Sample records for laser focus world

  1. METAMATERIALS: Large-area printed 3D negative-index metamaterial is flexible -Laser Focus World http://www.laserfocusworld.com/articles/print/volume-47/issue-8/world-news/metamaterials-large-area-printed-3d-negative-index-metamaterial-is-flexible.html[8/1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    METAMATERIALS: Large-area printed 3D negative-index metamaterial is flexible - Laser Focus World-area printed 3D negative-index metamaterial is flexible METAMATERIALS: Large-area printed 3D negative, with the advent of a printing process that produces large-area 3D multilayer optical NIMs --8.7 × 8.7 cm square

  2. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, C.S.

    1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  3. Navy Breaks World Record With Futuristic Free-Electron Laser...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    foxnews.comscitech20110218navy-breaks-world-record-futuristic-laser-getting-real Submitted: Sunday, February 20, 2011...

  4. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharlemann, Ernst T. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to turn or focus a non-axial electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is provided by wiggler magnet pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped.

  5. Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Focusing Shock Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezeril, Thomas

    Direct real-time visualization and measurement of laser-driven shock generation, propagation, and 2D focusing in a sample are demonstrated. A substantial increase of the pressure at the convergence of the cylindrical ...

  6. Fields of an ultrashort tightly-focused laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jian-Xing; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic fields of an ultrashort, tightly focused, laser pulse in vacuum are derived from scalar and vector potentials, using on equal footing two small parameters connected with the waist size of the laser beam and its duration. Compared with fields derived from a complex-source-point approach and a Lax series expansion approach, the derived fields are shown to be well-behaved and accurate even in the subcycle pulse regime. Terms stemming from the scalar potential are shown to be non-negligible and could significantly influence laser-matter interactions, in particular, direct electron acceleration in vacuum by an ultrashort laser pulse.

  7. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1985-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure describes a free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to turn or focus a non-axial electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is provided by wiggler magnet pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped.

  8. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1988-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to turn or focus a non-axial electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is provided by wiggler magnet pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped. 5 figs.

  9. Phase transition oscillations induced by a strongly focused laser beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clémence Devailly; Caroline Crauste-Thibierge; Artyom Petrosyan; Sergio Ciliberto

    2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report here the observation of a surprising phenomenon consisting in a oscillating phase transition which appears in a binary mixture, PMMA/3-octanone, when this is enlightened by a strongly focused infrared laser beam. PMMA/3-octanone has a UCST (Upper Critical Solution Temperature) which presents a critical point at temperature Tc = 306.6 K and volume fraction $\\phi$c = 12.8 % [Crauste et al., ArXiv 1310.6720, 2012]. This oscillatory phenomenon appears because of thermophoretic and electrostriction effects and non-linear diffusion. We analyze these oscillations and we propose a simple model which includes the minimal ingredients to produce the oscillatory behavior. Phase transitions in binary mixtures are still a widely studied subject, specifically near the critical point where several interesting and not completely understood phenomena may appear, among them we recall the critical Casimir forces [2],[3], confinement effects [4], [5] and out-of-equilibrium dynamics after a quench. The perturbation of the binary mixtures by mean of external fields is also an important and recent field of investigation [6]. For example, a laser can induce interesting phenomena in demixing binary mixtures because the radiation pressure can deform the interface between the two phases and it can be used to measure the interface tension [7]. Depending on the nature of the binary mixtures, laser illumination can also lead to a mixing or demixing transition. In ref.[8], focused infrared laser light heats the medium initially in the homogeneous phase and causes a separation in the LCST (Low Critical Solution Temperature) system. The radiation pressure gradients in a laser beam also contribute in the aggregation of polymers , thus producing a phase transition. The local heating may induce thermophoretic forces which attract towards the laser beam one of the binary-mixture components [9]. Other forces like electrostriction can also be involved [10]. In this letter, we report a new phenomenon, which consists in an oscillating phase transition induced by a constant illumination from an infrared laser beam in the heterogeneous region of an UCST (Upper Critical Solution Temperature) binary mixture. Oscillation phenomena in phase transition have already been reported in slow cooling UCST [11],[12] but as far as we know, never induced by a stationary laser illumination. After describing our experimental setup , we will present the results. Then we will use a very simplified model which contains the main necessary physical ingredients to induce this oscillation phenomenon.

  10. Aerosol beam-focus laser-induced plasma spectrometer device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for detecting elements in an aerosol includes an aerosol beam focuser for concentrating aerosol into an aerosol beam; a laser for directing a laser beam into the aerosol beam to form a plasma; a detection device that detects a wavelength of a light emission caused by the formation of the plasma. The detection device can be a spectrometer having at least one grating and a gated intensified charge-coupled device. The apparatus may also include a processor that correlates the wavelength of the light emission caused by the formation of the plasma with an identity of an element that corresponds to the wavelength. Furthermore, the apparatus can also include an aerosol generator for forming an aerosol beam from bulk materials. A method for detecting elements in an aerosol is also disclosed.

  11. Large spectral tuning of a waterglycerol microdroplet by a focused laser: characterization and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muradoglu, Metin

    heating induced by the absorption of a focused infrared laser. Under constant infrared laser illumina of a water­glycerol microdroplet standing on a superhydrophobic surface by local heating with a focused infrared laser is studied both experimentally by optical spectroscopy and computationally using a lumped

  12. On Self-focusing of Short Laser Pulses Vladimir Malkin George Papanicolaouy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for \\ultra-short" laser pulses, so that time dispersion may be neglected at least during the early stageOn Self-focusing of Short Laser Pulses Vladimir Malkin George Papanicolaouy February 14, 1995 Abstract We consider the well-known problem of self-focusing of short laser pulses in media with normal

  13. Coherence and focusing properties of unstable resonator semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittelstein, M.; Salzman, J.; Venkatesan, T.; Lang, R.; Yariv, A.

    1985-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission characteristics of unstable resonator semiconductor lasers were measured. The output of an 80-..mu..m-wide laser consists of a diverging beam with a virtual source 5 ..mu..m wide located 50 ..mu..m behind the laser facet. A high degree of spatial coherence of the laser output was measured, indicating single lateral mode operation for currents I< or approx. =3 I/sub th/.

  14. Phase transition oscillations induced by a strongly focused laser beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devailly, Clémence; Petrosyan, Artyom; Ciliberto, Sergio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report here the observation of a surprising phenomenon consisting in a oscillating phase transition which appears in a binary mixture, PMMA/3-octanone, when this is enlightened by a strongly focused infrared laser beam. PMMA/3-octanone has a UCST (Upper Critical Solution Temperature) which presents a critical point at temperature Tc = 306.6 K and volume fraction $\\phi$c = 12.8 % [Crauste et al., ArXiv 1310.6720, 2012]. This oscillatory phenomenon appears because of thermophoretic and electrostriction effects and non-linear diffusion. We analyze these oscillations and we propose a simple model which includes the minimal ingredients to produce the oscillatory behavior. Phase transitions in binary mixtures are still a widely studied subject, specifically near the critical point where several interesting and not completely understood phenomena may appear, among them we recall the critical Casimir forces [2],[3], confinement effects [4], [5] and out-of-equilibrium dynamics after a quench. The perturbation of th...

  15. Spatio-temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for nonreciprocal writing in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    , and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short ir laser pulses," Opt. CommunSpatio-temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for nonreciprocal writing in optically Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (140.3390) Laser materials processing; (050.2555) Form

  16. Numerical simulations of self-focusing of ultrafast laser pulses Gadi Fibich*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiao-Ping

    Numerical simulations of self-focusing of ultrafast laser pulses Gadi Fibich* School November 2002; published 7 May 2003 Simulation of nonlinear propagation of intense ultrafast laser pulses, space-time focusing, and self-steepening. Our simulations show that, after the asymmetric temporal pulse

  17. Exact analytical expression for the electromagnetic field in a focused laser beam or pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander M. Fedotov; Konstantin Yu. Korolev; Maxim V. Legkov

    2007-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new class of exact nonsingular solutions for the Maxwell equations in vacuum, which describe the electromagnetic field of the counterpropagating focused laser beams and the subperiod focused laser pulse. These solutions are derived by the use of a modification of the "complex source method", investigated and visualized.

  18. Stationary self-focusing of intense laser beam in cold quantum plasma using ramp density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M. [Department of Physics, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghamari, F. [Department of Physics, Khorramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    By using a transient density profile, we have demonstrated stationary self-focusing of an electromagnetic Gaussian beam in cold quantum plasma. The paper is devoted to the prospects of using upward increasing ramp density profile of an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium with quantum effects in self-focusing mechanism of high intense laser beam. We have found that the upward ramp density profile in addition to quantum effects causes much higher oscillation and better focusing of laser beam in cold quantum plasma in comparison to that in the classical relativistic case. Our computational results reveal the importance and influence of formation of electron density profiles in enhancing laser self-focusing.

