-doped borate fluoride laser crystals and lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed from Yb-doped borate fluoride host crystals. The general formula for the host crystals is MM'(BO.sub.3)F, where M, M' are monovalent, divalent aria trivalent metal cations. A particular embodiment of the invention is Yb-doped BaCaBO.sub.3 F (Yb:BCBF). BCBF and some of the related derivative crystals are capable of nonlinear frequency conversion, whereby the fundamental of the laser is converted to a longer or shorter wavelength. In this way, these new crystals can simultaneously serve as self-frequency doubling crystals and laser materials within the laser resonator.

Schaffers, Kathleen I. (Pleasanton, CA); DeLoach, Laura D. (Manteca, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Keszler, Douglas A. (Corvallis, OK)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

170

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 222 194 17...

171

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,100...

172

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,928 1,316...

173

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

174

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

175

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

176

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

177

Intense transient magnetic-field generation by laser plasma  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a laser system, the return current of a laser generated plasma is conducted near a target to subject that target to the magnetic field thereof. In alternate embodiments the target may be either a small non-fusion object for testing under the magnetic field or a laser-fusion pellet. In the laser-fusion embodiment, the laser-fusion pellet is irradiated during the return current flow and the intense transient magnetic field is used to control the hot electrons thereof to hinder them from striking and heating the core of the irradiated laser-fusion pellet.

Benjamin, R.F.

1981-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

178

Laser sealed vacuum insulating window  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1985-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

179

Laser sealed vacuum insulation window  

SciTech Connect

A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

NIST Laser Applications Group Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Applications Group. Welcome. The Laser Applications Group advances laser technology for applications in optical ...

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

General Engineers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

General Engineers General Engineers The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the General Engineer, whose work is associated with analytical studies and evaluation projects pertaining to the operations of the energy industry. Responsibilities: General Engineers perform or participate in one or more of the following important functions: * Design modeling systems to represent energy markets and the physical properties of energy industries * Conceive, initiate, monitor and/or conduct planning and evaluation projects and studies of continuing and future

182

Metalworking Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Several models of metalworking lasers of both domestic and foreign manufacture are commercially available. The majority of these are of either the neodymium yttrium-aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) solid-state type or the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas type. These lasers may have pulsed or...

183

Laser device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

184

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

185

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Apparatus and method for laser deposition of durable coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are method and apparatus for depositing durable coatings onto the surface of a substrate without heating the entire substrate to high temperatures by using lasers to heat the substrate and dissociate a deposition gas. The apparatus comprises a deposition chamber for enclosing the substrate upon which a coating is to be deposited, gas delivery means for directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate, a first laser for heating the substrate, and a second laser for irradiating the deposition gas to dissociate the gas. The method includes placing a substrate within a vacuum deposition chamber and directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate. Then the substrate is heated with a first laser while the deposition gas is irradiated with a second laser to dissociate the deposition gas.

Veligdan, J.T.; Vanier, P.; Barletta, R.E.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

On-line Monitoring [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On-line Monitoring On-line Monitoring Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory On-line Monitoring Project description: On-line process monitoring for laser-beam welding. Category: Project with industrial partner (USCAR) Bookmark and Share Simulated defects and associated responses from a weld sensor developed at Argonne

188

Laser Beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

• Community needs to work together to provide the technical case for funding an IFE program. • IFE program should nurture competition, with judgments made on the basis of technical progress and the potential of the various approaches to IFE. • Direct-drive with lasers looks very attractive for IFE, the physics and needed technologies are mature and advancing. • KrF provides physics advantages for direct drive. • KrF’s demonstrated performance is competitive with solid state lasers as a high-rep-rate durable, efficient IFE driver. (on several important parameters KrF technology leads) Direct Laser Drive is a better choice for Energy

Steve Obenschain

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Gas laser  

SciTech Connect

According to the invention, the gas laser comprises a housing which accommodates two electrodes. One of the electrodes is sectional and has a ballast resistor connected to each section. One of the electrodes is so secured in the housing that it is possible to vary the spacing between the electrodes in the direction of the flow of a gas mixture passed through an active zone between the electrodes where the laser effect is produced. The invention provides for a maximum efficiency of the laser under different operating conditions.

Kosyrev, F. K.; Leonov, A. P.; Pekh, A. K.; Timofeev, V. A.

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

190

Heat Stroke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

stress, from exertion or hot environments, places stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at risk for illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke A condition that occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature, and can cause death or permanent disability. Symptoms â–  High body temperature â–  Confusion â–  Loss of coordination â–  Hot, dry skin or profuse sweating â–  Throbbing headache â–  Seizures, coma First Aid â–  Request immediate medical assistance. â–  Move the worker to a cool, shaded area. â–  Remove excess clothing and apply cool water to their body. Heat Exhaustion The body's response to an excessive loss of water and salt, usually through sweating. Symptoms â–  Rapid heart beat â–  Heavy sweating â–  Extreme weakness or fatigue â– 

191

Heat reclaimer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A device for reclaiming heat from stove pipes and the like. A semi-circular shaped hollow enclosed housing with a highly thermal-conductive concave surface is mounted contactingly to surround approximately one-half of the circumference of the stove pipe. The concave surface is formed to contact the pipe at a maximum number of points along that surface. The hollow interior of the housing contains thin multi-surfaced projections which are integral with the concave surface and conductively transfer heat from the stove pipe and concave surface to heat the air in the housing. A fan blower is attached via an air conduit to an entrance opening in the housing. When turned on, the blower pushes the heated interior air out a plurality of air exit openings in the ends of the housing and brings in lower temperature outside air for heating.

Parham, F.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

192

Heat transfer. [heat transfer roller employing a heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A heat transfer roller embodying a heat pipe is disclosed. The heat pipe is mounted on a shaft, and the shaft is adapted for rotation on its axis.

Sarcia, D.S.

1978-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

193

Laser barometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This paper describes an invention of a pressure measuring instrument which uses laser radiation to sense the pressure in an enclosed environment by means of measuring the change in refractive index of a gas - which is pressure dependent.

Abercrombie, K.R.; Shiels, D.; Rash, T.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Laser Systems for Orbital Debris Removal  

SciTech Connect

The use of a ground based laser for space debris cleaning was investigated by the ORION project in 1996. Since that study the greatest technological advance in the development of high energy pulsed laser systems has taken place within the NIF project at LLNL. The proposed next laser system to follow the NIF at LLNL will be a high rep rate version of the NIF based on diode-pumping rather than flashlamp excitation; the so called 'LIFE' laser system. Because a single 'LIFE' beamline could be built up in a few year time frame, and has performance characteristics relevant to the space debris clearing problem, such a beamline could enable a near term demonstration of space debris cleaning. Moreover, the specifics of debris cleaning make it possible to simplify the LIFE laser beyond what is required for a fusion drive laser, and so substantially reduce its cost. Starting with the requirements for laser intensity on the target, and then considering beam delivery, we will flow back the laser requirements needed for space debris cleaning. Using these derived requirements we will then optimize the pulse duration, the operational regime, and the output pulse energy of the laser with a focus of simplifying its overall design. Anticipated simplifications include operation in the heat capacity regime, eliminating cooling requirements on the laser gain slabs, and relaxing B-integral and birefrigence requirements.

Rubenchik, A M; Barty, C P; Beach, R J; Erlandson, A C; Caird, J A

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

195

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, M.A.

1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

196

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Laser-material interactions: A study of laser energy coupling with solids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study of laser-light interactions with solid materials ranges from low-temperature heating to explosive, plasma-forming reactions. Contained are four works concerning laser-energy coupling: laser (i) heating and (ii) melting monitored using a mirage effect technique, (iii) the mechanical stress-power generated during high-powered laser ablation, and (iv) plasma-shielding. First, a photothermal deflection (PTD) technique is presented for monitoring heat transfer during modulated laser heating of opaque solids that have not undergone phase-change. Of main interest is the physical significance of the shape, magnitude, and phase for the temporal profile of the deflection signal. Considered are the effects that thermophysical properties, boundary conditions, and geometry of the target and optical probe-beam have on the deflection response. PTD is shown to monitor spatial and temporal changes in heat flux leaving the surface due to changes in laser energy coupling. The PTD technique is then extended to detect phase-change at the surface of a solid target. Experimental data shows the onset of melt for indium and tin targets. The conditions for which melt can be detected by PTD is analyzed in terms of geometry, incident power and pulse length, and thermophysical properties of the target and surroundings. Next, monitoring high-powered laser ablation of materials with stress-power is introduced. The motivation for considering stress-power is given, followed by a theoretical discussion of stress-power and how it is determined experimentally. Experiments are presented for the ablation of aluminum targets as a function of energy and intensity. The stress-power response is analyzed for its physical significance. Lastly, the influence of plasma-shielding during high-powered pulsed laser-material interactions is considered. Crater size, emission, and stress-power are measured to determine the role that the gas medium and laser pulse length have on plasma shielding.

Shannon, M.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Energy Basics: Heat Pump Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Heat...

199

General Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ASD General Information ASD General Information APS Resources & Information A list of useful links for APS staff and users. APS Technical Publications Links to APS technical publications. APS Publications Database The official and comprehensive source of references for APS-related journal articles, conference papers, book chapters, dissertations, abstracts, awards, invited talks, etc. Image Library A collection of APS images. Responsibilities & Interfaces for APS Technical Systems Descriptions of the responsibilities of APS technical groups and how they interface with one another. APS Procedures Operational procedures for the APS. APS Specifications Specifications and approvals for upgrades or changes to existing APS hardware and software. APS Radiation Safety Policy & Procedures Committee Minutes

200

Heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for reclaiming heat from the discharge gas from a combustion fuel heating unit, which has: inlet and outlet sections; an expansion section whose circumference gradually increases in the direction of flow, thereby providing an increased area for heat transfer; flow splitter plates which lie within and act in conjunction with the expansion section wall to form flow compartments, which flow splitter plates and expansion section wall have a slope, with respect to the centroidal axis of the flow compartment not exceeding 0.1228, which geometry prevents a separation of the flow from the enclosing walls, thereby increasing heat transfer and maintaining the drafting function; and a reduction section which converges the flow to the outlet section.

Horkey, E.J.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Time-resolved visible and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of laser-produced tin plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plasma: an optically thin corona and an optically thick conductionplasma heating occurs indirectly through radiative transfer and electron conduction.conduction carries energy in the laser absorption zone beyond the critical surface to heat the higher density plasma.

O'Shay, Joseph Fred

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Process Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update uses real world examples to discuss applications of electrotechnology in industrial process heating and to highlight some of the emerging technologies in this field. These emerging technologies, when implemented in a plant, will provide significant energy savings as well as increase productivity. The report presents three case studies of successful implementation of two different electric process-heating technologies in three different industries. The case studies show that in some ...

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

203

HEAT EXCHANGER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

1962-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

204

Corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

laser_measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimensional Measurements. Laser Measurements. Rate our Services. Technical ... Laser Frequency/Wavelength (14510S-14511S). The ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

206

Modeling the Heating of Biological Tissue based on the Hyperbolic Heat Transfer Equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In modern surgery, a multitude of minimally intrusive operational techniques are used which are based on the punctual heating of target zones of human tissue via laser or radio-frequency currents. Traditionally, these processes are modeled by the bioheat equation introduced by Pennes, who considers Fourier's theory of heat conduction. We present an alternative and more realistic model established by the hyperbolic equation of heat transfer. To demonstrate some features and advantages of our proposed method, we apply the obtained results to different types of tissue heating with high energy fluxes, in particular radiofrequency heating and pulsed laser treatment of the cornea to correct refractive errors. Hopefully, the results of our approach help to refine surgical interventions in this novel field of medical treatment.

Tung, M M; Molina, J A Lopez; Rivera, M J; Berjano, E J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Laser-driven fusion reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser-driven fusion reactor consisting of concentric spherical vessels in which the thermonuclear energy is derived from a deuterium-tritium (D + T) burn within a pellet'', located at the center of the vessels and initiated by a laser pulse. The resulting alpha -particle energy and a small fraction of the neutron energy are deposited within the pellet; this pellet energy is eventually transformed into sensible heat of lithium in a condenser outside the vessels. The remaining neutron energy is dissipated in a lithium blanket, located within the concentric vessels, where the fuel ingredient, tritium, is also produced. The heat content of the blanket and of the condenser lithium is eventually transferred to a conventional thermodynamic plant where the thermal energy is converted to electrical energy in a steam Rankine cycle. (Official Gazette)

Hedstrom, J.C.

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Laser Detection Of Material Thickness  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detection Of Material Thickness Detection Of Material Thickness Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of

209

Laser Beam Delivery [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities...

210

Lasers and Optoelectronic Components Used with Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... example, beam profile and relative intensity noise ... for the laser wavelengths and energies for which ... The laser power and energy measurements are ...

