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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Laser Heat Treatment [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat Treatment Heat Treatment Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Laser Heat Treatment Project description: Optimization of laser beam heat treatment. Category: Project with industrial partner (Caterpillar and USCAR) Bookmark and Share Heat treatment optics

3

Laser Cladding of Heat Treated Steel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to broaden the technological knowledge connected with laser cladding of heat treated materials,which is aimed ... wear, high temperature and corrosive atmosphere. The laser has been f...

D. Fishman; A. Shachrai

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Generalized Divided Flow Heat Exchanger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of a "Divided-flow" heat exchanger is generalized by locating the shell inlet (or outlet) nozzle off-center such that the two shell sub-streams are unequal and traverse unequal flow paths. The governing equations for heat transfer...

Singh, K. P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics for Laser Machining  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter introduces some of the basic concepts in heat transfer, fluid mechanics and numerical solution methods. Since laser ... process, an understanding of issues in conduction heat transfer, convection heat

George Chryssolouris

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $200 Provider Portland General Electric Portland General Electric's (PGE) Heat Pump Rebate Program offers residential customers a $200 rebate for an energy-efficient heat pump installed to PGE's standards by a PGE-approved contractor. The rebate is also available for replacing older, inefficient heat pump units. See the program web site or contact the utility for additional information on program incentives and guidelines. Other Information Heat pumps: 7.7 HSPF and 13 SEER minimum

7

General Laser Control Measures Operating instructions for a specific laser are found in the manual for that laser.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

General Laser Control Measures Operating instructions for a specific laser are found in the manual for that laser. There are several procedures that will reduce the potential for exposure to laser beams. 1. The beam from Class IIIB and Class IV lasers should be terminated in highly absorbent, non specular

Huennekens, John

8

Saturation of multi-laser beams laser-plasma instabilities from stochastic ion heating  

SciTech Connect

Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has been used as a tool on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) since the first energetics experiments in 2009 to control the energy deposition in ignition hohlraums and tune the implosion symmetry. As large amounts of power are transferred between laser beams at the entrance holes of NIF hohlraums, the presence of many overlapping beat waves can lead to stochastic ion heating in the regions where laser beams overlap [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 195004 (2012)]. This increases the ion acoustic velocity and modifies the ion acoustic waves’ dispersion relation, thus reducing the plasma response to the beat waves and the efficiency of CBET. This pushes the plasma oscillations driven by CBET in a regime where the phase velocities are much smaller than both the electron and ion thermal velocities. CBET gains are derived for this new regime and generalized to the case of multi ion species plasmas.

Michel, P.; Williams, E. A.; Divol, L.; Berger, R. L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Callahan, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Rozmus, W. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G2G7 (Canada) [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G2G7 (Canada); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Rapid heating of solid density material by a petawatt laser  

SciTech Connect

Time-resolved x-ray spectra from solid targets irradiated by the VULCAN Petawatt laser focused to 10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2} show that material at solid density is heated to temperatures above 500 eV to a depth of about 15 {mu}m and for a duration of more than 30 ps. Modeling with the implicit hybrid plasma code LSP shows that the heating is sensitive to the laser prepulse through resistive inhibition of the laser accelerated electrons in the blow off layer.

Evans, R.G.; Clark, E.L.; Eagleton, R.T.; Dunne, A.M.; Edwards, R.D.; Garbett, W.J.; Goldsack, T.J.; James, S.; Smith, C.C.; Thomas, B.R.; Clarke, R.; Neely, D.J.; Rose, S.J. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Central LaserFacility, CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

2005-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

10

Thermocapillary convection induced by laser surface heating  

SciTech Connect

Thermocapillary convection was excited by a laser source in experiments on molten paraffin. The parameters of the resultant flow were determined. The nature of the flow was demonstrated to correspond to shear-driven boundary-layer flow at high Reynolds numbers. Correlation dependences of the flow velocity of the melt and its temperature in the surface region were derived theoretically and were shown to agree with the experimental results. When the size of the laser spot was much less than the characteristic convection scales, three regions of flow of the melt could be distinguished: a viscous surface boundary layer, a stagnation zone under the laser spot, and a large-scale region of flow with a homogeneous temperature distribution. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

Gladush, G G; Drobyazko, S V; Likhanskii, V V; Loboiko, A I; Senatorov, Yu M [State Research Center of Russian Federation 'Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research', Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

1998-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

11

Anomalous Heating of a Plasma by a Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As lasers have an ability to deliver a large amount of energy very rapidly to matter, one can produce a plasma of thermonuclear temperature by laser bombardment of matter. We observed a neutron yield from a solid deuterium target irradiated by the beam of a glass laser, which had a power of 20 GW for 2 nsec. The theoretically estimated threshold laser power for anomalous heating owing to the parametric instability was in agreement with the experimental result. Above this threshold, an increase in the electron temperature, the appearance of a fast-ion group, and an anomaly in the reflection of light from the plasma were observed. These phenomena were closely correlated with the neutron yield. At the high-temperature region above a few hundred electron volts, the anomalous heating plays an essential role in reaching the fusion-reaction temperature.

C. Yamanaka; T. Yamanaka; T. Sasaki; K. Yoshida; M. Waki; H. B. Kang

1972-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Laser heating of aqueous samples on a micro-optical-electro-mechanical system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system of heating a sample on a microchip includes the steps of providing a microchannel flow channel in the microchip; positioning the sample within the microchannel flow channel, providing a laser that directs a laser beam onto the sample for heating the sample; providing the microchannel flow channel with a wall section that receives the laser beam and enables the laser beam to pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel without being appreciably heated by the laser beam; and providing a carrier fluid in the microchannel flow channel that moves the sample in the microchannel flow channel wherein the carrier fluid is not appreciably heated by the laser beam.

Beer, Neil Reginald; Kennedy, Ian

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

13

Energy transport in short-pulse-laser-heated targets measured using extreme ultraviolet laser backlighting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The accurate characterization of thermal electron transport and the determination of heating by suprathermal electrons in laser driven solid targets are both issues of great importance to the current experiments being performed at the National Ignition Facility, which aims to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition using lasers. Ionization, induced by electronic heat conduction, can cause the opacity of a material to drop significantly once bound-free photoionization is no longer energetically possible. We show that this drop in opacity enables measurements of the transmission of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser pulses at 13.9 nm to act as a signature of the heating of thin (50 nm) iron layers with a 50-nm thick parylene-N (CH) overlay irradiated by 35-fs pulses at irradiance 3×1016 Wcm?2. Comparing EUV transmission measurements at different times after irradiation to fluid code simulations shows that the target is instantaneously heated by hot electrons (with approximately 10% of the laser energy), followed by thermal conduction with a flux limiter of ?0.05.

L. A. Wilson; G. J. Tallents; J. Pasley; D. S. Whittaker; S. J. Rose; O. Guilbaud; K. Cassou; S. Kazamias; S. Daboussi; M. Pittman; O. Delmas; J. Demailly; O. Neveu; D. Ros

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

14

Semianalytical thermal analysis of the heat capacity of YAG laser rods  

SciTech Connect

Based on the theory of semianalytical thermal analysis, we investigate the heat capacity of Nd:YAG laser rods for pumping and cooling. A general expression for the temperature field within Nd:YAG laser rod crystals is obtained for the pumping stage and the relation of the maximum temperature rise with pumping time. We also achieve an expression for the temperature field for the cooling stage and the relation of the maximum temperature rise with cooling time. These results show that, when using the output power of 300 W LD pumped Nd:YAG laser rod crystals for 5 s, the maximum temperature rise in the center of the pump face is 154.79 deg. C. After we stop the pumping for 30 s, the maximum temperature rise drops to 0.8%. These results are in agreement with those reported by others. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the optimized design of a LD end-pumped heat capacity laser.

Shi Peng; Bai Bing; Zhang Linli; Li Long; Xin Yu

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

15

Testing General Relativity With Laser Accelerated Electron Beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron accelerations of the order of $10^{21} g$ obtained by laser fields open up the possibility of experimentally testing one of the cornerstones of general relativity, the weak equivalence principle, which states that the local effects of a gravitational field are indistinguishable from those sensed by a properly accelerated observer in flat space-time. We illustrate how this can be done by solving the Einstein equations in vacuum and integrating the geodesic equations of motion for a uniformly accelerated particle.

L. Á. Gergely; T. Harko

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

16

Testing general relativity with laser accelerated electron beams  

SciTech Connect

Electron accelerations of the order of 10{sup 21} g obtained by laser fields open up the possibility of experimentally testing one of the cornerstones of general relativity, the weak equivalence principle, which states that the local effects of a gravitational field are indistinguishable from those sensed by a properly accelerated observer in flat space-time. We illustrate how this can be done by solving the Einstein equations in vacuum and integrating the geodesic equations of motion for a uniformly accelerated particle.

Gergely, L. A.; Harko, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Szeged, Szeged 6720, Tisza L. krt. 84, Hungary and Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road (Hong Kong)

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

17

Surface heating of wire plasmas using laser-irradiated cone geometries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constructed (National Ignition Facility and Laser M´egaJoule). The energy can be transported over surprisinglyLETTERS Surface heating of wire plasmas using laser-irradiated cone geometries J. S. GREEN1,2 , K Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, 565-0871 Osaka, Japan 9 Institute of Laser

Loss, Daniel

18

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

19

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Competition between adsorbate fragmentation and desorption on laser-heated surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Competition between adsorbate fragmentation and desorption on laser-heated surfaces FL V. Weaver adsorbate-substrate system. The adsorbate in this study contains one weak bond and a number of strong bonds molecules adsorbed on heated surfaces. Among the numerous interesting results of these experiments

Zeiri, Yehuda

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences  

SciTech Connect

Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

Wiltsee, G.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Heat-affected zone and ablation rate of copper ablated with femtosecond laser  

SciTech Connect

We describe the experimental and molecular dynamics simulation study of crystalline copper (Cu) ablation using femtosecond lasers. This study is focused on the heat-affected zone after femtosecond laser ablation and the laser ablation rate. As a result of the x-ray diffraction measurement on the ablated surface, the crystallinity of the surface is partially changed from a crystal structure into an amorphous one. At the laser fluences below the ablation threshold, the entire laser energy coupled to the Cu target is absorbed, while during the fluence regime over the threshold fluence, the ablation rate depends on the absorption coefficient, and the residual energy which is not used for the ablation, is left in the Cu substrate. The heat-affected zone at the fluences below the threshold is estimated to be greater than that over the threshold fluence. In addition, the laser ablation of Cu is theoretically investigated by a two-temperature model and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to explain the heat-affected zone and ablation rate. The MD simulation takes into account the electron temperature and thermal diffusion length calculated by the two-temperature model. Variation in the lattice temperature with time and depth is calculated by the MD simulation coupled with the two-temperature model. The experimental ablation rate and the heat-affected zone are theoretically well explained.

Hirayama, Yoichi; Obara, Minoru [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Nuclear fusion: Fast heating scalable to laser fusion ignition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... fuel by a short-duration laser pulse is a promising route to generating energy by nuclear fusion, and has been demonstrated on an experimental scale using a novel fast-ignitor geometry. ...

R. Kodama, H. Shiraga, K. Shigemori, Y. Toyama, S. Fujioka, H. Azechi, H. Fujita, H. Habara, T. Hall, Y. Izawa, et al.

2002-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

24

Growing Crystaline Sapphire Fibers By Laser Heated Pedestal Techiques  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved system and process for growing crystal fibers comprising a means for creating a laser beam having a substantially constant intensity profile through its cross sectional area, means for directing the laser beam at a portion of solid feed material located within a fiber growth chamber to form molten feed material, means to support a seed fiber above the molten feed material, means to translate the seed fiber towards and away from the molten feed material so that the seed fiber can make contact with the molten feed material, fuse to the molten feed material and then be withdrawn away from the molten feed material whereby the molten feed material is drawn off in the form of a crystal fiber. The means for creating a laser beam having a substantially constant intensity profile through its cross sectional area includes transforming a previously generated laser beam having a conventional gaussian intensity profile through its cross sectional area into a laser beam having a substantially constant intensity profile through its cross sectional area by passing the previously generated laser beam through a graded reflectivity mirror. The means for directing the laser beam at a portion of solid feed material is configured to direct the laser beam at a target zone which contains the molten feed material and a portion of crystal fiber drawn off the molten feed material by the seed fiber. The means to support the seed fiber above the molten feed material is positioned at a predetermined height above the molten feed material. This predetermined height provides the seed fiber with sufficient length and sufficient resiliency so that surface tension in the molten feed material can move the seed fiber to the center of the molten feed material irrespective of where the seed fiber makes contact with the molten feed material. The internal atmosphere of the fiber growth chamber is composed substantially of Helium gas.

Phomsakha, Vongvilay (St. Petersburg, FL); Chang, Robert S. F. (Tampa, FL); Djeu, Nicholas I. (Tampa, FL)

1997-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

25

Study of natural convection heat transfer above a horizontal heated plate using a laser specklegram technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat transfer by free convection in air from an isothermal horizontal heated flat plate facing upward has been experimentally studied by using a non intrusive and accurate optical technique, Speckle photography or a specklegram technique. The local...

Cheeti, Satish K.R.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

26

Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields R. C. Issac,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

drives a fast ignition wave.15 Prop- erties of the cluster media as well as the incident laser paUltra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields R. C. Issac,a) G. Vieux, B of ultrashort laser pulses with krypton clusters at intensity up to 1.3 1018 Wcm 2 has been investigated

Strathclyde, University of

27

Optimization of the design and mode of operation of a QD laser for reducing the heat-to-bitrate ratio  

SciTech Connect

Heat dissipation under the high-speed modulation of quantum dot edge-emitting lasers is considered. It is shown that, for a given laser diode, there is a bias current at which the heat-to-bitrate ratio is minimized. Moreover, there exists a certain optimal optical loss of the laser cavity at which the lowest heat-to-bitrate ratio is provided for any design of edge-emitting lasers that can be fabricated from an epitaxial structure. The heat-to-bitrate ratio and the corresponding bitrate are numerically calculated and analytical expressions are derived. It is demonstrated that the heat-to-bitrate ratio of quantum dot edge-emitting lasers can be less than 0.4 pJ/bit at a bitrate exceeding 10 Gbit/s.

Zhukov, A. E., E-mail: zhukale@gmail.com; Savelyev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Maximov, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kryzhanovskaya, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Gordeev, N. Yu.; Shernyakov, Yu. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Payusov, A. S.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Zubov, F. I.; Korenev, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Effect of pulse duration on resonant heating of laser-irradiated argon and deuterium clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the effect of pulse duration on the heating of single van der Waals bound argon and deuterium clusters by a strong laser field using a two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) code in the range of laser-cluster parameters such that kinetic as well as hydrodynamic effects are active. Heating is dominated by a collisionless resonant absorption process that involves energetic electrons transiting through the cluster. A size-dependent intensity threshold defines the onset of this resonance [T. Taguchi et al., Physical Review Letters, 92, 20 (2004)]. It is seen that increasing the laser pulse duration lowers this intensity threshold and the energetic electrons take multiple laser periods to transit the cluster instead of one laser period. Our simulations also show that strong electron heating is accompanied by the generation of a high-energy peak in the ion energy distribution function. We also calculate the yield of thermonuclear fusion neutrons from exploding deuterium clusters using the PIC model with periodic boundary conditions that allows for the interaction of ions from neighboring clusters.

Ayush Gupta; T. M. Antonsen; T. Taguchi; J. Palastro

2006-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

29

Inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate for dense plasmas in laser fields  

SciTech Connect

We report a theoretical analysis of inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate in the eikonal approximation. The present analysis is performed for a dense plasma using the screened electron-ion interaction potential for the ion charge state Z{sub i} = 1 and for both the weak and strong plasma screening cases. We have also compared the eikonal results with the first Born approximation (FBA) [M. Moll et al., New J. Phys. 14, 065010 (2012)] calculation. We find that the magnitudes of inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate within the eikonal approximation (EA) are larger than the FBA values in the weak screening case (? = 0.03 a.u.) in a wide range of field strength for three different initial electron momenta (2, 3, and 4 a.u.). But for strong screening case (? = 0.3 a.u.), the heating rates predicted by the two approximations do not differ much after reaching their maximum values. Furthermore, the individual contribution of photoemission and photoabsorption processes to heating rate is analysed for both the weak and strong screening cases. We find that the single photoemission and photoabsorption rates are the same throughout the field strength while the multiphoton absorption process dominates over the multiphoton emission process beyond the field strength ? 4×10{sup 8} V/cm. The present study of the dependence of heating rate on the screening parameter ranging from 0.01 to 20 shows that whereas the heating rate predicted by the EA is greater than the FBA up to the screening parameter ? = 0.3 a.u., the two approximation methods yield results which are nearly identical beyond the above value.

Dey, R. [D-203, Samruddhi Residency, Motera, Ahmedabad-380009, Gujarat (India)] [D-203, Samruddhi Residency, Motera, Ahmedabad-380009, Gujarat (India); Roy, A. C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math 711202, West Bengal (India)] [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math 711202, West Bengal (India)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Ion heating dynamics in solid buried layer targets irradiated by ultra-short intense laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

We investigate bulk ion heating in solid buried layer targets irradiated by ultra-short laser pulses of relativistic intensities using particle-in-cell simulations. Our study focuses on a CD{sub 2}-Al-CD{sub 2} sandwich target geometry. We find enhanced deuteron ion heating in a layer compressed by the expanding aluminium layer. A pressure gradient created at the Al-CD{sub 2} interface pushes this layer of deuteron ions towards the outer regions of the target. During its passage through the target, deuteron ions are constantly injected into this layer. Our simulations suggest that the directed collective outward motion of the layer is converted into thermal motion inside the layer, leading to deuteron temperatures higher than those found in the rest of the target. This enhanced heating can already be observed at laser pulse durations as low as 100 fs. Thus, detailed experimental surveys at repetition rates of several ten laser shots per minute are in reach at current high-power laser systems, which would allow for probing and optimizing the heating dynamics.

Huang, L. G. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 201800 Shanghai (China) [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 201800 Shanghai (China); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany) [Germany; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Bussmann, M.; Kluge, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Lei, A. L. [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, 201800 Shanghai (China)] [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, 201800 Shanghai (China); Yu, W. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 201800 Shanghai (China)] [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 201800 Shanghai (China); Cowan, T. E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Sinterable ceramic powders from laser heated gas phase reactions and rapidly solidified ceramic materials : annual report.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO[subscript 2] lasers have been employed to heat reactant gases to synthesize Si, Si[subscript 3] N[subscript 4] and SiC powders. The powders are small, uniform in size, nonagglomerated, highly pure and of controlled ...

Haggerty, John Scarseth

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Heating Mechanisms in Short-Pulse Laser-Driven Cone Targets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fast ignitor is a modern approach to laser fusion that uses a short-pulse laser to initiate thermonuclear burn. In its simplest form the laser launches relativistic electrons that carry its energy to a precompressed fusion target. Cones have been used to give the light access to the dense target core through the low-density ablative cloud surrounding it. Here the ANTHEM implicit hybrid simulation model shows that the peak ion temperatures measured in recent cone target experiments arose chiefly from return current joule heating, mildly supplemented by relativistic electron drag. Magnetic fields augment this heating only slightly, but capture hot electrons near the cone surface and force the hot electron stream into filaments.

R. J. Mason

2006-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

33

Nonlinear Electron Heat Conduction Equation and Self similar method for 1-D Thermal Waves in Laser Heating of Solid Density DT Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron heat conduction is one of the ways that energy transports in laser heating of fusible target material. The aim of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is to show that the thermal conductivity is strongly dependent on temperature and the equation of electron heat conduction is a nonlinear equation. In this article, we solve the one-dimensional (1-D) nonlinear electron heat conduction equation with a self-similar method (SSM). This solution has been used to investigate the propagation of 1-D thermal wave from a deuterium-tritium (DT) plane source which occurs when a giant laser pulse impinges onto a DT solid target. It corresponds to the physical problem of rapid heating of a boundary layer of material in which the energy of laser pulse is released in a finite initial thickness.

A. Mohammadian Pourtalari; M. A. Jafarizadeh; M. Ghoranneviss

2011-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

34

Efficient 1341-nm Laser Emission and Heat Generation Characteristics in Nd:GdVO4 Laser under Direct 879-nm Pumping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a highly efficient (over 60% slope efficiency) 1.3-µm cw Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by a 879-nm Ti:Sapphire laser. Non-radiative transition induced heat generation in Nd:GdVO4...

Saikawa, Jiro; Sato, Yoichi; Taira, Takunori; Nakamura, Osamu; Furukawa, Yasunori

35

Direct observation of heat dissipation in individual suspended carbon nanotubes using a two-laser technique  

SciTech Connect

A two-laser technique is used to investigate heat spreading along individual single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles in vacuum and air environments. A 532 nm laser focused on the center of a suspended SWCNT bundle is used as a local heat source, and a 633 nm laser is used to measure the spatial temperature profile along the SWCNT bundle by monitoring the G band downshifts in the Raman spectra. A constant temperature gradient is observed when the SWCNT bundle is irradiated in vacuum, giving direct evidence of diffusive transport of the phonons probed by the Raman laser. In air, however, we observe an exponentially decaying temperature profile with a decay length of about 7 {mu}m, due to heat dissipation from the SWCNT bundle to the surrounding gas molecules. The thermal conductivity of the suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) is determined from its electrical heating temperature profile as measured in vacuum and the nanotube bundle diameter measured via transmission electron microscopy. Based on the exponential decay curves measured in three different CNTs in air, the heat transfer coefficient between the SWCNTs and the surrounding air molecules is found to range from 1.5 x 10{sup 3} to 7.9 x 10{sup 4} W/m{sup 2} K, which is smaller than the 1 x 10{sup 5} W/m{sup 2} K thermal boundary conductance value calculated using the kinetic theory of gases. This measurement is insensitive to the thermal contact resistance, as no temperature drops occur at the ends of the nanotube. It is also insensitive to errors in the calibration of the G band temperature coefficient. The optical absorption is also obtained from these results and is on the order of 10{sup -5}.

Hsu, I-Kai; Hung, Wei-Hsuan [Department of Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Pettes, Michael T.; Shi Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Nano and Molecular Science and Technology, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas of Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Aykol, Mehmet; Theiss, Jesse; Cronin, Stephen B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Chang, Chia-Chi [Department of Physics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Initiation of long, free-standing Z-discharges by CO2 laser gas heating  

SciTech Connect

High current discharge channels can neutralize both current and space charge of very intense ion beams. Therefore they are considered as an interesting alternative for the final focus and beam transport in a heavy ion beam fusion reactor. At the GSI accelerator facility, 50 cm long, stable, free-standing discharge channels with currents in excess of 40 kA in 2 to 25 mbar ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas are investigated for heavy ion beam transport studies. The discharges are initiated by a CO{sub 2} laser pulse along the channel axis before the discharge is triggered. Resonant absorption of the laser, tuned to the {nu}{sub 2} vibration of the ammonia molecule, causes strong gas heating. Subsequent expansion and rarefaction of the gas prepare the conditions for a stable discharge to fulfill the requirements for ion beam transport. This paper describes the laser-gas interaction and the discharge initiation mechanism. We report on the channel stability and evolution, measured by fast shutter and streak imaging techniques. The rarefaction of the laser heated gas is studied by means of a hydrocode simulation.

Nieman, C.; Tauschwitz, A.; Penache, D.; Neff, S.; Knobloch, R.; Birkner, R.; Presura, R.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Yu, S.S.; Sharp, W.M.

2004-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

37

Generalized constructal optimization for solidification heat transfer process of slab continuous casting based on heat loss rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Based on constructal theory, generalized constructal optimization of a solidification heat transfer process of slab continuous casting is carried out by taking a complex function as optimization objective. The complex function is composed of the functions of the heat loss rate and surface temperature gradient of the slab subjected to the constraints of shell thickness, surface temperature and liquid core length of the slab. For the specified total water flow rate, the “optimal construct” of the water distribution in the secondary cooling zone is obtained. Comparing the optimal results with the initial ones, it is shown that the complex function, the functions of the heat loss rate and the surface temperature gradient after optimization are decreased by 35.04%, 2.14% and 59.48%, respectively. Therefore, the scheme of the “optimal construct” of the water distribution reduces the heat loss rate and surface temperature gradient of the slab simultaneously, that is, improves its energy retention and quality simultaneously. The optimization results obtained in this paper can provide some guidelines for parameter designs and dynamic operations of the solidification heat transfer process of slab continuous casting.

Huijun Feng; Lingen Chen; Zhihui Xie; Zemin Ding; Fengrui Sun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Laser heating of solid matter by light pressure-driven shocks  

SciTech Connect

Heating by irradiation of a solid surface in vacuum with 5 x 10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2}, 0.8 ps, 1.05 {micro}m wavelength laser light is studied by x-ray spectroscopy of the K-shell emission from thin layers of Ni, Mo and V. A surface layer is heated to {approx} 5 keV with an axial temperature gradient of 0.6 {micro}m scale length. Images of Ni Ly{sub {alpha}} show the hot region has a {approx} 25 {micro}m diameter, much smaller than {approx} 70 {micro}m region of K{sub {alpha}} emission. 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations suggest that the surface heating is due to a light pressure driven shock.

Akli, K; Hansen, S B; Kemp, A J; Freeman, R R; Beg, F N; Clark, D; Chen, S; Hey, D; Highbarger, K; Giraldez, E; Green, J; Gregori, G; Lancaster, K; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A J; Norreys, P A; Patel, N; Patel, P; Shearer, C; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Theobald, W; Van Woerkom, L; Weber, R; Key, M H

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

39

Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of thermal energies by highly repeated irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses inside a glass induces the heat-modification whose volume is much larger than that of the photoexcited region. It has been proposed that the heat-modification occurs in the region in which the temperature had overcome a threshold temperature during exposure of laser pulses. In order to understand the mechanism of the heat-modification, we investigated the temperature distribution during laser exposure and the threshold temperature by analyzing the volume of the modification based on a thermal diffusion model. We found that the threshold temperature becomes lower with increasing laser exposure time. The dependence of the threshold temperature on the laser exposure time was explained by the deformation mechanism based on the temperature-dependent viscosity and viscoelastic behavior of a glass under a stress loading by thermal expansion. The deformation mechanism also could simulate a tear-drop shape of a heat-modification by simultaneous double-beams' irradiation and the distribution of birefringence in a heat-modification. The mechanism proposed in this study means that the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of a glass should be essential for predicting and controlling the heat-modification.