  19. Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Andreas

    Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing­16 . The plasma generation balances the self-focusing effect and leads to a limited peak intensity 17­19 along, Germany Received 10 March 2006; published 27 September 2006 Our experiment shows that external focusing

  20. Ponderomotive self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafari Milani, M. R., E-mail: mrj.milani@gmail.com [Plasma Physics Research School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A. R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farahbod, A. H. [Plasma Physics Research School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam through warm collisional plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive force nonlinearity and the complex eikonal function. By introducing the dielectric permittivity of warm unmagnetized plasma and using the WKB and paraxial ray approximations, the coupled differential equations defining the variations of laser beam parameters are obtained and solved numerically. Effects of laser and plasma parameters such as the collision frequency, the initial laser intensity and its spot size on the beam width parameter and the axis laser intensity distribution are analyzed. It is shown that, self-focusing of the laser beam takes place faster by increasing the collision frequency and initial laser spot size and then after some distance propagation the laser beam abruptly loses its initial diameter and vastly diverges. Furthermore, the modified electron density distribution is obtained and the collision frequency effect on this distribution is studied.

  1. Effect of polarization and focusing on laser pulse driven auto-resonant particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagar, Vikram; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428 (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of laser polarization and focusing is theoretically studied on the final energy gain of a particle in the Auto-resonant acceleration scheme using a finite duration laser pulse with Gaussian shaped temporal envelope. The exact expressions for dynamical variables viz. position, momentum, and energy are obtained by analytically solving the relativistic equation of motion describing particle dynamics in the combined field of an elliptically polarized finite duration pulse and homogeneous static axial magnetic field. From the solutions, it is shown that for a given set of laser parameters viz. intensity and pulse length along with static magnetic field, the energy gain by a positively charged particle is maximum for a right circularly polarized laser pulse. Further, a new scheme is proposed for particle acceleration by subjecting it to the combined field of a focused finite duration laser pulse and static axial magnetic field. In this scheme, the particle is initially accelerated by the focused laser field, which drives the non-resonant particle to second stage of acceleration by cyclotron Auto-resonance. The new scheme is found to be efficient over two individual schemes, i.e., auto-resonant acceleration and direct acceleration by focused laser field, as significant particle acceleration can be achieved at one order lesser values of static axial magnetic field and laser intensity.

  2. Characterization of the Los Alamos IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser using multiple optical paths and laser focusing optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milewski, John O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bernal, John E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiber laser technology has been identified as the replacement power source for the existing Los Alamos TA-55 production laser welding system. An IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser was purchased, installed at SM-66 R3, and accepted in February 2008. No characterization of the laser and no welding was performed in the Feb 2008 to May 2009 interval. T. Lienert and J. Bernal (Ref. 1, July 2009) determined the existing 200 mm Rofin collimator and focus heads used with the Rofin diode pumped lasers were inadequate for use with the IPG laser due to clipping of the IPG laser beam. Further efforts in testing of the IPG laser with Optoskand fiber delivery optics and a Rofin 120 mm collimator proved problematic due to optical fiber damage. As a result, IPG design optical fibers were purchased as replacements for subsequent testing. Within the same interval, an IPG fiber-to-fiber (F2F) connector, custom built for LANL, (J. Milewski, S. Gravener, Ref.2) was demonstrated and accepted at IPG Oxford, MA in August 2009. An IPG service person was contracted to come to LANL to assist in the installation, training, troubleshooting and characterization of the multiple beam paths and help perform laser head optics characterization. The statement of work is provided below: In summary the laser system, optical fibers, F2F connector, Precitec head, and a modified Rofin type (w/120mm Optoskand collimator) IWindowIBoot system focus head (Figure 1) were shown to perform well at powers up to 6 kW CW. Power measurements, laser spot size measurements, and other characterization data and lessons learned are contained within this report. In addition, a number of issues were identified that will require future resolution.

  3. Design of voice coil motor dynamic focusing unit for a laser scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Moon G.; Kim, Gaeun; Lee, Chan-Woo; Lee, Soo-Hun; Jeon, Yongho, E-mail: princaps@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser scanning systems have been used for material processing tasks such as welding, cutting, marking, and drilling. However, applications have been limited by the small range of motion and slow speed of the focusing unit, which carries the focusing optics. To overcome these limitations, a dynamic focusing system with a long travel range and high speed is needed. In this study, a dynamic focusing unit for a laser scanning system with a voice coil motor (VCM) mechanism is proposed to enable fast speed and a wide focusing range. The VCM has finer precision and higher speed than conventional step motors and a longer travel range than earlier lead zirconium titanate actuators. The system has a hollow configuration to provide a laser beam path. This also makes it compact and transmission-free and gives it low inertia. The VCM's magnetics are modeled using a permeance model. Its design parameters are determined by optimization using the Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno method and a sequential quadratic programming algorithm. After the VCM is designed, the dynamic focusing unit is fabricated and assembled. The permeance model is verified by a magnetic finite element method simulation tool, Maxwell 2D and 3D, and by measurement data from a gauss meter. The performance is verified experimentally. The results show a resolution of 0.2 ?m and travel range of 16 mm. These are better than those of conventional focusing systems; therefore, this focusing unit can be applied to laser scanning systems for good machining capability.

  4. Stimulated Raman Scattering and Nonlinear Focusing of High-Power Laser Beams Propagating in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hafizi, B; Penano, J R; Gordon, D F; Jones, T G; Helle, M H; Kaganovich, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical processes associated with propagation of a high-power (power > critical power for self-focusing) laser beam in water include nonlinear focusing, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), optical breakdown and plasma formation. The interplay between nonlinear focusing and SRS is analyzed for cases where a significant portion of the pump power is channeled into the Stokes wave. Propagation simulations and an analytical model demonstrate that the Stokes wave can re-focus the pump wave after the power in the latter falls below the critical power. It is shown that this novel focusing mechanism is distinct from cross-phase focusing. While discussed here in the context of propagation in water, the gain-focusing phenomenon is general to any medium supporting nonlinear focusing and stimulated forward Raman scattering.

  5. Self-focusing of circularly polarized laser pulse propagating through a magnetized non-Maxwellian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepehri Javan, N., E-mail: sepehri-javan@uma.ac.ir [Department of physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, PO Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-focusing of an intense circularly polarized laser pulse propagating through a magnetized non-Maxwellian plasma is investigated. Based on a relativistic two-fluid model, nonlinear equation describing dynamics of the slowly varying amplitude is obtained. The evolution of laser spot size is studied and effect of non-Maxwellian distribution of charge density on the spot size is considered. It is shown that the existence of super-thermal particles leads to the enhancement of the self-focusing quality of plasma.

  6. Terahertz generation by two cross focused laser beams in collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, R. P., E-mail: rpsharma@ces.iitd.ernet.in; Singh, Ram Kishor, E-mail: ram007kishor@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of two cross-focused spatial-Gaussian laser beams has been studied for the high power and efficient terahertz (THz) radiation generation in the collisional plasma. The nonlinear current at THz frequency arises on account of temperature dependent collision frequency of electrons with ions in the plasma and the presence of a static electric field (applied externally in the plasma) and density ripple. Optimisation of laser-plasma parameters gives the radiated THz power of the order of 0.23??MW.

  7. Self-focusing, channel formation, and high-energy ion generation in interaction of an intense short laser pulse with a He jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    A number of proposed applications of ultrahigh intensity short laser pulses require laser guiding-focusing related to plasma motion during the laser pulse. Although the self-focusing of a short laser pulse motion induced by a short relativistic laser pulse was studied in hydrodynamic simula

  8. Pair Production from Vacuum at the Focus of an X-Ray Free Electron Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ringwald

    2001-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    There are definite plans for the construction of X-ray free electron lasers (FEL), both at DESY, where the so-called XFEL is part of the design of the electron-positron linear collider TESLA, as well as at SLAC, where the so-called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been proposed. Such an X-ray laser would allow for high-field science applications: One could make use of not only the high energy and transverse coherence of the X-ray beam, but also of the possibility of focusing it to a spot with a small radius, hopefully in the range of the laser wavelength. Along this route one obtains very large electric fields, much larger than those obtainable with any optical laser of the same power. In this letter we discuss the possibility of obtaining an electric field so high that electron-positron pairs are spontaneously produced in vacuum (Schwinger pair production). We find that if X-ray optics can be improved to approach the diffraction limit of focusing, and if the power of the planned X-ray FELs can be increased to the terawatt region, then there is ample room for an investigation of the Schwinger pair production mechanism.

  9. Improving femtosecond laser pulse delivery through a hollow core photonic crystal fiber for temporally focused two-photon endomicroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Heejin

    In this paper, we present a strategy to improve delivery of femtosecond laser pulses from a regenerative amplifier through a hollow core photonic crystal fiber for temporally focused wide-field two-photon endomicroscopy. ...

  10. A focusable, convergent fast-electron beam from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, R H H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel scheme for the creation of a convergent, or focussing, fast-electron beam generated from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions is described. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are used to demonstrate the efficacy of this scheme in two dimensions. It is shown that a beam of fast-electrons of energy 500 keV - 3 MeV propagates within a solid-density plasma, focussing at depth. The depth of focus of the fast-electron beam is controlled via the target dimensions and focussing optics.