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

211

Azacoumarin dye lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Atkins, Ronald L. (Ridgecrest, CA); Henry, Ronald A. (China Lake, CA); Fletcher, Aaron N. (Ridgecrest, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Azaquinolone dye lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Atkins, Ronald L. (Ridgecrest, CA); Henry, Ronald A. (China Lake, CA); Fletcher, Aaron N. (Ridgecrest, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Modeling of high energy laser ignition of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

We present a model for simulating high energy laser heating and ignition of confined energetic materials. The model considers the effect of irradiating a steel plate with long laser pulses and continuous lasers of several kilowatts and the thermal response of well-characterized high explosives for ignition. Since there is enough time for the thermal wave to propagate into the target and to create a region of hot spot in the high explosives, electron thermal diffusion of ultrashort (femto- and picosecond) lasing is ignored; instead, heat diffusion of absorbed laser energy in the solid target is modeled with thermal decomposition kinetic models of high explosives. Numerically simulated pulsed-laser heating of solid target and thermal explosion of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, triaminotrinitrobenzene, and octahydrotetranitrotetrazine are compared to experimental results. The experimental and numerical results are in good agreement.

Lee, Kyung-cheol; Kim, Ki-hong; Yoh, Jack J. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

General Category  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic Effect on Climate Magnetic Effect on Climate Name: Chris Status: other Grade: other Location: N/A Country: Canada Date: Spring 2012 Question: How does the geomagnetic fields of earth effect on climate? Replies: Hi Chris, Geomagnetic field changes have played an important role in Earth's climate for thousands of years. These changes arise from the Earth's own geomagnetic field as well as the Solar Wind and other Solar magnetic disturbances. Fortunately, Earth's geomagnetic field offers protection from the Sun's influences. Solar Wind interaction with the magnetosphere affects the Earth's rotation causing a redistribution of ocean stored heat and water masses. There are also small changes in the total sunlight available at Earth's surface. Cosmic rays reaching into the higher levels of Earth's atmosphere affect airglow(aurora) and cloudiness.

215

Office of Inspector General  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Inspector General Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Work Plan for FY 2013 Audits Central Audits Division  Ecotality  Funding Overlap  Follow-up on Smart Grid Investment Grant  DOE's Loan Program Office's Portfolio Management  Office of Fossil Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  Advanced Manufacturing Office's Combined Heat and Power Systems  DOE's Management of Contaminated Non-EM Facilities  Unneeded Real Estate  Review of For-Profit Grantees for selected DOE programs  Commercialization Efforts at National Laboratories  Research Misconduct at Office of Science  Public Dissemination of Research Results  BPA's Management of Borrowing Authority Construction  Controls Over PMA's Use of Hedging Instruments

216

Microwave accelerator E-beam pumped laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for pumping gaseous lasers by means of a microwave accelerator. The microwave accelerator produces a relativistic electron beam which is applied along the longitudinal axis of the laser through an electron beam window. The incident points of the electron beam on the electron beam window are varied by deflection coils to enhance the cooling characteristics of the foil. A thyratron is used to reliably modulate the microwave accelerator to produce electron beam pulses which excite the laser medium to produce laser pulse repetition frequencies not previously obtainable. An aerodynamic window is also disclosed which eliminates foil heating problems, as well as a magnetic bottle for reducing laser cavity length and pressures while maintaining efficient energy deposition.

Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Stein, William E. (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Internal cooling in a semiconductor laser diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—A thermal model of a diode laser structure is developed which includes a bipolar thermoelectric term not included in previous models. It is shown that heterostructure band offsets can be chosen so that there are thermoelectric cooling sources near the active region; this method of cooling is internal to the device itself, as opposed to temperature stabilization schemes which employ an external cooler. A novel laser structure is proposed that is capable of internal cooling in the Ga1 In As Sb1 –GaSb material system with = 2 64 m. Index Terms—Electrothermal effects, lasers, laser thermal factors, photothermal effects, semiconductor lasers, thermionic emission, thermionic energy conversion, thermoelectric devices, thermoelectric energy conversion, thermoelectricity. Fig. 1. Band structure and thermoelectric heat source distribution for (a) and (b) conventional SCH, and (c) and (d) ICICLE.

K. P. Pipe; R. J. Ram; A. Shakouri

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Laser barometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure measuring instrument that utilizes the change of the refractive index of a gas as a function of pressure and the coherent nature of a laser light to determine the barometric pressure within an environment. As the gas pressure in a closed environment varies, the index of refraction of the gas changes. The amount of change is a function of the gas pressure. By illuminating the gas with a laser light source, causing the wavelength of the light to change, pressure can be quantified by measuring the shift in fringes (alternating light and dark bands produced when coherent light is mixed) in an interferometer.

Abercrombie, Kevin R. (Westminster, CO); Shiels, David (Thornton, CO); Rash, Tim (Aurora, CO)

2001-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

219

Direct Laser Synthesis of Functional Coatings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct laser synthesis of functional coatings employs the irradiation of materials with short intensive laser pulses in a reactive atmosphere. The material is heated and plasma is ignited in the reactive atmosphere. This leads to an intensive interaction of the material with the reactive species and a coating is directly formed on the materials surface. By that functional coatings can be easily produced a fast way on steel, aluminium, and silicon by irradiation in nitrogen, methane, or even hydrogen. The influence of the processing parameters to the properties of the functional coatings will be presented for titanium nitride coating produced on titanium with the free electron laser.

P. Schaaf; Michelle D. Shinn; E. Carpene; J. Kaspar

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Expanded microchannel heat exchanger: design, fabrication and preliminary experimental test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper first reviews non-traditional heat exchanger geometry, laser welding, practical issues with microchannel heat exchangers, and high effectiveness heat exchangers. Existing microchannel heat exchangers have low material costs, but high manufacturing costs. This paper presents a new expanded microchannel heat exchanger design and accompanying continuous manufacturing technique for potential low-cost production. Polymer heat exchangers have the potential for high effectiveness. The paper discusses one possible joining method - a new type of laser welding named "forward conduction welding," used to fabricate the prototype. The expanded heat exchanger has the potential to have counter-flow, cross-flow, or parallel-flow configurations, be used for all types of fluids, and be made of polymers, metals, or polymer-ceramic precursors. The cost and ineffectiveness reduction may be an order of magnitude or more, saving a large fraction of primary energy. The measured effectiveness of the prototype with 28 micro...

Denkenberger, David C; Pearce, Joshua M; Zhai, John; 10.1177/0957650912442781

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Comparison of laser-based mitigation of fused silica surface damage using mid- versus far-infrared lasers  

SciTech Connect

Laser induced growth of optical damage can limit component lifetime and therefore operating costs of large-aperture fusion-class laser systems. While far-infrared (IR) lasers have been used previously to treat laser damage on fused silica optics and render it benign, little is known about the effectiveness of less-absorbing mid-IR lasers for this purpose. In this study, they quantitatively compare the effectiveness and efficiency of mid-IR (4.6 {micro}m) versus far-IR (10.6 {micro}m) lasers in mitigating damage growth on fused silica surfaces. The non-linear volumetric heating due to mid-IR laser absorption is analyzed by solving the heat equation numerically, taking into account the temperature-dependent absorption coefficient {alpha}(T) at {lambda} = 4.6 {micro}m, while far-IR laser heating is well-described by a linear analytic approximation to the laser-driven temperature rise. In both cases, the predicted results agree well with surface temperature measurements based on infrared radiometry, as well as sub-surface fictive temperature measurements based on confocal Raman microscopy. Damage mitigation efficiency is assessed using a figure of merit (FOM) relating the crack healing depth to laser power required, under minimally-ablative conditions. Based on their FOM, they show that for cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation with a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation with a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser. This conclusion is corroborated by direct application of each laser system to the mitigation of pulsed laser-induced damage possessing fractures up to 225 {micro}m in depth.

Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

222

HEAT GENERATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Heat is generated by the utilization of high energy neutrons produced as by nuclear reactions between hydrogen isotopes in a blanket zone containing lithium, a neutron moderator, and uranium and/or thorium effective to achieve multtplicatton of the high energy neutron. The rnultiplied and moderated neutrons produced react further with lithium-6 to produce tritium in the blanket. Thermal neutron fissionable materials are also produced and consumed in situ in the blanket zone. The heat produced by the aggregate of the various nuclear reactions is then withdrawn from the blanket zone to be used or otherwise disposed externally. (AEC)

Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

1963-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Heat Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2013 ... CA6NM and UNS S41500 steels are commonly used for the manufacturing hydraulic turbine runners. The blades are generally welded using ...

224

Laser wavelength effects in ultrafast near-field laser nanostructuring...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser wavelength effects in ultrafast near-field laser nanostructuring of Si Title Laser wavelength effects in ultrafast near-field laser nanostructuring of Si Publication Type...

225

EA-1655: Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Laser Acquisition...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

655: Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Laser Acquisition, Installation and Use for Research and Development EA-1655: Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Laser Acquisition,...

226

Diabatic Sources of Potential Vorticity in the General Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A form of the potential vorticity (PV) budget is proposed that facilitates analysis on the role of global heat sources and sinks in the general circulation. A local diabatic source of PV occurs due to vertical variations of heating. Additionally, ...

Martin P. Hoerling

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Inspector General  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of the Under Secretary for Nuclear Security Edward B. Held (Acting) Under Secretary for Nuclear Security DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of the Under Secretary for Management & Performance Vacant Under Secretary for Management and Performance Office of the Under Secretary for Science & Energy Vacant Under Secretary for Science and Energy Southwestern Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Southeastern Power Administration U.S. Energy Information Administration Loan Programs Office Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy General Counsel Assistant Secretary for Congressional & Intergovernmental Affairs Chief Human Capital Officer

228

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

229

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating...

230

Feasibility study of geothermal energy for heating greenhouses. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The technical feasibility of heating greenhouses with geothermal heat is established. Off-the-shelf equipment suitable for geothermal heating is readily available. A procedure is given to economically examine a geothermal site for its suitability. Generally, geothermal heating systems are capital intensive. Where the geothermal energy is free the geothermal system is very attractive and where the cost of geothermal heat is the same as other energy, Btu/$, geothermal heat is unattractive.

LaFrance, L.J.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

Wolowodiuk, Walter (New Providence, NJ)

1976-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

232

Heat reclaimer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heat reclaimer for the exhaust flue of a heating unit comprises a housing having an air input space, an air output space, and an exhaust space, with a plurality of tubes connected between and communicating the air input space with the air output space and extending through the exhaust space. The exhaust flue of the heating unit is connected into the exhaust space of the housing and an exhaust output is connected to the housing extending from the exhaust space for venting exhaust coming from the heater into the exhaust space to a chimney, for example. A float or level switch is connected to the housing near the bottom of the exhaust space for switching, for example, an alarm if water accumulates in the exhaust space from condensed water vapor in the exhaust. At least one hole is also provided in the housing above the level of the float switch to permit condensed water to leave the exhaust space. The hole is provided in case the float switch clogs with soot. A wiping device may also be provided in the exhaust space for wiping the exterior surfaces of the tubes and removing films of water and soot which might accumulate thereon and reduce their heat transfer capacity.

Bellaff, L.

1981-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

233

Measurements of the parametric decay of CO/sub 2/ laser radiation into plasma waves at quarter critical density using ruby laser Thomson scattering  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of small-angle ruby laser Thomson scattering measurements of the parametric excitation of plasma waves by CO/sub 2/ laser radiation at quarter-critical density in a laser-heated gas target plasma. From supplementary data obtained from interferometry and large-angle ruby laser scattering we infer that the threshold conditions for a convective decay are satisfied.

Schuss, J.J.; Chu, T.K.; Johnson, L.C.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Using the Northeast as a regional focus for heating oil, the typical oil-heated household consumes about 680 gallons of oil during the winter, assuming that weather is "normal." The previous three winters were warmer than average and generated below normal consumption rates. Last winter, consumers saw large increases over the very low heating oil prices seen during the winter of 1998-1999 but, outside of the cold period in late January/early February they saw relatively low consumption rates due to generally warm weather. Even without particularly sharp cold weather events this winter, we think consumers are likely to see higher average heating oil prices than were seen last winter. If weather is normal, our projections imply New England heating oil

235

Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of this winter's market pressures is in home heating oil prices. This chart shows prices through February 28, the most recent EIA data available. The general level of heating oil prices each year is largely a function of crude oil prices, and the price range over the course of the heating season is typically about 10 cents per gallon. Exceptions occur in unusual circumstances, such as very cold weather, large changes in crude oil prices, or supply problems. Heating oil prices for East Coast consumers started this winter at just over $1 per gallon, but rising crude oil prices drove them up nearly 21 cents through mid-January. With the continuing upward pressure from crude oil markets, magnified by a regional shortfall of heating oil

236

Energy Basics: Absorption Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

237

Energy Basics: Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

238

General Category  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sunrise and Sunset Visual Differences Sunrise and Sunset Visual Differences Name: Joey Status: other Grade: other Country: Canada Date: Spring 2012 Question: It seems that sunrise and sunset don't look symmetric. I mean that sunsets tend to have much redder skies and sunrise is usually a bit gloomier. If you see a picture, many times you can tell if its sunrise or sunset, even though I would think they should like identical, except that the sun is either going up or going down. Why do they not appear the same but in reverse? Replies: Funny you should ask as a paper just arrived which is sure to have the answer and I will read it now....... OK, the morning sky, and the sky in general, is blue due to Rayleigh scattering [which affects short wavelengths the most] of the sun light by air molecules and other microscopic particles.