Shimizu, Masahiro; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki [Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko [Innovative Collaboration Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Ohnishi, Masatoshi [Qualtec Co., Ltd., 4-230 Sanbocho, Sakai-ku, Sakai-shi, Osaka 590-0906 (Japan); Nakaya, Takayuki [NJC Institute of Technology, Namiki Precision Jewel Co., Ltd., 8-22 Shinden 3-Chome, Adachi-ku, Tokyo 123-8511 (Japan)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Efficient 1.3-µm Laser Oscillation and Heat Generation Characteristics in Nd:GdVO4 Laser under Direct Pumping into 4F3/2 Emitting Level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrated a near quantum-limited slope efficiency in 1.3-µm cw Nd:GdVO4 laser under a 879-nm (Ti:Sapphire laser) pumping. Large heat generation due to non-radiative decay in...

Saikawa, Jiro; Sato, Yoichi; Taira, Takunori; Nakamura, Osamu; Furukawa, Yasunori

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41

Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Small-scale heat exchanges have recently been modeled with resource theories intended to extend thermodynamics to the nanoscale and quantum regimes. We generalize these theories to exchanges of quantities other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d-majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from, and we bound the work cost of creating, a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.

Nicole Yunger Halpern; Joseph M. Renes

2014-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

42

Evidence for ultra-fast heating in intense-laser irradiated reduced-mass targets  

SciTech Connect

We report on an experiment irradiating individual argon droplets of 20 {mu}m diameter with laser pulses of several Joule energy at intensities of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. K-shell emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the hot electron energy fraction and the time-integrated charge-state distribution. Spectral fitting indicates that bulk temperatures up to 160 eV are reached. Modelling of the hot-electron relaxation and generation of K-shell emission with collisional hot-electron stopping only is incompatible with the experimental results, and the data suggest an additional ultra-fast (sub-ps) heating contribution. For example, including resistive heating in the modelling yields a much better agreement with the observed final bulk temperature and qualitatively reproduces the observed charge state distribution.

Neumayer, P.; Gumberidze, A.; Hochhaus, D. C. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Aurand, B.; Stoehlker, T. [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Costa Fraga, R. A.; Kalinin, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ecker, B. [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Grisenti, R. E. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kaluza, M. C. [Helmholtz Institute Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); IOQ Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Jena (Germany); Kuehl, T. [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Polz, J. [IOQ Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Jena (Germany); Reuschl, R. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Winters, D.; Winters, N.; Yin, Z. [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

5. Kodama, R. et al. Fast heating of ultrahigh-density plasma as a step towards laser fusion ignition. Nature 412, 798802 (2001).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5. Kodama, R. et al. Fast heating of ultrahigh-density plasma as a step towards laser fusion. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23567­23581 (1995). 13. Hirahara, M. et al. Acceleration and heating of cold

Davis, James C.

44

An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets  

SciTech Connect

For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

Mark Borland; Steve Frank

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Carbon ion beam focusing using laser irradiated heated diamond hemispherical shells  

SciTech Connect

Experiments preformed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Trident Laser Facility were conducted to observe the acceleration and focusing of carbon ions via the TNSA mechanism using hemispherical diamond targets. Trident is a 200TW class laser system with 80J of 1 {micro}m, short-pulse light delivered in 0.5ps, with a peak intensity of 5 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Targets where Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamonds formed into hemispheres with a radius of curvature of 400{micro}m and a thickness of 5{micro}m. The accelerated ions from the hemisphere were diagnosed by imaging the shadow of a witness copper mesh grid located 2mm behind the target onto a film pack located 5cm behind the target. Ray tracing was used to determine the location of the ion focal spot. The TNSA mechanism favorably accelerates hydrogen found in and on the targets. To make the carbon beam detectable, targets were first heated to several hundred degrees Celsius using a CW, 532nm, 8W laser. Imaging of the carbon beam was accomplished via an auto-radiograph of a nuclear activated lithium fluoride window in the first layer of the film pack. The focus of the carbon ion beam was determined to be located 630 {+-} 110 {micro}m from the vertex of the hemisphere.

Offermann, Dustin T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaillard, Sandrine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Heat accumulation by high repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation inside glass generates a much larger modification than that by a single pulse. In this study, we determined the temperature distribution due to heat accumulation and the characteristic temperature for heat modification inside a soda lime glass by analyzing the relationship between the radius of modification and glass temperature. The validity of the analysis was confirmed by reproducing the modification due to two-beam irradiation. The determined characteristic temperature suggested that the temperature distribution and the spatial dependence of the stress relaxation are important in the mechanism of heat modification.

Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko [Innovative Collaboration Center of Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Shimizu, Masahiro; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki [Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

47

Heating by Optical Absorption and Cooling of High Power Laser Mirrors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In high power laser system, laser mirror is the core and the most sensitive optical component, which influences the increase of laser power and the quality of laser. Absorption of light at mirrors causes wavef...

Ci-Ming Zhou; Zu-Hai Cheng; Yu-Feng Peng

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Vacuum energy, spectral determinant and heat kernel asymptotics of graph Laplacians with general vertex matching conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider Laplace operators on metric graphs, networks of one-dimensional line segments (bonds), with matching conditions at the vertices that make the operator self-adjoint. Such quantum graphs provide a simple model of quantum mechanics in a classically chaotic system with multiple scales corresponding to the lengths of the bonds. For graph Laplacians we briefly report results for the spectral determinant, vacuum energy and heat kernel asymptotics of general graphs in terms of the vertex matching conditions.

J. M. Harrison; K. Kirsten

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

49

High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of hollow atoms created in plasma heated by subpicosecond laser radiation  

SciTech Connect

The investigations of ultrashort (0.4-0.6 ps) laser pulse radiation interaction with solid targets have been carried out. The Trident subpicosecond laser system was used for plasma creation. The X-ray plasma emission was investigated with the help of high-resolution spectrographs with spherically bent mica crystals. It is shown that when high contrast ultrashort laser pulses were used for plasma heating its emission spectra could not be explained in terms of commonly used theoretical models, and transitions in so called {open_quotes}hollow atoms{close_quotes} must be taken into account for adequate description of plasma radiation.

Faenov, A.Ya.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

An experimental–numerical investigation of heat distribution and stress field in single- and multi-track laser cladding by a high-power direct diode laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High-power direct diode laser (HPDDL) cladding offers several advantages in the laser surface modification and repair of high-value parts. The wider beam and uniform energy distribution in the direct diode laser provide a smooth heating and cooling cycle during the cladding process. Subsequently, lower dimensional distortion and thermally-induced stress occur during the process. In this paper, temperature evolution and molten pool dimensions as well as stress-and-strain fields were studied by utilizing experimental and numerical methods. A three-dimensional (3D) transient uncoupled thermo-elastic–plastic model was developed to simulate a thermal process during the single- and multi-track laser cladding and the thermally-induced residual stress in the laser cladding. The effect of latent heat and phase transformations are considered in the thermal analysis. The numerical results were validated by experimentally-measured values, and the maximum prediction error was 3.5%. The experimental results were collected by in-situ monitoring techniques (e.g., thermocouples and a high-speed CCD camera). The level of residual stresses at the cladded surfaces were measured by an X-ray diffractometer. In addition, the effect of scanning speed on the thermal and stress evolution was quantitatively discussed.

Parisa Farahmand; Radovan Kovacevic

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Laser mass spectrometric detection of extraterrestrial aromatic molecules: Mini-review and examination of pulsed heating effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the expectation that atmospheric entry heating and impact...ultraviolet laser desorption of non-volatile compounds...formation by shock and thermal metamorphism . Astrobiology...tholin formed in cold plasma at various pressures...cosmic dust intact . J Non-Cryst Solids 186 : 415 – 427 . 47...

Maegan K. Spencer; Matthew R. Hammond; Richard N. Zare

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980  

SciTech Connect

This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Time-Resolved Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction on Pulse Laser Heated Iron in Diamond Anvil Cell  

SciTech Connect

The authors present time-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction to probe the {var_epsilon}-{delta} phase transition of iron during pulse-laser heating in a diamond anvil cell. The system utilizes a monochromatic synchrotron x-ray beam, a two-dimensional pixel array x-ray detector and a dual beam, double side laser-heating system. Multiple frames of the diffraction images are obtained in real-time every 22 ms over 500 ms of the entire pulse heating period. The results show the structural evolution of iron phases at 17 GPa, resulting in thermal expansion coefficient 1/V({Delta}V/{Delta}T){sub p} = 7.1 * 10{sup -6}/K for {var_epsilon}-Fe and 2.4 * 10{sup -5}/K for {gamma}-Fe, as well as the evidence for metastability of {gamma}-Fe at low temperatures below the {var_epsilon}-{gamma} phase boundary.

Yoo, C S; Wei, H; Dias, R; Shen, G; Smith, J; Chen, J Y; Evans, W

2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

54

Simulation of Infrared Laser Heating of Silica Using Heat Conduction and Multifrequency Radiation Diffusion Equations Adapted for Homogeneous Refractive Lossy Media  

SciTech Connect

Localized, transient heating of materials using micro-scale, highly absorbing laser light has been used in many industries to anneal, melt and ablate material with high precision. Accurate modeling of the relative contributions of conductive, convective and radiative losses as a function of laser parameters is essential to optimizing micro-scale laser processing of materials. In bulk semi-transparent materials such as silicate glass melts, radiation transport is known to play a significantly larger role as the temperature increases. Conventionally, radiation is treated in the frequency-averaged diffusive limit (Rosseland approximation). However, the role and proper treatment of radiative processes under rapidly heated, high thermal gradient conditions, often created through laser-matter interactions, is at present not clear. Starting from the radiation transport equation for homogeneous, refractive lossy media, they derive the corresponding time-dependent multi-frequency diffusion equations. Zeroth and first moments of the transport equation couple the energy density, flux and pressure tensor. The system is closed by neglecting the temporal derivative of the flux and replacing the pressure tensor by its diagonal analogue. The radiation equations are coupled to a diffusion equation for the matter temperature. They are interested in modeling infrared laser heating of silica over sub-millimeter length scales, and at possibly rapid rates. Hence, in contrast to related work, they retain the temporal derivative of the radiation field. They derive boundary conditions at a planar air-silica interface taking account of reflectivities obtained from the Fresnel relations that include absorption. The effect of a temperature-dependent absorption index is explored through construction of a multi-phonon dielectric function that includes mode dispersion. The spectral dimension is discretized into a finite number of intervals yielding a system of multigroup diffusion equations. Simulations are presented. To demonstrate the bulk heat loss due to radiation and the effect of the radiation's temporal derivative, they model cooling of a silica slab, initially at 2500 K, for 10 s. Retaining the derivative enables correctly modeling the loss of photons initially present in the slab. Other simulations model irradiating silica discs (of approximately 5 mm radii and thickness) with a CO2 laser: {lambda} = 10.59 and 4.6 um, Gaussian profile, r{sub 0} = 0.5 mm for 1/e decay. By surrounding the disks in room-temperature air, they make use of the boundary conditions described above.

Shestakov, A I; Matthews, M J; Vignes, R M; Stolken, J S

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

55

Canonical formalism, fundamental equation, and generalized thermomechanics for irreversible fluids with heat transfer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Lagrangian with dissipative (e.g., Onsager’s) potentials is constructed for the field description of irreversible heat-conducting fluids, off local equilibrium. Extremum conditions of action yield Clebsch representations of temperature, chemical potential, velocities, and generalized momenta, including a thermal momentum introduced recently [R. L. Selinger and F. R. S. Whitham, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 302, 1 (1968); S. Sieniutycz and R. S. Berry, Phys. Rev. A 40, 348 (1989)]. The basic question asked is ‘‘To what extent may irreversibility, represented by a given form of the entropy source, influence the analytical form of the conservation laws for the energy and momentum?’’ Nöther’s energy for a fluid with heat flow is obtained, which leads to a fundamental equation and extended Hamiltonian dynamics obeying the second law of thermodynamics. While in the case of the Onsager potentials this energy coincides numerically with the classical energy E, it contains an extra term (vanishing along the path) still contributing to an irreversible evolution. Components of the energy-momentum tensor preserve all terms regarded standardly as ‘‘irreversible’’ (heat, tangential stresses, etc.) generalized to the case when thermodynamics includes the state gradients and the so-called thermal phase, which we introduce here. This variable, the Lagrange multiplier of the entropy generation balance, is crucial for consistent treatment of irreversible processes via an action formalism. We conclude with the hypothesis that embedding the first and second laws in the context of the extremal behavior of action under irreversible conditions may imply accretion of an additional term to the classical energy.

Stanislaw Sieniutycz and R. Stephen Berry

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Heat transfer and hydraulic resistance of supercritical pressure coolants. Part III: Generalized description of SCP fluids normal heat transfer, empirical calculating correlations, integral method of theoretical calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The problems of generalized description of the supercritical-pressure fluids “normal” heat transfer are analyzed. The known empirical correlations are considered and their efficiency is assessed in view of using the refined International Standards on water and carbon dioxide thermophysical properties. The efficient methods of renovating the old correlations, as well as new correlations for calculating normal heat transfer are proposed. The modified integral method for theoretical calculating normal heat transfer is given, which makes it possible obtaining the data on the SCP flow structure.

V.A. Kurganov; Yu.A. Zeigarnik; I.V. Maslakova

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE`s mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Laser-induced heating of a multilayered medium resting on a half-space: Part 2 - Moving source  

SciTech Connect

Direct access storage devices (DASDs) are widely used in the computer industry to store and manage data. In conventional magnetic recording, an induction head flying very close to the disk surface alters the polarization of the magnetic field of the disk surface to erase and or write the information on the disk. However, a new technology known as magneto optical recording or optical recording has considerable promise to increase data densities and reliability of data source. In magneto-optical storage, magnetic fields are altered by a laser source, which heats the magnetic medium beyond its Curie point, a temperature at which the magnetic medium loses its magnetization. This domain with zero magnetization is subsequently reversed by using an induction magnet. All these processes take place when the disk is rotating at a very high speed with respect to the laser source. An optical disk is a multilayered medium consisting of a thick glass disk on which many layers of different materials are sputtered, only one layer of which serves as a magnetic medium. Therefore, in this paper, a problem of laser-induced heating of a multilayered medium resting on a half-space is considered when the laser is translation with respect to it. The transient heat conduction equation is solved by employing the Laplace transform in the time domain and the Fourier Transform in the x, y dimension. The resulting ordinary differential equation is solved and the inversion of the Lapplace transform is obtained by a technique developed by Crump. The Fourier inversion is obtained by using a Fast Fourier Transform. The technique developed here is then applied to calculate domain size for recorded bits for a given disk, laser power, source characteristics, and rotational velocity.

Kant, R.; Deckert, K.L. (IBM Research Div., San Jose, CA (USA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... neutron yield in such experiments is usually ?105 neutrons per joule of laser energy. Petawatt class (1015?W) picosecond lasers have recently been shown to produce large amounts of ...

T. Ditmire; J. Zweiback; V. P. Yanovsky; T. E. Cowan; G. Hays; K. B. Wharton

1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

60

Assessment of the efficacy of laser hyperthermia and nanoparticle-enhanced therapies by heat shock protein analysis  

SciTech Connect

Tumor thermotherapy is a method of cancer treatment wherein cancer cells are killed by exposing the body tissues to high temperatures. Successful clinical implementation of this method requires a clear understanding and assessment of the changes of the tumor area after the therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels. We used single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in combination with this thermotherapy. We established a mouse model for breast cancer and randomly divided the mice into four groups: mice with SWNT-assisted thermotherapy; mice heat treated without SWNT; mice injected with SWNTs without thermotherapy; and a control group. Tumors were irradiated using a near-infrared laser with their surface temperature remaining at approximately 45 °C. We monitored the tumor body growth trend closely by daily physical measurements, immunohistochemical staining, and H and E (hematoxylin-eosin) staining by stage. Our results showed that infrared laser hyperthermia had a significant inhibitory effect on the transplanted breast tumor, with an inhibition rate of 53.09%, and also significantly reduced the expression of the heat shock protein Hsp70. Furthermore, we have found that protein analysis and histological analysis can be used to assess therapeutic effects effectively, presenting broad application prospects for determining the effect of different treatments on tumors. Finally, we discuss the effects of SWNT-assisted near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy on tumor growth at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels.

Tang, Fei [Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)] [Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Ran, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Guo, Junwei [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)] [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Home-built Nd:YAG laser for general laboratory use  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A pulsed Nd:YAG laser has been built suitable for dye laser pumping, photoionization, and other purposes. Its peak output is more than 110 mJ IR and 40 mJ of frequency-doubled green in...

Yang, Dong-Hai; Breeden, Thomas L; Metcalf, Harold J

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

COCO22 Laser Heating System at GSECARSLaser Heating System at GSECARS Alexei Yu. Kuznetsov, Vitali B. Prakapenka*, Andrew J. Campbell,Alexei Yu. Kuznetsov, Vitali B. Prakapenka*, Andrew J. Campbell, Thomas S. Duffy, Guoyin Shen, Dion L. Heinz, Mark L. Riv  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COCO22 Laser Heating System at GSECARSLaser Heating System at GSECARS Alexei Yu. Kuznetsov, Vitali, USAChicago, Illinois 60637, USA Comprehensive laser heating setup is one of the important components defining versatility of high-pressure/ high- temperature studies at GSECARS Heating of transparent to NIR light

Campbell, Andrew

63

Numerical computation of 3D heat transfer in complex parallel convective exchangers using generalized Graetz modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical computation of 3D heat transfer in complex parallel convective exchangers using insights into the most con- tributing structure to exchanges and transfers. Several examples of heat, whilst many other can be found in a recent review [12]. As quoted in [12] conjugate heat transfer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

Determination of Thermophysical Properties for Polymer Films using Conduction Analysis of Laser Heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Determination of the thermophysical properties of thin film materials is important for modeling and optimizing laser microvia drilling of organic substrates in microelectronics applications. Techniques to meas...

Chong Zhang; Islam A. Salama; Nathaniel R. Quick…

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported.

Maraman, W.J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Advanced Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for General Purpose Heat Source Fueled Clad Closure Welds  

SciTech Connect

A radioisotope thermoelectric generator is used to provide a power source for long-term deep space missions. This General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is fabricated using iridium clad vent sets to contain the plutonium oxide fuel pellets. Integrity of the closure weld is essential to ensure containment of the plutonium. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant took the lead role in developing the ultrasonic inspection for the closure weld and transferring the inspection to Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in fueled clad inspection for the Cassini mission. Initially only amplitude and time-of-flight data were recorded. However, a number of benign geometric conditions produced signals that were larger than the acceptance threshold. To identify these conditions, a B-scan inspection was developed that acquired full ultrasonic waveforms. Using a test protocol the B-scan inspection was able to identify benign conditions such as weld shield fusion and internal mismatch. Tangential radiography was used to confirm the ultrasonic results. All but two of 29 fueled clads for which ultrasonic B-scan data was evaluated appeared to have signals that could be attributed to benign geometric conditions. This report describes the ultrasonic inspection developed at Y-12 for the Cassini mission.

Moyer, M.W.

2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

67

Synchronizing Coupled Semiconductor Lasers under General Coupling Shuai Li, Yi Guo, and Yehuda Braiman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tools in- spired by recent cooperative control advances. Examining the dynamic model of coupled to analytic understanding of semiconductor lasers, but also advance cooperative control by providing the advance in laser diode production, the output power from single mode LD remains quite limited. Coherent

Guo, Yi

68

Underwater and water-assisted laser processing: Part 1—general features, steam cleaning and shock processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water is always present in laser processing in air: as vapor, condensate or adsorbate. Water is the working environment in underwater processing—but it can also be added on purpose to gain better results: to avoid redeposition of debris, to cool the material, to increase plasma pressure or to conduct light. Water can also act as a chemical reagent. The first part of the article will review the advantages and disadvantages of laser processing in the presence of water, light transmission by water, and the two most mature methods of water-assisted laser processing: steam cleaning and shock processing.

Arvi Kruusing

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Single pulse excimer laser nanostructuring of thin silicon films: Nanosharp cones formation and a heat transfer problem  

SciTech Connect

We present analytical and computer modeling along with an experiment on the formation of sharp conical tips on monocrystalline silicon thin films, silicon-on-insulator, subjected to irradiation by single 25 ns pulses from a KrF excimer laser focused into a spot several micrometers in diameter. These fabricated structures have heights of about 1 {mu}m and apical radii of curvature of several tens of nanometers. We offer a simplified analytical model for the formation of these structures. The computer simulation includes two-dimensional time-dependant heat transfer and phase transformations in Si films on SiO{sub 2} substrates that result from the laser irradiation (the Stefan problem). It is shown that upon irradiation and initial melting, the liquid/solid interface remains mainly parallel to the surface of the film. After the laser pulse, the molten material self-cools and resolidifies. The solid/liquid interface moves predominately laterally toward the center of the irradiated spot, forming an almost vertical front. We discuss the relation between the dynamics of the melting/freezing front movement and the displacement of material in the irradiated spot.

Eizenkop, Julia; Avrutsky, Ivan; Auner, Gregory; Georgiev, Daniel G.; Chaudhary, Vipin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390 (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests: RTG-1 and RTG-2  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.; George, T.G.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test  

SciTech Connect

The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Analytical models of transient thermoelastic deformations of mirrors heated by high power cw laser beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and are suspended in a vacuum vessel : the heat losses are only due to the thermal radiation. The resulting2243 Analytical models of transient thermoelastic deformations of mirrors heated by high power cw substrat. La distribution de température engendrée dans le substrat produit des déformations

Boyer, Edmond

73

Memorandum To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) Date: 1/12/2012 Subject: EX PARTE COMMUNICATION MEMO DOE ATTENDEES: Ashley Armstrong, John Cymbalsky, David Case, Laura Barhydt HARDI ATTENDEES: Talbot Gee, Jonathan Melchi AREAS OF DISCUSSION: DOE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. The meeting took place on Thursday January 5 th , 2012 from 2pm to 3-pm. The following topics were discussed. 1.) Sell-Through. HARDI asked for clarification on the DOE's notation on the Framework Document

74

A general heat transfer correlation for non-boiling gasliquid flow with different flow patterns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as oil wells and pipelines, solar collectors, chemical reactors, and nuclear reactors, and its in horizontal pipes Jae-yong Kim, Afshin J. Ghajar * School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma patterns in horizontal pipes is proposed. In order to overcome the effect of flow pattern on heat transfer

Ghajar, Afshin J.

75

The effect of oxygen in the Si substrate on Mo, W, Ti, and Co silicide growth by infrared laser heating  

SciTech Connect

This study of the effect of implanted oxygen in the Si substrate was accomplished using an IR heating method and a combination of different materials analysis techniques. Principally, Auger electron spectroscopy combined with depth profiling was implemented to investigate the composition of the reacted metal-Si systems as well as the relative movement of the oxygen during silicide formation. The authors systematic study of these four metal-Si systems yielded some interesting results. First, for the three metals Mo, W, and Ti, we observed basically inhibited metal-Si reactions at laser processing conditions that yielded completely reacted metal silicides without implanted oxygen. Second, the evolution from inhibited reactions through partial, metal-rich silicides and finally to completely reacted metal silicide formation at high temperatures was observed and characterized. Last, a distinctly response to the presence of oxygen was observed for the Ti samples as compared to the Mo and W samples.

Lee, H.S.; Wolga, G.J. (School of Electrical Engineering, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (US))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Proceedings of SOFE97 17th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering, Oct.69th, 1997. Tritium Removal by CO 2 Laser Heating*.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Removal by CO 2 Laser Heating*. C. H. Skinner, a H. Kugel, a D. Mueller, a B. L. Doyle, b and W. R Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 Abstract --- Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal hazard as it can be easily mobilized in the event of an accident. In addition, a simple comparison

77

Ultrafast Infrared Heating Laser Pulse-Induced Micellization Kinetics of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultrafast Infrared Heating Laser Pulse-Induced Micellization Kinetics of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) in Water Xiaodong Ye, Yijie Lu, Shilin Liu,*, Guangzhao Zhang, and Chi Wu-induced micellization of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic PE10300) triblock

Liu, Shilin

78

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980  

SciTech Connect

This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Convective flow measurements in a heated cavity using pulsed laser velocimetry with digital image processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This is essentially the trapezoidal sheet shown in figure 4. The thickness of the beam remains on the order of 1-1. 5 13 x-v plane z-y plane First Lens Focal Point Second Lens Third Lens Fig. 4. Laser light passing through a trio of piano-convex cylindrical...2 U3 v1 v2 3 u4 u5 u7 u8 u6 u9 v4 v 5 v7 v8 Figure 24. Pixel positions in relation to vector components. Expressing equation (15) spatially, where uij and vij are gray level values ranging from 0 to 255 at position i and j of each region...

Chavez, Hector Luis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

Laser cladding assisted by induction heating of Ni–WC composite enhanced by nano-WC and La2O3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Laser cladding of Ni–WC composites with a high weight fraction of WC results in certain issues, such as cracking susceptibility, non-homogeneity, and WC particle dissolution. In this study, laser cladding of Ni-60%WC using a high-power direct diode laser with and without induction heating was investigated. In addition, the effects of synthesizing a nano-WC powder and rare-earth element (RE) on the quality of Ni–WC coatings were investigated. The effects of utilizing the induction heater on the molten pool evolution were monitored using a pyrometer and an infrared camera. It was observed that laser cladding assisted with an induction heater yielded smooth and homogeneous composite coatings without cracks or porosity. The thermally captured images revealed that the evolution of the molten pool in laser cladding assisted with induction heating was uniform and smooth. The addition of nano-WC particles and La2O3 enhanced the coating homogeneity, microstructure refinement, and coating microhardness correspondingly.

Parisa Farahmand; Shuang Liu; Zhe Zhang; Radovan Kovacevic

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fabrication and local laser heating of freestanding Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} bridges with Pt contacts displaying anisotropic magnetoresistance and anomalous Nernst effect  

SciTech Connect

In spin caloritronics, ferromagnetic samples subject to relatively large in-plane temperature gradients ?T have turned out to be extremely interesting. We report on a preparation technique that allows us to create freely suspended permalloy/Pt hybrid structures where a scanning laser induces ?T on the order of a few K/?m. We observe both the anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature and the magnetic field dependent anomalous Nernst effect under laser heating. The technique is promising for the realization of device concepts considered in spin caloritronics based on suspended ferromagnetic nanostructures with electrical contacts.