  11. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  12. Stimulated Brillouin scattering reduction induced by self-focusing for a single laser speckle interacting with an expanding plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Depierreux, S.; Loiseau, P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Hüller, S.; Pesme, D. [Centre de Physique Théorique (CPHT), CNRS, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Centre de Physique Théorique (CPHT), CNRS, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Labaune, Ch. [LULI, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [LULI, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bandulet, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada)] [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of the low level of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) observed in laser-plasma experiments carried out with a single laser speckle is investigated by means of three-dimensional simulations and modeling in the limit when the laser beam power P is well above the critical power for ponderomotive self-focusing We find that the order of magnitude of the time averaged reflectivities, together with the temporal and spatial SBS localization observed in our simulations, are correctly reproduced by our modeling. It is observed that, after a short transient stage, SBS reaches a significant level only (i) as long as the incident laser pulse is increasing in amplitude and (ii) in a single self-focused speckle located in the low-density front part of the plasma. In order to describe self-focusing in an inhomogeneous expanding plasma, we have derived a new Lagrangian density describing this process. Using then a variational approach, our model reproduces the position and the peak intensity of the self-focusing hot spot in the front part of the plasma density profile as well as the local density depletion in this hot spot. The knowledge of these parameters then makes it possible to estimate the spatial amplification of SBS as a function of the laser beam power and consequently to explain the experimentally observed SBS reflectivity, considerably reduced with respect to standard theory in the regime of large laser beam power.

  13. Tapered plasma channels to phase-lock accelerating and focusing forces in laser-plasma accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rittershofer, W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P/P c ultra-intense laser pulses, such that a 2 ?laser-plasma accel- erators are actively being investigated as ultra-

  14. Weakly relativistic and ponderomotive effects on self-focusing and self-compression of laser pulses in near critical plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bokaei, B.; Niknam, A. R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of high power laser pulses in near critical plasmas are studied taking in to account the effects of relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities. First, within one-dimensional analysis, the effects of initial parameters such as laser intensity, plasma density, and plasma electron temperature on the self-compression mechanism are discussed. The results illustrate that the ponderomotive nonlinearity obstructs the relativistic self-compression above a certain intensity value. Moreover, the results indicate the existence of the turning point temperature in which the compression process has its strongest strength. Next, the three-dimensional analysis of laser pulse propagation is investigated by coupling the self-focusing equation with the self-compression one. It is shown that in contrast to the case in which the only relativistic nonlinearity is considered, in the presence of ponderomotive nonlinearity, the self-compression mechanism obstructs the self-focusing and leads to an increase of the laser spot size.

  15. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent scattering and speckle analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Schropp, Andreas; Seiboth, Frank; Feng, Yiping; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Chollet, Matthieu; Lemke, Henrik T.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; et al

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray focus optimization and characterization based on coherent scattering and quantitative speckle size measurements was demonstrated at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Its performance as a single-pulse free-electron laser beam diagnostic was tested for two typical focusing configurations. The results derived from the speckle size/shape analysis show the effectiveness of this technique in finding the focus' location, size and shape. In addition, its single-pulse compatibility enables users to capture pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in focus properties compared with other techniques that require scanning and averaging.

  16. Turning point temperature and competition between relativistic and ponderomotive effects in self-focusing of laser beam in plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bokaei, B.; Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari Milani, M. R. [Plasma Physics Research School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Plasma Physics Research School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation characters of Gaussian laser beam in collisionless plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive and relativistic nonlinearities. The second-order differential equation of dimensionless beam width parameter is solved numerically, taking into account the effect of electron temperature. The results show that the ponderomotive force does not facilitate the relativistic self-focusing in all intensity ranges. In fact, there exists a certain intensity value that, if below this value, the ponderomotive nonlinearity can contribute to the relativistic self-focusing, or obstruct it, if above. It is also indicated that there is a temperature interval in which self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of this region. In addition, the results represent the existence of a “turning point temperature” in the mentioned interval that the self-focusing has the strongest power. The value of the turning point is dependent on laser intensity in which higher intensities result in higher turning point.

  17. Laser enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound thrombolysis: An in vitro study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Huizhong; Yang, Xinmai

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    radiation, and ultrasound and laser parameters were optimized to achieve better thrombolysis efficiency. The results indicated that the thrombolysis efficiency increased when pulse length of HIFU wave, HIFU pressure, or laser fluence increases. Also...

  18. Relativistic and ponderomotive self-focusing of a laser beam in a radially inhomogeneous plasma. I. Paraxial approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandi, H.S.; Manus, C.; Mainfray, G. (Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, Bat. 522, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)); Lehner, T. (Laboratoire PMI, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)); Bonnaud, G. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, 94195 Villeneuve-St-Georges (France))

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation of a high-irradiance laser beam in a plasma whose optical index depends nonlinearly on the light intensity is investigated through both theoretical and numerical analyses. The nonlinear effects examined herein are the relativistic decrease of the plasma frequency and the ponderomotive expelling of the electrons. This paper is devoted to focusing and defocusing effects of a beam assumed to remain cylindrical and for a plasma supposed homogeneous along the propagation direction but radially inhomogeneous with a parabolic density profile. A two-parameter perturbation expansion is used; these two parameters, assumed small with respect to unity, are the ratio of the laser wavelength to the radial electric-field gradient length and the ratio of the plasma frequency to the laser frequency. The laser field is described in the context of a time envelope and spatial paraxial approximations. An analytical expression is provided for the critical beam power beyond which self-focusing appears; it depends strongly on the plasma inhomogeneity and suggests the plasma density tailoring in order to lower this critical power. The beam energy radius evolution is obtained as a function of the propagation distance by numerically solving the paraxial equation given by the two-parameter expansion. The relativistic mass variation is shown to dominate the ponderomotive effect. For strong laser fields, self-focusing saturates due to corrections of fourth order in the electric field involved by both contributions.

  19. Determining the optical quality of focusing collectors without laser ray tracing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bendt, P.; Gaul, H.; Rabl, A.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a novel alternative to the laser ray trace technique for evaluating the optical quality of focusing solar collectors. The new method does not require any equipment beyond what is used for measuring collector efficiency; it could therefore become part of routine collector testing. The total optical errors resulting from imperfect specularity and from inaccuracies in reflector position or slope are characterized by an angular standard deviation sigma/sub optical/, the rms deviation of the reflected rays from the design direction. The method is based on the fact that the off-axis performance of a concentrator depends on sigma/sub optical/. An angular scan is performed, i.e., the collector output is measured as a function of misalignment angle over the entire range of angles for which there is measurable output (typically a few degrees). This test should be carried out on a very clear day, with receiver close to ambient temperature (if the latter conditions cannot be satisfied, appropriate corrections are necessary). The parameter sigma/sub optical/ is then determined by a least-squares fit between the measured and the calculated angular scan. We tested the method on a parabolic trough collector manufactured by Hexcel, but it is suitable for parabolic dishes as well. The method appears to be accurate enough to determine sigma/sub optical/ within about 10%.

  20. Efficient proton acceleration and focusing by an ultraintense laser interacting with a parabolic double concave target with an extended rear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie, Bai-Song; Aimidula, Aimierding [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Hong-Yu [Department of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China) [Department of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China); Shanghai Bright-Tech Information Technology Co. Ltd., Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new scheme for acceleration and focusing of protons via an improved parabolic double concave target irradiated by an ultraintense laser pulse is proposed. When an intense laser pulse illuminates a concave target, the hot electrons are concentrated on the focal region of the rear cavity and they form a strong space-charge-separation field, which accelerates the protons. For a simple concave target, the proton energy spectrum becomes very broad outside the rear cavity because of transverse divergence of the electromagnetic fields. However, particle-in-cell simulations show that, when the concave target has an extended rear, the hot electrons along the wall surface induce a transverse focusing sheath field, resulting in a clear enhancement of proton focusing, which makes the lower proton energy spread, while, leads to a little reduction of the proton bunch peak energy.

  1. Femtosecond-scale Synchronisation of Ultra-Intense Focused Laser Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corvan, D J; Cole, J; Ahmed, H; Krushelnick, K; Mangles, S P D; Najmudin, Z; Symes, D; Thomas, A G R; Yeung, M; Zepf, M; Zhao, Z; Sarri, G

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchronising ultra-short (~fs) and focussed laser pulses is a particularly difficult task, as this timescale lies orders of magnitude below the typical range of fast electronic devices. Here we present an optical technique that allows for femtosecond-scale synchronisation of the focal planes of two focussed laser pulses. This technique is virtually applicable to any focussing geometry and relative intensity of the two lasers. Experimental implementation of this technique provides excellent quantitative agreement with theoretical expectations. The proposed technique will prove highly beneficial for the next generation of multiple, petawatt class laser systems.

  2. Laser Beam Self-Focusing in the Atmosphere A. M. Rubenchik,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    for further wireless power transportation to Earth is one of the global concepts of renewable energy sources is utilized for transport of converted solar energy to the ground. The use of lasers instead of microwaves powerful laser beams from orbit to the ground. We demonstrate through numerical modeling that when the self

  3. Increasing the upper-limit intensity and temperature range for thermal self-focusing of a laser beam by using plasma density ramp-up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bokaei, B.; Niknam, A. R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is devoted to improving relativistic and ponderomotive thermal self-focusing of the intense laser beam in an underdense plasma. It is shown that the ponderomotive nonlinearity induces a saturation mechanism for thermal self-focusing. Therefore, in addition to the well-known lower-limit critical intensity, there is an upper-limit intensity for thermal self-focusing above which the laser beam starts to experience ponderomotive defocusing. It is indicated that the upper-limit intensity value is dependent on plasma and laser parameters such as the plasma electron temperature, plasma density, and laser spot size. Furthermore, the effect of the upward plasma density ramp profile on the thermal self-focusing is studied. Results show that by using the plasma density ramp-up, the upper-limit intensity increases and the self-focusing temperature range expands.