239

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Heat Exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 16   Ceramic heat exchanger systems...Soaking pit 870â??1230 1600â??2250 Fe, Si, alkalis Solar Turbines â?¦ 4â??8 OD Ã? 180 long (440 tubes) Aluminum melt furnaces 1010 1850 Alkali salts Plate fin GTE 0.6, 1.6 25â??46 Multiple 870â??1370 1600â??2250 Clean (good), alkalis (poor) Coors 0.25, 1.0 30 Ã? 30 Ã? 46 Multiple Clean (good), alkalis (poor) Radiant...

242

ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING PLANT Dr.sc.ing. Agnese Lickrastina M.Sc. Normunds European Heat Pump Summit 2013, Nuremberg, 15-16.10.2013 · Riga District Heating company · Operation #12;JSC RGAS SILTUMS · the biggest District Heating company in Latvia and in the Baltic states

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

243

Heterodyne laser diagnostic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

Globig, Michael A. (Antioch, CA); Johnson, Michael A. (Pleasanton, CA); Wyeth, Richard W. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Electrically heated liquid tank employing heat pipe heat transfer means  

SciTech Connect

The heating apparatus for applying heat to the interior of a chamber includes a modular, removable, electrical, heat-producing unit and a heat pipe mountable in a wall of the chamber with one end of the pipe arranged to receive heat from the electrical heat producing unit exterior of the housing and with another end of the pipe constructed and arranged to apply heat to the medium within the chamber. The heat pipe has high conductivity with a low temperature differential between the ends thereof and the heat producing unit includes an electric coil positioned about and removably secured to the one end of the heat pipe. The electric coil is embedded in a high thermal conducitivity, low electrical conductivity filler material which is surrounded by a low thermal conductivity insulating jacket and which is received around a metal core member which is removably secured to the one end of the heat pipe.

Shutt, J.R.

1978-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

245

Solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect

A solar heat collector comprises an evacuated transparent pipe; a solar heat collection plate disposed in the transparent pipe; a heat pipe, disposed in the transparent pipe so as to contact with the solar heat collection plate, and containing an evaporable working liquid therein; a heat medium pipe containing a heat medium to be heated; a heat releasing member extending along the axis of the heat medium pipe and having thin fin portions extending from the axis to the inner surface of the heat medium pipe; and a cylindrical casing surrounding coaxially the heat medium pipe to provide an annular space which communicates with the heat pipe. The evaporable working liquid evaporates, receiving solar heat collected by the heat collection plate. The resultant vapor heats the heat medium through the heat medium pipe and the heat releasing member.

Yamamoto, T.; Imani, K.; Sumida, I.; Tsukamoto, M.; Watahiki, N.

1984-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

246

Geothermal district heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Geothermal Energy: Residential Space Heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study, which was carried out under the auspices of the DGRST, was to determine the best way to use geothermal hot water for residential space heating. It quickly became apparent that the type of heating apparatus used in the housing units was most important and that heat pumps could be a valuable asset, making it possible to extract even more geothermal heat and thus substantially improve the cost benefit of the systems. Many factors play a significant role in this problem. Therefore, after a first stage devoted to analyzing the problem through a manual method which proved quite useful, the systematic consideration of all important aspects led us to use a computer to optimize solutions and process a large number of cases. The software used for this general study can also be used to work out particular cases: it is now available to any interested party through DGRST. This program makes it possible to: (1) take climatic conditions into account in a very detailed manner, including temperatures as well as insolation. 864 cases corresponding to 36 typical days divided into 24 hours each were chosen to represent the heating season. They make it possible to define the heating needs of any type of housing unit. (2) simulate and analyze the behavior in practice of a geothermal heating system when heat is extracted from the well by a simple heat exchanger. This simulation makes it possible to evaluate the respective qualities of various types of heating apparatus which can be used in homes. It also makes it possible to define the best control systems for the central system and substations and to assess quite accurately the presence of terminal controls, such as radiators with thermostatically controlled valves. (3) determine to what extent the addition of a heat pump makes it possible to improve the cost benefit of geothermal heating. When its average characteristics and heating use conditions (price, coefficient of performance, length of utilization, electrical rates, etc.) are taken into account, the heat pump should not be scaled for maximum heating power. Consequently, the program considers several possible sizes, with different installation schemes, and selects for each case the value which corresponds to the lowest cost of heating.

None

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

249

CO{sub 2} laser pulse shortening by laser ablation of a metal target  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A repeatable and flexible technique for pulse shortening of laser pulses has been applied to transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO{sub 2} laser pulses. The technique involves focusing the laser output onto a highly reflective metal target so that plasma is formed, which then operates as a shutter due to strong laser absorption and scattering. Precise control of the focused laser intensity allows for timing of the shutter so that different temporal portions of the pulse can be reflected from the target surface before plasma formation occurs. This type of shutter enables one to reduce the pulse duration down to {approx}2 ns and to remove the low power, long duration tails that are present in TEA CO{sub 2} pulses. The transmitted energy is reduced as the pulse duration is decreased but the reflected power is {approx}10 MW for all pulse durations. A simple laser heating model verifies that the pulse shortening depends directly on the plasma formation time, which in turn is dependent on the applied laser intensity. It is envisaged that this plasma shutter will be used as a tool for pulse shaping in the search for laser pulse conditions to optimize conversion efficiency from laser energy to useable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation for EUV source development.

Donnelly, T.; Mazoyer, M.; Lynch, A.; O'Sullivan, G.; O'Reilly, F.; Dunne, P.; Cummins, T. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Environment/Health/Safety (EHS): Laser Safety  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Safety Home Whom to Call Analysis of Laser Safety Occurrences: 2005-2011 Laser Bio-effects Laser Classification Laser Disposal Guide Laser Forms Laser Newsletter Laser Lab...

251

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Energy Basics: Radiant Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

very low heat capacity and have the quickest response time of any heating technology. More Information Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about radiant heating...

254

Energy Basics: Radiant Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

low heat capacity and have the quickest response time of any heating technology. More Information Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about radiant heating in homes...

255

List of Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Space Heat Incentives Space Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 278 Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 278) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption (Corporate) (Massachusetts) Industry Recruitment/Support Massachusetts Commercial Biomass Fuel Cells Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydroelectric energy Municipal Solid Waste Passive Solar Space Heat Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Wind energy Yes Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption (Personal) (Massachusetts) Industry Recruitment/Support Massachusetts General Public/Consumer Biomass

256

Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated motional heating of laser-cooled 9Be+ ions held inradio-frequency (Paul) traps. We have measured heating rates in a variety oftraps with different geometries, electrode materials, and characteristic sizes.The results show that heating is due to electric-field noise from the trapelectrodes which exerts a stochastic fluctuating force on the ion. The scalingof the heating rate with trap size is much stronger than that expected from aspatially uniform noise source on the electrodes (such as Johnson noise fromexternal circuits), indicating that a microscopic uncorrelated noise source onthe electrodes (such as fluctuating patch-potential fields) is a more likelycandidate for the source of heating.

Turchette, Q A; King, B E; Leibfried, D; Meekhof, D M; Myatt, C J; Rowe, M A; Sackett, C A; Wood, C S; Itano, W M; Monroe, C; Wineland, D J

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation  

SciTech Connect

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

1985-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

258

How do lasers work?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

all the way through college physics. Let me try anyway, but first let's define what a laser and laser light are. Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated...

259

Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

Not Available

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Laser Diode Cathode Laser Diode Anode +5 Volts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the high performance you expect from a Wavelength component with two distinct improvements: low voltage operation from +5 V DC, and an Active Current Limit. Operating from a single +5 V supply minimizes heat dissipation. Modular packaging makes it easy to integrate the PLD into your system. For applications that require a higher forward voltage, a separate laser diode power supply input lets you provide a higher compliance voltage. The Active Current Limit not only protects your laser diode, but ensures that you are operating with maximum stability. When the laser current reaches the level set by the Limit I Trimpot, the output disables and the Limit LED and Limit Status indicate the current limit has been reached. Two photodiode ranges provide variable sensitivities for optimum operation. You can maintain excellent stability when operating in both constant current and constant power mode. All trimpots and switches are easily accessible and offer precision control. A slow start circuit, mechanical shorting relay, and Active Current Limit offer maximum protection for your laser diode even when power is removed.

H; pin Power Ground; Lim I Adj; I Disabled

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, Phillip J. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Tailoring the air plasma with a double laser pulse  

SciTech Connect

We present a comprehensive model of plasma dynamics that enables a detailed understanding of the ways the air plasma induced in the atmosphere in the wake of a laser-induced filament can be controlled by an additional laser pulse. Our model self-consistently integrates plasma-kinetic, Navier-Stokes, electron heat conduction, and electron-vibration energy transfer equations, serving to reveal laser-plasma interaction regimes where the plasma lifetime can be substantially increased through an efficient control over plasma temperature, as well as suppression of attachment and recombination processes. The model is used to quantify the limitations on the length of uniform laser-filament heating due to the self-defocusing of laser radiation by the radial profile of electron density. The envisaged applications include sustaining plasma guides for long-distance transmission of microwaves, standoff detection of impurities and potentially hazardous agents, as well as lightning control and protection.

Shneider, M. N.; Miles, R. B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 (United States); Zheltikov, A. M. [Physics Department, International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Observation of femtosecond laser-induced nanostructure-covered large scale waves on metals  

SciTech Connect

Following femtosecond (fs) laser pulse irradiation, we produce a type of periodic surface structure with a period tens of times greater than the laser wavelength and densely covered by an iterating pattern that consists of stripes of nanostructures and microscale cellular structures. The morphology of this large scale wave pattern crucially depends on laser fluence and the number of laser pulses, but not on the laser wavelength. Our study suggests that this large scale wave is initiated by fs laser induced surface unevenness followed by periodically distributed nonuniform surface heating from fs pulse irradiation.

Hwang, Taek Yong; Guo Chunlei [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Ocean General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect

1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

266

Free Electron Laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Free Electron Laser Building Exterior Top Floor Control Room RF Gallery User Lab Beam Enclosure Injector Linear Accelerator Wiggler Magnet Return Line Free Electron Laser Most...

267

Free electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

A review of experimental and theoretical concepts of a free electron laser is given. The possibilities of scaling these lasers to high powers are discussed. (MOW)

Brau, C.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Femtosecond Laser Frequency Combs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to all of these is the continued development of the lasers themselves. We are exploring and comparing different types of fs-laser comb technology ...

269

Physics Out Loud - Laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Previous Video (Hybrid Meson) Physics Out Loud Main Index Next Video (Matter) Matter Laser Learn all about different types of lasers with Jefferson Lab's Michelle Shinn, a...

270

Laser Music System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? A Laser Music System has been created, that combines a laser and light sensor system with an infrared distance sensing system that detects the… (more)

Woodruff, Astra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a {approx} 200 {micro}s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and increased reliability. The high-level requirements on the semiconductor lasers involve reliability, price points on a price-per-Watt basis, and a set of technical requirements. The technical requirements for the amplifier design in reference 1 are discussed in detail and are summarized in Table 1. These values are still subject to changes as the overall laser system continues to be optimized. Since pump costs can be a significant fraction of the overall laser system cost, it is important to achieve sufficiently low price points for these components. At this time, the price target for tenth-of-akind IFE plant is $0.007/Watt for packaged devices. At this target level, the pumps account for approximately one third of the laser cost. The pump lasers should last for the life of the power plant, leading to a target component lifetime requirement of roughly 14 Ghosts, corresponding to a 30 year plant life and 15 Hz repetition rate. An attractive path forward involes pump operation at high output power levels, on a Watts-per-bar (Watts/chip) basis. This reduces the cost of pump power (price-per-Watt), since to first order the unit price does not increase with power/bar. The industry has seen a continual improvement in power output, with current 1 cm-wide bars emitting up to 500 W QCW (quasi-continuous wave). Increased power/bar also facilitates achieving high irradiance in the array plane. On the other hand, increased power implies greater heat loads and (possibly) higher current drive, which will require increased attention to thermal management and parasitic series resistance. Diode chips containing multiple p-n junctions and quantum wells (also called nanostack structures) may provide an additional approach to reduce the peak current.

Deri, R J

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

272

Infrared Thermographic Study of Laser Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Pyrotechnic ignition has been studied in the past by making a limited number of discrete temperature-time observations during ignition. Present-day infrared scanning techniques make it possible to record thermal profiles, during ignition, with high spacial and temporal resolution. Data thus obtained can be used with existing theory to characterize pyrotechnic materials and to develop more precise kinetic models of the ignition process. Ignition has been studied theoretically and experimentally using various thermal methods. It has been shown that the whole process can, ideally, be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the sample pellet behaves like an inert body heated by an external heat source. The second stage is governed by the chemical reaction in the heated volume produced during the first stage. High speed thermographic recording of the temperature distribution in the test sample during laser ignition makes it possible to calculate the heat content at any instant. Thus, one can actually observe laser heating and the onset of self-sustained combustion in the pellet. The experimental apparatus used to make these observations is described. The temperature distributions recorded are shown to be in good agreement with those predicted by heat transfer theory. Heat content values calculated from the observed temperature distributions are used to calculate thermal and kinetic parameters for several samples. These values are found to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

Mohler, Jonathan H.; Chow, Charles T. S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Radiofrequency plasma heating: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The conference proceedings include sessions on Alfven Wave Heating, ICRF Heating and Current Drive, Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive, and ECRF Heating. Questions of confinement, diagnostics, instabilities and technology are considered. Individual papers are cataloged separately. (WRF)

Swenson, D.G. (ed.)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Laser machining of explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Slide 2 of 11 Notes: One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of this winterÂ’s market pressures is in home heating oil prices. This chart shows prices through February 7, the most recent EIA data available. The general level of heating oil prices each year is largely a function of crude oil prices, and the price range over the course of the heating season is typically about 10 cents per gallon. Exceptions occur in unusual circumstances, such as very cold weather, large changes in crude oil prices, or supply problems. Heating oil prices for East Coast consumers started this winter at just over $1 per gallon, but rising crude oil prices drove them up nearly 21 cents per gallon through mid-January. With the continuing upward pressure from crude oil markets, magnified by a regional shortfall of

276

Photovoltaic roof heat flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and could the heat transfer processes be modeled to estimateindicating that the heat transfer processes were modeled w i

Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis  

SciTech Connect

First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community.