Brandl, F.; Grundler, D., E-mail: grundler@ph.tum.de [Lehrstuhl für Physik funktionaler Schichtsysteme, Physik-Department E10, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

82

Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

A (S)TEM Gas Cell Holder with Localized Laser Heating for In Situ Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The advent of aberration correction for transmission electron microscopy has transformed atomic resolution imaging into a nearly routine technique for structural analysis. Now an emerging frontier in electron microscopy is the development of in situ capabilities to observe reactions at atomic resolution in real time and within realistic environments. Here we present a new in situ gas cell holder that is designed for compatibility with a wide variety of sample type (i.e., dimpled 3-mm discs, standard mesh grids, various types of focused ion beam lamellae attached to half grids). Its capabilities include localized heating and precise control of the gas pressure and composition while simultaneously allowing atomic resolution imaging at ambient pressure. The results show that 0.25-nm lattice fringes are directly visible for nanoparticles imaged at ambient pressure with gas path lengths up to 20 ?m. Additionally, we quantitatively demonstrate that while the attainable contrast and resolution decrease with increasing pressure and gas path length, resolutions better than 0.2 nm should be accessible at ambient pressure with gas path lengths less than the 15 ?m utilized for these experiments.

Mehraeen, S.; McKeown, J.; Deshmukh, Pushkarraj V.; Evans, James E.; Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Xu, Pinghong; Reed, Bryan W.; Taheri, Mitra L.; Fischione, Paul E.; Browning, Nigel D.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Excited-state absorption and 1064-nm end-pumped laser emission of Nd:YVO4 single-crystal fiber grown by laser-heated pedestal growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present an investigation of the excited-state absorption and laser emission of a 1.0-at.%-Nd3+ -doped YVO4 single-crystal fiber grown by the low-cost and...

de Camargo, Andrea S S; Nunes, Luiz Antonio O; Ardila, Diogenes R; Andreeta, José Pedro

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Glazing of Railroad Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails Project description: Laser glazing of rails. Category: Project with industrial partner (American Association of Railroads) Bookmark and Share

86

Laser Welding of Metals [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Welding of Metals Laser Welding of Metals Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Laser Welding of Metals Project description: High-speed laser welding of metals. Category: Project with industrial partner (Delphi Energy and Engine Management Systems) Bookmark and Share

87

Metal-like heat conduction in laser-excited InSb probed by picosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A semiconductor (InSb) showed transient metal-like heat conduction after excitation of a dense electron-hole plasma via short and intense light pulses. A related ultrafast strain relaxation was detected using picosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction. The deduced heat conduction was, by a factor of 30, larger than the lattice contribution. The anomalously high heat conduction can be explained once the contribution from the degenerate photocarrier plasma is taken into account. The magnitude of the effect could provide the means for guiding heat in semiconductor nanostructures. In the course of this work, a quantitative model for the carrier dynamics in laser-irradiated semiconductors has been developed, which does not rely on any adjustable parameters or ad hoc assumptions. The model includes various light absorption processes (interband, free carrier, two photon, and dynamical Burstein-Moss shifts), ambipolar diffusion, energy transport (heat and chemical potential), electrothermal effects, Auger recombination, collisional excitation, and scattering (elastic and inelastic). The model accounts for arbitrary degrees of degeneracy.

P. Sondhauss, O. Synnergren, T. N. Hansen, S. E. Canton, H. Enquist, A. Srivastava, and J. Larsson

2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

88

Coupled problem of point force and generalized point source of diffusive substance or heat at the surface of semi-infinite transversely isotropic material  

SciTech Connect

For a three-dimensional semi-infinite transversely isotropic material, Green's functions (that give the full set of coupled fields due to the arbitrarily oriented point force and concentrated generalized point source, that represents either the diffusive chemical substance concentration or heat applied at the boundary of the half-space) are derived in elementary functions in a simple way, using methods of the potential theory. In the course of the analysis we derived the general solution of the field equations, represented in terms of four harmonic potential functions, which may also be relevant to other problems of chemical concentration or heat diffusion. These solutions constitute generalization of Boussinesq's and Cerruti s problems of elasticity for the chemically diffusive and/or thermoelastic materials.

Karapetian, E. [Suffolk University, Boston; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Laser resonance heating of atoms in a capillary. Measuring the accommodation coefficient of the kinetic energy of the atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been experimentally detected that the laser irradiation of a rarefied flux of atoms in a capillary causes a reduction of their concentration at the output. It is established...

Bonch-Bruevich, A M; Vartanyan, T A; Przhibel'skii, S G; Smirnov, V N; Khromov, V V

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

Kessler, A. F.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Laser mass spectrometric detection of extraterrestrial aromatic molecules: Mini-review and examination of pulsed heating effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...space and atmospheric entry heating...Titan, the largest moon of Saturn...exposed to cold plasma inductively coupled to an RF source to...composition. Thermal gradients generated...PAHs in the area of interest...expectation that atmospheric entry heating...desorption of non-volatile compounds...grains and large aromatic molecules...

Maegan K. Spencer; Matthew R. Hammond; Richard N. Zare

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

General Heat Transfer Characterization and Empirical Models of Material Storage Temperatures for the Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory's Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) is being renovated for long-term storage of canisters designed to hold heat-generating nuclear materials. A fully passive cooling scheme, relying on the transfer of heat by conduction, free convection, and radiation has been proposed as a reliable means of maintaining material at acceptable storage temperatures. The storage concept involves placing radioactive materials, with a net heat-generation rate of 10 W to 20 W, inside a set of nested steel canisters. The canisters are, in placed in holding fixtures and positioned vertically within a steel storage pipe. Several hundred drywells are arranged in a linear array within a large bay and dissipate the waste heat to the surrounding air, thus creating a buoyancy driven airflow pattern that draws cool air into the storage facility and exhausts heated air through an outlet stack. In this study, an experimental apparatus was designed to investigate the thermal characteristics of simulated nuclear materials placed inside two nested steel canisters positioned vertically on an aluminum fixture plate and placed inside a section of steel pipe. The heat-generating nuclear materials were simulated with a solid aluminum cylinder containing .an embedded electrical resistance heater. Calibrated type T thermocouples (accurate to ~ O.1 C) were used to monitor temperatures at 20 different locations within the apparatus. The purposes of this study were to observe the heat dissipation characteristics of the proposed `canister/fixture plate storage configuration, to investigate how the storage system responds to changes in various parameters, and to develop and validate empirical correlations to predict material temperatures under various operating conditions

J. D. Bernardin; W. S. Gregory

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Localized synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes on silicon substrates by a laser heating catalytic CVD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

], several techniques, such as laser-furnace [2] arc-discharge [3] and various catalytic chemical vapor the use of an electric furnace or hot filament. SWNTs were synthesized from alcohol using Fe/Co catalyst proposed an even simpler version of ACCVD without resorting to an electric furnace or a hot filament [6

Maruyama, Shigeo

94

Optimal Surface Salinity Perturbations of the Meridional Overturning and Heat Transport in a Global Ocean General Circulation Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

anomaly. This initial optimal perturbation corresponds to a zonal salinity gradient around 24°NOptimal Surface Salinity Perturbations of the Meridional Overturning and Heat Transport in a Global of surface salinity perturbations on the North Atlantic circulation over the past few decades. As a step

Huck, Thierry

95

Physics Experiments and Abstract Harmonic Analysis: A Generalized Peano Kernel Theorem for Estimating Errors in Laser Interferometry  

SciTech Connect

This slide-show discusses the use of the Local Polynomial Approximation (LPA) to smooth signals from photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) applying a generalized Peano kernel theorem.

Luttman, A.

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

96

Other Projects [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Other Projects Other Projects Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Other projects Bookmark and Share HIGH POWER LASER BEAM DELIVERY High-power laser-beam delivery with conventional and fiber optics DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING Laser processing technology for decontamination of surfaces

97

Industry Related Projects [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industry Related Projects Industry Related Projects Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Industry related projects Bookmark and Share LASER OIL & GAS WELL DRILLING Using high-power lasers to drill and complete gas & oil wells LASER HEAT TREATMENT Optimization of laser beam heat treatment (Caterpillar and USCAR)

98

Laser Roadshow  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

outreach Laser Roadshow The NIF Laser Roadshow includes a number of interactive laser demonstrations (Laser Light Fountain, Laser DJ, and NIF "3D ride") that have traveled across...

99

PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP W. D. C. Richards and W. L. Auxer General Electric Company Space Division King of Prussia, Pa. ABSTRACT A heat activated heat pump (HAHP for space heating since it directly utilizes the engine waste heat in addition to the energy obtained

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

100

Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording for Areal Densities Beyond 1Tbit/in^2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heated by a laser beam. Heat and Mass Transfer 32: 242-253HJ ( 1990) Non-quasi-steady analysis of heat conduction froma moving heat source. ASME, J Heat Transfer 112: 777-779. 75

Ikkawi, Rabee

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Laser Ignition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Ignition Laser Ignition A first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable...

102

Nonresonant femtosecond laser vaporization of aqueous protein preserves folded structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...molecules and ions in strong laser fields . Phys Rev A 68 : 011402...generated by ultra-intense lasers . Science 300 : 1107 – 1111 . 10 Ditmire T ( 1999 ) Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters . Nature...

John J. Brady; Elizabeth J. Judge; Robert J. Levis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Parametric Study and Multi-Criteria Optimization in Laser Cladding by a High Power Direct Diode Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In laser cladding, the performance of the deposited layers subjected ... layer are influenced greatly by the type of laser used as a heat source and process ... Nowadays, the quality of fabricated coating by laser

Parisa Farahmand; Radovan Kovacevic

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Thermally induced wave-front distortions in laser windows  

SciTech Connect

A simple analytical expression is given for wave-front distortions and birefringence due to heating in laser windows. (AIP)

Greninger, C.E.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Laser Safety Laser-emitting tools and equipment are common to many work situations. Lasers in printers, grocery store  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser Safety Laser-emitting tools and equipment are common to many work situations. Lasers in printers, grocery store scanners, construction tools, and laser pointers are generally lower powered lasers emit high-intensity, directional light beams that vary in strength, they are a particular hazard

Burke, Peter

106

Advances in Laser Science-II  

SciTech Connect

The meeting covered topics on the latest advances in laser technology and applications. The general categories are as follows: advanced lasers and coherent sources; nonlinear optical phenomena and applications; atomic, molecular and ionic spectroscopy; condensed matter, surface and particle spectroscopy; laser photochemistry and photophysics; diagnostic and analytical applications of lasers; and laser research and techniques in medicine and biology. (LSP)

Lapp, M.; Stwalley, W.C.; Kenney-Wallace, G.A.; Lerner, R.G. (eds.)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Laser Applications Laboratory - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities > Engineering Capabilities > Engineering Experimentation > Laser Applications Laboratory Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory The Laser Applications Laboratory (LAL) houses two high-power laser systems, complete with diagnostics for materials-processing functions - a 6 kW CO2 laser and a 1.6 kW pulsed Nd:YAG laser.

108

Status of Laser Fusion Research in Japan Kunioki Mima  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: LFEX laser 2. A New target design for fast ignition 3. Fusion neutron applications and future plan-UK Joint Exp. : Kodama, etal Nature,02 GXII-LFEX (FIREX) Central ignition Fast ignition Laser irradiation Compression Ignition Burn PW laser10 4 10 6 10 8 0.1 1 NeutronYield Heating Laser Power (PW) Input PW laser

109

Laser ablation based fuel ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Laser ablation based fuel ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

111

BNL | ATF Laser Safety  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ATF Laser Safety ATF Laser Safety To be present in a secured laser area at ATF, a person must either have the required laser training, or be continuously escorted by someone who has such training: The training consists of an eye exam, BNL general laser safety lecture, and formal ATF laser familiarization. Untrained personnel should not be instructed to enter interlocked areas or be escorted into an area and left unattended. If someone without training must enter a secured area, they must be continuously escorted, and are considered spectators, which means they may not perform any work in the area. At ATF, there are 3 classes of personnel authorized to enter secured areas: Experimental operators may secure areas, perform approved experiments with beams from facility lasers (YAG + CO2) or FEL beams, and

112

Beat Heating of a Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

If two laser beams have a difference frequency nearly equal to the plasma frequency, nonlinear interaction resonantly excites longitudinal plasma oscillations. These then induce transitions to other transverse modes. Nonlinear damping of the longitudinal mode heats the plasma. The process is optimized by having parallel beams, equal laser intensities, and damping equal to the frequency mismatch.

Bruce I. Cohen; Allan N. Kaufman; Kenneth M. Watson

1972-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

113

Laser Welding and Post Weld Treatment of Modified 9Cr-1MoVNb Steel [Laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Welding of Metals > Laser Welding of Metals > Laser Welding and Post Weld Treatment of Modified 9Cr-1MoVNb Steel Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Laser Welding of Metals Laser Welding and Post Weld Treatment of Modified 9Cr-1MoVNb Steel Zhiyue Xu Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory

114

Insulator for laser housing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Insulator for laser housing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

Duncan, D.B.

1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

116

Model of thermally induced wavefront distortion and birefringence in side-pumped Nd-doped YAG and phosphate glass heat capacity rod lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop an analytic model to describe the dynamic average thermal distortion and phase difference between the two principal polarizations in side-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:glass heat...

Liu, Liang; Wang, Xiaobo; Guo, Shaofeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Lu, Qisheng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Cooler-less and heat-sink free 980nm pump laser diode module wavelength-stabilized from -40 to 100 °C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cooler-less 200mW kink free 980nm LD module was developed. Center wavelength was locked and unnecessary modes were suppressed from -40 to 100 deg. C. under low heat dissipation...

Irie, Yuichiro; Koseki, Takashi; Minamino, Masayuki; Miyokawa, Jun; Nishikata, Kevin; Koiso, Takeshi; Yamagata, Yuji; Ikegami, Yoshikazu

118

Laser Technology: Additive Manufacturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective Laser Sintering, and in general Additive Manufacturing Processes are becoming mature technologies; in the ... systems that are even utilized for direct parts manufacturing. However, the parts final user...

Srichand Hinduja; Lin Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Laser Cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser cladding is a surface modification process in which a laser beam is used to melt an addition ... process must be clearly differentiated from that of laser surface alloying ( Laser Surface Al...

Prof. Dr. José L. Ocaña; Prof. Janez Grum

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

HEAT RECOVERY FROM WASTE WATER BY MEANS OF A RECUPERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER AND A HEAT PUMP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The useful heat of warm waste water is generally transferred to cold water using a recuperative heat exchanger. Depending on its design, the heat exchanger is able to utilise up to 90% of the waste heat potential available. The electric energy needed to operate such a system is more than compensated for by an approximately 50-fold gain of useful heat. To increase substantially the waste heat potential available and the amount of heat recovered, the system for recuperative heat exchange can be complemented by a heat pump. Such a heat recovery system on the basis of waste water is being operated in a public indoor swimming pool. Here the recuperative heat exchanger accounts for about 60%, the heat pump for about 40% of the toal heat reclaimed. The system consumes only 1 kWh of electric energy to supply 8 kWh of useful heat. In this way the useful heat of 8 kWh is compensated for by the low consumption of primary energy of 2.8 kWh. Due to the installation of an automatic cleaning device, the heat transfer surfaces on the waste water side avoid deposits so that the troublesome maintenance work required in other cases on the heat exchangers is not required. KEYWORDS Shower drain water, recuperative heat recovery, heat recovery by means of a heat pump, combination of both types of heat recovery, automatic cleaning device for the heat exchangers, ratio of useful heat supply vs. electric energy consumption, economic consideration.

K. Biasin; F.D. Heidt

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Soldering with solid state and diode lasers: Energy coupling, temperature rise, process window  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The increasing number of electrical contacts in automobiles in combination with more complex and miniaturized components leads to higher requirements for the joining technologies. In that context laser soldering represents an interesting alternative to conventional techniques. So far solid state lasers[Nd:yttrium–aluminum–garnet(YAG)] and CO 2 lasers have been successfully applied in industrial production. Recently the development of high power diode lasers has offered a new laser source for soldering with technological advantages. Absorptivity of laser radiation on metals generally increases with shorter wavelength and consequently diode lasers may lead to a higher process efficiency compared to Nd:YAG lasers. The absorptivity of copper alloys with different surface conditions has been measured at 808 nm (diode) and 1064 nm (Nd:YAG). When heating up the solder joint the intensity distribution of the different laser spots becomes important too. This effect is demonstrated by means of process modeling and temperature measurements for a typical joint geometry. For the case of soldering strip-to-strip joints the effects of the different energy absorption on the process are pointed out.

M. Brandner; G. Seibold; C. Chang; F. Dausinger; H. Hügel

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Laser Controlled Area Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

79 79 01 Effective: Page 1 of 17 05/13/11 Subject: X17B3 Laser Safety Program Documentation 1 AUTHORIZATION | Princeton University BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY LASER CONTROLLED AREA STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) This document defines the safety management program for the laser system listed below. All American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Hazard Class 3B and 4 laser systems must be documented, reviewed, and approved through use of this form. Each system must be reviewed annually. System description: A laser heating system for diamond anvil cell experiments has been installed at X17B3. A class 4 ytterbium fiber laser (IPG model YLR-100-SM-CS) is used to perform high-pressure laser heating of samples contained in diamond anvil cells. Included within this laser is a guide laser

123

Thermomechanical and metallurgical modelling of laser hardening and laser cladding processes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The development of high stresses and distortions is one of the main concerns in laser surface heat treatments. The objective of the present thesis is… (more)

Suárez Díaz, Alejandro

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

LASER SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE UNIVERSITY 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LASER SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE UNIVERSITY 1 Rice University Laser Safety Manual Environmental Health and Safety MS 123 P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX 77251-1892 December 2012 #12;LASER SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE, and general procedures to aid those individuals working in the laser laboratory environment. It is intended

Natelson, Douglas

125

Heat Transfer across the Interface between Nanoscale Solids and Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(4-7) Relative to heat transferred via solid–solid interfaces, heat dissipation from the active device region to the gas environment is usually negligible. ... Long VO2 NWs were cantilevered from a substrate and were locally heated using a focused laser, allowing the laser-heating induced phase transition and the resultant domain structures along the NW to be optically imaged. ... By imaging the laser-heating induced metal–insulator phase transition along single, free-standing VO2 NWs, we determined the heat transfer coefficient between the NW and the gas environment over a wide range of pressure and down to the submicrometer scale. ...

Chun Cheng; Wen Fan; Jinbo Cao; Sang-Gil Ryu; Jie Ji; Costas P. Grigoropoulos; Junqiao Wu

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

126

Surface Decontamination [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Decontamination Surface Decontamination Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Surface Decontamination Project description: Laser processing technology for decontamination of surfaces. Category: internal R&D project Bookmark and Share Fiber-optic beam-delivery systems for multi-kilowatt Nd:YAG laser beams are

127

Sorption heat engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For a simple free energy generating device - driven by thermal cycling and based on alternating adsorption and desorption - that has not been explicitly recognized as heat engine the name sorption heat engine is proposed. The mechanism is generally applicable to the fields of physics, chemistry, geology, and possibly, if relevant to the origin of life, biology. Four kinds of sorption heat engines are distinguished depending on the occurrence of changes in composition of the adsorbent or adsorbate during the thermal cycle.

Muller, A W J; Muller, Anthonie W. J.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

High energy laser beam dump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The laser beam dump is positioned in a housing. An absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing. A heat sync means for extracting heat from the absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing and operatively connected to the absorbing glass plate means.

Halpin, John (Tracy, CA)

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

129

Laser fusion neutron source employing compression with short pulse lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system for achieving fusion is provided. The method includes providing laser source that generates a laser beam and a target that includes a capsule embedded in the target and filled with DT gas. The laser beam is directed at the target. The laser beam helps create an electron beam within the target. The electron beam heats the capsule, the DT gas, and the area surrounding the capsule. At a certain point equilibrium is reached. At the equilibrium point, the capsule implodes and generates enough pressure on the DT gas to ignite the DT gas and fuse the DT gas nuclei.

Sefcik, Joseph A; Wilks, Scott C

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

130

Laser Ignition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Ignition Laser Ignition Laser Ignition A first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Laser Ignition A first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In two embodiments the beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion

131

Definition: Heat pump | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pump pump Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Heat pump Heating and/or cooling equipment that, during the heating season, draws heat into a building from outside and, during the cooling season, ejects heat from the building to the outside[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a heat source to a heat sink against a temperature gradient. Heat pumps are designed to move thermal energy opposite the direction of spontaneous heat flow. A heat pump uses some amount of external high-grade energy to accomplish the desired transfer of thermal energy from heat source to heat sink. While compressor-driven air conditioners and freezers are familiar examples of heat pumps, the term "heat pump" is more general and applies to

132

Gain spectra and temperature characteristics of quantum cascade lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed a theory describing the operation of lasers based on intersubband transitions in a quantum well. The theory combines a first-principles description of the intersubband lineshape and the optical gain with kinetic models for carrier heating. ... Keywords: carrier heating, gain spectra, intersubband lineshape, intersubband transitions, kinetic models, laser theory, optical gain, quantum cascade lasers, quantum well, quantum well lasers, room-temperature high-power operation, temperature characteristics

V. Gorfinkel; S. Luryi; B. Gelmont

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Refractory Alloy Welding [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refractory Alloy Welding Refractory Alloy Welding Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Refractory Alloy Welding Project description: Welding of refractory metals such as vanadium alloys. Category: internal R&D project Bookmark and Share Butt weld of two 4 mm thick V-4Cr-4Ti plates made by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser

134

Heat transfer effectiveness of three-fluid separated heat pipe exchanger  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A heat transfer model for three-fluid separated heat pipe exchanger was analyzed, and the temperature transfer matrix for general three-fluid separated heat exchanger working in parallel-flow or counter- ... It w...

Chengming Shi; Yang Wang; Ying Yang; Quan Liao

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Summary Report of Working Group 6: Laser-Plasma Acceleration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be an important focus of laser-plasma acceleration researchfocus. In both cases, light regions of the image ionized and heated the plasma,

Leemans, Wim P.; Downer, Michael; Siders, Craig

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Thermal Conductivity of Composites Under Di erent Heating Scenarios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal Conductivity of Composites Under Di#11;erent Heating Scenarios H.T. Banks #3; , J.H. Hogan of composites under three di#11;erent heating scenarios: (i) a laser pulse heat source, (ii) a preheated composite sample, and (iii) a continuous heat source. 1 Introduction Adhesives such as epoxies, gels

137

Geothermal Heat Pumps- Heating Mode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In winter, fluid passing through this vertical, closed loop system is warmed by the heat of the earth; this heat is then transferred to the building.

138

Laser ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. The beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion of it being recombined with the first portion after a delay before injection into the ignitor laser. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Exploring the Limits of Boiling and Evaporative Heat Transfer Using Micro/Nano Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparison of various heat transfer coefficient models inpool boiling In summary, high heat transfer coefficientin boiling heat transfer can be generally explained by the

Lu, Ming-Chang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

E-Print Network 3.0 - additional heating systems Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HEAT ENGINE ANALYSIS Summary: on overall system performance. Along with the addition of a heat loss term to the surroundings, the general... -reversible heat engine model is...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Coherence theory of a laser beam passing through a moving diffuser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: We present the general coherence theory for laser beams passing through a moving diffuser. The temporal coherence of laser beams passing through a moving diffuser depends on...

Li, Gaoming; Qiu, Yishen; Li, Hui

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Page 1Laser Safety Training Laser Institute of America Laser Safety Laser Institute of America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page 1Laser Safety Training © Laser Institute of America 1 Laser Safety © Laser Institute of America Laser Safety: Hazards, Bioeffects, and Control Measures Laser Institute of America Gus Anibarro Education Manager 2Laser Safety © Laser Institute of America Laser Safety Overview Laser Safety Accidents

Farritor, Shane

143

Laser Telecommunication timeLaser beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser Telecommunication Experiment Laser time Laser beam intensity timeLaser beam Laser battery Laser connected to a circuit without a modulator. Bottom graph illustrates what happen when a modulating signal is superimposed to the DC voltage driving the laser Laser beam intensity DC Input voltage DC

La Rosa, Andres H.

144

Heat flux limiting sleeves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Relativistic laser channeling in plasmas for fast ignition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report an experimental observation suggesting plasma channel formation by focusing a relativistic laser pulse into a long-scale-length preformed plasma. The channel direction coincides with the laser axis. Laser light transmittance measurement indicates laser channeling into the high-density plasma with relativistic self-focusing. A three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation reproduces the plasma channel and reveals that the collimated hot-electron beam is generated along the laser axis in the laser channeling. These findings hold the promising possibility of fast heating a dense fuel plasma with a relativistic laser pulse.

A. L. Lei, A. Pukhov, R. Kodama, T. Yabuuchi, K. Adumi, K. Endo, R. R. Freeman, H. Habara, Y. Kitagawa, K. Kondo, G. R. Kumar, T. Matsuoka, K. Mima, H. Nagatomo, T. Norimatsu, O. Shorokhov, R. Snavely, X. Q. Yang, J. Zheng, and K. A. Tanaka

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

146

Theory of Laser-Induced Nuclear Fusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is to the merit of Basov and Krokhin that they discussed135...the possibilities of laser heating of solid deuterium or mixtures of deuterium with tritium for the purpose of nuclear fusion. Not only are the phy...

Heinrich Hora

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Guest Editorial: Laser Damage  

SciTech Connect

Laser damage of optical materials, first reported in 1964, continues to limit the output energy and power of pulsed and continuous-wave laser systems. In spite of some 48 years of research in this area, interest from the international laser community to laser damage issues remains at a very high level and does not show any sign of decreasing. Moreover, it grows with the development of novel laser systems, for example, ultrafast and short-wavelength lasers that involve new damage effects and specific mechanisms not studied before. This interest is evident from the high level of attendance and presentations at the annual SPIE Laser Damage Symposium (aka, Boulder Damage Symposium) that has been held in Boulder, Colorado, since 1969. This special section of Optical Engineering is the first one devoted to the entire field of laser damage rather than to a specific part. It is prepared in response to growing interest from the international laser-damage community. Some papers in this special section were presented at the Laser Damage Symposium; others were submitted in response to the general call for papers for this special section. The 18 papers compiled into this special section represent many sides of the broad field of laser-damage research. They consider theoretical studies of the fundamental mechanisms of laser damage including laser-driven electron dynamics in solids (O. Brenk and B. Rethfeld; A. Nikiforov, A. Epifanov, and S. Garnov; T. Apostolova et al.), modeling of propagation effects for ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses (J. Gulley), an overview of mechanisms of inclusion-induced damage (M. Koldunov and A. Manenkov), the formation of specific periodic ripples on a metal surface by femtosecond laser pulses (M. Ahsan and M. Lee), and the laser-plasma effects on damage in glass (Y. Li et al). Material characterization is represented by the papers devoted to accurate and reliable measurements of absorption with special emphasis on thin films (C. Mühlig and S. Bublitz; B. Cho, E. Danielewicz, and J. Rudisill; W. Palm et al; and J. Lu et al.). Statistical treatment of measurements of the laser-damage threshold (J. Arenberg) and the relationship to damage mechanisms (F. Wagner et al.) represent the large subfield of laser-damage measurements. Various aspects of multilayer coating and thin-film characterization are considered in papers by B. Cho, J. Rudisill, and E. Danielewicz (spectral shift in multilayer mirrors) and R. Weber et al. (novel approach to damage studies based on third-harmonic generation microscopy). Of special interest for readers is the paper by C. Stolz that summarizes the results of four “thin-film damage competitions” organized as a part of the Laser Damage Symposium. Another paper is devoted to thermal annealing of damage precursors (N. Shen et al.). Finally, the influence of nano-size contamination on initiation of laser damage by ultrashort pulses is considered in paper of V. Komolov et al.