  4. Demonstration of electron beam focusing by a laser-plasma lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaury, Cédric; Döpp, Andreas; Lehe, Remi; Lifschitz, Agustin; Phuoc, Kim Ta; Gautier, Julien; Goddet, Jean-Philippe; Tafzi, Amar; Flacco, Alessandro; Tissandier, Fabien; Sebban, Stéphane; Rousse, Antoine; Malka, Victor

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-plasma technology promises a drastic reduction of the size of high energy electron accelerators. It could make free electron lasers available to a broad scientific community, and push further the limits of electron accelerators for high energy physics. Furthermore the unique femtosecond nature of the source makes it a promising tool for the study of ultra-fast phenomena. However, applications are hindered by the lack of suitable lens to transport this kind of high-current electron beams, mainly due to their divergence. Here we show that this issue can be solved by using a laser-plasma lens, in which the field gradients are five order of magnitude larger than in conventional optics. We demonstrate a reduction of the divergence by nearly a factor of three, which should allow for an efficient coupling of the beam with a conventional beam transport line.

  5. The field of finance is abundant with rewarding opportunities in a wide range of industries. By focusing on real-world cases and applied

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westfall, Peter H.

    The field of finance is abundant with rewarding opportunities in a wide range of industries. By focusing on real-world cases and applied problems, students in the Area of Finance are prepared to become, consulting or corporate finance, our graduates hit the ground running with the skills needed to become

  6. Focused excimer laser initiated, radio frequency sustained high pressure air plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharer, John E.

    . One variant of the ICP reactor is the solenoidal type, having a helical coil wound around the side diameter helical radio frequency (RF) coil are presented. Quantum resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI measurement of the gas pressure the electron temperature is obtained. Experiments show that the laser-formed

  7. Collapse and revival of electromagnetic cascades in focused intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Mironov; N. B. Narozhny; A. M. Fedotov

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider interaction of a high-energy electron beam with two counterpropagating femtosecond laser pulses. Nonlinear Compton scattering and electron-positron pair production by the emitted photons result in development of an electromagnetic "shower-type" cascade, which however collapses rather quickly due to energy losses by secondary particles. Nevertheless, the laser field accelerates the low-energy electrons and positrons trapped in the focal region, thus giving rise to development of electromagnetic cascade of another type ("avalanche-type"). This effect of cascade collapse and revival can be observed at the electron beam energy of the order of several GeV and intensity of the colliding laser pulses of the level of $10^{24}$W/cm$^2$. This means that it can be readily observed at the novel laser facilities which are either planned for the nearest future, or are already under construction. The proposed experimental setup provides the most realistic and promissory way to observe the "avalanche-type" cascades.

  8. Collapse and revival of electromagnetic cascades in focused intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mironov, A A; Fedotov, A M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider interaction of a high-energy electron beam with two counterpropagating femtosecond laser pulses. Nonlinear Compton scattering and electron-positron pair production by the emitted photons result in development of an electromagnetic "shower-type" cascade, which however collapses rather quickly due to energy losses by secondary particles. Nevertheless, the laser field accelerates the low-energy electrons and positrons trapped in the focal region, thus giving rise to development of electromagnetic cascade of another type ("avalanche-type"). This effect of cascade collapse and revival can be observed at the electron beam energy of the order of several GeV and intensity of the colliding laser pulses of the level of $10^{24}$W/cm$^2$. This means that it can be readily observed at the novel laser facilities which are either planned for the nearest future, or are already under construction. The proposed experimental setup provides the most realistic and promissory way to observe the "avalanche-type" cascad...

  9. Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Nakajima, Takashi; Zen, Heishun; Kii, Toshiteru; Ohgaki, Hideaki [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of a pulse train structure of an oscillator-type free-electron laser (FEL) results in the immediate damage of a solid target upon focusing. We demonstrate that the laser-induced damage threshold can be significantly improved by gating the mid-infrared FEL pulses with a plasma mirror. Although the switching pulses we employ have a nanosecond duration which does not guarantee the clean wavefront of the gated FEL pulses, the high focusability is experimentally confirmed through the observation of spectral broadening by a factor of 2.1 when we tightly focus the gated FEL pulses onto the Ge plate.

  10. Performance predictions for a laser intensified thermal beam for use in high resolution Focused Ion Beam instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wouters, S H W; Notermans, R P M J W; Debernardi, N; Mutsaers, P H A; Luiten, O J; Vredenbregt, E J D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photo-ionization of a laser-cooled and compressed atomic beam from a high-flux thermal source can be used to create a high-brightness ion beam for use in Focus Ion Beam (FIB) instruments. Here we show using calculations and Doppler cooling simulations that an atomic rubidium beam with a brightness of $2.1 \\times 10^7 A/(m^2\\,sr\\,eV)$ at a current of 1 nA can be created using a compact 5 cm long 2D magneto-optical compressor which is more than an order of magnitude better than the current state of the art Liquid Metal Ion Source.

  11. Self-focusing and plasma channels formation for non-axisymmetric optical schemes under different orientation of laser pulse linear polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ionin, A A; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Sunchugasheva, E S; Fokina, N A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Filamentation of linear polarized ultrashort laser pulses in non-axisymmetric optical schemes with preferential directions to the optical axis in dependence on polarization orientation was experimentally studied. Our experiments demonstrated strong influence of a laser beam polarization on self-focusing of the beam and plasma generation during filamentation. Maximum of linear plasma density generated by an astigmatic laser pulse was different in both meridional and sagittal foci and depended on the beam polarization orientation. A difference of linear plasma density was observed in the case of superposition of two parts of the laser beam going through a two-hole diaphragm depending on the beam polarization and through a slit for collinear and normal slit orientation relative to the pulse polarization. Laser pulses in IR and UV wavelength domains led to similar result.

  12. Response to “Comment on ‘Stationary self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in relativistic thermal quantum plasma’” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 064701 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, S. D., E-mail: sdpatil-phy@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Devchand College, Arjunnagar, Kolhapur 591 269 (India); Takale, M. V. [Department of Physics, Doodhsakhar Mahavidyalaya, Bidri, Kolhapur 416 208 (India)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Habibi and Ghamari have presented a Comment on our paper [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)] by examining quantum dielectric response in thermal quantum plasma. They have modeled the relativistic self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in cold and warm quantum plasmas and reported that self-focusing length does not change in both situations. In this response, we have reached the following important conclusions about the comment itself.

  13. Relativistic self-focusing of ultra-high intensity X-ray laser beams in warm quantum plasma with upward density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M., E-mail: habibi.physics@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghamari, F. [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khorramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a numerical study of high-intensity X-ray laser beam interaction with warm quantum plasma (WQP) are presented. By means of an upward ramp density profile combined with quantum factors specially the Fermi velocity, we have demonstrated significant relativistic self-focusing (RSF) of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in the WQP where the Fermi temperature term in the dielectric function is important. For this purpose, we have considered the quantum hydrodynamics model that modifies refractive index of inhomogeneous WQPs with the inclusion of quantum correction through the quantum statistical and diffraction effects in the relativistic regime. Also, to better illustration of the physical difference between warm and cold quantum plasmas and their effect on the RSF, we have derived the envelope equation governing the spot size of X-ray laser beam in Q-plasmas. In addition to the upward ramp density profile, we have found that the quantum effects would be caused much higher oscillation and better focusing of X-ray laser beam in the WQP compared to that of cold quantum case. Our computational results reveal the importance of the use of electrons density profile and Fermi speed in enhancing self-focusing of laser beam.

  14. Observation of a strong correlation between electromagnetic soliton formation and relativistic self-focusing for ultra-short laser pulses propagating through an under-dense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Bin; Wu Yuchi; Dong Kegong; Hong Wei; Teng Jian; Zhou Weimin; Cao Leifeng; Gu Yuqiu [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A strong correlation is observed between the formation of electromagnetic solitons, generated during the interaction of a short intense laser pulse (30 fs, {approx}10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) with a rarefied (<0.1n{sub c}) plasma, and pulse self-focusing. Pulse defocusing, which occurs after soliton generation, results in laser-pulse energy depletion. The role of stimulated Raman scattering in soliton generation is analyzed from 2D particle-in-cell simulations. An observed relationship between initial plasma density and soliton generation is presented that might have relevance to wake-field accelerators.

  15. Design Features of a Planar Hybrid/Permanent Magnet Strong Focusing Undulator for Free Electron Laser (FEL) And Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatchyn, Roman; /SLAC

    2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Insertion devices for Angstrom-wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifiers driven by multi-GeV electron beams generally require distributed focusing substantially stronger than their own natural focusing fields. Over the last several years a wide variety of focusing schemes and configurations have been proposed for undulators of this class, ranging from conventional current-driven quadrupoles external to the undulator magnets to permanent magnet (PM) lattices inserted into the insertion device gap. In this paper we present design studies of a flexible high-field hybrid/PM undulator with strong superimposed planar PM focusing proposed for a 1.5 Angstrom Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) driven by an electron beam with a 1 mm-mr normalized emittance. Attainable field parameters, tuning modes, and potential applications of the proposed structure are discussed.

  16. A study on the lead-times in the United Nations World Food Programme supply chain : a focus on the country offices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), the largest humanitarian agency in the world and the logistical arm of the United Nations, reached more than 113 million people in 80 countries in 2004 and delivered more than ...