Bohn, Willy L. [Institute of Technical Physics, German Aerospace Center (DLR) D-70569 Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, Stuttgart (Germany)

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

278

On the Measurement of Heat Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite their adverse impacts, definitions and measurements of heat waves are ambiguous and inconsistent, generally being endemic to only the group affected, or the respective study reporting the analysis. The present study addresses this issue by ...

S. E. Perkins; L. V. Alexander

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Accelerator experiments contradicting general relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deflection of gamma-rays in Earth's gravitational field is tested in laser Compton scattering at high energy accelerators. Within a formalism connecting the bending angle to the photon's momentum it follows that detected gamma-ray spectra are inconsistent with a deflection magnitude of 2.78 nrad, predicted by Einstein's gravity theory. Moreover, preliminary results for 13-28 GeV photons from two different laboratories show opposite - away from the Earth - deflection, amounting to 33.8-0.8 prad. I conclude that general relativity, which describes gravity at low energies precisely, break down at high energies.

Vahagn Gharibyan

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

280

Heat pipe methanator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

Ranken, William A. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Micro thrust and heat generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to micromachines such as microengines or micromotors. More specifically, the invention is directed to a micro rocket which functions as a source of heat and thrust, and utilizes chemical energy to drive or power micromechanical apparatuses. The invention is adaptable to applications involving defense, bio-medical, manufacturing, consumer product, aviation, automotive, computer, inspection, and safety systems. A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachine techniques (LIGA).

Garcia, E.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

Heat reclaimer for a heat pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heat reclaiming device for a heat pump. The heat reclaimer is able to absorb heat from the compressor by circulating cooling fluid through a circuit which is mounted in good heat transfer relationship with the condenser, then around the shell of the motor-compressor and lastly around the hollow tube which connects the condenser to the compressor. The reclaiming circuit is connected into a fluid circulating loop which is used to supply heat to the evaporator coil of the heat pump.

Beacham, W.H.

1981-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

283

Segmented heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

284

Dual source heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Laser Cladding With Powder: effect of some machining parameters on clad properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ardness, bonding and microstructure. Hence, it was decided to introduce this technique in the Dutch industry. The project consisted of three parts. One part covered the achievement and enhancement of insight in phenomena that occur in laser cladding. The second part involved the development of tools that facilitate the use of laser cladding. The third part consisted of the development of practical applications. Some aspects of this project are discussed in this thesis. This thesis is directed to laser cladding with powder and a CO 2 laser as heat source. The laser beam intensity profile turned out to be an important pa- 6 Summary rameter in laser cladding. A numerical model was developed that allows the prediction of the surface temperature distribution that is attained with an arbitrarily shaped intensity profile. Input parameters for this model are laser machining parameters and properties of the laser beam, as well as material properties and the absorption of laser energy at the s

Marcel Schneider; Dr. Ir. J. Meijer

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 {micro}m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiO{sub x}.

Roberts, Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Rack, Prof. Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moore, Tom [OmniProbe, Inc.; Magel, Greg [OmniProbe, Inc.; Hartfield, Cheryl [OmniProbe, Inc.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 {mu}m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiO{sub x}.

Roberts, Nicholas A.; Magel, Gregory A.; Hartfield, Cheryl D.; Moore, Thomas M.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Rack, Philip D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Omniprobe, Inc., an Oxford Instruments Company, 10410 Miller Rd., Dallas, Texas 75238 (United States); Omniprobe, Inc., an Oxford Instruments Company, 10410 Miller Rd., Dallas, Texas 75238 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Short wavelength laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

Hagelstein, P.L.

1984-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

289

Narrow gap laser welding  

SciTech Connect

A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables.

Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Sklar, Edward (Santa Fe, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Narrow gap laser welding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables. 34 figs.

Milewski, J.O.; Sklar, E.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

291

Integrated Laser-Target Interaction Experiments on the RAL Petawatt Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the construction of the first Petawatt laser on the Nova laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we are witnessing the emergence of similar Petawatt-class laser systems at laboratories all around the world. This new generation of lasers, able to deliver several hundred joules of energy in a sub-picosecond pulse, has enabled a host of new discoveries to be made and continues to provide a valuable tool to explore new regimes in relativistic laser-plasma physics--encompassing high energy X-rays and -rays, relativistic electrons, intense ion beams, and superstrong magnetic fields. The coupling in the near-future of multi-kiloJoule Petawatt-class lasers with large-scale fusion lasers.including the NIF and Omega EP (US), LIL (France), and FIREX (Japan)--will further expand opportunities in fast ignition, high energy X-ray radiography, and high energy density physics research. The 500 J Petawatt laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory is currently the highest energy short-pulse laser in the world. In this paper we describe a recent experimental campaign carried out on the facility. The campaign, performed by a large collaborative team from eight different laboratories, was designed to study a variety of relativistic laser-interaction phenomena including laser absorption, fast electron transport, proton heating, and high-brightness x-ray generation. The wide scope of the experiment necessitated the deployment of a very large set of diagnostics--in total twenty-five separate instruments. In order to obtain the most comprehensive set of measurements all twenty-five diagnostics were fielded simultaneously on every shot.

Patel, P K; Key, M H; Mackinnon, A J; Berry, R; Borghesi, M; Chambers, D M; Chen, H; Clarke, R; Damian, C; Eagleton, R; Freeman, R; Glenzer, S; Gregori, G; Heathcote, R; Hey, D; Izumi, N; Kar, S; King, J; Nikroo, A; Niles, A; Park, H S; Pasley, J; Patel, N; Shepherd, R; Snavely, R A; Steinman, D; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Town, R; Van Maren, R; Theobald, W; Wilks, S C; Zhang, B

2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

292

Laser Fine-Adjustment Thruster For Space Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

To the present time, a few laser propulsion engine devices have been developed by using dominant mechanisms of laser propulsion. Generally these mechanisms are laser ablation, laser breakdown of gases, and laser detonation waves that are induced due to extraction of the internal energy of polymer propellants. In the paper, we consider the Aero-Space Laser Propulsion Engine (ASLPE) developed earlier, in which all of these mechanisms are realized via interaction of laser radiation with polymers both in continuous wave (CW) and in repetitively pulsed modes of laser operation. The ASLPE is considered to be exploited as a unit of a laser propulsion device being arranged onboard space vehicles moving around the Earth or in interplanetary missions and intended to correct the vehicles orbits. To produce a thrust, a power of the solar pumped lasers designed to the present time is considered in the paper. The problem of increasing the efficiency of the laser propulsion device is analyzed as applied to space missions of vehicles by optimizing the laser propulsion propellant composition.

Rezunkov, Yu. A.; Egorov, M. S.; Repina, E. V.; Safronov, A. L. [Research Institute for Complex Testing of Optic-Electronic Devices, Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad region, Russian Federation, 188540 (Russian Federation); Rebrov, S. G. [Keldyish Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

293

Evaluation of Sanders Associates proposal of 6/12/63 and general comments  

SciTech Connect

This memorandum discusses a proposal for funding to do research on the heating of thermonuclear fuels to ignition temperatures by means of intense focused laser radiation. Technical comments are provided as to the proposal.

Kidder, R. E.

1963-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

294

Laser Guiding for GeV Laser-Plasma Accelerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light pipe for high intensity laser pulses. Phys. Rev. Lett.and relativistically strong laser pulses in an underdensefrom Thomson scat- tering using laser wake?eld accelerators.

Leemans, Wim; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, Csaba

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Nonlinear laser energy depletion in laser-plasma accelerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonlinear laser energydepletion in laser-plasma accelerators ? B. A. Shadwick,of intense, short-pulse lasers via excitation of plasma

Shadwick, B.A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Electron and proton heating by solar wind turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous formulations of heating and transport associated with strong magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are generalized to incorporate separate internal energy equations for electrons and protons. Electron heat conduction is included. Energy is supplied by turbulent heating that affects both electrons and protons, and is exchanged between them via collisions. Comparison to available Ulysses data shows that a reasonable accounting for the data is provided when (i) the energy exchange timescale is very long and (ii) the deposition of heat due to turbulence is divided, with 60% going to proton heating and 40% into electron heating. Heat conduction, determined here by an empirical fit, plays a major role in describing the electron data.

Breech, B; Cranmer, S R; Kasper, J C; Oughton, S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Ohmically heated high-density Z pinch  

SciTech Connect

The gross properties of a high-density (n approximately equal to 10$sup 27$ m$sup -3$), small-radius, (r = 10$sup -4$ m) gas-imbedded Z pinch have been examined considering only classical processes. The rate equation using only ohmic heating along with bremsstrahlung and radial heat transport shows that ohmic heating will rapidly take the pinch to thermonuclear temperatures for currents, I, greater than 1 MA. The radial heat loss for the pinch is very small for I greater than 1.5 MA. This suggests that the pinch could tolerate being driven to a nearby wall by an m = 1 kink. The laser technology for initiation of the small-diameter filament and the high-voltage technology for giving a 30-ns rise to a MA or more are available now. Some reactor considerations have been included. (auth)

Hammel, J.E.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Novel heat pipe combination  

SciTech Connect

The basic heat pipe principle is employed in a heat pipe combination wherein two heat pipes are combined in opposing relationship to form an integral unit; such that the temperature, heat flow, thermal characteristics, and temperature-related parameters of a monitored environment or object exposed to one end of the heat pipe combination can be measured and controlled by controlling the heat flow of the opposite end of the heat pipe combination.

Arcella, F.G.

1978-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

299

Passive solar heating of buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Passive solar heating concepts--in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means--are described according to five general classifications: direct gain, thermal storage wall, solar greenhouses, roof ponds, and convective loops. Examples of each are discussed. Passive test rooms built at Los Alamos are described and results are presented. Mathematical simulation techniques based on thermal network analysis are given together with validation comparisons against test room data. Systems analysis results for 29 climates are presented showing that the concepts should have wide applicability for solar heating.

Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.; McFarland, R.D.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Solar heating shingle roof structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. Shingles are assembled in a normal overlapping array to cover a roof structure, with interconnections between the inlets and outlets of successive shingles to provide a fluid path through the complete array. An inlet manifold is contained in a cap used at the peak of the roof and an outlet manifold is connected to the lowest row of shingles.

Straza, G.T.

1984-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

LANL | Physics | Trident Laser Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

science at Trident Laser Facility Several important discoveries and first observations have been made at the Trident Laser Facility, a unique three-beam neodymium-glass laser...

302

Heat Pump Water Heaters—Laboratory Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI conducted laboratory tests of several heat pump water heaters to assess their performance and energy efficiency. Among U.S. heat pump water heaters tested were new products from A. O. Smith, General Electric (GE), and Rheem. These units are designed to be integral, drop-in replacements for standard electric water heaters. Additionally, EPRI tested the Japanese-based Eco-cute heat pump water heater from Daikin, which is a split unit with an outdoor heat pump using CO2 as the refrigerant and an indoor...

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

303

Multiple source heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Coupled Reactor Kinetics and Heat Transfer Model for Heat Pipe Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). The paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities.

WRIGHT,STEVEN A.; HOUTS,MICHAEL

2000-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

305

Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering an estimated energy equivalent of nearly 1.1 million barrels of oil annually. Energy recovered by these units has been used to either preheat process supply air or to heat plant comfort make-up air. Heat pipe heat exchangers have been applied to an ever-expanding variety of industrial processes. One notable application in recent years has been for combustion airs preheat of fired heaters in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. Another recent development has been a waste heat recovery boiler using heat pipes. This device has a number of advantageous features. Field operational experience of several units in service has been excellent.

Ruch, M. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Feasibility Study on Laser Microwelding and Laser Shock Peening using Femtosecond Laser Pulses.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ultrafast lasers of sub-picosecond pulse duration have thus far been investigated for ablation, drilling and cutting processes. Ultrafast lasers also have the potential for laser… (more)

Lee, Dongkyun

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

BNL | CO2 Laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Laser CO2 Laser The ATF is one of the only two facilities worldwide operating picosecond, terawatt-class CO2 lasers. Our laser system consists of a picoseconds pulse-injector based on fast optical switching from the output of a conventional CO2 laser oscillator, and a chain of high-pressure laser amplifiers. It starts with a wavelength converter wherein a near-IR picosecond solid-state laser with l»1 μm produces a mid-IR 10-μm pulse. This process employs two methods; semiconductor optical switching, and the Kerr effect. First, we combine the outputs from a multi-nanosecond CO2 laser oscillator with a picosecond Nd:YAG laser on a germanium Brewster-plate to produce an ~200 ps, 10μm pulse by semiconductor optical switching. Co-propagating this pulse with a Nd:YAG's 2nd harmonic in a

308

Infrared laser system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

Cantrell, Cyrus D. (Santa Fe, NM); Carbone, Robert J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cooper, Ralph S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Infrared laser system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

Cantrell, Cyrus D. (Richardson, TX); Carbone, Robert J. (Johnson City, TN); Cooper, Ralph (Hayward, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Direct High-Power Laser Acceleration of Ions for Medical Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theoretical investigations show that linearly and radially polarized multiterawatt and petawatt laser beams, focused to subwavelength waist radii, can directly accelerate protons and carbon nuclei, over micron-size distances, to the energies required for hadron cancer therapy. Ions accelerated by radially polarized lasers have generally a more favorable energy spread than those accelerated by linearly polarized lasers of the same intensity.