Vitaly Gruzdev, Michelle D. Shinn

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Laser diode package with enhanced cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Oakland, CA)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

149

Laser diode package with enhanced cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

Deri, Robert J.; Kotovsky, Jack; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

150

Laser diode package with enhanced cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Oakland, CA)

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

151

Laser microphone  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microphone for detecting sound pressure waves includes a laser resonator having a laser gain material aligned coaxially between a pair of first and second mirrors for producing a laser beam. A reference cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors for transmitting a reference portion of the laser beam between the mirrors. A sensing cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors, and is laterally displaced from the reference cell for transmitting a signal portion of the laser beam, with the sensing cell being open for receiving the sound waves. A photodetector is disposed in optical communication with the first mirror for receiving the laser beam, and produces an acoustic signal therefrom for the sound waves.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2000-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

152

Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models  

SciTech Connect

This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar observations to evaluate model simulations In cooperation with Profs. Bob Houze at University of Washington and Steven Rutledge at Colorado State University, numerical model results were evaluated with observations from W- and C-band radars and CloudSat/TRMM satellites. These studies exhibited some shortcomings of current numerical models, such as too little of thin anvil clouds, directing the future improvement of cloud microphysics parameterization in CRMs. Two papers of Powell et al (2012) and Zeng et al. (2013), summarizing these studies, were published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 4. Analyzed the water budgets of MCSs Using ARM data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP and other field campaigns, the Goddard CRM simulations were carried out to analyze the water budgets of clouds from TWP-ICE and AMMA. The simulations generated a set of datasets on clouds and radiation, which are available http://cloud.gsfc.nasa.gov/. The cloud datasets were available for modelers and other researchers aiming to improve the representation of cloud processes in multi-scale modeling frameworks, GCMs and climate models. Special datasets, such as 3D cloud distributions every six minutes for TWP-ICE, were requested and generated for ARM/ASR investigators. Data server records show that 86,206 datasets were downloaded by 120 users between April of 2010 and January of 2012. 5. MMF simulations The Goddard MMF (multi-scale modeling framework) has been improved by coupling with the Goddard Land Information System (LIS) and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GOES5). It has also been optimized on NASA HEC supercomputers and can be run over 4000 CPUs. The improved MMF with high horizontal resolution (1 x 1 degree) is currently being applied to cases covering 2005 and 2006. The results show that the spatial distribution pattern of precipitation rate is well simulated by the MMF through comparisons with satellite retrievals from the CMOPRH and GPCP data sets. In addition, the MMF results were compared with three reanalyses (MERRA, ERA-Interim and CFSR). Although the MMF tends

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

153

General Education GENERAL EDUCATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the pursuit of truth, the intellectual and ethical development of students, and the general well the consequences of human actions. E. Cross-Cultural Awareness Demonstrate the ability to critically compare

Stuart, Steven J.

154

Heat pump market and statistics report 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Heat pump market and statistics report 2013 Thomas Nowak Secretary General European Heat Pump Summit 15.10./16.10.2013 | Nuremberg #12;European Heat Pump Association (EHPA) · 107 members from 22 countries (status 08/2013) ­ Heat pump manufacturers ­ Component manufacturers ­ National associations

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

155

Efficient boron nitride nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

Whitney, R. Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

156

Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-a and He-a line emission from nitrogen plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are soft x-ray lasers,6,7 laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources,8­11 and higher har- monics from laser heatedEffects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-a and He-a line emission from nitrogen plasmas S. S November 2012; accepted 27 December 2012; published online 11 January 2013) Laser-produced nitrogen plasmas

Harilal, S. S.

157

Laser ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In a third embodiment, alternating short and long pulses of light from the excitation light source are directed into the ignitor laser. Each of the embodiments of the invention can be multiplexed so as to provide laser light energy sequentially to more than one ignitor laser.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

CO{sub 2} laser beam welding of magnesium-based alloys  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium has gained increased attention in recent years as a structural metal--especially in the automotive industry--necessitating the development of welding techniques qualified for this new application. Lasers are known to be an excellent tool for joining metals. This paper presents results of recent investigations on the weldability of several cast and wrought magnesium-based alloys. Plates with a thickness of 2.5--8 mm were butt joint welded with and without filler metal using a 2.5-kW CO{sub 2} laser. The investigations showed that magnesium alloys can be easily laser welded in similar and dissimilar joints. The beam characteristics of the laser leads to small welds and a deep penetration depth. Crackfree welds exhibiting low porosity and good surface finish can be achieved with appropriate process parameters. Generally, the laser welding leads to either no change or a small increase in hardness in the fusion zone (FZ) and in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) relative to the base metal. Less promising results were obtained for the cast alloy QE22, in which cracking in the age-hardened condition and a significant decrease in hardness occurred. Laser welded die cast alloys showed an extremely high level of porosity in the weld.

Weisheit, A.; Galun, R.; Mordike, B.L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstofftechnik

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

160

Laser rods with undoped, flanged end-caps for end-pumped laser applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for achieving improved performance in a solid state laser is provided. A flanged, at least partially undoped end-cap is attached to at least one end of a laserable medium. Preferably flanged, undoped end-caps are attached to both ends of the laserable medium. Due to the low scatter requirements for the interface between the end-caps and the laser rod, a non-adhesive method of bonding is utilized such as optical contacting combined with a subsequent heat treatment of the optically contacted composite. The non-bonded end surfaces of the flanged end-caps are coated with laser cavity coatings appropriate for the lasing wavelength of the laser rod. A cooling jacket, sealably coupled to the flanged end-caps, surrounds the entire length of the laserable medium. Radiation from a pump source is focussed by a lens duct and passed through at least one flanged end-cap into the laser rod.

Meissner, Helmuth E. (Pleasanton, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Danville, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA); Mitchell, Scott (Tracy, CA); Bass, Isaac (Castro Valley, CA); Honea, Eric (Sunol, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Energy Efficient Design of a Waste Heat Rejection System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and oil preheaters. The heating requirements for these heat sinks are generally met by burning fossil fuels or even by using electric heaters while available waste heat is rejected to the surrounding environment using devices such as cooling towers...

Mehta, P.

162

Exotic heat PDE's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exotic heat equations that allow to prove the Poincar\\'e conjecture, some related problems and suitable generalizations too are considered. The methodology used is the PDE's algebraic topology, introduced by A. Pr\\'astaro in the geometry of PDE's, in order to characterize global solutions.

Agostino Prástaro

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

163

Optimal Frequency for Plasma Heating with a Single Electrostatic Wave  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for electrostatic ion cyclotron wave launching, and laser-induced fluorescence measurements were made of ion heating of the ion cyclotron frequency. The measurements revealed a dependence of heating on fre- quency as predictedOptimal Frequency for Plasma Heating with a Single Electrostatic Wave Benjamin Jorns and Edgar Y

Choueiri, Edgar

164

Laser ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In the embodiment of the invention claimed herein, the beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion of it being combined with either the first portion after a delay before injection into the ignitor laser.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

166

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Joule heating and heat transfer in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Joule heating and heat transfer in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems David Erickson microfluidic/biochip systems must have the ability to rapidly reject this heat to the surroundings. Generally it is the ability to dissipate this heat that limits the strength of the applied electric field and thus the maximum

Erickson, David

168

Ytterbium-doped borate fluoride laser crystals and lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed from Yb-doped borate fluoride host crystals. The general formula for the host crystals is MM{prime}(BO{sub 3})F, where M, M{prime} are monovalent, divalent aria trivalent metal cations. A particular embodiment of the invention is Yb-doped BaCaBO{sub 3}F (Yb:BCBF). BCBF and some of the related derivative crystals are capable of nonlinear frequency conversion, whereby the fundamental of the laser is converted to a longer or shorter wavelength. In this way, these new crystals can simultaneously serve as self-frequency doubling crystals and laser materials within the laser resonator. 6 figs.

Schaffers, K.I.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.; Keszler, D.A.

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

169

Laser ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source capable of producing alternating beams of light having different wavelengths is used in tandem with one or more ignitor lasers to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using the single remote excitation light source for pumping one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones with alternating wavelengths of light.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Laser sealed vacuum insulating window  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1985-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

171

Laser sealed vacuum insulation window  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

E-Print Network 3.0 - auxiliary radiofrequency heating Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We confine, laser cool and measure heating of a single 111 Cd+ ion... in an integrated radiofrequency trap etched from a doped...

173

Heat Stroke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

stress, from exertion or hot environments, places stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at risk for illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke A condition that occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature, and can cause death or permanent disability. Symptoms â–  High body temperature â–  Confusion â–  Loss of coordination â–  Hot, dry skin or profuse sweating â–  Throbbing headache â–  Seizures, coma First Aid â–  Request immediate medical assistance. â–  Move the worker to a cool, shaded area. â–  Remove excess clothing and apply cool water to their body. Heat Exhaustion The body's response to an excessive loss of water and salt, usually through sweating. Symptoms â–  Rapid heart beat â–  Heavy sweating â–  Extreme weakness or fatigue â– 

174

Laser device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

175

On-line Monitoring [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On-line Monitoring On-line Monitoring Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory On-line Monitoring Project description: On-line process monitoring for laser-beam welding. Category: Project with industrial partner (USCAR) Bookmark and Share Simulated defects and associated responses from a weld sensor developed at Argonne

176

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic vapour laser Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vogl and Martin Weitz Summary: to forego the initial heating required for vapour- ising the rubidium atoms. The laser cooling method could... - ditional energy that...

177

E-Print Network 3.0 - alexandrite laser treatment Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

38:137141 (2006) Thermal Responses of Ex Vivo Human Skin During Multiple Summary: heat- ing, CSC decreases treatment pain, allows the safer use of higher laser radiant...

178

Analytical investigation on transient thermal effects in pulse end-pumped short-length fiber laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The transient heat conduction and thermal effects in pulse end-pumped fiber laser are modeled and analytically solved. For the arbitrary temporal shape of pump pulse, a...

Liu, T; Yang, Z M; Xu, S H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, M.A.

1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Laser goniometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The laser goniometer is an apparatus which permits an operator to sight along a geologic feature and orient a collimated lamer beam to match the attitude of the feature directly. The horizontal orientation (strike) and the angle from horizontal (dip), are detected by rotary incremental encoders attached to the laser goniometer which provide a digital readout of the azimuth and tilt of the collimated laser beam. A microprocessor then translates the square wave signal encoder outputs into an ASCII signal for use by data recording equipment.

Fairer, George M. (Boulder, CO); Boernge, James M. (Lakewood, CO); Harris, David W. (Lakewood, CO); Campbell, DeWayne A. (Littleton, CO); Tuttle, Gene E. (Littleton, CO); McKeown, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Beason, Steven C. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Laser Systems for Orbital Debris Removal  

SciTech Connect

The use of a ground based laser for space debris cleaning was investigated by the ORION project in 1996. Since that study the greatest technological advance in the development of high energy pulsed laser systems has taken place within the NIF project at LLNL. The proposed next laser system to follow the NIF at LLNL will be a high rep rate version of the NIF based on diode-pumping rather than flashlamp excitation; the so called 'LIFE' laser system. Because a single 'LIFE' beamline could be built up in a few year time frame, and has performance characteristics relevant to the space debris clearing problem, such a beamline could enable a near term demonstration of space debris cleaning. Moreover, the specifics of debris cleaning make it possible to simplify the LIFE laser beyond what is required for a fusion drive laser, and so substantially reduce its cost. Starting with the requirements for laser intensity on the target, and then considering beam delivery, we will flow back the laser requirements needed for space debris cleaning. Using these derived requirements we will then optimize the pulse duration, the operational regime, and the output pulse energy of the laser with a focus of simplifying its overall design. Anticipated simplifications include operation in the heat capacity regime, eliminating cooling requirements on the laser gain slabs, and relaxing B-integral and birefrigence requirements.

Rubenchik, A M; Barty, C P; Beach, R J; Erlandson, A C; Caird, J A

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

183

Integrated solar heating unit  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an integral solar heating unit with an integral solar collector and hot water storage system, the unit comprising: (a) a housing; (b) a flat plate solar collector panel mounted in the housing and having a generally horizontal upper edge and an uninsulated, open back surface; (c) a cylindrical hot water tank operatively connected to the solar collector panel and mounted in the housing generally parallel to and adjacent to the upper edge; (d) the housing comprising a hood around the tank a pair of side skirts extending down at the sides of the panel. The hood and side skirts terminate at lower edges which together substantially define a plane such that upon placing the heating unit on a generally planar surface, the housing substantially encapsulates the collector panel and hot water tank in a substantially enclosed air space; (e) the collector including longitudinally extended U-shaped collector tubes and a glazed window to pass radiation through to the collector tubes, and a first cold water manifold connected to the tubes for delivering fresh water thereto and a second hot water manifold connected to the tubes to remove heated water therefrom. The manifolds are adjacent and at least somewhat above and in direct thermal contact with the tank; and, (f) the skirts and hood lapping around the collector panel, exposing only the glazed window, such that everything else in the heating unit is enclosed by the housing such that heat emanating from the uninsulated, open back face of the collector and tank is captured and retained by the housing to warm the manifolds.

Larkin, W.J.

1987-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

184

Pulsed Laser Deposition | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pulsed Laser Deposition Pulsed Laser Deposition EMSL's pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system is designed for epitaxial growth of oxide, ceramic, or synthetic mineral thin films and...

185

Laser barometer  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an invention of a pressure measuring instrument which uses laser radiation to sense the pressure in an enclosed environment by means of measuring the change in refractive index of a gas - which is pressure dependent.

Abercrombie, K.R.; Shiels, D.; Rash, T.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

LASER ACCELERATORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Accelerator & Fusion Researchat the 1983 Particle Accelerator Conference, Santa Fe, NM,March 21-23, 1983 LASER ACCELERATORS A.M. Sessler TWO-WEEK

Sessler, A.M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Laser ignition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Due to their thermodynamic benefits, second-generation spark-ignition engines with gasoline direct injection systems have ... combination of a spray-guided combustion process with laser-induced ignition allows th...

Bernhard Geringer; Dominikus Klawatsch; Josef Graf; Hans Peter Lenz…

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Pulsed laser planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects  

SciTech Connect

Multilevel interconnect schemes for integrated circuits generally require one or more planarization steps, in order to maintain an acceptably flat topography for lithography and thin-film step coverage on the higher levels. Traditional approaches have involved planarization of the interlevel insulation (dielectric) layers, either by spin-on application (e.g., polyimide), or by reflow (e.g., phosphosilicate glass). We have pursued an alternative approach, in which each metal level is melted (hence planarized) using a pulsed laser prior to patterning. Short (approx.1 ..mu..s) pulses are used to preclude undesirable metallurgical reactions between the film, adhesion or barrier layer, and dielectric layer. Laser planarization of metals is particularly well suited to multilevel systems which include ground or power planes. Results are presented for planarization of gold films on SiO/sub 2/ dielectric layers using a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. The pulse duration is approx.1 ..mu..s, which allows the heat pulse to uniformly penetrate the gold while not penetrating substantially through the underlying SiO/sub 2/ (hence not perturbing the lower levels of metal). Excellent planarization of the gold films is achieved (less than 0.1 ..mu..m surface roughness, even starting with extreme topographic variations), as well as improved conductivity. To demonstrate the process, numerous planarized two-layer structures (transmission lines under a ground plane) were fabricated and characterized. 9 refs., 2 figs.

Tuckerman, D.B.; Schmitt, R.L.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Optical distortions and birefringence in high power laser windows: model and computer code  

SciTech Connect

A general optical model is given which predicts optical wave front distortions and birefringence due to stress and temperature variations in laser heated and pressure loaded windows for cubic lattice window materials. A computer code is described that integrates stress and thermal computations with an optical model to predict the wave front distortions. Restrictive approximations, which have been used previously to predict window temperatures and stress distributions, are avoided by using stress and thermal codes to predict these distributions within the windows. Comparisons between code predictions and experimental results are given.

Greninger, C.E.; Needham, G.A.; Rebar J. Jr.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Laser EYE SURGERY LASIK and Excimer Lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser EYE SURGERY LASIK and Excimer Lasers Michael Hutchins #12;The PROBLEM opia - near sightedness - Laser Assisted in SItu Keratomileusis atomileusis is the procedure of opening the eye and ring the cornea. SIK uses an excimer laser to perform the alterations an er a knife or a femtosecond laser

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

191

Monolithically Peltier-cooled laser diodes  

SciTech Connect

A new method of cooling a GaAs/GaAlAs laser in an optical integrated circuit or on a discrete chip, by adding an integral thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling and heat spreading device to the laser, is presented. This cooling both reduces and stabilizes the laser junction temperature to minimize such deleterious effects as wavelength drift due to heating. A unified description of the electrical and thermal properties of a monolithic semiconductor mesa structure is given. Here it is shown that an improvement in thermal characteristics is obtained by depositing a relatively thick metallic layer, and by using this layer as a part of an active Peltier structure. Experimental results reveal a 14-percent increase in emitted power (external quantum efficiency) due to passive heat spreading and a further 8-percent if its Peltier cooler is operated. Fabrication techniques used to obtain devices exhibiting the above performance characteristics are given. 21 references.

Hava, S.; Hunsperger, R.G.; Sequeira, H.B.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

LASER MATERIALS PROCESSING Wenwu Zhang, Ph.D.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4-1 Chapter 34 LASER MATERIALS PROCESSING Wenwu Zhang, Ph.D. General Electric Global Research)34.1 OVERVIEW LASER is the acronym of light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Although regarded as one of the nontraditional processes, laser material processing (LMP) is not in its infancy anymore

Yao, Y. Lawrence

193

CO2 Laser CVD of Disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amorphous silicon films were deposited by a CO2 laser CVD (chemical vapor deposition) method using disilane gas. With this gas, the films were deposited reasonably fast at relatively low substrate temperatures of 350°C or above. Unlike monosilane, photo-induced effects in the gas phase following light absorption were negligible in deposition processes, and only the pyrolytic process taking place at the laser-heated substrate was important. Some of the physical properties of deposited films were described.

Takehiko Iwanaga; Mitsugu Hanabusa

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

Day, Nancy

195

Thermodynamics of daylight-pumped lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We cast the problem of very-low-threshold, daylight-pumped lasers in a general thermodynamic framework. We calculate that the requirements to reach threshold are that the Stokes shift...

Roxlo, C B; Yablonovitch, Eli

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Heat transport through ion crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the thermodynamical properties of crystals of trapped ions which are laser cooled to two different temperatures in two separate regions. We show that these properties strongly depend on the structure of the ion crystal. Such structure can be changed by varying the trap parameters and undergoes a series of phase transitions from linear to zig-zag or helicoidal configurations. Thus, we show that these systems are ideal candidates to observe and control the transition from anomalous to normal heat transport. All structures behave as `heat superconductors', with a thermal conductivity increasing linearly with system size and a vanishing thermal gradient inside the system. However, zig-zag and helicoidal crystals turn out to be hyper sensitive to disorder having a linear temperature profile and a length independent conductivity. Interestingly, disordered 2D ion crystals are heat insulators. Sensitivity to disorder is much smaller in the 1D case.

Nahuel Freitas; Esteban Martinez; Juan Pablo Paz

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

197

Laser Safety Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser Safety #12;Introduction · A Laser is a device that controls the way energized atoms release photons. · LASER is an acronym for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation" · The light emitted by a laser is non

McQuade, D. Tyler

198

Along the Laser Beampath  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 20 | Next | Last Back to Index NIF Laser Bay Each NIF laser bay is 122 meters (400 feet) long and contains 96 beamlines. This side view of Laser Bay 2 shows the four-high laser...

199

Laser phase noise effects on the dynamics of optomechanical resonators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate theoretically the influence of laser phase noise on the cooling and heating of a generic cavity optomechanical system. We derive the back-action damping and heating rates and the mechanical frequency shift of the radiation pressure-driven oscillating mirror, and derive the minimum phonon occupation number for small laser linewidths. We find that in practice laser phase noise does not pose serious limitations to ground state cooling. We then consider the effects of laser phase noise in a parametric cavity driving scheme that minimizes the back-action heating of one of the quadratures of the mechanical oscillator motion. Laser linewidths narrow compared to the decay rate of the cavity field will not pose any problems in an experimental setting, but broader linewidths limit the practicality of this back-action evasion method.

Gregory A. Phelps; Pierre Meystre

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Laser Detection Of Material Thickness  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detection Of Material Thickness Detection Of Material Thickness Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Interaction between laser beam and powder stream in the process of laser cladding with powder feeding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on Lambert–Beer theorem and Mie's theory, the attenuation of laser power by a powder stream was calculated and the laser intensity distribution at the laser spot on the surface of a workpiece was obtained. Simultaneously, the temperature distribution of the powder particles arriving at different sites on the surface of the workpiece was computed following the heat equilibrium principle. The computed results revealed that for a given stream spread and speed of powder particles, the intensity distribution of the laser spot and the temperature distribution of the powder particles reaching the surface of the workpiece are both greatly affected by the powder feeding rate and the feeding angle. It is suggested that the presented results should be considered in the laser cladding process in order to control the dynamic processes in a laser molten pool.

Yan-Lu Huang; Gong-Ying Liang; Jun-Yi Su; Jian-Guo Li

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Ignition-delay times in laser initiated combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A single pulse from a TEA CO2 laser is used to heat 1:7:14 mixtures of SF6:CH4:O2 to temperatures near 1000 K. A short- or long-duration...

Hill, Ronald A

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Microwave accelerator E-beam pumped laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for pumping gaseous lasers by means of a microwave accelerator. The microwave accelerator produces a relativistic electron beam which is applied along the longitudinal axis of the laser through an electron beam window. The incident points of the electron beam on the electron beam window are varied by deflection coils to enhance the cooling characteristics of the foil. A thyratron is used to reliably modulate the microwave accelerator to produce electron beam pulses which excite the laser medium to produce laser pulse repetition frequencies not previously obtainable. An aerodynamic window is also disclosed which eliminates foil heating problems, as well as a magnetic bottle for reducing laser cavity length and pressures while maintaining efficient energy deposition.

Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Stein, William E. (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Using the Northeast as a regional focus for heating oil, the typical oil-heated household consumes about 680 gallons of oil during the winter, assuming that weather is "normal." The previous three winters were warmer than average and generated below normal consumption rates. Last winter, consumers saw large increases over the very low heating oil prices seen during the winter of 1998-1999 but, outside of the cold period in late January/early February they saw relatively low consumption rates due to generally warm weather. Even without particularly sharp cold weather events this winter, we think consumers are likely to see higher average heating oil prices than were seen last winter. If weather is normal, our projections imply New England heating oil

205

Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of this winter's market pressures is in home heating oil prices. This chart shows prices through February 28, the most recent EIA data available. The general level of heating oil prices each year is largely a function of crude oil prices, and the price range over the course of the heating season is typically about 10 cents per gallon. Exceptions occur in unusual circumstances, such as very cold weather, large changes in crude oil prices, or supply problems. Heating oil prices for East Coast consumers started this winter at just over $1 per gallon, but rising crude oil prices drove them up nearly 21 cents through mid-January. With the continuing upward pressure from crude oil markets, magnified by a regional shortfall of heating oil

206

Laser Cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent years have seen tremendous progress in our understanding of the cosmos, which in turn points to even deeper questions to be further addressed. Concurrently the laser technology has undergone dramatic revolutions, providing exciting opportunity for science applications. History has shown that the symbiosis between direct observations and laboratory investigation is instrumental in the progress of astrophysics. We believe that this remains true in cosmology. Current frontier phenomena related to particle astrophysics and cosmology typically involve one or more of the following conditions: (1) extremely high energy events; (2) very high density, high temperature processes; (3) super strong field environments. Laboratory experiments using high intensity lasers can calibrate astrophysical observations, investigate underlying dynamics of astrophysical phenomena, and probe fundamental physics in extreme limits. In this article we give an overview of the exciting prospect of laser cosmology. In particular, we showcase its unique capability of investigating frontier cosmology issues such as cosmic accelerator and quantum gravity.

Pisin Chen

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

207

Finite element analysis of controlled laser coagulation experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mathematical model to predict the effect of laser and tissue parameters on the zone of thermal injury by laser interaction on beef liver is presented. The heat transfer and coagulation process was modeled using a non-linear finite-element model...

Tolat, Nimish Prabodh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

208

Laser-induced short time scale thermal chemistry of perfluoropolyether lubricant films  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigate the effect of heating a perfluoropolyether lubricant film in a localized area for relatively short time periods using laser irradiation versus conventional oven heating. These experiments help provide understanding on how flash temperatures generated at frictional contacts affect the thermal chemistry of lubricant films. In these experiments, a CO{sub 2} laser heats a 50 {micro}m wide area of a silicon wafer for time periods ranging from 0.1 to 60 s. The surface temperature within the heated area (up to 280 C in these experiments) is monitored with a second laser by measuring the change in reflectivity near the center of the heated area. A major difference observed for laser heating compared to oven heating is that the effective evaporation rate is orders of magnitude higher for laser heating. If the lubricant film is heated for sufficiently long enough time at high temperatures, the authors are able to observe thermal bonding of the lubricant via its alcohol end groups to the silicon oxide surface, followed by thermal decomposition of the lubricant molecules. After laser heating, the authors are able to observe the diffusion of lubricant back into the localized heated area using a combination of optical microscopy and imaging ellipsometry.

Heller, J.; Mate, C.J.; Poon, C.C.; Tam, A.C.