  17. Free-Electron Laser Generation of VUV and X-Ray Radiation using a Conditioned Beam and Ion-Channel Focusing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, L.-H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a) Accelerator Conditioner Free-Electron Laser L ---~>~ . Free Electron Laser Conference, Santain the Proceedings Free-Electron Laser Generation of VUV and

  18. Relativistic and ponderomotive self-focusing of a laser beam in a radially inhomogeneous plasma. II. Beyond the paraxial approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnaud, G. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, 94195 Villeneuve-St.-Georges (France)); Brandi, H.S.; Manus, C.; Mainfray, G. (Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, Bat. 522, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)); Lehner, T. (Laboratoire PMI, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation in a plasma of a high-intensity electromagnetic wave inducing both relativistic mass increase and ponderomotive expulsion of electrons is analyzed via two-dimensional simulations. The time/space evolution of the wave is modeled by an axisymmetric scalar wave equation in which the plasma frequency is an instantaneous and local function of the wave energy; the incident irradiance is assumed to be constant in time. The specific features of relativistic focusing are first discussed. The ponderomotive effect enforces the focusing process by expelling the plasma electrons, creating density bumps and sharp density gradient on the edge of the light beam; the nonlinear focusing is faster and stronger confirming the paraxial/Gaussian beam core analysis presented in Part I [Phys. Fluids B [bold 5], 3539 (1993)]. In contrast to Part I, the light is guided in a sharp-edged density channel. The influence of the radial density inhomogeneity is then examined by using both convex (basin shape) and concave (bump shape) profiles. The self-focusing threshold power is increased for concave profiles. For convex profiles, the natural refraction helps the self-focusing observation but weakens the light-guiding trend previously observed. Finally, new features characterizing wave self-focusing, such as self-steepening and light reflection, are shown.

  19. Beam-Dynamics Studies and Advanced Accelerator Research at CTF-3 Compact Final Focus, Laser Compton Scattering, Plasmas, etc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assmann, R W; Burkhardt, H; Corsini, R; Faus-Golfe, A; Gronberg, J; Redaelli, S; Schulte, Daniel; Velasco, M; Zimmermann, Frank

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary investigations are summarized on the possible use of the CTF3 facility for extended beam-dynamics studies and advanced accelerator R&D, which would exploit its unique properties and beam availability. The key element of these considerations is the possible addition of a test beam-delivery system comprising a compact final focus and advanced collimation concepts, scaled from 3 TeV down to low energy and having a short total length. Operational experience, verification of critical questions (octupole tail folding, beam halo transport, etc.), diagnostics (e.g., rf BPMs) and stabilization could all be explored in such a facility, which would benefit not only the CLIC study, but all linear collider projects. Another interesting application would be the study of plasma-beam interaction, which may include plasma focusing, plasma acceleration, ion-channel radiation, and plasma wigglers.

  20. The US needs a new soft era By focusing on science and education, America can rebuild its relations with the Arab world.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zewail, Ahmed

    society and are the ones whom Barack Obama's Cairo initiative, "to seek a new beginning between the United States and Muslims around the world ... based upon mutual interest and mutual respect", must motivate there was a woman. In Alexandria my friends were Christians and Muslims. For my generation, America was not exactly

  1. Self-focusing and stimulated Brillouin back-scattering of a long intense laser pulse in a finite temperature relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R.; Barzegar, S. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemzadeh, M. [Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonlinear dynamics of electromagnetic waves propagating through a plasma considering the effects of relativistic mass and ponderomotive nonlinearities is investigated. The modified electron density distribution, the dispersion relation, and the spatial profiles of electromagnetic wave amplitude in the plasma are obtained. It is shown that the cut-off frequency decreases, and there is an intensity range in which the ponderomotive self-focusing takes place. In the upper limit of this range, the laser beam is defocused due to the relativistic ponderomotive force. In addition, the stability of electromagnetic waves to stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied, and the backscattered wave resulting from decay of high power electromagnetic beam is resolved in relativistic regime. The study of effects of electron density and temperature on the growth rate of backscattered wave has been shown that by increasing these effects, the growth rate of instability increases.

  2. Study of nonlinear ohmic heating and ponderomotive force effects on the self-focusing and defocusing of Gaussian laser beams in collisional underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etehadi Abari, M.; Shokri, B. [Physics Department and Laser-Plasma Research Institute of Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper, the propagation characteristics of a linearly polarized gaussian laser beam in a non-isothermal underdense collisional plasma is studied. By considering the effects of the ponderomotive force and ohmic heating of plasma electrons as the nonlinear mechanisms, the second order differential equation of the dimensionless beam width parameter has been obtained and solved at several initial ion temperatures. Furthermore, by using the nonlinear dielectric permittivity of the mentioned plasma medium in the paraxial approximation and its dependence on the propagation characteristics of the gaussian laser pulse, the perturbed electron density n{sub e}/n{sub 0e} is obtained and its variation in terms of the dimensionless plasma length is analyzed at different initial ion temperatures. Our results show that the dimensionless beam width parameter is strongly influenced by the initial plasma ion temperature. It is found that, for the self-focusing regime, the plasma electron density perturbation continuously oscillates between the initial density distribution and a minimum, and for the defocusing regime, the plasma electron density perturbation continuously oscillates between the initial density distribution and a maximum.

  3. Berkeley Lab Compact Accelerator Sets World Record

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab Particle Accelerator Sets World Record Berkeley Lab Particle Accelerator Sets World Record Simulations at NERSC Help Validate Experimental Laser-Plasma Design December...

  4. Focused ion beam source method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Lykke, Keith R. (Gaithersburg, MD); Lill, Thorsten B. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  5. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Sequenced pulses of light from an excitation laser with at least two resonator cavities with separate output couplers are directed through a light modulator and a first polarzing analyzer. A portion of the light not rejected by the first polarizing analyzer is transported through a first optical fiber into a first ignitor laser rod in an ignitor laser. Another portion of the light is rejected by the first polarizing analyzer and directed through a halfwave plate into a second polarization analyzer. A first portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer passes through the second polarization analyzer to a second, oscillator, laser rod in the ignitor laser. A second portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer is redirected by the second polarization analyzer to a second optical fiber which delays the beam before the beam is combined with output of the first ignitor laser rod. Output of the second laser rod in the ignitor laser is directed into the first ignitor laser rod which was energized by light passing through the first polarizing analyzer. Combined output of the first ignitor laser rod and output of the second optical fiber is focused into a combustible fuel where the first short duration, high peak power pulse from the ignitor laser ignites the fuel and the second long duration, low peak power pulse directly from the excitation laser sustains the combustion.

  6. Biomaterials Design for Control of Cell Behavior by Femtosecond Laser Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Hojeong

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    polymers with ultra-short laser pulses. Physica Statushighly intense ultra-short laser pulses are focused intohighly intense ultra-short laser pulses are focused into

  7. Laser Assisted Direct Local Synthesis of Semiconducting Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RYU, SANG GIL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrically driven lasers," Nature 421 (6920), 241-245 (Hsu, A. Bushmaker et al. , "Laser Directed Growth of Carbon-al. , "Scanning focused laser activation of carbon nanotube

  8. Light Wars: The Bright Future of Laser Weapons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistry, Hemma

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    currently the highest power solid-state laser in the world,funding the Joint High Power Solid-State Laser (JHPSSL)Solid-state lasers and chemical lasers have certain limitations on the power

  9. Physics of Optoelectronic and Plasmonic Devices: Cavities, Waveguides, Modulators and Lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorger, Volker J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    worlds smallest Lasers, Ultra- small Electro-Optical1-9]. The quest for ultra-compact laser that can directlysystems predicts ultra fast direct laser modulation

  10. Mars Rover : laser focusing and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkley, Walter Clifford

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fmax] = golden(f, ax, bx, cx, tol) %GOLDEN Minimize functionfmax] = golden(f, ax, bx, cx, tol) computes a local maximumTOL. The parameters ax, bx and cx must satisfy the following

  11. Laser Direct Drive: Scientific Advances,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Laser Direct Drive: Scientific Advances, Technical Achievements, and the Road To Fusion Energy energy gain ( 40) at 1 MJ laser energy · Advanced lasers/ target designs overcome uniformity requirements, medical applications) Gas laser medium is easy to cool (tough to break gas) Nike single beam focus #12

  12. World record neutron beam at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    World record neutron beam at LANL World record neutron beam at Los Alamos National Laboratory Scientists have created the largest neutron beam ever made by a short-pulse laser,...

  13. Laser Range Finder Objective: Use a forward pointing laser range finder to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirthlin, Michael J.

    Laser Range Finder Objective: Use a forward pointing laser range finder to detect and avoid obstacles. Principle Investigators: Randy Beard, Tim McLain Laser Range Finder Opti-Logic RS400 Laser path, laser detects object. 2. Upon detection, insert cylindrical object into world map and plan path

  14. Design of an XUV FEL Driven by the Laser-Plasma Accelerator at the LBNL LOASIS Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Carl B.; Fawley, W.M.; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, W.P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    laser system to focus ultra-short (?30 fs) laser pulses ofdrive laser pulse, enabling pump- probe studies in ultra-used an ultra- intense ?10 19 W/cm 2 laser pulse focused on

  15. Spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas at X-ray wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, A., E-mail: a-physics2001@yahoo.com; Tibai, Z. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary)] [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary) [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary); Szentagothai Research Centre, University of Pecs, Pecs-7624 (Hungary); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a finite curvature beam, we investigate here the spatiotemporal focusing dynamics of a laser pulse in plasmas at X-ray wavelength. We trace the dependence of curvature parameter on the focusing of laser pulse and recognize that the self-focusing in plasma is more intense for the X-ray laser pulse with curved wavefront than with flat wavefront. The simulation results demonstrate that spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas can be controlled with the appropriate choice of beam-plasma parameters to explore the high intensity effects in X-ray regime.