Salamin, Yousef I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Physics Department, American University of Sharjah, POB 26666, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Harman, Zoltan; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2008-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

311

Laser Drilling with Gated High Power Fiber Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2010. Symposium, Laser Applications in Materials Processing. Presentation Title, Laser Drilling ...

312

Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange medium for heat. Although many parts of the country experience seasonal temperature extremes—from scorching heat in...

313

Absorption heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Absorption heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

Grossman, G.

1982-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

315

SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON ~m Small Particle Heat Exchangers Arion J. Hunt June 1978d. LBL 7841 Small Particle Heat Exchangers by Arlon J. Huntgenerally to non-solar heat exchangers. These may be of the

Hunt, A.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Heat Pump Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate...

317

Photovoltaic roof heat flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ~24°C, indicating that heat conduction was small. T h i sday, indicating large heat conduction a n d storage. Control2.1.3 showed that conduction heat flux through the roof was

Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Passive Passive Solar Heating Applications StephenHEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS StephenMIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS Stephen

Selkowitz, S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

320

Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating...

322

San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

323

Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

324

Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

325

City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

326

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

327

High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory`s water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW`s 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL`s first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers.

Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Laser sealed evacuated window glazings  

SciTech Connect

The design and fabrication of a highly insulating, evacuated window glazing have been investigated. A thermal network model has been used to parametrically predict the thermal performance of such a window. Achievable design, options are predicted to provide a glazing with a thermal conductance less than 0.6 W/m/sup 2/K (R > 10/sup 0/F ft/sup 2/ h/Btu) which is compact, lightweight, and durable. A CO/sub 2/ laser has been used to produce a continuous, leak tight, welded glass perimeter seal around 25 x 25 cm/sup 2/ test specimens. Various diameters of regularly spaced spherical support spacers were incorporated in the specimens as well as an integral SnO/sub 2/:F transparent, low emissivity coating for suppression of radiative heat transfer. Laser sealing rates of .06 cm/s were achieved at a 580/sup 0/C glass working temperature with 400 W of continuous wave (CW) laser power.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Woven heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, R.R.

1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

330

Solar heat collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heat collector is described that pre-heats water for a household hot water heating system, and also heats the air inside a house. The device includes solar heating panels set into an A-shape, and enclosing an area therein containing a water tank and a wristatic fan that utilize the heat of the enclosed air, and transmit the thermal energy therefrom through a water line and an air line into the house.

Sykes, A.B.

1981-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

331

Laser Wakefield Acceleration Experiments Using HERCULES Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) in a supersonic gas-jet using a self-guided laser pulse was studied by changing laser power and plasma electron density. The recently upgraded HERCULES laser facility equipped with wavefront correction enables a peak intensity of 6.1x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} at laser power of 80 TW to be delivered to the gas-jet using F/10 focusing optics. We found that electron beam charge was increased significantly with an increase of laser power from 30 TW to 80 TW and showed density threshold behavior at a fixed laser power. We also studied the influence of laser focusing conditions by changing the f-number of the optics to F/15 and found an increase in density threshold for electron production compared to the F/10 configuration. The analysis of different phenomena such as betatron motion of electrons, side scattering of the laser pulse for different focusing conditions, the influence of plasma density down ramp on LWFA are shown.

Matsuoka, T.; McGuffey, C.; Dollar, F.; Bulanov, S. S.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; Rousseau, P.; Yanovsky, V.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science and FOCUS Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Horovitz, Y. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science and FOCUS Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dynamical Experiments Group, Propulsion Division, Soreq NRC, Yavnee 81800 (Israel)

2009-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

332

Energy Basics: Heating Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of energy sources, including electricity, boilers, solar energy, and wood and pellet-fuel heating. Small Space Heaters Used when the main heating system is inadequate or when...

333

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

334

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

335

Mass and Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building (air to air heat exchanger). In my papers I use (water to air heat exchanger) as a heat recovery and I use the water as a mass recovery. The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines.

Hindawai, S. M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Tankless Demand Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil & Indirect Water Heaters Water Heating A variety of...

337

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

338

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

339

Urban Heat Catastrophes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The curve shows the heat index, which reflects the combined effect of temperature and humidity. Last year's Chicago heat wave created a great deal of human discomfort and,...

340

Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The heat pump system used for recycling and reusing waste heat in s high school bathroom was minutely analyzed in its coefficient of performance, onetime utilization ratio of energy, economic property and so on. The results showed that this system has good economic property, can conserve energy and protects the environment. Therefore, there is a large potential for its development. In addition, three projects using this system are presented and contrasted, which indicate that a joint system that uses both the heat pump and heat exchanger to recycle waste heat is a preferable option.

Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

NIST Laser Applications Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Applications Staff Directory. Staff. Name, Position, Office Phone. ... Contact. Laser Applications Group Keith Lykke, Group Leader. ...

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

342

Geothermal heat pump analysis article  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

heat pump transfers heat from the ground or ground water to provide space heating. In the summer, the heat transfer process is reversed; the ground or groundwater

343

Theoretical studies of some nonlinear laser-plasma interactions  

SciTech Connect

The nonlinear coupling of intense, monochromatic, electromagnetic radiation with plasma is considered in a number of special cases. The first part of the thesis serves as an introduction to three-wave interactions. A general formulation of the stimulated scattering of transverse waves by longitudinal modes in a warm, unmagnetized, uniform plasma is constructed. A general dispersion relation is derived that describes Raman and Brillouin scattering, modulational instability, and induced Thomson scattering. Raman scattering (the scattering of a photon into another photon and an electron plasma wave) is investigated as a possible plasma heating scheme. Analytic theory complemented by computer simulation is presented describing the nonlinear mode coupling of laser light with small and large amplitude, resonantly excited electron plasma waves. The simulated scattering of a coherent electromagnetic wave by low frequency density perturbations in homogeneous plasma is discussed. A composite picture of the linear dispersion relations for filamentation and Brillouin scattering is constructed. The absolute instability of Brillouin weak and strong coupling by analytic and numerical means is described. (auth)

Cohen, B.I.

1975-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for the production of single walled carbon nanotubes that utilizes an RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of such. Such a method, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently permits the use of a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization. The method of the present invention utilizes a free electron laser operating at high average and peak fluence to illuminate a rotating and translating graphite/catalyst target to obtain high yields of SWNTs without the use of a vacuum chamber.

Smith, Michael W. (Newport News, VA); Jordan, Kevin (Newport News, VA); Park, Cheol (Yorktown, VA)

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

345

Enhanced laser beam coupling to a plasma  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Density perturbations are induced in a heated plasma by means of a pair of oppositely directed, polarized laser beams of the same frequency. The wavelength of the density perturbations is equal to one half the wavelength of the laser beams. A third laser beam is linearly polarized and directed at the perturbed plasma along a line that is perpendicular to the direction of the two opposed beams. The electric field of the third beam is oriented to lie in the plane containing the three beams. The frequency of the third beam is chosen to cause it to interact resonantly with the plasma density perturbations, thereby efficiently coupling the energy of the third beam to the plasma.

Steiger, Arno D. (Pleasanton, CA); Woods, Cornelius H. (Livermore, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Laser oscillating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a laser oscillating apparatus of type having a hollow cylindrical housing, gas flow generating means for generating a circulatory gas flow within the housing, paired discharge electrode assemblies opposedly disposed in spaced relationship to define a lasing region therebetween traversed by the circulatory gas flow for carrying out a predetermined discharge within the gas flow traversing the lasing region thereby generating a ray of radiation, and optical resonator means disposed within the housing for resonating the ray of radiation generated in the discharge. Each of the paired discharge electrode assemblies comprises: a. an insulated substrate having a molded base portion and an insulated ceramic surface portion disposed adjacent the molded base portion; b. pin-shaped electrodes; c. a ballast capacitor disposed within the molded base portion of the insulated substrate; d. cooling tube means disposed within the molded base portion of the insulated substrate so as to pass between each pair of adjacent rows of the capacitor units forming the ballast capacitor; and e. at least one heat absorbing plate disposed between each pair of adjacent rows of capacitor units forming the ballast capacitor in contact with the cooling tube means passing therebetween.

Hoag, E.D.

1988-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

347

Laser induced chemical reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences Division of theINFRARED LASER ENHANCEMENT OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS A. B. C. D.Laser Inhibition of Chemical Reaction Effect of Isotopic

Orel, Ann E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Atmospheric Laser Communication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric laser communication, often referred to as free-space optics (FSO) or free-space laser (FSL) communication, is similar to fiber optic cable in terms of carrier wavelength and bandwidth capability, but data are transmitted directly ...

Kenneth W. Fischer*Michael R. Witiw; Jeffrey A. Baars+; T. R. Oke

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Laser particle sorter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus are provided for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser is used to define an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam is provided for interrogating the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam is provided to intersect the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis. 2 figs.

Martin, J.C.; Buican, T.N.

1987-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

350

Laser programs highlights 1993  

SciTech Connect

Over the last two decades, the scope of our laser research has grown immensely. The small, low-power laser systems of our early days have given way to laser systems of record-breaking size and power. Now we are focusing our activities within the target physics and laser science programs to support the ignition and gain goals of the proposed glass-laser National Ignition Facility. In our laser isotope separation work, we completed the most important set of experiments in the history of the AVLIS Program in 1993, which culminated in a spectacularly successful run that met or exceeded all our objectives. We are also developing lasers and laser-related technologies for a variety of energy, commercial, and defense uses. On the horizon are transfers of important technologies for waste treatment, x-ray lithography, communications and security, optical imaging, and remote sensing, among others.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

FREE-ELECTRON LASERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1977. First Operation of a Free-Electron Laser. Phys . __Radiation from a High-Gain Free-Electeon Lasee Amplifier. ~1984. Variable-Wiggler Free-Electron-Laser Oscillat.ion.

Sessler, A.M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Laser preheat enhanced ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for enhancing fuel ignition performance by preheating the fuel with laser light at a wavelength that is absorbable by the fuel prior to ignition with a second laser is provided.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Direct nuclear pumped laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

Miley, George H. (Champagne, IL); Wells, William E. (Urbana, IL); DeYoung, Russell J. (Hampton, VA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Laser Safety Communiques  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Argonne National Laboratory, July 17-19, 2007 Registration Form Workshop Agenda DOE Laser Safety Memo and Final Report, February 28, 2005 APS Laser OJT ANL CHM OJT Example...

355

Visualization of Transient Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Vertical Rectangular Fin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments on thermal visualization of transient natural convection from short vertical rectangular fins were conducted using the technique of laser holographic interferometry. A sequence of infinite-fringe interferograms recorded for the heating regime ... Keywords: interferograms, laser holographic interferometry, thermal visualization, transient natural convection, vertical rectangular fins

K. C. Leong; T. C. Kooi

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The Texas petawatt laser and current experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Texas Petawatt Laser is operational with experimental campaigns executed in both F/40 and F3 target chambers. Recent improvements have resulted in intensities of >2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} on target. Experimental highlights include, accelerated electron energies of >2 GeV, DD fusion ion temperatures >25 keV and isochorically heated solids to 10-50 eV.

Martinez, Mikael; Bang, Woosuk; Dyer, Gilliss; Wang Xiaoming; Gaul, Erhard; Borger, Teddy; Ringuette, Martin; Spinks, Michael; Quevedo, Hernan; Bernstein, Aaron; Donovan, Michael; Ditmire, Todd [Center for High Energy Density Science, University of Texas at Austin 1 University Station Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Laser Plasma Acceleration Group, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin 1 University Station Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Center for High Energy Density Science, University of Texas at Austin 1 University Station Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

357

Laser Technology and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Major advances have been made in some areas: ? Specimen preparation using FIB ? Data collection rate ? Laser-assisted field evaporation ...

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

358

Laser Measurements Seminar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Measurements Seminar. June 16, 2005. *. Bookmark and Share. Contact: Michael Baum 301-975-2763. The 20th annual ...

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

359

YAG Laser Weld  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2010. Symposium, Laser Applications in Materials Processing. Presentation Title, The Effects of ...