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

209

DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP R. C. Meier, Program Manager, Gas Heat Pump Program General Electric Company P. 0. Box 8555 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 FILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE SUMMARY The Stirling/Rankine Heat Activated Heat Pump is a high performance product for space

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

210

Laser-optic Measurements of Velocity of Particles in the Powder Stream at Coaxial Laser Cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The problems of particle velocity and temperature measurement can be solved with commonly-known methods of registration based on spectrometry and a complex of laser and optical means. The diagnostic technique combines two independent methods of particle velocity measurement, namely the passive way which is based on the intrinsic radiation of the heated particles in a gas flow, and the active one which utilizes the effect of the laser beam scattering. It is demonstrated that the laser radiation can affect significantly the particles velocity at the laser cladding. Presented bar charts of statistical distributions of the particles velocities illustrate two modes of the coaxial nozzle performance, with and without ??2-laser radiation. Different types of powders (Al2O3, Mo, Ni, Al) were used in tests, the particle size distributions were typical for the laser cladding; air, nitrogen, argon were used as working gases, continuous radiation of the ??2 laser reached 3 kW. It is shown that in the laser-radiation field, the powder particles undergo extra acceleration due to the laser evaporation and reactive force occurrence resulting from the recoil pressure vapors from the beamed part of particles’ surfaces. The observed effect of particles acceleration depends on the particles concentration in the powder flow. Due to the laser acceleration, the velocities of individual particles may reach the values of about 80 – 100 m/s. The trichromatic pyrometry method was utilized to measure the particles temperature in the powder flow.

D.V. Sergachev; A.A. Mikhal’chenko; O.B. Kovalev; V.I. Kuz’min; G.N. Grachev; P.A. Pinaev

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Laser zona drilling does not induce hsp70i transcription in blastomeres of eight-cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser zona drilling does not induce hsp70i transcription in blastomeres of eight-cell mouse embryos To assess whether zona drilling with a 1,480-nm laser induces heat shock in eight-cell embryos, we measured hsp70i RNA levels in sets of single blastomeres isolated after laser treatment of mouse embryos

Wangh, Lawrence J.

212

Current spread and overheating of high power laser bars B. Laikhtmana)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-power lasers, the width of the stripe is much larger than the cladding thick- ness, and the substrate thicknessCurrent spread and overheating of high power laser bars B. Laikhtmana) Power Photonic, 214 Old 11794 Received 27 May 2003; accepted 12 January 2004 The heating of a semiconductor laser bar imbedded

213

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Geothermal district heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

General Engineers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

General Engineers General Engineers The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the General Engineer, whose work is associated with analytical studies and evaluation projects pertaining to the operations of the energy industry. Responsibilities: General Engineers perform or participate in one or more of the following important functions: * Design modeling systems to represent energy markets and the physical properties of energy industries * Conceive, initiate, monitor and/or conduct planning and evaluation projects and studies of continuing and future

217

List of Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Space Heat Incentives Space Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 278 Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 278) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption (Corporate) (Massachusetts) Industry Recruitment/Support Massachusetts Commercial Biomass Fuel Cells Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydroelectric energy Municipal Solid Waste Passive Solar Space Heat Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Wind energy Yes Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption (Personal) (Massachusetts) Industry Recruitment/Support Massachusetts General Public/Consumer Biomass

218

General Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... principally in the Journal of the Franklin Institute. These ideas relate to a study of thermodynamics from what the author calls a generalized point of view, which concerns itself with ... from what the author calls a generalized point of view, which concerns itself with the thermodynamics of metastable states and irreversible processes as wall as with the stable states and reversible ...

R. W. HAYWOOD

1956-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

219

Dynamics of intense laser propagation in underdense plasma: Polarization dependence  

SciTech Connect

We present a comprehensive numerical study of the dynamics of an intense laser pulse as it propagates through an underdense plasma in two and three dimensions. By varying the background plasma density and the polarization of the laser beam, significant differences are found in terms of energy transport and dissipation, in agreement with recently reported experimental results. Below the threshold for relativistic self-focusing, the plasma and laser dynamics are observed to be substantially insensitive to the initial laser polarization, since laser transport is dominated by ponderomotive effects. Above this threshold, relativistic effects become important, and laser energy is dissipated either by plasma heating (p-polarization) or by trapping of electromagnetic energy into plasma cavities (s-polarization) or by a combination of both (circular polarization). Besides the fundamental interest of this study, the results presented are relevant to applications such as plasma-based accelerators, x-ray lasers, and fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion.

Singh, D. K.; Fiuza, F.; Silva, L. O. [GoLP, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Davies, J. R. [Fusion Science Center, Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Sarri, G. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels  

SciTech Connect

Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

Camarda, C.J.; Basiulis, A.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

Not Available

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

223

from Wikipedia Institute of Laser Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 from Wikipedia ILE OSAKA H. Azechi Director Institute of Laser Engineering Osaka University NIF Technical Symposium Livermore 2009.5.28 Inertial Fusion Energy in Japan #12;ILE OSAKA Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) Project 2 Implosion Fast heating Ignition/Burn ·Proof-of-concept: Scalable

224

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, Phillip J. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, P.J.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

226

Self-consistent thermal simulation of GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As quantum cascade lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a self-consistent thermal model for quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) that takes into account the nonuniform heat generation distribution in the active region as well as the temperature dependences of the heat generation rate and thermal ... Keywords: Heating, Monte Carlo, Nonlinear effects, Phonon transport, Quantum cascade lasers, Thermal model

Y. B. Shi; Z. Aksamija; I. Knezevic

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Heat transfer in channels with porous inserts during forced fluid flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

General analytic expressions are obtained to calculate heat transfer and temperature fields in a plane channel ... allowance for the effective thermal conductivity of the heat carrier and the distribution of heat

A. A. Plakseev; V. V. Kharitonov

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

Campbell, Edward M. (Pleasanton, CA); Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

230

Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Slide 2 of 11 Notes: One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of this winterÂ’s market pressures is in home heating oil prices. This chart shows prices through February 7, the most recent EIA data available. The general level of heating oil prices each year is largely a function of crude oil prices, and the price range over the course of the heating season is typically about 10 cents per gallon. Exceptions occur in unusual circumstances, such as very cold weather, large changes in crude oil prices, or supply problems. Heating oil prices for East Coast consumers started this winter at just over $1 per gallon, but rising crude oil prices drove them up nearly 21 cents per gallon through mid-January. With the continuing upward pressure from crude oil markets, magnified by a regional shortfall of

231

District heating campaign in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

Stalebrant, R.E. [Swedish District Heating Association, Stockholm (Sweden)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

JOURNAL OF THERMOPHYSICS AND HEAT TRANSFER Vol. 14, No. 4, OctoberDecember 2000  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

JOURNAL OF THERMOPHYSICS AND HEAT TRANSFER Vol. 14, No. 4, October­December 2000 Multidimensional are optical tomographyof tissue, remote sensing of oceansand atmospheres, laser material processing radiative heat transfer in participat- ing media in recent years. However, the analysis of radiative heat

Guo, Zhixiong "James"

233

Jupiter Laser Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jupiter Laser Facility The commissioning of the Titan Petawatt-Class laser to LLNL's Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) has provided a unique platform for the use of petawatt (PW)-class...

234

Hypersonic gasdynamic laser system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a visible, or near to mid infra-red, hypersonic gas dynamic laser system. It comprises: a hypersonic vehicle for carrying the hypersonic gas dynamic laser system, and also providing high energy ram air for thermodynamic excitation and supply of the laser gas; a laser cavity defined within the hypersonic vehicle and having a laser cavity inlet for the laser cavity formed by an opening in the hypersonic vehicle, such that ram air directed through the laser cavity opening supports gas dynamic lasing operations at wavelengths less than 10.6{mu} meters in the laser cavity; and an optical train for collecting the laser radiation from the laser cavity and directing it as a substantially collimated laser beam to an output aperture defined by an opening in the hypersonic vehicle to allow the laser beam to be directed against a target.

Foreman, K.M.; Maciulaitis, A.

1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

235

Terahertz quantum cascade lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Michael Pepper Terahertz quantum cascade lasers Jerome Faist 1 Lassaad Ajili...developments in terahertz quantum cascade lasers are reviewed. Structures...magnetic confinement| Terahertz quantum cascade lasers. | Recent developments in...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Yb3+ doped fluorophosphate laser glasses with high gain coefficient and improved laser property  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Yb3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses with high stimulated emission cross-section, large gain coefficient and low hydroxyl absorption coefficient were prepared by high temperature melting for fiber laser applications, and their spectral, general laser parameters were investigated accordingly by means of fluorescence emission spectrum, decay cure and infrared absorption spectra. Compared with previously reported fluorophosphate glasses, the investigated fluorophosphate glasses have highest grain coefficient and maintain a maximum laser systematical factor over other various types of laser glasses. The introduction of fluorides to fluorophosphate glasses results in the low level of hydroxyl absorption coefficient and concentration. All these advantages might mean that Yb3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses are a good candidate as an active laser media for short pulse, high power laser generation used for next generation nuclear fusion.

P.F. Wang; B. Peng; W.N. Li; Ch.Q. Hou; J.B. She; H.T. Guo; M. Lu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Gas and Electricity as Heating Agents1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... This is a misconception, which was very general also as regards the combustion of solid fuel in furnaces, until it was disproved by Stirling, by Neilson, and by the ... be largely employed, however, for heating purposes, it will have to come down in price; and considering that heating gas need not be highly putified, or possessed of high ...

1881-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

238

Segmented heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

239

Radiative heat transfer in a flow of rheologically complex fluid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problem of complex radiative and convective heat transfer in steady-state generalized Couette flow of a nonlinear viscoplastic fluid is examined.

V. F. Volchenok; Z. P. Shul'man

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Laser Desorption Analysis | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Desorption Analysis Laser Desorption Analysis EMSL offers a suite of instrumentation dedicated to understanding photoreactivity in the condensed phase, on surfaces, and at...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Laser Desorption Analysis | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

neutral particle detection using a second multiphoton ionization or REMPI laser system; and UHV surface diagnostic equipment (AES, LEED, XPS). User Portal Name: Laser...

242

Laser Safety Management Policy Statement ............................................................................................................1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser Safety Management Policy Statement...........................................................2 Laser Users.............................................................................................................2 Unit Laser Safety Officer (ULSO

Davidson, Fordyce A.

243

Convective heat transfer in the nonstationary motion of a Maxwellian fluid between parallel planes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The convective heat-transfer problem is investigated for a Maxwellian fluid in generalized Couette flow in the case...

Z. P. Shul'man; É. A. Zal'tsgendler

1970-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Laser Stabilization  

SciTech Connect

This book chapter covers the basics of the field of stabilizing lasers to optical frequency references such as optical cavities and molecular transitions via the application of servo control systems. These discussions are given with reference to the real-life frequency metrology experienced in Hall-Labs (now Ye-Labs), JILA, University of Colorado. The subjects covered include: the basics of control system stability, a discussion of both the theoretical and experimental limitations, an outline of optical cavity susceptibility to environmental noise, and a brief introduction to the use and limitations of molecular transitions as frequency references.

Hall, John L.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Ye, Jun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

General Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ASD General Information ASD General Information APS Resources & Information A list of useful links for APS staff and users. APS Technical Publications Links to APS technical publications. APS Publications Database The official and comprehensive source of references for APS-related journal articles, conference papers, book chapters, dissertations, abstracts, awards, invited talks, etc. Image Library A collection of APS images. Responsibilities & Interfaces for APS Technical Systems Descriptions of the responsibilities of APS technical groups and how they interface with one another. APS Procedures Operational procedures for the APS. APS Specifications Specifications and approvals for upgrades or changes to existing APS hardware and software. APS Radiation Safety Policy & Procedures Committee Minutes

246

Omega Laser Facility - Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laboratory for Laser Energetics Logo Search Home Around the Lab Past Issues Past Quick Shots About Office of the Director Map to LLE LLE Tours LLE...

247

OMEGA Laser - Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laboratory for Laser Energetics Logo Search Home Around the Lab Past Issues Past Quick Shots About Office of the Director Map to LLE LLE Tours LLE...

248

OMEGA Laser Drivers - Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Drivers - Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laboratory for Laser Energetics Logo Search Home Around the Lab Past Issues Past Quick Shots About Office of the Director Map to LLE LLE...

249

Office of Inspector General  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Inspector General Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Work Plan for FY 2013 Audits Central Audits Division  Ecotality  Funding Overlap  Follow-up on Smart Grid Investment Grant  DOE's Loan Program Office's Portfolio Management  Office of Fossil Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  Advanced Manufacturing Office's Combined Heat and Power Systems  DOE's Management of Contaminated Non-EM Facilities  Unneeded Real Estate  Review of For-Profit Grantees for selected DOE programs  Commercialization Efforts at National Laboratories  Research Misconduct at Office of Science  Public Dissemination of Research Results  BPA's Management of Borrowing Authority Construction  Controls Over PMA's Use of Hedging Instruments

250

The laser satellites communications and laser noises  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gain of advanced optical communication systems is reduced by the noise of optical source. Coherent optical communication systems are in particular very sensitive to the noise transmitter and local laser. Optical space communications is on the verge ... Keywords: laser, laser communication, noise limits, optical communication, range loss, satellite communications, satellite systems, signal transfer loss, space channel

Marketa Mazalkova

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 {micro}m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiO{sub x}.

Roberts, Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Rack, Prof. Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moore, Tom [OmniProbe, Inc.; Magel, Greg [OmniProbe, Inc.; Hartfield, Cheryl [OmniProbe, Inc.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 {mu}m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiO{sub x}.

Roberts, Nicholas A.; Magel, Gregory A.; Hartfield, Cheryl D.; Moore, Thomas M.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Rack, Philip D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Omniprobe, Inc., an Oxford Instruments Company, 10410 Miller Rd., Dallas, Texas 75238 (United States); Omniprobe, Inc., an Oxford Instruments Company, 10410 Miller Rd., Dallas, Texas 75238 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Sensing and Control for Geometry Stability of the Melt Pool and the Cross Sectional Area in Laser Cladding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is particularly important for the growth of high quality structures during laser cladding. Melt pool size into the cladding process and to optimize the material quality. 1. Introduction Laser cladding is rapidly gaining heating, possibility to automate and applicability to dissimilar materials, laser cladding has been widely

Nan, Liangliang

254

The Theory of Random Laser Systems  

SciTech Connect

Studies of random laser systems are a new direction with promising potential applications and theoretical interest. The research is based on the theories of localization and laser physics. So far, the research shows that there are random lasing modes inside the systems which is quite different from the common laser systems. From the properties of the random lasing modes, they can understand the phenomena observed in the experiments, such as multi-peak and anisotropic spectrum, lasing mode number saturation, mode competition and dynamic processes, etc. To summarize, this dissertation has contributed the following in the study of random laser systems: (1) by comparing the Lamb theory with the Letokhov theory, the general formulas of the threshold length or gain of random laser systems were obtained; (2) they pointed out the vital weakness of previous time-independent methods in random laser research; (3) a new model which includes the FDTD method and the semi-classical laser theory. The solutions of this model provided an explanation of the experimental results of multi-peak and anisotropic emission spectra, predicted the saturation of lasing modes number and the length of localized lasing modes; (4) theoretical (Lamb theory) and numerical (FDTD and transfer-matrix calculation) studies of the origin of localized lasing modes in the random laser systems; and (5) proposal of using random lasing modes as a new path to study wave localization in random systems and prediction of the lasing threshold discontinuity at mobility edge.

Xunya Jiang

2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

255

Fiber Laser Based Nonlinear Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

illumination into the smallest focal volume possible in order to achieve the best resolution and to maximize nonlinear response. The size of the focal volume depends on the numerical aperture (NA) of the lens and the quality of the lens backfill... to refer to any cone-shaped propagating light field, in which case the medium will be assumed to be air. The backfill characteristic of a laser and lens combination must be considered because the beam generally has a Gaussian mode profile...

Adany, Peter

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Pre-ignition laser ablation of nanocomposite energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

Laser ignition of energetic material composites was studied for initiation with heating rates from 9.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} to 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K/s. This is a unique heating rate regime for laser ignition studies because most studies employ either continuous wave CO{sub 2} lasers to provide thermal ignition or pulsed Nd:YAG lasers to provide shock ignition. In this study, aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) nanoparticle powders were pressed into consolidated pellets and ignited using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength) with varied pulse energy. Results show reduced ignition delay times corresponding to laser powers at the ablation threshold for the sample. Heating rate and absorption coefficient were determined from an axisymmetric heat transfer model. The model estimates absorption coefficients from 0.1 to 0.15 for consolidated pellets of Al + MoO{sub 3} at 1064 nm wavelength. Ablation resulted from fracturing caused by a rapid increase in thermal stress and slowed ignition of the pellet.

Stacy, S. C.; Massad, R. A.; Pantoya, M. L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

257

Floatable solar heat modules  

SciTech Connect

A floating solar heat module for swimming pools comprises a solid surface for conducting heat from the sun's rays to the water and further includes a solid heat storage member for continual heating even during the night. A float is included to maintain the solar heat module on the surface of the pool. The solid heat storage medium is a rolled metal disk which is sandwiched between top and bottom heat conducting plates, the top plate receiving the heat of the sun's rays through a transparent top panel and the bottom plate transferring the heat conducted through the top plate and rolled disk to the water.

Ricks, J.W.

1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

258

General Category  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic Effect on Climate Magnetic Effect on Climate Name: Chris Status: other Grade: other Location: N/A Country: Canada Date: Spring 2012 Question: How does the geomagnetic fields of earth effect on climate? Replies: Hi Chris, Geomagnetic field changes have played an important role in Earth's climate for thousands of years. These changes arise from the Earth's own geomagnetic field as well as the Solar Wind and other Solar magnetic disturbances. Fortunately, Earth's geomagnetic field offers protection from the Sun's influences. Solar Wind interaction with the magnetosphere affects the Earth's rotation causing a redistribution of ocean stored heat and water masses. There are also small changes in the total sunlight available at Earth's surface. Cosmic rays reaching into the higher levels of Earth's atmosphere affect airglow(aurora) and cloudiness.

259

Inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate in xenon clusters in the eikonal approximation  

SciTech Connect

We report inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) heating rates in the eikonal approximation (EA). The present analysis is performed using the plasma-screened Rogers and Debye potentials for Xe clusters with two different charge states (6 and 10). We compare the eikonal results with the first Born approximation (FBA) and classical-simulation (CL-sim) (Moll et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 033303 (2012)) calculations for clusters in infrared light. Calculations have been performed for the field strength of 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} V/cm. We find that compared to the FBA and CL-sim methods, the IB heating rate in the EA is less sensitive to the choice of the two potentials considered here. The present EA calculation shows that the influence of the inner structure of atomic ion on the heating rate is more prominent for the smaller ion charge (Xe{sup 6+}). In the case of low laser field approximation based on the elastic transport cross sections, it is seen that in contrast to the FBA and classical methods, the heating rate predicted by the EA does not deviate much all over the range of mean kinetic energy of electrons (20-500 eV) considered here for both the charge states of xenon (Xe{sup 6+} and Xe{sup 10+}). Furthermore, for the Rogers potential, EA is found to be in closer agreement with the classical method than the FBA. We also compare the results of the IB heating rate using the present and low-field approximation approaches to the above three methods and observe that the magnitudes of the IB heating rate calculated in the low field approximation are, in general, higher than the corresponding values predicted by the present approach for both the electron-ion potentials.

Dey, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roy, A. C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math, 711202 West Bengal (India)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

ablation laser spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ablation laser mass spectrometer molecular beam REMPI laser NREL has designed and developed a combined laser ablation/ pulsed sample introduction/mass spectrometry platform that integrates pyrolysis and/or laser ablation with resonance- enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) time-of-flight mass

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Narrow gap laser welding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables. 34 figs.

Milewski, J.O.; Sklar, E.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

262

Narrow gap laser welding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables.

Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Sklar, Edward (Santa Fe, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Short wavelength laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

Hagelstein, P.L.

1984-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

264

Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-12-1 Heat Pump for High School Bathroom Heat Recovery Kunrong Huang Hanqing Wang Xiangjiang Zhou Associate professor Professor Professor School...

Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

266

Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating...

267

San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility San Bernardino District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating...

268

Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

269

Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

270

Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Midland District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Midland,...

271

Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy Presentation-given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership...

272

Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power.

273

Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Geothermal Heat Pumps Work Using a heat exchanger, a geothermal heat pump can move heat from one space to another. In summer, the geothermal heat pump extracts heat from a building...

274

Description of the Gas-Metal-Laser Interaction Phenomena. The Importance of the Shielding Gases in High Power (Multikilowatt) CO2 Laser Welding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CO2 LASER welding is not yet a commonly used process. However, it has some advantages among which the most important seem to be: small distortion and heat affected zone, high productivity and flexibility (it is e...

Marchand Didier

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Possibility of Prolific Pair Production with High-Power Lasers  

SciTech Connect

Prolific electron-positron pair production is possible at laser intensities approaching 10{sup 24} W cm{sup -2} at a wavelength of 1 {mu}m. An analysis of electron trajectories and interactions at the nodes (B=0) of two counterpropagating, circularly polarized laser beams shows that a cascade of {gamma} rays and pairs develops. The geometry is generalized qualitatively to linear polarization and laser beams incident on a solid target.

Bell, A. R.; Kirk, John G. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom) and STFC Central Laser Facility, RAL, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg, 1, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

276

An evaluation of heat flow transducers as a means of determining soil heat flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

provided to the Micrometeorology Section, Department of Oceanography and Meteorology, ARM College of Texas by the Signal Corps of the United States Army, under Contract No. DA 36-039 AMC-02195 (E). The heat flow plates used in this study were provided... surface soil heat flow. The results show that acceptable performance of the plates in the measurement of heat flow is possible although in general should not be expected without thorough testing, and even then there are restrictive considerations...

King, Barney L. D

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

277

Woven heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, R.R.

1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

278

An Analysis of the Use of Fluidized-Bed Heat Exchangers for Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

attention and maintenance and the installation of an adequate control system. A general FBWHB design methodology is presented along with a preliminary engineering design for a space heating application. A flowsheet, mass balance, and equipment sizes...

Vogel, G. J.; Grogan, P. J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Inspector General  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of the Under Secretary for Nuclear Security Edward B. Held (Acting) Under Secretary for Nuclear Security DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of the Under Secretary for Management & Performance Vacant Under Secretary for Management and Performance Office of the Under Secretary for Science & Energy Vacant Under Secretary for Science and Energy Southwestern Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Southeastern Power Administration U.S. Energy Information Administration Loan Programs Office Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy General Counsel Assistant Secretary for Congressional & Intergovernmental Affairs Chief Human Capital Officer

280

PALM - Laser Capture Microdissection | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PALM - Laser Capture Microdissection PALM - Laser Capture Microdissection This Laser Capture Microdissection system is equipped with 100 x objective lens for enriching distinct...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Learn More about Fusion & Lasers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& Lasers How Lasers Work Learn how lasers were developed and how they work. Outreach NIF & Photon Science researchers take learning opportunities on the road. Glossary Don't...

282

Towards Intelligent District Heating.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A district heating system consists of one or more production units supplying energy in the form of heated water through a distribution pipe network to… (more)

Johansson, Christian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Total Space Heat-  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

284

ARM - Heat Index Calculations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Heat Index Calculations Heat Index is an index that combines air temperature and relative...

285

BNL | CO2 Laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Laser CO2 Laser The ATF is one of the only two facilities worldwide operating picosecond, terawatt-class CO2 lasers. Our laser system consists of a picoseconds pulse-injector based on fast optical switching from the output of a conventional CO2 laser oscillator, and a chain of high-pressure laser amplifiers. It starts with a wavelength converter wherein a near-IR picosecond solid-state laser with l»1 μm produces a mid-IR 10-μm pulse. This process employs two methods; semiconductor optical switching, and the Kerr effect. First, we combine the outputs from a multi-nanosecond CO2 laser oscillator with a picosecond Nd:YAG laser on a germanium Brewster-plate to produce an ~200 ps, 10μm pulse by semiconductor optical switching. Co-propagating this pulse with a Nd:YAG's 2nd harmonic in a

286

Simulation of ultrafast heating induced structural dynamics using a one-dimensional spring model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We developed a one-dimensional spring model to study the dynamics of lattice motion upon ultrafast laser heating. Using this model, we simulated atomic positions as a function of time in a free-standing thin monoatomic metal film as well as in a thin film on a substrate. In particular, we studied how the electronic thermal stress influences lattice expansion after the ultrafast laser heating. The simulation results agree very well with experimental data obtained with femtosecond electron diffraction.

Junjie Li; Rick Clinite; Xuan Wang; Jianming Cao

2009-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

287

Simulation of Static Flying Attitudes with Different Heat Transfer Models for a Flying-Height Control Slider with Thermal Protrusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zhang, S. , Bogy, D.B. : A heat transfer model for thermal ?A phenomenological heat transfer model for the molecular gasWong, C.H. : A generalized heat transfer model for thin ?lm

Chen, Du; Bogy, David B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Photoinduced Effects in UV Laser Melting of Si in UHV  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dynamics of laser heating and melting of Si in UHV is investigated by transient reflectivity with single pulse sensitivity. It is found that the heating and melting dynamics cannot be accounted for by a model of heat flow using the thermal and optical properties of Si. Experiment and theory can be reconciled assuming significantly smaller thermal conductivity and heat capacity at all temperatures from ambient to melting. The melting temperature is also smaller. It is suggested that these specific parameters are related to the photoinduced plasma.

Bogdan Dragnea and Bernard Bourguignon

1999-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

289

Exotic Heat PDE's.II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exotic heat equations that allow to prove the Poincar\\'e conjecture and its generalizations to any dimension are considered. The methodology used is the PDE's algebraic topology, introduced by A. Pr\\'astaro in the geometry of PDE's, in order to characterize global solutions. In particular it is shown that this theory allows us to identify $n$-dimensional {\\em exotic spheres}, i.e., homotopy spheres that are homeomorphic, but not diffeomorphic to the standard $S^n$.

Agostino Prástaro

2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

290

Observation of keyhole-mode laser melting in laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals employs high-power focused laser beams. Typically, the depth of the molten pool is controlled by conduction of heat in the underlying solid material. But, under certain conditions, the mechanism of melting can change from conduction to so-called “keyhole-mode” laser melting. In this mode, the depth of the molten pool is controlled by evaporation of the metal. Keyhole-mode laser melting results in melt pool depths that can be much deeper than observed in conduction mode. In addition, the collapse of the vapor cavity that is formed by the evaporation of the metal can result in a trail of voids in the wake of the laser beam. In this paper, the experimental observation of keyhole-mode laser melting in a laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing setting for 316L stainless steel is presented. The conditions required to transition from conduction controlled melting to keyhole-mode melting are identified.