  16. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  17. Movement out of focus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlewine, Michael Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation investigates the consequences of overt and covert movement on association with focus. The interpretation of focus-sensitive operators such as only and even depends on the presence of a focused constituent ...

  18. Biomaterials Design for Control of Cell Behavior by Femtosecond Laser Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Hojeong

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hybrid polymers with ultra-short laser pulses. PhysicaWhen highly intense ultra-short laser pulses are focusedWhen highly intense ultra-short laser pulses are focused

  19. Transmission and Distribution World March 2007: DOE Focuses on...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy sector owners, operators and system vendors team up to boost control system security with national SCADA test bed. Energy Secrtor Owners, operators and system vendors team...

  20. Transmission and Distribution World March 2007: DOE Focuses on Cyber

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2Uranium Transferon theTed DonatEnergy ElectricEnergySecurity |

  1. Transmission and Distribution World March 2007: DOE Focuses on Cyber

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenter Gets PeopleTransmission Workshop

  2. Frontiers in Science lectures focus on imaging technology, world's

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE)FrequentlyLectures » Frontiersfastest

  3. Dilmaya's World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan, Macfarlane

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    burning on a funeral pyre. I had never lived for more than a day or in a world without toilets or toilet papers, where there was no central heating and no window glass to keep out the cold Himalayan winds. * * * Short of finding the very... not to film something because she felt that it was intrusive or time-wasting, though there must have been occasions when she thought both of these things. She did not show off in front of others, boast or use the filming to elevate her status. Nor did she...

  4. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  5. Focus Article Nuclear winter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    the climatic effects of nuclear war. Smoke from the fires started by nuclear weapons, especially the black in recorded human history. Although the number of nuclear weapons in the world has fallen from 70,000 at its and Russia could still produce nuclear winter. This theory cannot be tested in the real world. However

  6. Focus Sensitive Coordination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulsey, Sarah McNearney

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the role of the Focus Sensitive Operators (FSOs) even and also when found inside of a coordination. Coordinations of this form are called Focus Sensitive Coordinations (FSC) and include or even, ...

  7. Alternating phase focused linacs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heavy particle linear accelerator employing rf fields for transverse and ongitudinal focusing as well as acceleration. Drift tube length and gap positions in a standing wave drift tube loaded structure are arranged so that particles are subject to acceleration and succession of focusing and defocusing forces which contain the beam without additional magnetic or electric focusing fields.

  8. Noise and synamics in semiconductor lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rana, Farhan, 1971-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, theoretical and experimental work on the noise and dynamics in continuous wave and mode-locked semiconductor lasers is presented. The main focus is on semiconductor cascade lasers and semiconductor mode-locked ...

  9. Crowdfunding's Potential for the Developing World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    ? While I am happy for innovative entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley, I am passionately focused on helping Rise of the Rest" globally What would the world look like if there were Silicon Valleys everywhere

  10. Solar energt focusing means

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsubota, J.

    1981-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly efficient solar focusing means being hollow and in semi-cylindrical or arcuate shape, the surface has such fine menisci as to act like convex lenses to focus solar rays towards the center of the focusing body, irrespective of the position of the sun, where a solar energy conversion device is located and further acts to disperse light reflected thereonto from the solar energy conversion device. The focusing body can assume several shapes and thus can be used for roofing of a building, such as a house, or the like, and still be aesthetically pleasing.

  11. Design of an XUV FEL Driven by the Laser-Plasma Accelerator at the LBNL LOASIS Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Carl B.; Fawley, W.M.; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, W.P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    laser system to focus ultra-short (?30 fs) laser pulses ofLASER-PLASMA ACCELERATOR The LOASIS Laboratory at LBNL presently produces ultra-short (short-pulse laser driver, making such a source ideal for ultra-

  12. World petroleum resources and reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riva, J.P. Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Up to 1965 the world produced and consumed only 10% of the oil available on this planet; between 1965 and 2040 we will use up 80% of the remaining reserves, leaving only 10% of the resource for the years to follow. Clearly, the epoch of petroleum is a transitory one. Nevertheless, petroleum is at present the most important component of the energy base supporting the industrialized world. This book describes and analyzes the geological basis for the current world petroleum situation. Mr. Riva exaplains the formation and accumulation of conventional and unconventional oil and gas, methods used by geologists in search for petroleum and petroleum-containing basins, and techniques for petroleum production. He then discusses the uneven distribution of the world's oil, focusing on the Arabian-Iranian basin, which contains half of the world's known recoverable reserves, and examines the petroleum prospects in several distinctly different areas of the world. The United States is presented as an example of an area in general decline already exhaustively explored. In contrast, the case study of the Soviet petroleum industry and a geological assessment of Soviet production prospects show a region at the peak of its oil production, with its decline about to begin. He chooses Indonesia as the focus for a typical Southeast Asian petroleum history and develops a profile of Mexico's petroleum situation as an example of an area with increasing production potential. Mr. Riva concludes with an assessment of the prospects for future world petroleum discoveries and a geologically based estimate of the earth's total original stock of recoverable petroleum.

  13. Laser surface cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crivella, E.C.; Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination of contaminated metal and material recycle, two of 31 priority needs identified by the D&D focus group, are the most promising applications for laser ablation within the DOE complex. F2 Associates has developed a robotic laser ablation system that is capable of high contamination rates, waste volume reduction, surface pore cleaning, and real-time characterization of materials. It is being demonstrated that this system will be the most cost-effective technology for metal decontamination and material recycle.

  14. Effect of the laser wavefront in a laser-plasma accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaurepaire, B; Bocoum, M; Böhle, F; Jullien, A; Rousseau, J-P; Lefrou, T; Douillet, D; Iaquaniello, G; Lopez-Martens, R; Lifschitz, A; Faure, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high repetition rate electron source was generated by tightly focusing kHz, few-mJ laser pulses into an underdense plasma. This high intensity laser-plasma interaction led to stable electron beams over several hours but with strikingly complex transverse distributions even for good quality laser focal spots. Analysis of the experimental data, along with results of PIC simulations demonstrate the role of the laser wavefront on the acceleration of electrons. Distortions of the laser wavefront cause spatial inhomogeneities in the out-of-focus laser distribution and consequently, the laser pulse drives an inhomogenous transverse wakefield whose focusing/defocusing properties affect the electron distribution. These findings explain the experimental results and suggest the possibility of controlling the electron spatial distribution in laser-plasma accelerators by tailoring the laser wavefront.

  15. Laser controlled flame stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Thomas, Matthew E. (Huntsville, AL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for initiating and stabilizing fuel combustion in applications such as gas turbine electrical power generating engines and jet turbine engines where it is desired to burn lean fuel/air mixtures which produce lower amounts of NO.sub.x. A laser induced spark is propagated at a distance from the fuel nozzle with the laser ignitor being remotely located from the high temperature environment of the combustion chamber. A laser initiating spark generated by focusing high peak power laser light to a sufficiently tight laser spot within the fuel to cause the ionization of air and fuel into a plasma is unobtrusive to the flow dynamics of the combustion chamber of a fuel injector, thereby facilitating whatever advantage can be taken of flow dynamics in the design of the fuel injector.

  16. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO); Joshi, Sachin (Fort Collins, CO); Reynolds, Adam (Fort Collins, CO)

    2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  17. Final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  18. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  19. Hybrid fiber-rod laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Messerly, Michael J.; Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Single, or near single transverse mode waveguide definition is produced using a single homogeneous medium to transport both the pump excitation light and generated laser light. By properly configuring the pump deposition and resulting thermal power generation in the waveguide device, a thermal focusing power is established that supports perturbation-stable guided wave propagation of an appropriately configured single or near single transverse mode laser beam and/or laser pulse.

  20. Dislocation focus construction in Chinese

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Lawrence Yam-Leung

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of dislocation focus construction in Cantonese. MA thesis,London. Dislocation focus construction in Chinese Leung,SP Dislocation focus construction in Chinese (a) (b) (c) (

  1. Second user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heimann, Phil; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The second international workshop on the physics enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the world-class Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron X-ray laser beam was held in Stanford, CA, on October 7–8, 2014. The workshop was co-organized by UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratories. More than 120 scientists, including 40 students and postdoctoral scientists who are working in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, fusion research, and dynamic high-pressure science came together from North America, Europe, and Asia. The focus of the second workshop was on scientific highlights and the lessons learned from 16 newmore »experiments that were performed on the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument since the first workshop was held one year ago.« less

  2. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  3. Aerosol measurements with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithgow, Gregg Arthur

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fused silica lenses to focus the plasma emission onto a UVideal lens focuses light from the plasma onto the tip of anboth focus the laser pulse and collect the plasma emission

  4. Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmucker, John E. (Hurt, VA); Blasi, Raymond J. (Harrison City, PA); Archer, William B. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  5. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gettemy, D.J.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation. 1 figure.