360

Laser ablation of nanoscale particles with 193 nm light  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser ablation of nanoscale particles with 193 nm light Laser ablation of nanoscale particles with 193 nm light Title Laser ablation of nanoscale particles with 193 nm light Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Choi, Jong Hyun, Donald Lucas, and Catherine P. Koshland Journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series Volume 59 Start Page 54 Issue 1 Pagination 54-59 Abstract Laser interaction with nanoscale particles is distinct and different from laser-bulk material interaction, where a hot plasma is normally created. Here, we review our studies on 193 nm laser ablation of various nanoscale particles including NaCl, soot, polystyrene, and gold. The 20 ns laser beam with fluences up to 0.3 J/cm2 irradiates nanoparticles in a gas stream at laser repetition rates from 10 to 100 Hz. The particle size distributions before and after irradiation are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and particle morphology is examined with electron microscopy. All the nanomaterials studied exhibit a similar disintegration pattern and similar particle formation characteristics. No broadband emission associated with particle heating or optical breakdown is observed. The nanoparticles formed after irradiation have a smaller mean diameter and an order of magnitude higher number concentration with a more spherical shape compared to the original particles. We use the photon-atom ratio (PAR) to interpret the laser-particle interaction energetics.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Simulation of Static Flying Attitudes with Different Heat Transfer Models for a Flying-Height Control Slider with Thermal Protrusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zhang, S. , Bogy, D.B. : A heat transfer model for thermal ?A phenomenological heat transfer model for the molecular gasWong, C.H. : A generalized heat transfer model for thin ?lm

Chen, Du; Bogy, David B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF LASER SPALLATION DRILLING OF ROCKS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF LASER SPALLATION DRILLING OF ROCKS DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF LASER SPALLATION DRILLING OF ROCKS P532 Zhiyue Xu, Yuichiro Yamashita 1 , and Claude B. Reed Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA 1 Now with Kyushu University, Japan Abstract High power lasers can weaken, spall, melt and vaporize natural earth materials with thermal spallation being the most energy efficient rock removal mechanism. Laser rock spallation is a very complex phenomenon that depends on many factors. Computer numerical modeling would provides great tool to understand the fundamental of this complex phenomenon, which is crucial to the success of its applications. Complexity of modeling laser rock spallation is due to: 1) rock is a porous media, to which traditional theories of heat transfer and rock mechanics can not be directly

363

Optical emission spectroscopy of metal vapor dominated laser-arc hybrid welding plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During laser-arc hybrid welding, plasma properties affect the welding process and the weld quality. However, hybrid welding plasmas have not been systematically studied. Here we examine electron temperatures, species densities, and electrical conductivity for laser, arc, and laser-arc hybrid welding using optical emission spectroscopy. The effects of arc currents and heat source separation distances were examined because these parameters significantly affect weld quality. Time-average plasma electron temperatures, electron and ion densities, electrical conductivity, and arc stability decrease with increasing heat source separation distance during hybrid welding. Heat source separation distance affects these properties more significantly than the arc current within the range of currents considered. Improved arc stability and higher electrical conductivity of the hybrid welding plasma result from increased heat flux, electron temperatures, electron density, and metal vapor concentrations relative to arc or laser welding.

Ribic, B.; DebRoy, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Burgardt, P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

Laser-assisted sol-gel growth and characteristics of ZnO thin films  

SciTech Connect

ZnO thin films were grown on Si(100) substrates by a sol-gel method assisted by laser beam irradiation with a 325 nm He-Cd laser. In contrast to conventional sol-gel ZnO thin films, the surface morphology of the laser-assisted sol-gel thin films was much smoother, and the residual stress in the films was relaxed by laser irradiation. The luminescent properties of the films were also enhanced by laser irradiation, especially, by irradiation during the deposition and post-heat treatment stages. The incident laser beam is thought to play several roles, such as annihilating defects by accelerating crystallization during heat treatment, enhancing the surface migration of atoms and molecules, and relaxing the ZnO matrix structure during crystallization.

Kim, Min Su; Kim, Soaram [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Leem, Jae-Young [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

365

Method for optical pumping of thin laser media at high average power  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin, planar laser material is bonded to a light guide of an index-matched material forming a composite disk. Diode array or other pump light is introduced into the composite disk through the edges of the disk. Pump light trapped within the composite disk depletes as it multi-passes the laser medium before reaching an opposing edge of the disk. The resulting compound optical structure efficiently delivers concentrated pump light and to a laser medium of minimum thickness. The external face of the laser medium is used for cooling. A high performance cooler attached to the external face of the laser medium rejects heat. Laser beam extraction is parallel to the heat flux to minimize optical distortions.

Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

366

Rotary magnetic heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Woven heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, Roger R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Rotary magnetic heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

Kirol, L.D.

1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

369

Thulium-170 heat source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Thulium-170 heat source  

SciTech Connect

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

1990-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

371

Review of liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

A survey of space-power related liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. Heat pipe development at Los Alamos has been on-going since 1963. Heat pipes were initially developed for thermionic nuclear-electrical power production in space. Since then Los Alamos has developed liquid metal heat pipes for numerous applications related to high temperature systems in both the space and terrestrial environments. Some of these applications include thermionic electrical generators, thermoelectric energy conversion (both in-core and direct radiation), thermal energy storage, hypersonic vehicle leading edge cooling, and heat pipe vapor laser cells. Some of the work performed at Los Alamos has been documented in internal reports that are often little-known. A representative description and summary of progress in space-related liquid metal heat pipe technology is provided followed by a reference section citing sources where these works may be found. 53 refs.

Reid, R.S.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Microphysical Effects of Irradiating a Fog With a 10.6-? CO2 Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microphysical effects due to illuminating a fog with a 10.6-?m CO2 laser are examined using a microphysical model that accounts for the sensible and latent heat transfers from the drop and the absorption of the laser energy by the liquid ...

Kenneth C. Young; Ed Tomlinson

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Heat Treat Monitor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gives a very rough control of the process results. On the other hand, for laser welding--a much highly industrial accepted process, researchers have implemented various...

374

Heat pipe system  

SciTech Connect

A heat pipe diode device for transferring heat from a heat source component to a heat sink wall is described. It contains a heat pipe body member attached to the best source; the heat source having a wall forming at least a portion of the normal evaporator section of the heat pipe diode; a working fluid within the body member; a cover for the heat pipe diode forming at least a portion of the heat sink wall; the cover forming the normal condenser for the heat pipe diode; a wick connected between the condenser and the evaporator of the heat pipe diode; means for retaining the wick adjacent the heat pipe wall; a wick support plate adjacent to the cover; the wick being attached to the support plate; means for holding the wick in contact with the cover; and means, responsive to excessive temperatures at the heat sink wall, for moving the support plate and a portion of the wick away from the cover to thereby substantially reduce heat flow in the reverse direction through said heat pipe diode device.

Kroebig, H.L.; Riha, F.J. III

1974-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

375

ORION laser target diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Draft General Conformity Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

I I Draft General Conformity Determination U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service MMS Cape Wind Energy Project January 2009 Final EIS Appendix I Draft General Conformity Determination Draft General Conformity Determination Cape Wind Energy Project Prepared by Minerals Management Service Herndon, VA November 2008 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROPOSED ACTION............................................................... 1 2.0 GENERAL CONFORMITY REGULATORY BACKGROUND .......................................... 2 2.1 GENERAL CONFORMITY REQUIREMENTS.................................................................... 2 2.2 GENERAL CONFORMITY APPLICABILITY.....................................................................

377

Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

Warner, Bruce E. (Pleasanton, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

General Poster Session  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2011 ... Organizer(s), Chris Wood, TMS ... W-12: Determination of Interfacial Heat Transfer and Air-gap Formation during ingot Casting into Permanent ...

379

NEWTON: Greenhouse Gas and Heat Transfer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gas and Heat Transfer Greenhouse Gas and Heat Transfer Name: Robert Status: teacher Grade: 9-12 Location: AK Country: USA Date: Summer 2013 Question: It would appear from a superficial reading that heat flows out of a greenhouse gas more slowly than heat flows into the same gas. This has to be an incorrect interpretation. It seems more likely that molecules with high heat capacities resist heat transfer-both into and out of such a molecular system. At a molecular level how does heat move out of a hot greenhouse gas? I have seen plots of Cv vs Tempt which indicates that heat moves from translational modes of motion-into rotational modes and finally into modes of vibration. The energy spacing of vibrations is generally grater that rotation which are greater than translation. Could it be that it is this quantization of the energy levels and the difference in energy between such quantum states that is the source of the resistance to heat flow or transfer?

380

NEWTON's General Science Videos  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Science Videos Do you have a great general science video? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Videos: Videos from National Geographic Kids Videos from National Geographic...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

NEWTON's General Science Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Science Archive: Loading Most Recent General Science Questions: What is Equilibrium? Banana and Human Genetics Hair Examination Body Buffer Action Jellyfish : Plant or...

382

Energy Basics: Absorption Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat...

383

Numerical simulation of transient, incongruent vaporization induced by high power laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model and numerical calculations were developed to solve the heat and mass transfer problems specifically for uranum oxide subject to laser irradiation. It can easily be modified for other heat sources or/and other materials. In the uranium-oxygen system, oxygen is the preferentially vaporizing component, and as a result of the finite mobility of oxygen in the solid, an oxygen deficiency is set up near the surface. Because of the bivariant behavior of uranium oxide, the heat transfer problem and the oxygen diffusion problem are coupled and a numerical method of simultaneously solving the two boundary value problems is studied. The temperature dependence of the thermal properties and oxygen diffusivity, as well as the highly ablative effect on the surface, leads to considerable non-linearities in both the governing differential equations and the boundary conditions. Based on the earlier work done in this laboratory by Olstad and Olander on Iron and on Zirconium hydride, the generality of the problem is expanded and the efficiency of the numerical scheme is improved. The finite difference method, along with some advanced numerical techniques, is found to be an efficient way to solve this problem.

Tsai, C.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Latent heat accumulating greenhouse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This invention relates to a latent heat accumulating greenhouse utilizing solar heat. The object of the invention is to provide a greenhouse which is simple in construction, of high efficiency for heat absorbing and capable of much absorbing and accumulating of heat. A heat accumulating chamber partitioned by transparent sheets is provided between the attic and a floor surface facing north in the greenhouse. A blower fan is disposed to confront an opening provided at the lower portion in said heat accumulating chamber. Also, in the heat accumulating chamber, a heat accumulating unit having a large number of light transmitting windows and enclosing a phase transformation heat accumulating material such as CaC1/sub 2/.6H/sub 2/O, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/.10H/sub 2/O therein is detachably suspended in a position close to windowpanes at the north side.

Yano, N.; Ito, H.; Makido, I.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

385

Energy Basics: Air-Source Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

386

Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

Dantus, Marcos (Okemos, MI); Lozovoy, Vadim V. (Okemos, MI); Comstock, Matthew (Milford, MI)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

387

Heat transfer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

Not Available

1980-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

388

Heat transfer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Laundry heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect

A laundry heat recovery system includes a heat exchanger associated with each dryer in the system, the heat exchanger being positioned within the exhaust system of the dryer. A controller responsive to the water temperature of the heat exchangers and the water storage for the washer selectively circulates the water through a closed loop system whereby the water within the exchangers is preheated by the associated dryers. By venting the exhaust air through the heat exchanger, the air is dehumidified to permit recirculation of the heated air into the dryer.

Alio, P.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

390

Wound tube heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems May 30, 2012 - 3:40pm Addthis Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because it is a good thermal conductor and has greater resistance to corrosion. Types of Heat Exchangers Solar water heating systems use three types of heat exchangers: Liquid-to-liquid A liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger uses a heat-transfer fluid that

392

Uncertain generalized aggregation operators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to extend the generalized ordered weighted averaging operator and provide a new class of operators called the uncertain generalized ordered weighted averaging (UGOWA) operator. It provides a very general formulation that includes ... Keywords: Aggregation, Decision making, Generalized mean, OWA operator, Operator weights

Li-Gang Zhou; Hua-You Chen; José M. Merigó; Anna M. Gil-Lafuente

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Indian Ocean Intraseasonal Variability in an Ocean General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of atmospheric intraseasonal variability on the tropical Indian Ocean is examined with an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). The model is forced by observation-based wind stresses and surface heat fluxes from an atmospheric ...

A. Schiller; J. S. Godfrey

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Heat Pump Life in Alabama -- Revisited: A Follow-Up Survey 13 Years Later  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI performed this study of heat pump service life in Alabama 13 years after the original study in 1984. They surveyed almost 2,000 heat pumps and found that more than half were still in operation after 20 years. An increasing number of heat pumps are operational upon replacement, and owners generally replace them with new heat pumps.

2001-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

395

Laser-PlasmaWakefield Acceleration with Higher Order Laser Modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design considerations for a laser-plasma linear collider,"E.Esarey, and W.P.Leemans, "Free-electron laser driven bythe LBNL laser-plasma accelerator," in Proc. Adv. Acc. Con.

Geddes, C.G.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Section D: SPACE HEATING  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Central warm-air furnace with ducts to individual rooms other than a heat pump ..... 03 Steam/Hot water ... REVERSE Heat pump ... Don't have a separate water heater ...

397

Electric Resistance Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to...

398

Space Heating and Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as...

399

Heat pipe fabrication  

SciTech Connect

A heat pipe is disclosed which is fabricated with an artery arranged so that the warp and weave of the wire mesh are at about a 45/sup 0/ angle with respect to the axis of the heat pipe.

Leinoff, S.; Edelstein, F.; Combs, W.