Wayne E. King; Holly D. Barth; Victor M. Castillo; Gilbert F. Gallegos; John W. Gibbs; Douglas E. Hahn; Chandrika Kamath; Alexander M. Rubenchik

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

General Category  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sunrise and Sunset Visual Differences Sunrise and Sunset Visual Differences Name: Joey Status: other Grade: other Country: Canada Date: Spring 2012 Question: It seems that sunrise and sunset don't look symmetric. I mean that sunsets tend to have much redder skies and sunrise is usually a bit gloomier. If you see a picture, many times you can tell if its sunrise or sunset, even though I would think they should like identical, except that the sun is either going up or going down. Why do they not appear the same but in reverse? Replies: Funny you should ask as a paper just arrived which is sure to have the answer and I will read it now....... OK, the morning sky, and the sky in general, is blue due to Rayleigh scattering [which affects short wavelengths the most] of the sun light by air molecules and other microscopic particles.

292

Laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for the production of single walled carbon nanotubes that utilizes an RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of such. Such a method, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently permits the use of a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization. The method of the present invention utilizes a free electron laser operating at high average and peak fluence to illuminate a rotating and translating graphite/catalyst target to obtain high yields of SWNTs without the use of a vacuum chamber.

Smith, Michael W. (Newport News, VA); Jordan, Kevin (Newport News, VA); Park, Cheol (Yorktown, VA)

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

293

Theory of laser-amplifier linear gain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The theory of small-signal laser amplification is developed for homogeneously broadened systems in which the three main decay rates, for the collective atomic dipole moment, the population inversion, and the field in the laser cavity, have arbitrary relative magnitudes. The calculations extend previous work on class-A and -B lasers, where the dipole decay rate greatly exceeds the other two rates, to class-C lasers, where the dipole decay rate is comparable to the others. The free-running laser is assumed to excite a single longitudinal mode of the cavity, whose frequency generally differs from that of the coupled atomic transition. The linear gains of the laser are derived for input signals whose frequencies are close to that of the lasing mode or to one of its adjacent nonlasing longitudinal modes. Divergences in the gain that occur for these two arrangements are associated with the previously studied single-mode and multimode instabilities of the free-running laser, respectively.

J. Jahanpanah and R. Loudon

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

BNL | CFN Laser System Qualifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser System Qualification There are multiple laser systems at the CFN. Users who will be working with the following class 3B or 4 laser systems are required to complete the Laser...

295

Tuning heat transport in trapped-ion chains across a structural phase transition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyze the heat transport in an ion chain that is confined in a strongly anisotropic Paul trap. To drive a heat current across the chain different pairs of counterpropagating laser beams are applied to the ions on the edges. The lasers behave as heat reservoirs operating at different temperatures, and a nonequilibrium heat flow can be sustained. The control of the spatial distribution of the ions in the chain by variation of the trapping frequencies makes ion chains an ideal testbed to study heat transport properties in finite open systems of low dimensionality with tunable nonlinearities. We explore heat transport across a structural phase transition between the linear and zigzag configurations, identifying the condition for optimal heat transport.

A. Ruiz; D. Alonso; M. B. Plenio; A. del Campo

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

296

Rotary magnetic heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

Kirol, L.D.

1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

297

Ocean General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect

1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

Thulium-170 heat source  

SciTech Connect

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

1990-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

299

Thulium-170 heat source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Heat Treating Apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

BUILDING A CHEMICAL LASER WEAPON  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

BUILDING A CHEMICAL LASER WEAPON ... Under fire, Airborne Laser program director confronts challenges of revolutionary weapons system ...

WILLIAM G. SCHULZ

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

302

Capabilities of Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry in the Differentiation of Natural and Artificial Opal Gemstones  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Si+,?K+,?Ca+, Zr+,?Hf+ ... The interaction of a laser beam with an inorganic compound leads different processes such as surface heating, phase change (fusion and vaporization of the target), ablation, and ionization20,21 to occur. ...

Eric Erel; Frédéric Aubriet; Gisèle Finqueneisel; Jean-François Muller

2003-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

303

Boundary coupled dual-equation numerical simulation on mass transfer in the process of laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coupled numerical simulation on fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer in the process of laser cladding is undertaken on the basis of the continuum model. In the...

Huang, Yanlu; Yang, Yongqiang; Wei, Guoqiang; Shi, Wenqing; Li, Yibin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Thermoelectric heat exchange element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

305

Laser ablation of nanoscale particles with 193 nm light  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser ablation of nanoscale particles with 193 nm light Laser ablation of nanoscale particles with 193 nm light Title Laser ablation of nanoscale particles with 193 nm light Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Choi, Jong Hyun, Donald Lucas, and Catherine P. Koshland Journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series Volume 59 Start Page 54 Issue 1 Pagination 54-59 Abstract Laser interaction with nanoscale particles is distinct and different from laser-bulk material interaction, where a hot plasma is normally created. Here, we review our studies on 193 nm laser ablation of various nanoscale particles including NaCl, soot, polystyrene, and gold. The 20 ns laser beam with fluences up to 0.3 J/cm2 irradiates nanoparticles in a gas stream at laser repetition rates from 10 to 100 Hz. The particle size distributions before and after irradiation are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and particle morphology is examined with electron microscopy. All the nanomaterials studied exhibit a similar disintegration pattern and similar particle formation characteristics. No broadband emission associated with particle heating or optical breakdown is observed. The nanoparticles formed after irradiation have a smaller mean diameter and an order of magnitude higher number concentration with a more spherical shape compared to the original particles. We use the photon-atom ratio (PAR) to interpret the laser-particle interaction energetics.

306

Method for optical pumping of thin laser media at high average power  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin, planar laser material is bonded to a light guide of an index-matched material forming a composite disk. Diode array or other pump light is introduced into the composite disk through the edges of the disk. Pump light trapped within the composite disk depletes as it multi-passes the laser medium before reaching an opposing edge of the disk. The resulting compound optical structure efficiently delivers concentrated pump light and to a laser medium of minimum thickness. The external face of the laser medium is used for cooling. A high performance cooler attached to the external face of the laser medium rejects heat. Laser beam extraction is parallel to the heat flux to minimize optical distortions.

Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

307

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF LASER SPALLATION DRILLING OF ROCKS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF LASER SPALLATION DRILLING OF ROCKS DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF LASER SPALLATION DRILLING OF ROCKS P532 Zhiyue Xu, Yuichiro Yamashita 1 , and Claude B. Reed Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA 1 Now with Kyushu University, Japan Abstract High power lasers can weaken, spall, melt and vaporize natural earth materials with thermal spallation being the most energy efficient rock removal mechanism. Laser rock spallation is a very complex phenomenon that depends on many factors. Computer numerical modeling would provides great tool to understand the fundamental of this complex phenomenon, which is crucial to the success of its applications. Complexity of modeling laser rock spallation is due to: 1) rock is a porous media, to which traditional theories of heat transfer and rock mechanics can not be directly

308

Along the Laser Beampath  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

has been installed in the preamplifier modules (PAMs) at the front end of the NIF laser system. The spatial shapers can obscure the laser light at programmed locations within...

309

Laser particle sorter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus are provided for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser is used to define an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam is provided for interrogating the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam is provided to intersect the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis. 2 figs.

Martin, J.C.; Buican, T.N.

1987-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

310

Laser preheat enhanced ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for enhancing fuel ignition performance by preheating the fuel with laser light at a wavelength that is absorbable by the fuel prior to ignition with a second laser is provided.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Laser preheat enhanced ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for enhancing fuel ignition performance by preheating the fuel with laser light at a wavelength that is absorbable by the fuel prior to ignition with a second laser is provided. 11 figs.

Early, J.W.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

312

Laser-assisted electrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

The effect of laser irradiation on electrodeposition processes has been investigated. These studies demonstrated that the addition of laser irradiation to an electroplating process can dramatically enhance plating rates and current efficiencies, as well as improve the morphology of the resultant electrodeposit. During the course of these investigations, the mechanism for the laser enhancement of electrodeposition processes was determined. Experimental evidence was obtained to show that laser irradiation of the substrate results in increased metal ion concentrations at the surface of the electrode due to a laser-induced Soret effect. The laser-induced Soret effect has important implications for laser-assisted electrochemical processing. The increase in the surface concentration of ions allows efficient electrodeposition from dilute solutions. As such, laser- assisted electrodeposition may develop into an environmentally conscious manufacturing process by reducing waste and limiting worker exposure to toxic chemicals.

Glenn, D.F.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and refrigeration systems. In many instances these real heat engines may appear as a complex process consisting of flash vessels, heat exchangers, compressors, furnaces, etc. See Figure 18a, which shows a simplified diagram of a "steam Rankine cycle." How... and rejection profiles of the real machine. For example, the heat acceptance and re jection profiles for the steam Rankine cycle shown in Figure 18a have been drawn on T,H coordinates in Figure 18b. Thus providing we know the heat acceptance and rejection...

Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.

314

Accelerator experiments contradicting general relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deflection of gamma-rays in Earth's gravitational field is tested in laser Compton scattering at high energy accelerators. Within a formalism connecting the bending angle to the photon's momentum it follows that detected gamma-ray spectra are inconsistent with a deflection magnitude of 2.78 nrad, predicted by Einstein's gravity theory. Moreover, preliminary results for 13-28 GeV photons from two different laboratories show opposite - away from the Earth - deflection, amounting to 33.8-0.8 prad. I conclude that general relativity, which describes gravity at low energies precisely, break down at high energies.

Vahagn Gharibyan

2014-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

315

NEWTON: Greenhouse Gas and Heat Transfer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gas and Heat Transfer Greenhouse Gas and Heat Transfer Name: Robert Status: teacher Grade: 9-12 Location: AK Country: USA Date: Summer 2013 Question: It would appear from a superficial reading that heat flows out of a greenhouse gas more slowly than heat flows into the same gas. This has to be an incorrect interpretation. It seems more likely that molecules with high heat capacities resist heat transfer-both into and out of such a molecular system. At a molecular level how does heat move out of a hot greenhouse gas? I have seen plots of Cv vs Tempt which indicates that heat moves from translational modes of motion-into rotational modes and finally into modes of vibration. The energy spacing of vibrations is generally grater that rotation which are greater than translation. Could it be that it is this quantization of the energy levels and the difference in energy between such quantum states that is the source of the resistance to heat flow or transfer?

316

Method for beam steering compensation in an ultra-high power liquid laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermally induced distortion of the optical wavefront caused by heating of the laser media by waste heat from the excitation process and absorption of laser radiation creates optical phase errors. A system generates an error signal derived from the optical phase errors. The error signal is fed back to the power supplies driving semiconductor diodes that excite the lasing liquid thereby introducing an electrically controllable wedge into the optical cavity to correct the optical phase errors.

Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Short wavelength laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A short wavelength laser (28) is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses (30, 31). A multiplicity of panels (32), mounted on substrates (34), are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path (42). When the panels (32) are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses (30, 31), single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses (44, 46) are produced.

Hagelstein, Peter L. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Bacteria mediated heat sinks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many applications, such as laser diode technology, utilize components (eg. resistors) which have performance characteristics heavily dependent on temperature, and therefore, maintaining constant temperature is essential ...

Hong, Vu Anh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Laser-driven fusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of intense laser light to bring about thermonuclear reactions in a plasma is of considerable current interest. We present detailed analytical and computational studies which show the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. The required laser technology and the presently anticipated practical difficulties are discussed in outline.

Keith A. Brueckner and Siebe Jorna

1974-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Laser bottom hole assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Electron Cyclotron Heating in RFP plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Reversed field pinches (RFP) plasmas are typically overdense ({omega}{sub pe}>{omega}{sub ce}) and thus not suitable for conventional electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive. In recent high plasma current discharges (I{sub p}>1.5 MA), however, the RFX-mod device was operated in underdense conditions ({omega}{sub pe}<{omega}{sub ce}) for the first time in an RFP. Thus, it is now possible to envisage heating the RFP plasma core by conventional EC at the 2nd harmonic, in the ordinary or extraordinary mode. We present a preliminary study of EC-heating feasibility in RFX-mod with the use of beam-tracing and full-wave codes. Although not competitive - as a heating system - with multi-MW Ohmic heating in an RFP, EC might be useful for perturbative transport studies, even at moderate power (hundreds of kW), and, more generally, for applications requiring localized power deposition.

Bilato, R.; Poli, E. [MPI fuer Plasmaphysik-Euratom Association Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Volpe, F. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Koehn, A. [Institut fuer Plasmaforschung, Universitaet Stuttgart-Stuttgart (Germany); Cavazzana, R.; Paccagnella, R. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione-Padova (Italy); Farina, D. [IFP-CNR, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association-Milano (Italy)

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

322

HEATING 7. 1 user's manual  

SciTech Connect

HEATING is a FORTRAN program designed to solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three- dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time- and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may be anisotropic. Materials may undergo change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heating generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-boundary or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. General graybody radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING is variably dimensioned and utilizes free-form input. Three steady-state solution techniques are available: point-successive-overrelaxation iterative method with extrapolation, direct-solution (for one-dimensional or two-dimensional problems), and conjugate gradient. Transient problems may be solved using one of several finite-difference schemes: Crank-Nicolson implicit, Classical Implicit Procedure (CIP), Classical Explicit Procedure (CEP), or Levy explicit method (which for some circumstances allows a time step greater than the CEP stability criterion). The solution of the system of equations arising from the implicit techniques is accomplished by point-successive-overrelaxation iteration and includes procedures to estimate the optimum acceleration parameter.

Childs, K.W.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Heat transfer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Wound tube heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Photonics and Laser Applications in Engineering ENSC 460-4 (Undergraduate) (3-0-2) 894-3 (Graduate) (3-0-0)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface Treatment: Laser heat treatment, surface melting, alloying, cladding, cutting, stereolithographyPhotonics and Laser Applications in Engineering ENSC 460-4 (Undergraduate) (3-0-2) 894-3 (Graduate of photonics and laser application in engineering and indus- trial areas. The emphasis will be in applications

Chapman, Glenn H.

326

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems May 30, 2012 - 3:40pm Addthis Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because it is a good thermal conductor and has greater resistance to corrosion. Types of Heat Exchangers Solar water heating systems use three types of heat exchangers: Liquid-to-liquid A liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger uses a heat-transfer fluid that

327

Heat kernel estimates on a connected sum of two copies of Rn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat kernel estimates on a connected sum of two copies of Rn along a surface of revolution inequality on connected sums 16 4 Heat kernel upper bound 19 4.1 General estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.2 Heat kernel upper bound on Mn m, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5 Dirichlet heat kernel

Grigor'yan, Alexander

328

1.18 - Coatings by Laser Cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There are three processes, where solid feedstock materials are used for surface modification processes with a laser: cladding, dispersing and alloying. Currently, in industrial practice laser cladding with a history of about 30 years is by far the most important of these processes and is predominantly applied for wear protection of mechanical parts. For hard phase-containing coatings, laser cladding is performed as a one-step process. A metallurgical bonding of the coating to the substrate is created, but dilution of substrate elements into the coating is kept as low as possible. In the historical development different types of laser have been used, diode laser are currently the most important type. Coating properties can be improved and productivity can be increased by hybrid technologies, e.g. by the additional use of inductive heating. There are innumerable combinations of hard phases, also in respect of their concentration, size and morphology, and metallic binder alloys. However, coarse cast and spheroidized tungsten carbides and blends with Ni-based and Co-based alloys have gained the highest importance. Fine grained structures can be achieved by the use of cubic hard phases on the base of TiC and VC.

Steffen Nowotny; Lutz-Michael Berger; Jörg Spatzier

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

X-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Laser-ultrasonic inspection of hybrid laser-arc welded HSLA-65 steel  

SciTech Connect

The hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) process is a relatively low heat input joining technology that combines the synergistic qualities of both the high energy density laser beam for deep penetration and the arc for wide fit-up gap tolerance. This process is especially suitable for the shipbuilding industry where thick-gauge section, long steel plates have been widely used in a butt joint configuration. In this study, preliminary exploration was carried out to detect and visualize the welding defects using laser ultrasonics combined with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). Results obtained on 9.3 mm thick butt-welded HSLA-65 steel plates indicated that the laser-ultrasonic SAFT inspection technique can successfully detect and visualize the presence of porosity, lack of fusion and internal crack defects. This was further confirmed by X-ray digital radiography and metallography. The results obtained clearly show the potential of using the laser-ultrasonic technology for the automated inspection of hybrid laser-arc welds.

Lévesque, D.; Rousseau, G.; Monchalin, J.-P. [National Research Council Canada, Boucherville, QC (Canada); Wanjara, P.; Cao, X. [National Research Council Canada, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

331

Pulsed laser irradiation of metal multilayers.  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-deposited, exothermic metal-metal multilayer foils are an ideal class of materials for detailed investigations of pulsed laser-ignited chemical reactions. Created in a pristine vacuum environment by sputter deposition, these high purity materials have well-defined reactant layer thicknesses between 1 and 1000 nm, minimal void density and intimate contact between layers. Provided that layer thicknesses are made small, some reactive metal-metal multilayer foils can be ignited at a point by laser irradiation and exhibit subsequent high-temperature, self-propagating synthesis. With this presentation, we describe the pulsed laser-induced ignition characteristics of a single multilayer system (equiatomic Al/Pt) that exhibits self-propagating synthesis. We show that the thresholds for ignition are dependent on (i) multilayer design and (ii) laser pulse duration. With regard to multilayer design effects on ignition, there is a large range of multilayer periodicity over which ignition threshold decreases as layer thicknesses are made small. We attribute this trend of decreased ignition threshold to reduced mass transport diffusion lengths required for rapid exothermic mixing. With regard to pulse duration effects, we have determined how ignition threshold of a single Al/Pt multilayer varies with pulse duration from 10{sup -2} to {approx} 10{sup -13} sec (wavelength and spot size are held constant). A higher laser fluence is required for ignition when using a single laser pulse {approx} 100 fs or 1 ps compared with nanosecond or microsecond exposure, and we attribute this, in part, to the effects of reactive material being ablated when using the shorter pulse durations. To further understand these trends and other pulsed laser-based processes, our discussion concludes with an analysis of the heat-affected depths in multilayers as a function of pulse duration.

Adams, David Price; McDonald, Joel Patrick

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Ultrafast Laser Facility | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultrafast Laser Facility Ultrafast Laser Facility Click for an Overview of the Ultrafast Laser Facility The PARC Ultrafast Laser Facility, under the direction of Associate Director...

333

Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

1996-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

334

Coherence theory of the ring laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Expressions for the fluctuations and correlations of the light emitted by a ring laser with counter-rotating traveling wave modes are derived theoretically. It is shown that the competition of the two modes for the excited atomic population leads to negative correlations between their intensity fluctuations, whose magnitude depends on the detuning of the laser cavity from the atomic line center. As a result of the mode competition, the relative intensity fluctuations do not die out in general as the working point of the laser is raised above threshold at line center, and the emitted light does not become fully coherent as in a conventional laser. The two-time amplitude and intensity correlation functions of the light are calculated at line center, and are shown to be expressible in terms of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of a certain Schrödinger equation, in complete analogy with the theory of the single-mode laser. However, the intensity correlation time increases with pump parameter above threshold, unlike that for the single-mode laser.

M. M- Tehrani and L. Mandel

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Geothermal Technologies Office focuses only on electricity generation. For additional information about geothermal heating and cooling and ground source heat pumps, please visit the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Buildings Technologies Office.

336

HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

Lenert, Andrej

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Residential heating oil price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 2.91 per gallon. That's down 1.10 from a year ago, based on the...

338

Residential heating oil price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to 2.84 per gallon. That's down 1.22 from a year ago, based on the...

339

Residential heating oil price  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to 2.97 per gallon. That's down 1.05 from a year ago, based on the...

340

Residential heating oil price  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to 3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

MA HEAT Loan Overview  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

342

Ductless Heat Pumps  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Heaters Showerheads Residential Weatherization Performance Tested Comfort Systems Ductless Heat Pumps New Construction Residential Marketing Toolkit Retail Sales...

343

Heat Pump Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Heaters Showerheads Residential Weatherization Performance Tested Comfort Systems Ductless Heat Pumps New Construction Residential Marketing Toolkit Retail Sales...

344

Solar heat receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

345

Electric resistive space heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cost of heating residential buildings using electricity is compared to the cost employing gas or oil. (AIP)

David Bodansky

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION HEATING IN TURBULENT SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The temperature of the gas in molecular clouds is a key determinant of the characteristic mass of star formation. Ambipolar diffusion (AD) is considered one of the most important heating mechanisms in weakly ionized molecular clouds. In this work, we study the AD heating rate using two-fluid turbulence simulations and compare it with the overall heating rate due to turbulent dissipation. We find that for observed molecular clouds, which typically have Alfven Mach numbers of {approx}1 and AD Reynolds numbers of {approx}20, about 70% of the total turbulent dissipation is in the form of AD heating. AD has an important effect on the length scale where energy is dissipated: when AD heating is strong, most of the energy in the cascade is removed by ion-neutral drift, with a comparatively small amount of energy making it down to small scales. We derive a relation for the AD heating rate that describes the results of our simulations to within a factor of two. Turbulent dissipation, including AD heating, is generally less important than cosmic-ray heating in molecular clouds, although there is substantial scatter in both.

Li, Pak Shing [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Myers, Andrew [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McKee, Christopher F., E-mail: psli@astron.berkeley.edu, E-mail: atmyers@berkeley.edu, E-mail: cmckee@berkeley.edu [Physics Department and Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

347

Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

Dantus, Marcos (Okemos, MI); Lozovoy, Vadim V. (Okemos, MI); Comstock, Matthew (Milford, MI)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

348

Heat Transfer Guest Editorial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

Kandlikar, Satish

349

Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider lnstitut fiir Theoretische Astrophysik der Universitat waves are a viable and prevalent heating mechanism both in early- and in late-type stars. Acoustic heating appears to be a dominant mechanism for situations where magnetic fields are weak or absent

Ulmschneider, Peter

350

Ammoniated salt heat pump  

SciTech Connect

A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat.

Haas, W.R.; Jaeger, F.J.; Giordano, T.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Pioneering Heat Pump Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Project objectives: To install and monitor an innovative WaterFurnace geothermal system that is technologically advanced and evolving; To generate hot water heating from a heat pump that uses non-ozone depleting refrigerant CO2. To demonstrate the energy efficiency of this system ground source heat pump system.

352

Home Heating | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Home Heating Everything you need to know about home heating, including how heating systems work, the different types on the market and proper maintenance. Read more Thermostats...

353

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Energy Saver Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs....

354

Effectiveness of heating patterns for electrical resistance heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BLOCKS APPENDIX B: COMPUTER CODE, r-z ERH RESERVOIR SIMULATOR 39 41 43 45 50 54 VITA 147 LIST OF TABLES PAGE TABLE I: ACCURACY OF POWER CALCULATION TABLE 2: RESULTS OF PARAMETER STUDY TABLE 3: ELECTRODE DESIGN RESULTS TABLE 4: GENERAL TEST... Model 0. 6 0. 4 Radial Power Model 0. 2 0 1 10 r/rw 100 1000 Figure 6; Comparison of power dissipation profiles for radial power model and r-z power model. 14 The power dissipated as heat in this volume, P(r), is normalized by the total...

Maggard, James Bryan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

355

Inertial fusion energy issues of intense heavy ion and laser beams interacting with ionized matter studied at GSI-Darmstadt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

European activities on inertial fusion energy are coordinated by “keep in touch activities” of the European Fusion Programme coordinated by the European Commission. There is no general inertial fusion program in Europe. Instead, a number of activities relevant to inertial fusion are carried out by university groups and research centers. The Helmholtz-Research Center GSI-Darmstadt (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung) operates accelerator facilities which provide the highest intensity for heavy ion beams and therefore key issues of ion beam driven fusion can be addressed. In addition to the accelerator facilities, one high-energy laser system is available (nhelix: nanosecond high-energy laser for ion experiments) and another one is under construction (PHELIX: petawatt high-energy laser for ion experiments). The heavy ion synchrotron facility, SIS18 (Schwer-Ionen-Synchrotron 18) recently delivered an intense uranium beam that deposits about 1 kJ/g specific energy in solid matter. Using this beam, experiments have been performed where solid Pb- and Ta-targets have been heated to the level of 1 eV. Experiments to study interaction mechanism of heavy ion beams with matter have been continued and are reported here.

D.H.H. Hoffmann; A. Blazevic; S. Korostiy; P. Ni; S.A. Pikuz; B. Rethfeld; O. Rosmej; M. Roth; N.A. Tahir; S. Udrea; D. Varentsov; K. Weyrich; B.Yu. Sharkov; Y. Maron

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Evaluation of weld porosity in laser beam seam welds: optimizing continuous wave and square wave modulated processes.  

SciTech Connect

Nd:YAG laser joining is a high energy density (HED) process that can produce high-speed, low-heat input welds with a high depth-to-width aspect ratio. This is optimized by formation of a ''keyhole'' in the weld pool resulting from high vapor pressures associated with laser interaction with the metallic substrate. It is generally accepted that pores form in HED welds due to the instability and frequent collapse of the keyhole. In order to maintain an open keyhole, weld pool forces must be balanced such that vapor pressure and weld pool inertia forces are in equilibrium. Travel speed and laser beam power largely control the way these forces are balanced, as well as welding mode (Continuous Wave or Square Wave) and shielding gas type. A study into the phenomenon of weld pool porosity in 304L stainless steel was conducted to better understand and predict how welding parameters impact the weld pool dynamics that lead to pore formation. This work is intended to aid in development and verification of a finite element computer model of weld pool fluid flow dynamics being developed in parallel efforts and assist in weld development activities for the W76 and future RRW programs.

Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew; Faraone, Kevin M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Roach, Robert Allen; Norris, Jerome T.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Sinterable powders from laser driven reactions : final report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremely fine, uniform ceramic powders have been synthesized from Sil4 NH3 and C2H4 gas phase reactants that are heated by absorbing optical energy emitted from a C02 laser. Resulting Si, Si3N4 and SiC powders have been ...