  6. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gettemy, Donald J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation.

  7. GeV electron beams from a laser-plasma accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    beams [5]–[7] using an ultra-intense laser pulse focused on5]–[7], an ultra-intense ?10 19 W/cm 2 laser pulse focusedpulse laser driver, making such a source ideal for ultra-

  8. Electromagnetically Induced Guiding of Counter-Propagating Lasers in Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - propagating laser pulses and (ii) guiding of an ultra-short tightly focused laser pulse by a counterElectromagnetically Induced Guiding of Counter-Propagating Lasers in Plasmas G. Shvets Princeton for Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching, Germany Abstract The interaction of counter-propagating laser pulses

  9. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  10. Focused ion beam system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  11. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  12. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  13. Microsphere-chain waveguides: Focusing and transport properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Kenneth W., E-mail: kallen62@uncc.edu; Astratov, Vasily N., E-mail: astratov@uncc.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Darafsheh, Arash; Abolmaali, Farzaneh [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Mojaverian, Neda; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Lupu, Anatole [Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the focusing properties of polystyrene microsphere-chain waveguides (MCWs) formed by sufficiently large spheres (D???20?, where D is the sphere diameter and ? is the wavelength of light) scale with the sphere diameter as predicted by geometrical optics. However, this scaling behavior does not hold for mesoscale MCWs with D???10? resulting in a periodical focusing with gradually reducing beam waists and in extremely small propagation losses. The observed effects are related to properties of nanojet-induced and periodically focused modes in such structures. The results can be used for developing focusing microprobes, laser scalpels, and polarization filters.

  14. Focus in Ecuadorian Quechua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shireman, Joshua

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    ), the adverb utkata, “quickly,” is unfocused. In (4), it is focused. (3) njuka utkata at?ku-ta kati-rka-ni. 1sg quickly dog-ACC chase-PAST-1sg “I quickly chased the dog.” (4) njuka utkata-mi at?ku-ta kati-rka-ni. 1sg quickly-FOC dog...-ACC chase-PAST-1sg “I quickly chased the dog.” 1 I would like to acknowledge our Quechua consultant Rosa-Maria Masaquiza along with Dr. Harold Torrence and our Field Methods class in the spring...

  15. Dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Conrad D. (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Derzon, Mark S. (Tijeras, NM)

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device uses interdigitated microelectrodes to provide a spatially non-uniform electric field in a fluid that generates a dipole within particles in the fluid. The electric field causes the particles to either be attracted to or repelled from regions where the electric field gradient is large, depending on whether the particles are more or less polarizable than the fluid. The particles can thereby be forced into well defined stable paths along the interdigitated microelectrodes. The device can be used for flow cytometry, particle control, and other process applications, including cell counting or other types of particle counting, and for separations in material control.

  16. Strategic Focus Points

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's NuclearSpurringSteam Systems SteamR.Strategic Focus Points

  17. Strategic Focus Areas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarshipSpiralingSecurity217,354Strategic Focus Areas Lockheed

  18. Gas dynamic effects on formation of carbon dimers in laser-produced plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    production, carbon laser-produced plasma (LPP) research was a main focus over the last several years.1

  19. On Selffocusing of Short Laser Pulses Vladimir Malkin \\Lambda George Papanicolaou y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On Self­focusing of Short Laser Pulses Vladimir Malkin \\Lambda George Papanicolaou y February 14, 1995 Abstract We consider the well­known problem of self­focusing of short laser pulses in media­up. 1 Introduction and background Self­focusing of short laser pulses in media with attracting Kerr

  20. Page 1Laser Safety Training Laser Institute of America Laser Safety Laser Institute of America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Page 1Laser Safety Training © Laser Institute of America 1 Laser Safety © Laser Institute of America Laser Safety: Hazards, Bioeffects, and Control Measures Laser Institute of America Gus Anibarro Education Manager 2Laser Safety © Laser Institute of America Laser Safety Overview Laser Safety Accidents

  1. Laser Telecommunication timeLaser beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Laser Telecommunication Experiment Laser time Laser beam intensity timeLaser beam Laser battery Laser connected to a circuit without a modulator. Bottom graph illustrates what happen when a modulating signal is superimposed to the DC voltage driving the laser Laser beam intensity DC Input voltage DC

  2. High-performance laser processing using manipulated ultrafast laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugioka, Koji; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan; Hanada, Yasutaka; Midorikawa, Katsumi [RIKEN - Advanced Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); RIKEN - Advanced Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ manipulated ultrafast laser pulses to realize microprocessing with high-performance. Efficient microwelding of glass substrates by irradiation by a double-pulse train of ultrafast laser pulses is demonstrated. The bonding strength of two photostructurable glass substrates welded by double-pulse irradiation was evaluated to be 22.9 MPa, which is approximately 22% greater than that of a sample prepared by conventional irradiation by a single pulse train. Additionally, the fabrication of hollow microfluidic channels with a circular cross-sectional shape embedded in fused silica is realized by spatiotemporally focusing the ultrafast laser beam. We show both theoretically and experimentally that the spatiotemporal focusing of ultrafast laser beam allows for the creation of a three-dimensionally symmetric spherical peak intensity distribution at the focal spot.

  3. Laser microphone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2000-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A microphone for detecting sound pressure waves includes a laser resonator having a laser gain material aligned coaxially between a pair of first and second mirrors for producing a laser beam. A reference cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors for transmitting a reference portion of the laser beam between the mirrors. A sensing cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors, and is laterally displaced from the reference cell for transmitting a signal portion of the laser beam, with the sensing cell being open for receiving the sound waves. A photodetector is disposed in optical communication with the first mirror for receiving the laser beam, and produces an acoustic signal therefrom for the sound waves.

  4. Summary Report of Working Group 6: Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leemans, Wim P.; Downer, Michael; Siders, Craig

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be an important focus of laser-plasma acceleration researchfocus. In both cases, light regions of the image ionized and heated the plasma,

  5. advanced laser diagnostic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the laser radiation and conversion to electrical power For the first element above, photovoltaic concentrator systems using ultra-light Fresnel lenses to focus space sunlight...

  6. advanced laser diagnostics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the laser radiation and conversion to electrical power For the first element above, photovoltaic concentrator systems using ultra-light Fresnel lenses to focus space sunlight...

  7. Laser pulse detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashburn, Douglas N. (Knoxville, TN); Akerman, M. Alfred (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

  8. World Views From fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .......................................................11 2. The Seven Components of a World View...................................................... 20 3. The Unity of the Seven Sub........................................... 25 5. The Purpose of the group `Worldviews

  9. Home Front as Warfront: African American World War I Drama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egging, Anna Katherine

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation recovers little-known African American World War I plays that blur the boundary between the home front and warfront. I argue that with this focus, the plays wage their own war for African American citizenship ...

  10. 21H.912 The World Since 1492, Spring 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Mona L.

    This course explores the last 500 years of world history. Rather than trying to cover all regions for all periods of time, we will focus on four related themes: the struggles between Europeans and colonized peoples; the ...

  11. Laser Assisted Plasma Arc Welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FUERSCHBACH,PHILLIP W.

    1999-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been performed using a coaxial end-effecter to combine a focused laser beam and a plasma arc. The device employs a hollow tungsten electrode, a focusing lens, and conventional plasma arc torch nozzles to co-locate the focused beam and arc on the workpiece. Plasma arc nozzles were selected to protect the electrode from laser generated metal vapor. The project goal is to develop an improved fusion welding process that exhibits both absorption robustness and deep penetration for small scale (< 1.5 mm thickness) applications. On aluminum alloys 6061 and 6111, the hybrid process has been shown to eliminate hot cracking in the fusion zone. Fusion zone dimensions for both stainless steel and aluminum were found to be wider than characteristic laser welds, and deeper than characteristic plasma arc welds.

  12. 5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for gasoline, diesel and other petroleum products. This chapter provides an overview of world oil trends agreements on export routes have limited development. Petroleum production in the United States, including half of petroleum supplies to the United States. OPEC petroleum production also increased in 1994

  13. What in the World are Possible Worlds?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dondero, Mark

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    talk of possible worlds? In this thesis, I will attempt to outline the most significant and well-recognized view in this debate: that of David Lewis. Through my discussion of him, I will find occasion to discuss some alternative views that have arisen...

  14. Laser device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  15. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In a third embodiment, alternating short and long pulses of light from the excitation light source are directed into the ignitor laser. Each of the embodiments of the invention can be multiplexed so as to provide laser light energy sequentially to more than one ignitor laser.