1977-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

400

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDERGROUND HEATING EXPERIMENTS IN GRANITE, STRIPA, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of. Nonlinear Heat Transfer Problems." Report no.Berkeley, Ca. , APPENDIX A. HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION ANDMeeting, Technical Session on Heat Transfer in Nuclear Waste

Chan, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

403

HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDERGROUND HEATING EXPERIMENTS IN GRANITE, STRIPA, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CLOSED-FORM INTEGRAL SOLUTIONS FOR LINEAR HEAT CONDUCTION.For linear heat conduction in a homogeneous, isotropiclaw of similitude for linear heat conduction was utilized to

Chan, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Synthetic laser medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

Stokowski, S.E.

1987-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

405

Laser welding and post weld treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steel.  

SciTech Connect

Laser welding and post weld laser treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steels (Grade P91) were performed in this preliminary study to investigate the feasibility of using laser welding process as a potential alternative to arc welding methods for solving the Type IV cracking problem in P91 steel welds. The mechanical and metallurgical testing of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser-welded samples shows the following conclusions: (1) both bead-on-plate and circumferential butt welds made by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser show good welds that are free of microcracks and porosity. The narrow heat affected zone has a homogeneous grain structure without conventional soft hardness zone where the Type IV cracking occurs in conventional arc welds. (2) The laser weld tests also show that the same laser welder has the potential to be used as a multi-function tool for weld surface remelting, glazing or post weld tempering to reduce the weld surface defects and to increase the cracking resistance and toughness of the welds. (3) The Vicker hardness of laser welds in the weld and heat affected zone was 420-500 HV with peak hardness in the HAZ compared to 240 HV of base metal. Post weld laser treatment was able to slightly reduce the peak hardness and smooth the hardness profile, but failed to bring the hardness down to below 300 HV due to insufficient time at temperature and too fast cooling rate after the time. Though optimal hardness of weld made by laser is to be determined for best weld strength, methods to achieve the post weld laser treatment temperature, time at the temperature and slow cooling rate need to be developed. (4) Mechanical testing of the laser weld and post weld laser treated samples need to be performed to evaluate the effects of laser post treatments such as surface remelting, glazing, re-hardening, or tempering on the strength of the welds.

Xu, Z. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

406

Solar heat receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Solar heat receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

408

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, D.M.

1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

409

Flue heat reclaimer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A flue heat reclaimer is constructed to be mounted on the exterior of a flue duct of a heater and provide a spiral-shaped heat transfer passage extending around the flue duct. A fan causes air to flow through the heat transfer passage so that the temperature of this air is elevated by reason at its extended heat transfer relationship with the flue duct.

Paolino, R.J.

1983-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

410

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

411

Solar heating shingle roof structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet socket at the upper end and a fluid outlet plug at the lower end with a skirt at the lower end overlapping the plug. Shingles are assembled in an overlapping array to cover a roof structure, with interconnections between the inlets and outlets of successive longitudinally positioned shingles to provide fluid paths through the complete array. An inlet manifold is positioned at the upper end of the array or in the alternative contained in a cap used at the peak of the roof and an outlet manifold is connected to the outlet of the lowest row of shingles.

Straza, G.T.

1981-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

412

Sinterable powders from laser driven reactions : final report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremely fine, uniform ceramic powders have been synthesized from Sil4 NH3 and C2H4 gas phase reactants that are heated by absorbing optical energy emitted from a C02 laser. Resulting Si, Si3N4 and SiC powders have been ...

Haggerty, John Scarseth

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

HEAT TRANSFER MEANS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

1961-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

414

Dynamics of periodic structures in an extended laser spark  

SciTech Connect

The time scans of the intrinsic and scattered heating radiations of plasma foci, arising in the spark channel of the optical gas breakdown in a Bessel beam, were investigated. The experiments were carried out in argon at atmospheric pressure by using the heating radiation from a powerful nanosecond neodymium laser. The influence of independent preionisation and of the presence of aerosol particles was studied separately. The results indicate the appearance of bright foci against the background of the initially almost homogeneous plasma. The location of the foci in the longitudinal direction and the dynamics of the emitted radiation by them make it possible to assign the observed inhomogeneities to two quasi-periodic structures with periods differing almost by an order of magnitude. The above structures result from the operation of various mechanisms of the formation of inhomogeneities. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

Bychkov, S S; Gorlov, S V; Makarov, A V; Margolin, L Ya; Pyatnitskii, Lev N; Tal'virskii, A D [Scientific Association for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Semiconductor laser devices having lateral refractive index tailoring  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A broad-area semiconductor laser diode includes an active lasing region interposed between an upper and a lower cladding layer, the laser diode further comprising structure for controllably varying a lateral refractive index profile of the diode to substantially compensate for an effect of junction heating during operation. In embodiments disclosed the controlling structure comprises resistive heating strips or non-radiative linear junctions disposed parallel to the active region. Another embodiment discloses a multi-layered upper cladding region selectively disordered by implanted or diffused dopant impurities. Still another embodiment discloses an upper cladding layer of variable thickness that is convex in shape and symmetrically disposed about a central axis of the active region. The teaching of the invention is also shown to be applicable to arrays of semiconductor laser diodes.

Ashby, C.I.H.; Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

1989-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

LCLS Injector Drive Laser  

SciTech Connect

Requirements for the LCLS injector drive laser present significant challenges to the design of the system. While progress has been demonstrated in spatial shape, temporal shape, UV generation and rep-rate, a laser that meets all of the LCLS specifications simultaneously has yet to be demonstrated. These challenges are compounded by the stability and reliability requirements. The drive laser and transport system has been installed and tested. We will report on the current operational state of the laser and plans for future improvements.

Dowell, D.H.; Castro, J.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, A.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; White, W.; /SLAC

2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

417

Fusion reactor pumped laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

NIST Laser Safety Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... powered down. 5. Close coolant valves, if chilled water is used; visually check for leaks. 6. Turn off the laser warning light.

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

419

Robot Assisted Laser Osteotomy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the scope of this thesis world's first robot system was developed, which facilitates osteotomy using laser in arbitrary geometries with an overall accuracy below… (more)

Burgner, Jessica

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Laser Induced Spectroscopy  

INL’s Laser Induced Spectroscopy technology detects and measures the composition of a material or the molecules in the material. It traces the ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Electron acceleration & laser pulse compression using a laser...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

acceleration & laser pulse compression using a laser-plasma accelerator Wednesday, August 14, 2013 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Andreas Walker, Oxford...

422

Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated motional heating of laser-cooled 9Be+ ions held in radio-frequency (Paul) traps. We have measured heating rates in a variety of traps with different geometries, electrode materials, and characteristic sizes. The results show that heating is due to electric-field noise from the trap electrodes which exerts a stochastic fluctuating force on the ion. The scaling of the heating rate with trap size is much stronger than that expected from a spatially uniform noise source on the electrodes (such as Johnson noise from external circuits), indicating that a microscopic uncorrelated noise source on the electrodes (such as fluctuating patch-potential fields) is a more likely candidate for the source of heating.

Q. A. Turchette; D. Kielpinski; B. E. King; D. Leibfried; D. M. Meekhof; C. J. Myatt; M. A. Rowe; C. A. Sackett; C. S. Wood; W. M. Itano; C. Monroe; D. J. Wineland

2000-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

423

X-ray lasers and methods utilizing two component driving illumination provided by optical laser means of relatively low energy and small physical size  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray laser (10), and related methodology, are disclosed wherein an X-ray laser target (12) is illuminated with a first pulse of optical laser radiation (14) of relatively long duration having scarcely enough energy to produce a narrow and linear cool plasma of uniform composition (38). A second, relatively short pulse of optical laser radiation (18) is uniformly swept across the length, from end to end, of the plasma (38), at about the speed of light, to consecutively illuminate continuously succeeding portions of the plasma (38) with optical laser radiation having scarcely enough energy to heat, ionize, and invert them into the continuously succeeding portions of an X-ray gain medium. This inventive double pulse technique results in a saving of more than two orders of magnitude in driving optical laser energy, when compared to the conventional single pulse approach.

Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (El Granada, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Laser Program annual report 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: target design and experiments; target materials development; laboratory x-ray lasers; laser science and technology; high-average-power solid state lasers; and ICF applications studies.

O'Neal, E.M.; Murphy, P.W.; Canada, J.A.; Kirvel, R.D.; Peck, T.; Price, M.E.; Prono, J.K.; Reid, S.G.; Wallerstein, L.; Wright, T.W. (eds.)

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

BNL | Nd:YAG Laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nd:YAG Laser The Nd:YAG laser is located in a class 1000 clean room (the YAG Room) near the electron gun end of the ATF accelerator. The clean area also includes a separate laser...

426

BNL | CFN Laser System Qualifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

System Qualification There are multiple laser systems at the CFN. Users who will work with the following class 3b or 4 laser systems are required to complete the Laser Safety...

427

Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.

Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

428

A corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Richlen, S.L.

1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

429

Energy Basics: Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Geothermal Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange medium for heat. Although many parts of the country...

430

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Group Velocity and the Linear Response of Stratified Fluids to Internal Heat or Mass Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A steadily maintained line heat or mass source turned on in an unbounded, steadily moving, uniformly stratified flow will in general create ever-increasing vertical displacements of the fluid. Lin and Smith viewed a maintained heat source as a ...

Chris Bretherton

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Absorption heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Applied heat transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)

Ganapathy, V.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Plasma heat pump and heat engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model system where cold charged particles are locally confined in a volume V{sub P} within a warm plasma of volume V (V{sub P}kilowatts is possible with the present day technology. Second, we discuss the feasibility of constructing an electrostatic heat engine which converts plasma heat into mechanical work via plasma electric fields. Effects of P{sub E} are shown to be observable in colloidal solutions.

Avinash, K. [Centre for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States) and Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

In Situ Cleaning of Probe Surfaces by Pulsed Laser Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Selected papers from the Ninth International Vacuum Congress and the Fifth International Conference on Solid Surfaces (Madrid, Spain, September 26-October 1, 1983)

J. A. Tagle&; A. Pospieszczyk

436

HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDERGROUND HEATING EXPERIMENTS IN GRANITE, STRIPA, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

law of similitude for linear heat conduction was utilized tothe analogy between heat conduction and fluid flow in por­the effects of heat conduction through the vermiculite heat

Chan, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Heat pump apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Laser supported solid state absorption fronts in silica  

SciTech Connect

We develop a model based on simulation and experiment that explains the behavior of solid-state laser-supported absorption fronts generated in fused silica during high intensity (up to 5GW/cm{sup 2}) laser exposure. We find that the absorption front velocity is constant in time and is nearly linear in laser intensity. Further, this model can explain the dependence of laser damage site size on these parameters. This behavior is driven principally by the temperature-activated deep sub band-gap optical absorptivity, free electron transport and thermal diffusion in defect-free silica for temperatures up to 15,000K and pressures < 15GPa. The regime of parameter space critical to this problem spans and extends that measured by other means. It serves as a platform for understanding general laser-matter interactions in dielectrics under a variety of conditions.

Carr, C W; Bude, J D

2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

439

Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and past heating season. As you can see, prices have started the heating season, about 40 to 50 cents per gallon higher than last year at this time. The data presented are from EIA's State Heating Oil and Propane Program. We normally collect and publish this data twice a month, but given the low stocks and high prices, we started tracking the prices weekly. These data will also be used to determine the price trigger mechanism for the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve. The data are published at a State and regional level on our web site. The slide is to give you some perspective of what is happening in these markets, since you probably will get a number of calls from local residents about their heating fuels bills

440

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The active microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA); Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA); Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Switchable heat pipe assembly  

SciTech Connect

The heat pipe assembly is formed into an H-shape or a Y-shape. The H-shaped configuration comprises two heat pipes, each having condenser and evaporator sections with wicking therein coupled by a tube with wick at their evaporator sections. The Y-shaped configuration utilizes a common evaporator section in place of the two evaporator sections of the H-shaped configuration. In both configurations, the connection between the vapor spaces of the two heat pipes equalizes vapor pressure within the heat pipes. Although both heat pipes have wicks, they have sufficient fluid only to saturate a single pipe. If heat is applied to the condenser section of one of the pipes, this heat pipe becomes inoperative since all the fluid is transferred to the second pipe which can operate with a lower thermal load.

Sun, T.H.; Basiulis, A.

1977-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Laser Power and Energy Calibrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... calibration services for meters used with the lasers, wavelengths, and power ranges shown in the following table. Other laser wavelengths, power ...

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

443

Laser Ablation: Fundamentals and Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

90 This seminar will include both experimental and theoretical topics of ultrafast laser ablation. In the first part, fundamental physics of ultrafast laser-material...

444

Laser ultrasonics on moving paper  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser ultrasonics on moving paper Title Laser ultrasonics on moving paper Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-43615 Year of Publication 1999 Authors Ridgway,...

445

Method for laser welding a fin and a tube  

SciTech Connect

A method of laser welding a planar metal surface to a cylindrical metal surface is provided, first placing a planar metal surface into approximate contact with a cylindrical metal surface to form a juncture area to be welded, the planar metal surface and cylindrical metal surface thereby forming an acute angle of contact. A laser beam, produced, for example, by a Nd:YAG pulsed laser, is focused through the acute angle of contact at the juncture area to be welded, with the laser beam heating the juncture area to a welding temperature to cause welding to occur between the planar metal surface and the cylindrical metal surface. Both the planar metal surface and cylindrical metal surface are made from a reflective metal, including copper, copper alloys, stainless steel alloys, aluminum, and aluminum alloys.