Haggerty, John Scarseth

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement Each department that acquires or operates lasers for use in laboratories or research is responsible for reporting laser acquisition to the Office of Laboratory Safety, selecting a departmental deputy laser safety officer, mandating training for its laser operators

Vertes, Akos

359

OMEGA Extended Performance Laser System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at UR-LLE is close to that required for ignition to occur. #12;The OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) laserOMEGA Extended Performance Laser System R. L. McCrory University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser­18 February 2008 #12;OMEGA Extended Performance Laser System R.L. McCrory Laboratory for Laser Energetics

360

Laser design basis for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

Controlled nuclear fusion initiated by highly intense laser beams has been the subject of experiment for many years. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) represents the culmination of design efforts to provide a laser facility that will successfully demonstrate fusion ignition in the laboratory. In this so-called inertial confinement approach, energetic driver beams (laser, X-ray, or charged particle) heat the outer surface of a spherical capsule containing deuterium and tritium (DT) fuel. As the capsule surface explosively evaporates, reaction pressure compresses the DT fuel causing the central core of the fuel to reach extreme density and temperature. When the central temperature is high enough, DT fusion reactions occur. The energy released from these reactions further heats the compressed fuel, and fusion burn propagates outward through the colder regions of the capsule much more rapidly than the inertially confined capsule can expand. The resulting fusion reactions yield many times more energy than was absorbed from the driver beams.

Hunt, J.T.; Manes, K.R.; Murray, J.R.; Renard, P.A.; Sawicki, R.; Trenholme, J.B.; Williams, W.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Semiconductor laser devices having lateral refractive index tailoring  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A broad-area semiconductor laser diode includes an active lasing region interposed between an upper and a lower cladding layer, the laser diode further comprising structure for controllably varying a lateral refractive index profile of the diode to substantially compensate for an effect of junction heating during operation. In embodiments disclosed the controlling structure comprises resistive heating strips or non-radiative linear junctions disposed parallel to the active region. Another embodiment discloses a multi-layered upper cladding region selectively disordered by implanted or diffused dopant impurities. Still another embodiment discloses an upper cladding layer of variable thickness that is convex in shape and symmetrically disposed about a central axis of the active region. The teaching of the invention is also shown to be applicable to arrays of semiconductor laser diodes.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Hadley, G. Ronald (Alburquerque, NM); Hohimer, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Owyoung, Adelbert (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and past heating season. As you can see, prices have started the heating season, about 40 to 50 cents per gallon higher than last year at this time. The data presented are from EIA's State Heating Oil and Propane Program. We normally collect and publish this data twice a month, but given the low stocks and high prices, we started tracking the prices weekly. These data will also be used to determine the price trigger mechanism for the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve. The data are published at a State and regional level on our web site. The slide is to give you some perspective of what is happening in these markets, since you probably will get a number of calls from local residents about their heating fuels bills

363

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Nanofluid heat capacities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin mineral oil ethylene glycol a mixture of water and ethylene glycol and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate) and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

Anne K. Starace; Judith C. Gomez; Jun Wang; Sulolit Pradhan; Greg C. Glatzmaier

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Laser Safety Inspection Criteria  

SciTech Connect

A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items. Some examples are given from the audit criteria handout. As an explanatory key to the reader, an Operational Safety Procedure (OSP) as a formally reviewed safety procedure required for all Class 3B and Class 4 laser installations. An ''OSP Binder'' contains all safety documentation related to a given laser operation and serves as a central repository for documents, such as the OSP, interlock logs, lessons learned, contact information etc. ''Unattended Operation'' refers to approved procedures for unattended operation of the laser installation and may include operation beyond normal working hours. ''L-train'' is the LLNL training tracking system.

Barat, K

2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

366

A model for improvement of water heating heat exchanger designs for residential heat pump water heaters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat pump water heaters are a promising technology to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A key component is the water heating heat exchanger.… (more)

Weerawoot, Arunwattana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Laser-PlasmaWakefield Acceleration with Higher Order Laser Modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design considerations for a laser-plasma linear collider,"E.Esarey, and W.P.Leemans, "Free-electron laser driven bythe LBNL laser-plasma accelerator," in Proc. Adv. Acc. Con.

Geddes, C.G.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Laser induced nuclear reactions  

SciTech Connect

Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that {mu}Ci of {sup 62}Cu can be generated via the ({gamma},n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 10{sup 19} Wcm{sup -2}.

Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); European Commission, Institute for Transuranic Elements, Karlsruhe, Postfach 2340, D-76125 (Germany); Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, East Kilbride, Glasgow G75 0QU (United Kingdom); Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

369

X-ray lasers and methods utilizing two component driving illumination provided by optical laser means of relatively low energy and small physical size  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray laser (10), and related methodology, are disclosed wherein an X-ray laser target (12) is illuminated with a first pulse of optical laser radiation (14) of relatively long duration having scarcely enough energy to produce a narrow and linear cool plasma of uniform composition (38). A second, relatively short pulse of optical laser radiation (18) is uniformly swept across the length, from end to end, of the plasma (38), at about the speed of light, to consecutively illuminate continuously succeeding portions of the plasma (38) with optical laser radiation having scarcely enough energy to heat, ionize, and invert them into the continuously succeeding portions of an X-ray gain medium. This inventive double pulse technique results in a saving of more than two orders of magnitude in driving optical laser energy, when compared to the conventional single pulse approach.

Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (El Granada, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Heat pumping with optically driven excitons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a theoretical study showing that an optically driven excitonic two-level system in a solid state environment acts as a heat pump by means of repeated phonon emission or absorption events. We derive a master equation for the combined phonon bath and two-level system dynamics and analyze the direction and rate of energy transfer as a function of the externally accessible driving parameters. We discover that if the driving laser is detuned from the exciton transition, cooling the phonon environment becomes possible.

Erik M. Gauger; Joachim Wabnig

2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

371

Heat pumping with optically driven excitons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a theoretical study showing that an optically driven excitonic two-level system in a solid state environment acts as a heat pump by means of repeated phonon emission or absorption events. We derive a master equation for the combined phonon bath and two-level system dynamics and analyze the direction and rate of energy transfer as a function of the externally accessible driving parameters. We discover that if the driving laser is detuned from the exciton transition, cooling the phonon environment becomes possible.

Gauger, Erik M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Processing of Ni-based aero engine components with repetitively Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft engine industry uses free running high power Nd:YAG lasers for drilling cooling holes into nickel base alloy turbine components. A cw-pumped, Q-switched, high beam quality laser system with 400W laser power is presented. The laser is used for trepan drilling of 1.6mm Hastelloy X sheets and ceramic coated combustion chamber tubes of the same metal. Cylindrical shape, uniformity, and reproducibility are achieved with a trepan-like drilling setup. The heat load of the workpiece as well as the process time is considerably decreased by employing high-repetition Q-switched lasers.

Bostanjoglo, G.; Beck, T. [Laser- und Medizin-Technologie Berlin gGmbH (Germany); Sarady, I. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Metal Working; Weber, H. [Technischen Univ. Berlin (Germany). Optisches Institut

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Polarization feedback laser stabilization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

1987-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

374

High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

375

Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We provide an overview of terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on resonant-phonon depopulation and metal-metal waveguides, including two-phonon resonant-phonon depopulation...

Williams, Benjamin; Kumar, Sushil; Qin, Qi; Lee, Alan Wei Min; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L; Wasilewski, Z R; Liu, H C

376

Heat Insulation in Electric Power Stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... HEAT insulation of pipes, boilers and generating sets, which used to be indicated by the general ... in steam generating plants, it is common experience to find that cracks develop in the insulation on water-cooled furnace walls as the result of: (a) expansion and contraction ...

1940-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

377

OMEGA EP Laser Dedication Movie - Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dedication Movie - Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laboratory for Laser Energetics Logo Search Home Around the Lab Past Issues Past Quick Shots About Office of the Director Map to...

378

Chirped Laser Dispersion Spectroscopy with Directly Modulated Quantum Cascade Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A feasibility study of chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS) with utilizing direct modulation of a quantum cascade laser instead of external modulators is presented....

Hangauer, Andreas; Spinner, Georg; Nikodem, Michal; Wysocki, Gerard

379

Documentation - Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Daily Securing Checklist (S-AB-P-482) EP Bay and OAA Securing Walkthrough (S-AB-P-582) Laser StartupShutdown LOTF Laser Startup (S-AB-P-038) LOTF Laser Shutdown (S-AB-P-039) IRAT...

380

U.S. Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of this winterÂ’s market pressures is in home heating oil prices. This chart shows prices for the last four winters, with this yearÂ’s prices shown through January 24, the most recent EIA data available. The general level of heating oil prices each year is largely a function of crude oil prices, and the price range over the course of the heating season is typically about 10 cents per gallon. Exceptions occur in unusual circumstances, such as very cold weather, large changes in crude oil prices, or supply problems. Although heating oil prices for consumers started this winter at similar levels to those in 1997, they already rose nearly 20 cents per gallon through mid-January. With the continuing upward pressure from crude

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Optical glass polishing by controlled laser surface-heat treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that optical surfaces traditionally ground in conventional glasses with high coefficients of thermal expansion may be polished by irradiation with a space- and...

Laguarta, F; Lupon, N; Armengol, J

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

CHP: It's Time for Combined Heat and Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and export 16. Creates local jobs for installation, operation and maintenance 17. Supports competitive electricity market structure General Conclusion It is very much in the PUBLIC interest to support CHP distributed energy… even if the private incentives... of use Electricity Electricity Heat Heat Combined Heat and Power Conventional Generation Building Load Power Plant fuel (66 units of remote energy) Boiler fuel (34 units of on-site energy) CHP fuel (x units of on-site energy) Losses Losses 20 29 20...

Herweck, R.

384

Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

385

Heating Cooling Flows with Weak Shock Waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The discovery of extended, approximately spherical weak shock waves in the hot intercluster gas in Perseus and Virgo has precipitated the notion that these waves may be the primary heating process that explains why so little gas cools to low temperatures. This type of heating has received additional support from recent gasdynamical models. We show here that outward propagating, dissipating waves deposit most of their energy near the center of the cluster atmosphere. Consequently, if the gas is heated by (intermittent) weak shocks for several Gyrs, the gas within 30-50 kpc is heated to temperatures that far exceed observed values. This heating can be avoided if dissipating shocks are sufficiently infrequent or weak so as not to be the primary source of global heating. Local PV and viscous heating associated with newly formed X-ray cavities are likely to be small, which is consistent with the low gas temperatures generally observed near the centers of groups and clusters where the cavities are located.

W. G. Mathews; A. Faltenbacher; F. Brighenti

2005-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

386

Nonlinear Hadley Circulation Driven by Asymmetric Differential Heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dynamical state of the stratosphere influenced by radiative heating, with no internal sources or sinks of angular momentum, is examined. It is shown that there exists a nonlinear Hadley regime driven by antisymmetric (or more generally, ...

Timothy J. Dunkerton

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Green function diagonal for a class of heat equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A construction of the heat kernel diagonal is considered as element of generalized Zeta function, that, being meromorfic function, its gradient at the origin defines determinant of a differential operator in a technique for regularizing quadratic path integral. Some classes of explicit expression in the case of finite-gap potential coefficient of the heat equation are constructed.

Grzegorz Kwiatkowski; Sergey Leble

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Resolvent metrics and heat kernel estimates Andrs Telcs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are generalization of the resistance metric and provide uni...ed treatment of heat kernel estimates of sub), called resistance metric, which is quite natural in the analysis of the heat propagation. The particular beauty in his ...nding is that the the proof that function R (x; y) is a metric boils down to elementary

Telcs, András

389

Effect of laser field and thermal stress on diffusion in laser doping of SiC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electromagnetic field of lasers and non-equilibrium doping conditions enable laser doping of SiC with increased dopant diffusivity. Chromium, which acts as a double acceptor, has been laser-doped in SiC wafers. A thermal model is utilized to determine the temperature distribution at various depths of the wafer and a diffusion model is presented including the effects of Fickian diffusion, laser electromagnetic field and thermal stresses due to localized laser heating on the mass flux of dopant atoms. The dopant diffusivity is calculated as a function of temperature at different depths of the wafer based on measured dopant concentration profile. The maximum diffusivities achieved in this study are 4.61 × 10?10 cm2 s?1 at 2898 K and 6.92 × 10?12 cm2 s?1 at 3046 K for 6H-SiC and 4H-SiC, respectively. The maximum concentration is found to be 2.29 × 1019 cm?3 for 6H-SiC, which is two orders of magnitude higher than the reported value (3 × 1017 cm?3 solid solubility limit).

Sachin Bet; Nathaniel Quick; Aravinda Kar

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Fluidized bed heat treating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

391

Flameless heat generator  

SciTech Connect

A heating device generates heat by working a liquid in a closed container with a rotating stack of finely perforate square plates and recovering the heat from the thus heated liquid. In one embodiment a stack of a multiplicity of flat square plates radially offset one from another is rotated in an oil bath in a container under an inner perforate non-rotating cover over which is a similar non-rotating cover that is imperforate. The thermal energy developed through the mechanical working of the liquid is transferred to the main liquid bath and is then removed, as for example, by circulating air or a liquid around the outside of the container with the thus heated air or liquid being used to heat a house or the like.

Leary, C. L.; Leary, G. C.

1983-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

392

Single Particle Laser Ablation | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single Particle Laser Ablation Single Particle Laser Ablation Leads No leads are available at this time. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular...

393

Plasmonic Quantum Cascade Laser Antenna  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate the plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna, that can confine mid-infrared radiation beyond the diffraction limit, by integrating gold optical antennas on the laser...

Yu, Nanfang; Cubukcu, Ertugrul; Diehl, Laurent; Crozier, Kenneth; Capasso, Federico

394

Innovative lasers for uranium isotope separation. [Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Copper vapor lasers have important applications to uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). The authors have spent the first two years of their project investigating two innovative methods of exciting/pumping copper vapor lasers which have the potential to improve the efficiency and scaling of large laser systems used in uranium isotope separation. Experimental research has focused on the laser discharge kinetics of (1) microwave, and (2) electron beam excitation/pumping of large-volume copper vapor lasers. During the first year, the experiments have been designed and constructed and initial data has been taken. During the second year these experiments have been diagnosed. Highlights of some of the second year results as well as plans for the future include the following: Microwave resonant cavity produced copper vapor plasmas at 2.45 GHz, have been investigated. A CW (0--500 W) signal heats and vaporizes the copper chloride to provide the atomic copper vapor. A pulsed (5 kW, 0.5--5kHz) signal is added to the incoming CW signal via a hybrid mixer to excite the copper states to the laser levels. An enhancement of the visible radiation has been observed during the pulsed pardon of the signal. Electrical probe measurements have been implemented on the system to verify the results of the electromagnetic model formulated last year. Laser gain measurements have been initiated with the use of a commercial copper vapor laser. Measurements of the spatial profile of the emission are also currently being made. The authors plan to increase the amount of pulsed microwave power to the system by implementing a high power magnetron. A laser cavity will be designed and added to this system.

Brake, M.L.; Gilgenbach, R.M.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

From Gas Lasers and Tunable Raman Lasers to Quantum Cascade Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

I will describe my involvement in lasers from 1961 to the present, ecompassing high power carbon dioxide lasers, tunable spin-flip Raman lasers, and now high power CW room temperature...

Patel, Kumar

396

Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Management Options Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases - combustion products - Temperature from 300 deg. F. to 3000 deg.F. * Radiation-Convection heat loss - From temperature source of 500 deg. F. to 2500 deg. F. * Sensible-latent heat in heated product - From temperature 400 deg. F. to 2200 deg. F. * Cooling water or other liquids - Temperature from 100 deg. F. to 180 deg. F.

397

Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MECHANICAL COMPRESSION HEAT PUMPS Thomas-L. Apaloo and K. Kawamura Mycom Corporation, Los Angeles, California J. Matsuda, Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT Mechanical compression heat pumping is not new in industrial applications.... In fact, industry history suggests that the theoretical concept was developed before 1825. Heat pump manufacturers gained the support of consultants and end-users when the energy crisis hit this country in 1973. That interest, today, has been...

Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

398

Ameren Illinois (Gas) - Cooking and Heating Business Efficiency Incentives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ameren Illinois (Gas) - Cooking and Heating Business Efficiency Ameren Illinois (Gas) - Cooking and Heating Business Efficiency Incentives Ameren Illinois (Gas) - Cooking and Heating Business Efficiency Incentives < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Other Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate General: $600,000 Program Info Expiration Date 05/31/2013 State Illinois Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom: $1.20/therm saved/yr Steamers: $300-$1200 Fryer: $400 Griddle: $50/ln. ft. Ovens: custom Storage Water Heaters: $150/unit Tankless Water Heater: $300/unit Gas Boiler/Furnace Replacement: $400 - $6,000

399

Project Profile: Thermochemical Heat Storage for CSP Based on Multivalent Metal Oxides  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

General Atomics (GA), under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing a high-density thermochemical heat storage system based on solid metal oxides.

400

E-Print Network 3.0 - ampicillin increased heat Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

84 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY FACT SHEET PreventionTreatm Summary: of water, food or fomites; poor sanitation and hygiene. Produces a heat labile enterotoxin (ST). Low grade... and are...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Combined Heat and Power  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

energy costs and 31 emissions while also providing more resilient and reliable electric power and thermal energy 1 . CHP 32 systems combine the production of heat (for both...

402

Waste Heat Recovery  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the TechnologySystem ......

403

Solar Heating in Uppsala.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The housing corporation Uppsalahem has installed asolar heating system in the neighbourhood Haubitsen,which was renovated in 2011. This report examineshow much energy the solar… (more)

Blomqvist, Emelie; Häger, Klara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Solar heating in Colombia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This report describes the process of a thesis implemented in Colombia concerning solar energy. The project was to install a self-circulating solar heating system,… (more)

Skytt, Johanna

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Photovoltaic roof heat flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of building integrated photovoltaics on microclimateof a building's integrated-photovoltaics on heating a n dgaps for building- integrated photovoltaics, Solar Energy

Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Passive solar space heating  

SciTech Connect

An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

Balcomb, J.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Combined Heat & Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

available today." -American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy What is Combined Heat & Power (CHP)? Federal Utility Partnership Working Group May 7 - 8, 2014 Virginia...

409

Heat rejection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Heat transfer dynamics  

SciTech Connect

As heat transfer technology increases in complexity, it becomes more difficult for those without thermal dynamics engineering training to choose between competitive heat transfer systems offered to meet their drying requirements. A step back to the basics of heat transfer can help professional managers and papermakers make informed decisions on alternative equipment and methods. The primary forms of heat and mass transfer are reviewed with emphasis on the basics, so a practical understanding of each is gained. Finally, the principles and benefits of generating infrared energy by combusting a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel are explained.

Smith, T.M. (Marsden, Inc., Pennsauken, NJ (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ListAtmospheric Heat Budget Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About...

412

Subcooled Boiling Near a Heated Wall  

SciTech Connect

Experimental measurements of void fraction, bubble frequency, and velocity are obtained in subcooled R-134a flowing over a heated flat plate near an unheated wall and compared to analytical predictions. The measurements were obtained for a fixed system pressure and mass flow rate (P = 2.4 MPa and w = 106 kg/hr) at various inlet liquid temperatures. During the experiments, electrical power was applied at a constant rate to one side of the test section. The local void fraction data, acquired with a hot-film anemometer probe, showed the existence of a significant peak near the heated wall and a smaller secondary peak near the unheated wall for the larger inlet subcoolings. Local vapor velocity data, taken with the hot-film probe and a laser Doppler velocimeter, showed broad maxima near the centerline between the heated and unheated plates. Significant temperature gradients near the heated wall were observed for large inlet subcooling. Bubble size data, inferred from measurements of void fraction, bubble frequency and vapor velocity, when combined with the measured bubble chord length distributions illustrate the transition from pure three dimensional spherical to two-dimensional planar bubble flow, the latter being initiated when the bubbles fill the gap between the plates. These various two-phase flow measurements were used for development of a multidimensional, four-field calculational method; comparisons of the data to the calculations show reasonable agreement.

T.A. Trabold; C.C. Maneri; P.F. Vassallo; D.M. Considine

2000-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

413

Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

414

Explosively pumped laser light  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Subcellular analysis by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In various embodiments, a method of laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) may generally comprise micro-dissecting a cell comprising at least one of a cell wall and a cell membrane to expose at least one subcellular component therein, ablating the at least one subcellular component by an infrared laser pulse to form an ablation plume, intercepting the ablation plume by an electrospray plume to form ions, and detecting the ions by mass spectrometry.

Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A; Shrestha, Bindesh

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

416

Laser dividing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser beam dividing apparatus (10) having a first beam splitter (14) with an aperture (16) therein positioned in the path of a laser beam (12) such that a portion of the laser beam (12) passes through the aperture (16) onto a second beam splitter (20) and a portion of the laser beam (12) impinges upon the first beam splitter (14). Both the first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) are, optionally, made from a dichroic material such that a green component (24) of the laser beam (12) is reflected therefrom and a yellow component (26) is refracted therethrough. The first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) further each have a plurality of facets (22) such that the components (24, 26) are reflected and refracted in a number equaling the number of facets (22).

English, Jr., R. Edward (Tracy, CA); Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Learn more about how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Several types of heat pumps are available, including air-source; geothermal; ductless, mini-split; and absorption heat pumps. Learn more about the different options and how to use your heat pump efficiently to save money and energy at home. Featured Heat Pump Systems A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar.

418

The Theta Laser A Low Noise Chirped Pulse Laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Theta Laser A Low Noise Chirped Pulse Laser Dimitrios Mandridis dmandrid@creol.ucf.edu April 29, 2011 CREOL Affiliates Day 2011 #12;2 Objective: Frequency Swept (FM) Mode-locked Laser · Develop a frequency swept laser, · linear f-sweep, · uniform-intensity, · low noise, · with long-term stability

Van Stryland, Eric

419

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Cross-cutting Research and Development Priorities Speaker(s): Sachin Nimbalkar Date: January 17, 2013 - 11:00am Location: 90-2063 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Aimee McKane Waste heat is generated from several industrial systems used in manufacturing. The waste heat sources are distributed throughout a plant. The largest source for most industries is exhaust / flue gases or heated air from heating systems. This includes the high temperature gases from burners in process heating, lower temperature gases from heat treat, dryers, and heaters, heat from heat exchangers, cooling liquids and gases etc. The previous studies and direct contact with the industry as well as equipment suppliers have shown that a large amount of waste heat is not

420

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ........................... 1,870 1,276 322 138 133 43.0 29.4 7.4 3.2 3.1 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 243 151 34 40 18 78.7 48.9 11.1 13.0 5.7 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 202 139 31 29 Q 54.8 37.6 8.5 7.9 Q 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 300 240 31 21 7 42.5 34.1 4.4 3.0 1.1 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 250 182 40 11 Q 41.5 30.2 6.6 1.9 Q 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 236 169 41 8 19 35.4 25.2 6.2 1.2 2.8 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 241 165 54 7 16 36.3 24.8 8.1 1.0 2.4 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 199 130 42 11 16 35.0 22.8 7.5 1.9 2.8 Over 500,000 ............................. 198

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ............................. 2,037 1,378 338 159 163 42.0 28.4 7.0 3.3 3.4 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 249 156 35 41 18 78.6 49.1 11.0 12.9 5.6 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 218 147 32 31 7 54.8 37.1 8.1 7.9 1.7 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 343 265 34 25 18 43.8 33.9 4.4 3.2 2.3 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 270 196 41 13 Q 40.9 29.7 6.3 2.0 2.9 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 269 186 45 13 24 35.8 24.8 6.0 1.8 3.2 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 267 182 56 10 19 35.4 24.1 7.4 1.3 2.6 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 204 134 43 11 17 34.7 22.7 7.3 1.8 2.9 Over 500,000 .............................

422

Steady response to heating: Gaussian heat source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

+ prescribed latent heating => "Matsuno-Gill model" Moisture equation for precipitation term ¡ Can make. of Equatorial Waves Filter out "background spectrum": ¡ Can see all different wave types! Especially Kelvin #12;Equatorial Waves Alternative theory for wave speed: ¡ Higher vertical mode structure causes phase

Frierson, Dargan

423

Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference Las Vegas, Nevada, USA July 21-23, 2003 HT2003-47449 HEAT TRANSFER FROM A MOVING AND EVAPORATING MENISCUS ON A HEATED SURFACE meniscus with complete evaporation of water without any meniscus break-up. The experimental heat transfer

Kandlikar, Satish

424

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Microchannel heat sink assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

429

Heat Requirements of Buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... and Ventilating Engineers in a publication entitled “Recommendations for the Computation of Heat Requirements for Buildings” (Pp. iii+41. Is. 9d.) This comprises a section of the ... parts. That on temperature-rise and rates of change gives the recommended values applicable to buildings ranging alphabetically from aircraft sheds to warehouses. The design of heating and ventilating installations ...

1942-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

430

"Cooling by heating" - demonstrating the significance of the longitudinal specific heat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heating a solid sphere at the surface induces mechanical stresses inside the sphere. If a finite amount of heat is supplied, the stresses gradually disappear as temperature becomes homogeneous throughout the sphere. We show that before this happens, there is a temporary lowering of pressure and density in the interior of the sphere, inducing a transient lowering of the temperature here. For ordinary solids this effect is small because c_p is almost equal to c_V. For fluent liquids the effect is negligible because their dynamic shear modulus vanishes. For a liquid at its glass transition, however, the effect is generally considerably larger than in solids. This paper presents analytical solutions of the relevant coupled thermoviscoelastic equations. In general, there is a difference between the isobaric specific heat, c_p, measured at constant isotropic pressure and the longitudinal specific heat, c_l, pertaining to mechanical boundary conditions that confine the associated expansion to be longitudinal. In the exact treatment of heat propagation the heat diffusion constant contains c_l rather than c_p. We show that the key parameter controlling the magnitude of the "cooling-by-heating" effect is the relative difference between these two specific heats. For a typical glass-forming liquid, when temperature at the surface is increased by 1 K, a lowering of the temperature in the sphere center of order 5 mK is expected if the experiment is performed at the glass transition. The cooling-by-heating effect is confirmed by measurements on a 19 mm diameter glucose sphere at the glass transition.

Jon J. Papini; Jeppe C. Dyre; Tage Christensen

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

431

Solar heating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Quantum electrodynamics in a laser and the electron laser collision  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum electrodynamics in a laser is formulated, in which the electron-laser interaction is exactly considered, while the interaction of an electron and a single photon is considered by perturbation. The formulation is applied to the electron-laser collisions. The effect of coherence between photons in the laser is therefore fully considered in these collisions. The possibility of $\\gamma-$ray laser generation by use of this kind of collision is discussed.

Qi-Ren Zhang

2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

433

Ultra-fast laser system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser system is provided which selectively excites Raman active vibrations in molecules. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and remote sensing.

Dantus, Marcos; Lozovoy, Vadim V

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

434

1982 laser program annual report  

SciTech Connect

This annual report covers the following eight sections: (1) laser program review, (2) laser systems and operation, (3) target design, (4) target fabrication, (5) fusion experiments program, (6) Zeus laser project, (7) laser research and development, and (8) energy applications. (MOW)

Hendricks, C.D.; Grow, G.R. (eds.)

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Heat Trace and Functional Determinant in One Dimension  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the spectral properties of the Laplace type operator on the circle. We discuss various approximations for the heat trace, the zeta function and the zeta-regularized determinant. We obtain a differential equation for the heat kernel diagonal and a recursive system for the diagonal heat kernel coefficients, which enables us to find closed approximate formulas for the heat trace and the functional determinant which become exact in the limit of infinite radius. The relation to the generalized KdV hierarchy is discussed as well.

Ivan G Avramidi

2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

436

Radiant Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Heating Radiant Heating Radiant Heating June 24, 2012 - 5:52pm Addthis In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. Radiant heating systems supply heat directly to the floor or to panels in the wall or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer -- the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating.

437

Radiant Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Heating Radiant Heating Radiant Heating June 24, 2012 - 5:52pm Addthis In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. Radiant heating systems supply heat directly to the floor or to panels in the wall or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer -- the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating.

438

Heating Rate Profiles in Galaxy Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years evidence has accumulated suggesting that the gas in galaxy clusters is heated by non-gravitational processes. Here we calculate the heating rates required to maintain a physically motived mass flow rate, in a sample of seven galaxy clusters. We employ the spectroscopic mass deposition rates as an observational input along with temperature and density data for each cluster. On energetic grounds we find that thermal conduction could provide the necessary heating for A2199, Perseus, A1795 and A478. However, the suppression factor, of the clasical Spitzer value, is a different function of radius for each cluster. Based on the observations of plasma bubbles we also calculate the duty cycles for each AGN, in the absence of thermal conduction, which can provide the required energy input. With the exception of Hydra-A it appears that each of the other AGNs in our sample require duty cycles of roughly $10^{6}-10^{7}$ yrs to provide their steady-state heating requirements. If these duty cycles are unrealistic, this may imply that many galaxy clusters must be heated by very powerful Hydra-A type events interspersed between more frequent smaller-scale outbursts. The suppression factors for the thermal conductivity required for combined heating by AGN and thermal conduction are generally acceptable. However, these suppression factors still require `fine-tuning` of the thermal conductivity as a function of radius. As a consequence of this work we present the AGN duty cycle as a cooling flow diagnostic.

Edward C. D. Pope; Georgi Pavlovski; Christian R. Kaiser; Hans Fangohr

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

439

Work extraction from heat-powered quantized optomechanical setups  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze work extraction from an autonomous (self-contained) heat-powered optomechanical setup. The initial state of the quantized mechanical oscillator plays a key role. As the initial mean amplitude of the oscillator decreases, the resulting efficiency increases. In contrast to laser-powered self-induced oscillations, work extraction from a broadband heat bath does not require coherence or phase-locking: an initial phase-averaged coherent state of the oscillator still yields work, as opposed to an initial Fock-state.

David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Gershon Kurizki

2015-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

440

Work extraction from heat-powered quantized optomechanical setups  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze work extraction from an autonomous (self-contained) heat-powered optomechanical setup. The initial state of the quantized mechanical oscillator plays a key role. As the initial mean amplitude of the oscillator decreases, the resulting efficiency increases. In contrast to laser-powered self-induced oscillations, work extraction from a broadband heat bath does not require coherence or phase-locking: an initial phase-averaged coherent state of the oscillator still yields work, as opposed to an initial Fock-state.

David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Gershon Kurizki

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Compressor Selection and Equipment Sizing for Cold Climate Heat Pumps  

SciTech Connect

In order to limit heating capacity degradation at -25 C (-13 F) ambient to 25%, compared to the nominal rating point capacity at 8.3 C (47 F), an extensive array of design and sizing options were investigated, based on fundamental equipment system modeling and building energy simulation. Sixteen equipment design options were evaluated in one commercial building and one residential building, respectively in seven cities. The energy simulation results were compared to three baseline cases: 100% electric resistance heating, a 9.6 HSPF single-speed heat pump unit, and 90% AFUE gas heating system. The general recommendation is that variable-speed compressors and tandem compressors, sized such that their rated heating capacity at a low speed matching the building design cooling load, are able to achieve the capacity goal at low ambient temperatures by over-speeding, for example, a home with a 3.0 ton design cooling load, a tandem heat pump could meet this cooling load running a single compressor, while running both compressors to meet heating load at low ambient temperatures in a cold climate. Energy savings and electric resistance heat reductions vary with building types, energy codes and climate zones. Oversizing a heat pump can result in larger energy saving in a less energy efficient building and colder regions due to reducing electric resistance heating. However, in a more energy-efficient building or for buildings in warmer climates, one has to consider balance between reduction of resistance heat and addition of cyclic loss.

Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Observation and Measurement of Temperature Rise and Distribution on GaAs Photo-cathode Wafer with a 532nm Drive Laser and a Thermal Imaging Camera  

SciTech Connect

Significant temperature rise and gradient are observed from a GaAs photo-cathode wafer irradiated at various power levels with over 20W laser power at 532nm wavelength. The laser power absorption and dissipated thermal distribution are measured. The result shows a clear indication that proper removal of laser induced heat from the cathode needs to be considered seriously when designing a high average current or low quantum efficiency photo-cathode electron gun. The measurement method presented here provides a useful way to obtain information about both temperature and thermal profiles, it also applies to cathode heating study with other heating devices such as electrical heaters.

Shukui Zhang, Stephen Benson, Carlos Hernandez-Garcia

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Draft General Conformity Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

I I Draft General Conformity Determination U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service MMS Cape Wind Energy Project January 2009 Final EIS Appendix I Draft General Conformity Determination Draft General Conformity Determination Cape Wind Energy Project Prepared by Minerals Management Service Herndon, VA November 2008 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROPOSED ACTION............................................................... 1 2.0 GENERAL CONFORMITY REGULATORY BACKGROUND .......................................... 2 2.1 GENERAL CONFORMITY REQUIREMENTS.................................................................... 2 2.2 GENERAL CONFORMITY APPLICABILITY.....................................................................

444

Fiber optic laser rod  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

Erickson, G.F.

1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

445

General | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volver Pgina principal General banner.jpg Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGeneral&oldid519011" What links here Related changes Special pages Printable...

446

General User Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General User Proposals Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS or the...

447

General User Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office General User Proposals Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS...

448

Proposal for a Photonic Remote Active Heat Sink Technology (PHRAHST)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new method to effect heat removal from an object by using a laser beam. The proposed method is based on inelastic scattering of a laser beam from the object and in particular by making the anti-Stokes emission more efficient than the Stokes emission. In that manner more energy is removed from the body per unit time than deposited. Various ways are outlined in order to achieve this result ranging from careful selection of the laser frequency with respect to the resonant frequencies of the medium, use of the frequency dependence of the density of electromagnetic modes in a three-dimensional system, use of photonic crystals and the polarization dependence of electromagnetic modes in cavities. The proposed methods could find use for example in the cooling of devices of nanoscale dimensions.

Dimitropoulos, Dimitris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-807. (5) K. Kesavan. The Use of Dissociating Gases As the Working Fluid in Thermodynamic Power Conversion Cycles, Ph.D. thesis. Carnegie-Mellon University, 1978, Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1978. 5. Heat amplifier with a gas...ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, hl~a: driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid...

Kirol, L. D.

450

Chemical heat pump cools as well as heats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical heat pump cools as well as heats ... Innovative heat pump uses methanol refrigerant, calcium chloride absorber to use and store solar energy for heating, air conditioning, hot water ... Though the EIC heat pump is similar in concept to other chemical heat pumps now being used or developed, it does offer a number of innovations, not the least of which are its novel refrigerant (methanol) and absorption medium (calcium chloride). ...

RON DAGANI

1980-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

451

Integrating preconcentrator heat controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Arakaki, Lester H. (Edgewood, NM); Varley, Eric S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

452

Single ion heat engine with maximum efficiency at maximum power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an experimental scheme to realize a nano heat engine with a single ion. An Otto cycle may be implemented by confining the ion in a linear Paul trap with tapered geometry and coupling it to engineered laser reservoirs. The quantum efficiency at maximum power is analytically determined in various regimes. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations of the engine are performed that demonstrate its feasibility and its ability to operate at maximum efficiency of 30% under realistic conditions.

Obinna Abah; Johannes Rossnagel; Georg Jacob; Sebastian Deffner; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Kilian Singer; Eric Lutz

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

453

A model for self-defocusing in laser drilling of polymeric materials  

SciTech Connect

A numerical thermal model is presented for laser microvias drilling in multilayer electronic substrates with Nd:YAG (YAG denotes yttrium aluminum garnet) and CO{sub 2} lasers. Such substrates have different optical properties such as the refractive index and absorption coefficient at these two laser wavelengths, resulting in different drilling mechanisms. Since the skin depth of the polymer is large for both the lasers, volumetric heating is considered in the model. As soon as a small cavity is formed during the drilling process, the concave curvature of the drilling front acts as a concave lens that diverges the incident laser beam. This self-defocusing effect can greatly reduce the drilling speed as predicted by the model. This effect makes the refractive index of the substrate at different wavelengths an important parameter for laser drilling. The model was used to calculate the laser ablation thresholds which were found to be 8 and 56 J/cm{sup 2} for the CO{sub 2} and Nd:YAG lasers respectively. Due to the expulsion of materials because of high internal pressures in the case of Nd:YAG laser microvia drilling, the ablation threshold may be far below the calculated value. A particular laser beam shape, such as pitch fork, was found to drill better holes than the Gaussian beam.

Zhang Chong; Quick, Nathaniel R.; Kar, Aravinda [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-2700 (United States); AppliCote Associates, LLC, 1445 Dolgner Place, Suite 23, Sanford, Florida 32771 (United States); College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-2700 (United States)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility City of Klamath...

455

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified...

456

Heat treatment furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

457

Molecular heat pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a novel molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation waveforms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

Dvira Segal; Abraham Nitzan

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

458

Heat storage with CREDA  

SciTech Connect

The principle of operation of ETS or Electric Thermal Storage is discussed in this book. As can be seen by the diagram presented, heating elements buried deep within the core are energized during off-peak periods or periods of lower cost energy. These elements charge the core to a per-determined level, then during the on-peak periods when the cost of electricity is higher or demand is higher, the heat is extracted from the core. The author discusses how this technology has progressed to the ETS equipment of today; this being the finer control of charging rates and extraction of heat from the core.

Beal, T. (Fostoria Industries, Fostoria, OH (US))

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Analysis of laser remote fusion cutting based on a mathematical model  

SciTech Connect

Laser remote fusion cutting is analyzed by the aid of a semi-analytical mathematical model of the processing front. By local calculation of the energy balance between the absorbed laser beam and the heat losses, the three-dimensional vaporization front can be calculated. Based on an empirical model for the melt flow field, from a mass balance, the melt film and the melting front can be derived, however only in a simplified manner and for quasi-steady state conditions. Front waviness and multiple reflections are not modelled. The model enables to compare the similarities, differences, and limits between laser remote fusion cutting, laser remote ablation cutting, and even laser keyhole welding. In contrast to the upper part of the vaporization front, the major part only slightly varies with respect to heat flux, laser power density, absorptivity, and angle of front inclination. Statistical analysis shows that for high cutting speed, the domains of high laser power density contribute much more to the formation of the front than for low speed. The semi-analytical modelling approach offers flexibility to simplify part of the process physics while, for example, sophisticated modelling of the complex focused fibre-guided laser beam is taken into account to enable deeper analysis of the beam interaction. Mechanisms like recast layer generation, absorptivity at a wavy processing front, and melt film formation are studied too.

Matti, R. S. [Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, S-971 87 Luleå (Sweden); Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul (Iraq); Ilar, T.; Kaplan, A. F. H. [Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, S-971 87 Luleå (Sweden)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

460

The role of tilted heating in the evolution of the MJO Cara-Lyn Lappen1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The role of tilted heating in the evolution of the MJO Cara-Lyn Lappen1 and Courtney Schumacher2 1 the role of tilted heating in the evolution of the MJO. It is believed that the inability of many general heating distributions. Given the MJO's importance in tropical climate, we need to better understand what

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Estimation of Molar Heat Capacities in Solution from Gas Chromatographic Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the solutions of hydrocarbons--the general...and the molar heat capacity Abstract...Chromatographic Data K roly H berger...measure- ments of heat capacities and...Chem. Eng. Data 20: 24346 (1975...R. Fuchs. Heat capacities of...Enthalpies of combustion of some aliphatic......

Károly Héberger; Miklós Görgényi

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

CYCLOTRON HEATING NFR THE MULTIPOLE B = 0 AXIS J. C. Sprott  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CYCLOTRON HEATING NFR THE MULTIPOLE B = 0 AXIS by J. C. Sprott November 1973 PLP 536 Plasma Studies of the author and major professor. #12;Ion and Electron Cyclotron heating rates in multipoles are generally = 0 axis in a multipole. The average cyclotron heating rate is given by d--= dt where TIB G 0 = TI

Sprott, Julien Clinton

463

Heat-pipe technology: a bibliography with abstracts. Quarterly update, April-June 1981  

SciTech Connect

A bibliography of 93 publications on heat pipes is presented. The citations are arranged by categories of general information and heat pipe uses, theory, design, fabrication, and performance. An author index and title/keyword index are provided. Five heat-pipe related patents are listed. (LCL)

Srinivasan, R.; Feldman, K.T. Jr. (eds.)

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

RIS-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;#12;- 5 - 1. INTRODUCTION The storage of heat producing radioactive waste in rock salt, will produce of the brine migration under influence of the decreasing heat production in the waste. A general expressionRISÃ?-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT Mathematical treatment

465

Heat pumps and under floor heating as a heating system for Finnish low-rise residential buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In bachelor’s thesis the study of under floor heating system with ground source heat pump for the heat transfers fluid heating is considered. The case… (more)

Chuduk, Svetlana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Laser Wakefield Particle Accelerators Project at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Vorpal.jpg Key Challenges: Design of multiple-staged, 10-GeV laser-wakefield plasma accelerated...

467

EA-1655: Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Laser Acquisition, Installation and Use for Research and Development  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Laser Acquisition, Installation and Use for Research and Development

468

Domestic Heating and Thermal Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... DIGEST 133 of the Building Research Station, entitled "Domestic Heating and Thermal Insulation" (Pp. 7. London : H.M. Stationery Office, 1960. 4insulation, the standard of heating, the ventilation-rate and the length of the heating season ...

1960-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

469

2659 heat insulation [n] (2)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

constr....(Protection against heat provided by heat-shielding materials in the outer walls of a building to prevent heat build-up in hot regions or in temperate climates during the summer. In tempera...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Heat Transfer and Convection Currents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...October 1965 research-article Heat Transfer and Convection Currents D. C...convection in a medium with internal heat generation is discussed semi-quantitatively...States English United Kingdom 1966 Heat transfer and convection currents Tozer D...

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Heat and Sound Insulation Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Of the three heat transfer processes: heat conduction, convection and radiation, convectional heat transfer is reduced by fiber and foam insulation materials1, 2). Air circulation is prevented by compartmentalizi...

Dr. Andre Knop; Dr. Louis A. Pilato

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Residential heating oil prices decline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices decline The average retail price for home heating oil is 3.48 per gallon. That's down 4.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by...

473

Terahertz quantum cascade lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of the terahertz frequency range has long been impeded by the relative dearth of compact, coherent radiation sources of reasonable power. This thesis details the development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) ...

Williams, Benjamin S. (Benjamin Stanford), 1974-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Along the Laser Beampath  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from the master oscillator, amplifiy it more than a billion times, and set its spatial profile before injecting it into the main laser beampath. Photo Number: NIF-1107-1416113...

475

Injection Laser System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Injection Laser System For each of NIF's 192 beams: The pulse shape as a function of time must be generated with a high degree of precision The energy delivered to the target must...

476

Spark and Laser Ignition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the context of nonshock initiation of secondary explosives, electric sparks and lasers represent sources of external power that may stimulate exothermic reaction in energetic materials, and generate enough ...

James E. Kennedy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Fusion reactor pumped laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

Jassby, D.L.

1987-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

478

Dark Soliton Fiber Laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the experimental observation of stable dark solitons in an all normal dispersion fiber laser. We found experimentally that dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the fiber laser under strong continuous wave (CW) emission. However, only under appropriate pump strength and negative cavity feedback, stable single or multiple dark soliton could be achieved. Furthermore, we show that the features of the observed dark solitons could be well understood based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE).

H. Zhang; D. Y. Tang; L. M. Zhao; X. Wu; Q. L. Bao; K. P. Loh

2009-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

479

Laser surface cleaning  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination of contaminated metal and material recycle, two of 31 priority needs identified by the D&D focus group, are the most promising applications for laser ablation within the DOE complex. F2 Associates has developed a robotic laser ablation system that is capable of high contamination rates, waste volume reduction, surface pore cleaning, and real-time characterization of materials. It is being demonstrated that this system will be the most cost-effective technology for metal decontamination and material recycle.

Crivella, E.C.; Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

480

Variable laser attenuator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

Foltyn, S.R.

1987-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser heating general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Thermal and molecular investigation of laser tissue welding  

SciTech Connect

Despite the growing number of successful animal and human trials, the exact mechanisms of laser tissue welding remain unknown. Furthermore, the effects of laser heating on tissue on the molecular scale are not fully understood. To address these issues, a multi-front attack oil both extrinsic (solder/patch mediated) and intrinsic (laser only) tissue welding was launched using two-color infrared thermometry, computer modeling, weld strength assessment, biochemical assays, and vibrational spectroscopy. The coupling of experimentally measured surface temperatures with the predictive numerical simulations provided insight into the sub-surface dynamics of the laser tissue welding process. Quantification of the acute strength of the welds following the welding procedure enabled comparison among trials during an experiment, with previous experiments, and with other studies in the literature. The acute weld integrity also provided an indication of tile probability of long-term success. Molecular effects induced In the tissue by laser irradiation were investigated by measuring tile concentrations of specific collagen covalent crosslinks and characterizing the Fourier-Transform infrared (FTIR) spectra before and after the laser exposure.

Small, W., IV

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Advances in induction heating  

SciTech Connect

Electric induction heating, in situ, can distill (underground) high-heat-value (HHV) gas, coal tar, bitumen, and shale oil. This technique permits potentially lower cost exploitation of the solid fossil fuels: coal, oil shale, tar sand, and heavy oil. The products, when brought to the surface in gaseous form and processed, yield chemical feedstocks, natural gas, and petroleum. Residual coke can be converted, in situ, to low-heat-value (LHV) gas by a conventional water-gas process. LHV can be burned at the surface to generate electricity at low cost. The major cost of the installation will have been paid for by the HHV gas and tar distilled from the coal. There are 2 mechanisms of heating by electric induction. One uses displacement currents induced from an electric field. The other uses eddy currents induced by a magnetic field.

Not Available

1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

484

Solar Heating Contractor Licensing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Michigan offers a solar heating contractor specialty license to individuals who have at least three years of experience installing solar equipment under the direction of a licensed solar contractor...

485

Heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Heating and cooling of dwelling houses and other confined spaces is facilitated by a system in which thermal energy is transported between an air heating and cooling system in the dwelling and a water heat storage sink or source, preferably in the form of a swimming pool or swimming pool and spa combination. Special reversing valve circuitry and the use of solar collectors and liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers on the liquid side of the system , and special air valves and air modules on the air side of the system, enhance the system's efficiency and make it practical in the sense that systems employing the invention can utilize existing craft skills and building financing arrangements and building codes, and the like, without major modification.

Krumhansl, M.U.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

486

Solar heated swimming pool  

SciTech Connect

A swimming pool construction incorporating solar heating means to heat the pool water to a desired level. The pool includes a surrounding safety fence supported by a plurality of fence supports which are hollow and which include internal passageways. The pool water is passed through the pool support passageways whereupon it absorbs heat from the sidewalls of the fence supports, the surfaces of which have been heated by solar radiation. The fence supports can be made of plastic or other materials, but preferably are dark for improved absorptivity. The pool water can be passed serially through each of the fence supports and suitable thermostat control means can be provided to limit the water temperature increase.

Pettit, F.M.

1984-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

487

Electron Heat Transport Measured  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat Transport Measured in a Stochastic Magnetic Field T. M. Biewer, * C. B. Forest, J. K. Anderson, G. Fiksel, B. Hudson, S. C. Prager, J. S. Sarff, and J. C. Wright...

488

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute exempts from the state sales tax all wood or "refuse-derived" fuel used for heating purposes. The law does not make any distinctions about whether the qualified fuels are used for...

489

Absorption Heat Pump Developments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The implementation of both new thermodynamic cycles and new suitable fluids makes it possible to considerably widen the capacity to recover and upgrade low level heat contained particularly in industrial therm...

G. Cohen; A. Rojey

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Curling in the heat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... heat sensor, shown here, has been developed by Jim Gimzewski and colleagues at IBM Riis-chlikon specifically for studies of surface reactions . A spin-off of the scanning probe ...

David A. King

1994-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

491

CRC handbook of laser science and technology. Volume 3. Gas lasers  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the fundamentals of gas lasers. It provides information and data on neutral gas lasers, ionized gas lasers, and molecular gas lasers. Concluding this volume is an extensive table of all gas laser wavelengths.

Weber, M.J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

High-current-density, high brightness cathodes for free electron laser applications  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: brightness and emittance of electron beams and cathodes; general requirements for cathodes in high brightness electron guns; candidate cathode types; plasma and field emission cathodes; true field emission cathodes; oxide cathodes; lanthanum hexaborides cathodes; laser driven thermionic cathodes; laser driven photocathodes; impregnated porous tungsten dispenser cathodes; and choice of best performing cathode types.

Green, M.C. (Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA (USA). Palo Alto Microwave Tube Div.)

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

to cut your water heating bill. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy...

494

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*II. HEAT WAVE DEFINITIONS .. A . HCHANGE AND HEAT WAVES .. CLIMATE III. IV. HEAT

Carlson, Ann E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Convective heat flow probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

496

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

SHOPP Financial Forms - for State Energy Officials SHOPP Financial Forms - for State Energy Officials The Federal forms below are required for State Energy Officials participating in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) to execute their cooperative agreements with the U. S. Energy Information Administration. The Application for Federal Assistance, Form SF-424, is required to be submitted annually no later than May 15th in order for the applicant to receive funds for the upcoming season. This form consists of three parts: SF-424 - general funding information SF-424A - annual budget SF-424B - assurance pages The Federal Financial Report, Form SF-425, collects basic data on federal and recipient expenditures related to the SHOPP grant. This form should be submitted by August 1st of each year after the end of the season.

498

Heat deliverability of homogeneous geothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

For the last two decades, the petroleum industry has been successfully using simple inflow performance relationships (IPR's) to predict oil deliverability. In contrast, the geothermal industry lacked a simple and reliable method to estimate geothermal wells' heat deliverability. To address this gap in the standard geothermal-reservoir-assessment arsenal, we developed generalized dimensionless geothermal inflow performance relationships (GIPR's). These ''reference curves'' may be regarded as an approximate general solution of the equations describing the practically important case of radial 2-phase inflow. Based on this approximate solution, we outline a straightforward approach to estimate the reservoir contribution to geothermal wells heat and mass deliverability for 2-phase reservoirs. This approach is far less costly and in most cases as reliable as numerically modeling the reservoir, which is the alternative for 2-phase inflow.

Iglesias, Eduardo R.; Moya, Sara L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Fluid flow and conjugated heat transfer in arbitrarily shaped channels via single domain formulation and integral transforms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present work advances a recently introduced approach based on combining the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) and a single domain reformulation strategy, aimed at providing hybrid numerical–analytical solutions to convection–diffusion problems in complex physical configurations and irregular geometries. The methodology has been previously considered in the analysis of conjugated conduction–convection heat transfer problems, simultaneously modeling the heat transfer phenomena at both the fluid streams and the channels walls, by making use of coefficients represented as space variable functions with abrupt transitions occurring at the fluid–wall interfaces. The present work is aimed at extending this methodology to deal with both fluid flow and conjugated heat transfer within arbitrarily shaped channels and complex multichannel configurations, so that the solution of a cumbersome system of coupled partial differential equations defined for each individual sub-domain of the problem is avoided, with the proposition of the single-domain formulation. The reformulated problem is integral transformed through the adoption of eigenvalue problems containing the space variable coefficients, which provide the basis of the eigenfunction expansions and are responsible for recovering the transitional behavior among the different regions in the original formulation. For demonstration purposes, an application is first considered consisting of a microchannel with an irregular cross-section shape, representing a typical channel micro-fabricated through laser ablation, in which heat and fluid flow are investigated, taking into account the conjugation with the polymeric substrate. Then, a complex configuration consisting of multiple irregularly shaped channels is more closely analyzed, in order to illustrate the flexibility and robustness of the advanced hybrid approach. In both cases, the convergence behavior of the proposed expansions is presented and critical comparisons against purely numerical approaches are provided.

Diego C. Knupp; Renato M. Cotta; Carolina P. Naveira-Cotta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Heat Transfer Operators Associated with Quantum Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Any quantum operation applied on a physical system is performed as a unitary transformation on a larger extended system. If the extension used is a heat bath in thermal equilibrium, the concomitant change in the state of the bath necessarily implies a heat exchange with it. The dependence of the average heat transferred to the bath on the initial state of the system can then be found from the expectation value of a hermitian operator, which is named as the heat transfer operator (HTO). The purpose of this article is the investigation of the relation between the HTOs and the associated quantum operations. Since, any given quantum operation on a system can be realized by different baths and unitaries, many different HTOs are possible for each quantum operation. On the other hand, there are also strong restrictions on the HTOs which arise from the unitarity of the transformations. The most important of these is the Landauer erasure principle. This article is concerned with the question of finding a complete set of restrictions on the HTOs that are associated with a given quantum operation. An answer to this question has been found only for a subset of quantum operations. For erasure operations, these characterizations are equivalent to the generalized Landauer erasure principle. For the case of generic quantum operations however, it appears that the HTOs obey further restrictions which cannot be obtained from the entropic restrictions of the generalized Landauer erasure principle.

Ç. Aksak; S. Turgut

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z