Fuerschbach, Phillip W. (Tijeras, NM); Mahoney, A. Roderick (Albuquerque, NM); Milewski, John O (Santa Fe, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

General Dynamics, Electric Boat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General Dynamics, Electric Boat. NVLAP Lab Code: 100560-0. Address and Contact Information: 75 Eastern Point Road ...

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

447

HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDERGROUND HEATING EXPERIMENTS IN GRANITE, STRIPA, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

standing of the heat transfer processes associated withto investigate the heat transfer and related processes in an

Chan, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Carbon Material Based Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery ...  

Industrial processing plants Nuclear power Solar power ... Carbon Material Based Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery from Engine Exhaust Contact:

449

A model for improvement of water heating heat exchanger designs for residential heat pump water heaters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat pump water heaters are a promising technology to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A key component is the water heating heat exchanger.… (more)

Weerawoot, Arunwattana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Measurement Issues In Pulsed Laser Propulsion  

SciTech Connect

Various measurement techniques have been used throughout the over 40-year history of laser propulsion. Often, these approaches suffered from inconsistencies in definitions of the key parameters that define the physics of laser ablation impulse generation. Such parameters include, but are not limited to the pulse energy, spot area, imparted impulse, and ablated mass. The limits and characteristics of common measurement techniques in each of these areas will be explored as they relate to laser propulsion. The idea of establishing some standardization system for laser propulsion data is introduced in this paper, so that reported results may be considered and studied by the general community with more certain understanding of particular merits and limitations. In particular, it is the intention to propose a minimum set of requirements a literature study should meet. Some international standards for measurements are already published, but modifications or revisions of such standards may be necessary for application to laser ablation propulsion. Issues relating to development of standards will be discussed, as well as some examples of specific experimental circumstances in which standardization would have prevented misinterpretation or misuse of past data.

Sinko, John E. [Micro-Nano Global Center of Excellence, Nagoya University (Niue), Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert [Institute of Technical Physics, German Aerospace Center (DLR), D-70569 Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40 (Germany); Roeser, Hans-Peter [Institute of Space Systems, University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31 (Germany); Sasoh, Akihiro [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

451

Rigid laser mirror mount and protection assembly  

SciTech Connect

A mounting assembly for supporting a Brewster window and mirror to intercept a laser beam at the end of a gas laser envelope includes an elongated tubular member having one end opening into the gas laser envelope and an opposite end closed by the Brewster window. A rigid housing supporting the mirror is joined to the tubular member close to the end having the Brewster window by a flexible sealed joint that permits limited movement of the housing relative to the tubular member generally along the length of the tubular member while inhibiting flow of contaminants from the exterior into the passage formed by the rigid housing between the Brewster window and mirror. A seal is placed between the rigid housing and mirror to inhibit flow of such contaminants into the passage from the mirror location. A mounting structure joins the rigid housing to the gas laser envelope to secure them together and includes an adjustment mechanism that permits the housing to be moved relative to the envelope for adjusting the angular orientation of the supported mirror relative to the intercepted laser beam.

Mohler, G.E.

1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

452

Laser Wakefield diagnostic using holographic longitudinal interferometry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We propose a diagnostic technique for wakefield measurement in plasma channels. A new technique for plasma channel creation, the Ignitor Heater scheme was proposed and experimentally tested in hydrogen and nitrogen previously. It makes use of two laser pulses. The Ignitor, an ultrashort (sub 100 fs) laser pulse, is brought to a line focus using a cylindrical lens to ionize the gas. The Heater pulse (160 ps long) is used to heat the existing spark via in-verse Bremsstrahlung. The hydrodynamic shock expansion creates a partially evacuated plasma channel with a density minimum on axis. Such a channel has properties of an optical waveguide. This technique allows creation of plasma channels in low atomic number gases, such as hydrogen, which is of importance for guiding of highly intense laser pulses. Laser pulses injected into such plasma channels produce a plasma wake that has a phase velocity close to the speed of light. A discussion of plasma wake measurements, using a Longitudinal Interferometry Wakefield Diagnostic Based on Time Domain Rayleigh Refractometry with Holographic Inversion, will be presented.

Volfbeyn, P.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

1999-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

453

PreHeat: controlling home heating using occupancy prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Home heating is a major factor in worldwide energy use. Our system, PreHeat, aims to more efficiently heat homes by using occupancy sensing and occupancy prediction to automatically control home heating. We deployed PreHeat in five homes, three in the ... Keywords: energy, environment, home heating, prediction, sensing

James Scott; A.J. Bernheim Brush; John Krumm; Brian Meyers; Michael Hazas; Stephen Hodges; Nicolas Villar

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Dye laser amplifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Coaxial short pulsed laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a laser system of rugged design suitable for use in a field environment. The laser itself is of coaxial design with a solid potting material filling the space between components. A reservoir is employed to provide a gas lasing medium between an electrode pair, each of which is connected to one of the coaxial conductors. (auth)

Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Explosively pumped laser light  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Heat and mass transfer in porous media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Field test data on the OOSI MR3 experiments are used as a basis for exhibiting the computational capabilities of the WAFE computer code, which is a generalized tool for the analysis of heat and mass transfer in multi-dimensional domains of porous geothermal materials.

Cook, T.L.; Harlow, F.H.; Travis, B.J.; Bartel, T.J.; Tyner, C.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Ceramic fuel pellets for isotopic heat sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) will supply power for future space missions. The GPHS fuel pellets are fabricated by hot pressing a blended mixture of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ granules prepared from calcined plutonium oxalate. Results of a test program which led to the development of the production process are described.

Rankin, D.T.; Congdon, J.W.; Livingston, J.T.; Duncan, N.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Energy Basics: Heat Pump Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of air-source heat pumps. Absorption Heat Pump Uses heat as its energy source. Geothermal Heat Pumps Use the constant temperature of the earth as the exchange medium instead...

460

Laser-Induced Damage of Calcium Fluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation damage of materials has long been of fundamental interest, especially since the growth of laser technology. One such source of damage comes from UV laser light. Laser systems continue to move into shorter wavelength ranges, but unfortunately are limited by the damage threshold of their optical components. For example, semiconductor lithography is making its way into the 157nm range and requires a material that can not only transmit this light (air cannot), but also withstand the highly energetic photons present at this shorter wavelength. CaF2, an alkaline earth halide, is the chosen material for vacuum UV 157 nm excimer radiation. It can transmit light down to 120 nm and is relatively inexpensive. Although it is readily available through natural and synthetic sources, it is often times difficult to find in high purity. Impurities in the crystal can result in occupied states in the band gap that induce photon absorption [2] and ultimately lead to the degradation of the material. In order to predict how well CaF2 will perform under irradiation of short wavelength laser light, one must understand the mechanisms for laser-induced damage. Laser damage is often a two-step process: initial photons create new defects in the lattice and subsequent photons excite these defects. When laser light is incident on a solid surface there is an initial production of electron-hole (e-h) pairs, a heating of free electrons and a generation of local heating around optically absorbing centers [3]. Once this initial excitation converts to the driving energy for nuclear motion, the result is an ejection of atoms, ions and molecules from the surface, known as desorption or ablation [3]. Secondary processes further driving desorption are photoabsorption, successive excitations of self-trapped excitons (STE's) and defects, and ionization of neutrals by incident laser light [3]. The combination of laser-induced desorption and the alterations to the electronic and geometrical structure of the lattice result in defect formation. In the material CaF2 some of these defects take the form of F-centers, an electron trapped at a halogen vacancy [4], and H-centers, a F2- molecular ion at a single lattice site [5]. While the F-centers are stable, the H-centers are transient but can form into aggregates that are stable. There are many different configurations the defects can take based on the relative position of F and H centers in the lattice and this is extensively discussed in literature [1,4,5]. Once these defects have formed they cause further absorption of light, which ultimately induces particle emission and the production of even more defects. Various forms of laser-induced damage of CaF2 have been studied. For example, the mechanism for photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) of F+ from CaF2 (111) is discussed in ref. 6 and the energy threshold, distribution and kinetics governing electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) is investigated in ref. 7. The desorption of neutral Ca and F atoms has also been explored [1]. In this paper I focus on the emission of ions and neutrals from CaF2 under the irradiation of pulsed laser light at 266 nm, in addition to a brief study of its purity and transmittance.

Espana, Aubrey L.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Dickinson, J T.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Laser controlled flame stabilization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is provided for initiating and stabilizing fuel combustion in applications such as gas turbine electrical power generating engines and jet turbine engines where it is desired to burn lean fuel/air mixtures which produce lower amounts of NO.sub.x. A laser induced spark is propagated at a distance from the fuel nozzle with the laser ignitor being remotely located from the high temperature environment of the combustion chamber. A laser initiating spark generated by focusing high peak power laser light to a sufficiently tight laser spot within the fuel to cause the ionization of air and fuel into a plasma is unobtrusive to the flow dynamics of the combustion chamber of a fuel injector, thereby facilitating whatever advantage can be taken of flow dynamics in the design of the fuel injector.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Thomas, Matthew E. (Huntsville, AL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Laser dividing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser beam dividing apparatus (10) having a first beam splitter (14) with an aperture (16) therein positioned in the path of a laser beam (12) such that a portion of the laser beam (12) passes through the aperture (16) onto a second beam splitter (20) and a portion of the laser beam (12) impinges upon the first beam splitter (14). Both the first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) are, optionally, made from a dichroic material such that a green component (24) of the laser beam (12) is reflected therefrom and a yellow component (26) is refracted therethrough. The first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) further each have a plurality of facets (22) such that the components (24, 26) are reflected and refracted in a number equaling the number of facets (22).

English, Jr., R. Edward (Tracy, CA); Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Catalac free electron laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac is described. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator, or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

1979-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

464

Catalac free electron laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Angular distribution of atoms ejected by laser ablation of different metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Angular distributions of 13 different metals ejected by laser ablation using fourth harmonics (wavelength=266 nm) of neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser and a fluence close to near-threshold value (2.3 J/cm{sup 2}) have been investigated with a high angular resolution. The angular distribution which is characterized by the exponent n of cos{sup n} theta distribution showed very broad range of values between 3 and 24 for different metals. A simple relation that the exponent n is proportional to the square root of particle atomic weight as reported previously has not been observed. Instead, a general trend has been found that the metals with higher sublimation energy such as Ta and Zr show narrower angular distribution than those with lower sublimation energy such as Sn and In. While the sublimation energy of metals has a great influence on the angular distribution of ejected atoms, a simple consideration suggests that their thermal conductivity and specific heat have little effect on it.

Konomi, I.; Motohiro, T. [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Asaoka, T. [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

U.S. Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of this winterÂ’s market pressures is in home heating oil prices. This chart shows prices for the last four winters, with this yearÂ’s prices shown through January 24, the most recent EIA data available. The general level of heating oil prices each year is largely a function of crude oil prices, and the price range over the course of the heating season is typically about 10 cents per gallon. Exceptions occur in unusual circumstances, such as very cold weather, large changes in crude oil prices, or supply problems. Although heating oil prices for consumers started this winter at similar levels to those in 1997, they already rose nearly 20 cents per gallon through mid-January. With the continuing upward pressure from crude

469

Free electron laser designs for laser amplification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for laser beam amplification by means of free electron laser techniques. With wiggler magnetic field strength B.sub.w and wavelength .lambda..sub.w =2.pi./k.sub.w regarded as variable parameters, the method(s) impose conditions such as substantial constancy of B.sub.w /k.sub.w or k.sub.w or B.sub.w and k.sub.w (alternating), coupled with a choice of either constant resonant phase angle or programmed phase space "bucket" area.

Prosnitz, Donald (Walnut Creek, CA); Szoke, Abraham (Fremont, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

IntroductiontoProcessEngineering(PTG) 5. Heat transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/x, T/y, T/z), Fourier's Law gives (for constant ) for the heat flux Q" = - T · The temperature field (T)dT )/(x2-x1) · For example, with (T)=0·(1+T), the heat flux Q" for T=T0 @ x=0 and T=T1 @ x be interpreted as a general physical law of the type: flow , heat, current = driving force / resistance; current

Zevenhoven, Ron

471

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

472

Hydride heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

Cottingham, James G. (Center Moriches, NY)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Heat storage duration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

Balcomb, J.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Application of picosecond lasers for surface modification and polishing Krste Pangovski, Kun Li, Dr. Bill O'Neill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

absorption plays an important role in laser machining. Material absorption is a complex mechanism and depends cannot be assumed to have steady state absorption under arbitrary laser light and a dynamic model by the electron temperature Te, electron cooling time e, the lattice temperature Ti, and the lattice heating time

Haddadi, Hamed

475

Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Management Options Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases - combustion products - Temperature from 300 deg. F. to 3000 deg.F. * Radiation-Convection heat loss - From temperature source of 500 deg. F. to 2500 deg. F. * Sensible-latent heat in heated product - From temperature 400 deg. F. to 2200 deg. F. * Cooling water or other liquids - Temperature from 100 deg. F. to 180 deg. F.

476

Heat rejection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Section D: SPACE HEATING  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey Form EIA-457A (2005)--Household Questionnaire OMB No.: 1905-0092, Expiring May 31, 2008 33 Section D: SPACE HEATING

478

Heat and mass exchanger  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z