  16. Proton and Ion Acceleration by BNL Terewatt Picosecond CO2 Laser: New Horizons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkolnikov, Peter

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The report covers pioneering research on proton and ion generation in gas jets by the world's first picosecond TW CO2 laser developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  17. Optical diagnostics integrated with laser spark delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO); Joshi, Sachin (Fort Collins, CO); Reynolds, Adam (Fort Collins, CO)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  18. Free-Electron Laser FLASH Injector Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FLASH. Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg FLASH Injector Laser Laser 1 Laser 2 Next steps Siegfried | FLASH Meeting | 16-Nov-2009 FLASH. Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg Laser 1 System Overview fround trip A 541 (2005) 467­477 #12;Siegfried Schreiber | FLASH Meeting | 16-Nov-2009 FLASH. Free-Electron Laser

  19. Enhancing the analytical performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cremers, D.A.; Chinni, R.C.; Pichahchy, A.E.; Thornquist, H.K.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work is to enhance the analytical capabilities of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a method of elemental analysis in which powerful laser pulses are focused on a sample to form a microplasma. LIBS is perhaps the most versatile elemental analysis method, applicable to a variety of different real-world analysis problems. Therefore, it is important to enhance the capabilities of the method as much as possible. Accomplishments include: (1) demonstration of signal enhancements of 5--30 times from soils and metals using a double pulse method; (2) development of a model of the observed enhancement obtained using double pulses; (3) demonstration that the analytical performance achievable using low laser-pulse energies (10 and 25 mJ) can match that achievable using an energy of 100 mJ; and (4) demonstration that time-gated detection is not necessary with LIBS.

  20. Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sher, Mark H. (Los Altos, CA); Macklin, John J. (Stanford, CA); Harris, Stephen E. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1989-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

  1. Editorial Focus Editorial Focus: Going with the Wnt? Focus on "Hyperaldosteronism,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Just, Armin

    Editorial Focus Editorial Focus: Going with the Wnt? Focus on "Hyperaldosteronism, hypervolemia in mice and humans. Upon binding of these lipid-modified glycopeptides to their plasma membrane receptors complex to the plasma membrane, which leads to degradation of the complex and release of Ã?

  2. Phase-locked controlled filament laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salzman, J.; Larsson, A.; Yariv, A.

    1986-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad area semiconductor laser with induced self-focusing in the form of a phase-locked array of filaments is demonstrated. The multifilamentary laser has a single lobed and nearly diffraction limited far-field pattern, for injection currents up to I-italicapprox. =1.85I-italic/sub th/.

  3. The proceedings of the 1st international workshop on laboratory astrophysics experiments with large lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remington, B.A.; Goldstein, W.H. [eds.] [eds.

    1996-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The world has stood witness to the development of a number of highly sophisticated and flexible, high power laser facilities (energies up to 50 kJ and powers up to 50 TW), driven largely by the world-wide effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The charter of diagnosing implosions with detailed, quantitative measurements has driven the ICF laser facilities to be exceedingly versatile and well equipped with diagnostics. Interestingly, there is considerable overlap in the physics of ICF and astrophysics. Both typically involve compressible radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, complex opacities, and equations of state of dense matter. Surprisingly, however, there has been little communication between these two communities to date. With the recent declassification of ICF in the USA, and the approval to commence with construction of the next generation ``superlasers``, the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility in the US, and its equivalent, the LMJ laser in France, the situation is ripe for change. . Given the physics similarities that exist between ICF and astrophysics, one strongly suspects that there should exist regions of overlap where supporting research on the large lasers could be beneficial to the astrophysics community. As a catalyst for discussions to this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored this workshop. Approximately 100 scientists attended from around the world, representing eight countries: the USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Israel. A total of 30 technical papers were presented. The two day workshop was divided into four sessions, focusing on nonlinear hydrodynamics, radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and atomic physics-opacities. Copies of the presentations are contained in these proceedings.

  4. Analysis of Capillary Guided Laser Plasma Accelerator Experiments at LBNL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    Analysis of Capillary Guided Laser Plasma Accelerator Experiments at LBNL K. Nakamura , A. J (LBNL) [5, 6]. In this scheme, intense laser pulses were guided over a distance 10 times the Rayleigh facility at LBNL. The laser was focused onto the entrance of a capillary discharge waveguide by an f/25 off

  5. Powerful, pulsed, THz radiation from laser accelerated relativistic electron bunches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    by strongly focused ( 6 µm), high peak power (up to 10 TW), ultra-short ( 50 fs) laser pulses of a 10 Hz at the exit of the plasma accelerator. Keywords: ultrahigh-fields, ultra-short, laser-plasma, wakefieldPowerful, pulsed, THz radiation from laser accelerated relativistic electron bunches Cs. T´otha, J

  6. Biocavity Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    2000-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser technology has advanced dramatically and is an integral part of today's healthcare delivery system. Lasers are used in the laboratory analysis of human blood samples and serve as surgical tools that kill, burn or cut tissue. Recent semiconductor microtechnology has reduced the size o f a laser to the size of a biological cell or even a virus particle. By integrating these ultra small lasers with biological systems, it is possible to create micro-electrical mechanical systems that may revolutionize health care delivery.

  7. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source capable of producing alternating beams of light having different wavelengths is used in tandem with one or more ignitor lasers to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using the single remote excitation light source for pumping one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones with alternating wavelengths of light.

  8. Process Intensification - Chemical Sector Focus

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cost and risk in chemical manufacturing facilities. 24 25 At the core of PI is the optimization of process performance by focusing on molecular level kinetics, 26...

  9. Vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection from laser-irradiated target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Robert F. (Los Alamos, NM); Mitchell, Kenneth B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection of a laser-irradiated target. Within a vacuum chamber are disposed a beam focusing element, a disc having an aperture and a recollimating element. The edge of the focused beam impinges on the edge of the aperture to produce a plasma which refracts any retroreflected light from the laser's target.

  10. World Cup Blues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: World Cup. 1966. North Korea stuns soccer fans by becoming the first Asian team ever to advance to the quarterfinals where they go up 3-0 against Portugal before finally being defeated at the hands--or ...

  11. Around the World byprivatejet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Taosheng

    AngkorWat, Cambodia Petra or Wadi Rum, Jordan engeti Plain or rongoro Crater, Tanzania The Great Barrier cities of the ancient world at Petra, or explore the lunar-like landscape of Wadi Rum. Cambodia india

  12. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  13. FOCUS December 1999 1 ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    century." Rare earths are a group of seventeen metals, including lutetium. Found together in rare ores James was a world leader in the production of rare earths," notes Howard Mayne, chairman of the chem, they are very difficult to separate. At the turn of the century, rare earths made the gas light possible. Today

  14. Laser goniometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fairer, George M. (Boulder, CO); Boernge, James M. (Lakewood, CO); Harris, David W. (Lakewood, CO); Campbell, DeWayne A. (Littleton, CO); Tuttle, Gene E. (Littleton, CO); McKeown, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Beason, Steven C. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The laser goniometer is an apparatus which permits an operator to sight along a geologic feature and orient a collimated lamer beam to match the attitude of the feature directly. The horizontal orientation (strike) and the angle from horizontal (dip), are detected by rotary incremental encoders attached to the laser goniometer which provide a digital readout of the azimuth and tilt of the collimated laser beam. A microprocessor then translates the square wave signal encoder outputs into an ASCII signal for use by data recording equipment.

  15. Focus Area Tax Credits (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Focus Area Tax Credits for businesses in Baltimore City or Prince George’s County enterprise zones include: (1) Ten-year, 80% credit against local real property taxes on a portion of real property...

  16. FINDYOUR FOCUS. 184 degree programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    ) forensic and investigative science psychology environmental protection sport management physics public has 350+ student organizations, including the Fashion Business Association, Society of Women EngineersFINDYOUR FOCUS. #12;184 degree programs Including: mechanical engineering (Travis's choice

  17. LCLS Laser (in Polish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most powerful now in the world, American X-ray laser LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source), has been working as a research and user facility since 2009. It is further developed to LCLSII machine at the Stanford National Accelerator Laboratory SLAC in Menlo Park CA. In a certain sense, LCLS is a response to the EXFEL machine and a logical extension of LCLS. All these machines are light sources of the fifth generation. EXFELis expected to open user facility in 2016, at a cost of over 1 bil Euro. LCLS II, which design started in 2010, will be operational in 2017. The lasers LCLS, LCLS II and EXFEL use SASE and SEED methods to generate light and are powered by electron liniacs, LCLS by a wrm one, and EXFEL by a cold one. The liniacs have energies approaching 20 GeV, and are around 2 - 3 km in length. EXFEL liniac uses SRF TESLA cavity technology at 1,3GHz. A prototype of EXFEL was FLASH laser. SLAC Laboratory uses effectively over 50 years experience in research, building and exploitation of linear electron acce...

  18. SPIE Proceedings, Laser-Tissue Interactions XVI, vol. 5695, BIOS 2005 Cellular tolerance to pulsed heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    radiation. Laser beam was focused onto sample providing Gaussian intensity distribution in the focal plane. A large variety of laser and radiofrequency therapies induce thermal stress in tissue with exposure time

  19. Method for controlling energy density for reliable pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowden, P. C., E-mail: dowden@lanl.gov, E-mail: qxjia@lanl.gov; Bi, Z.; Jia, Q. X., E-mail: dowden@lanl.gov, E-mail: qxjia@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Division of Materials Physics and Applications, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have established a methodology to stabilize the laser energy density on a target surface in pulsed laser deposition of thin films. To control the focused laser spot on a target, we have imaged a defined aperture in the beamline (so called image-focus) instead of focusing the beam on a target based on a simple “lens-focus.” To control the laser energy density on a target, we have introduced a continuously variable attenuator between the output of the laser and the imaged aperture to manipulate the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a “constant voltage” mode to eliminate changes in the lasers’ beam dimensions. This methodology leads to much better controllability/reproducibility for reliable pulsed laser deposition of high performance electronic thin films.

  20. MSc in Plasma Physics & Applications Laser Fusion Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    . Thermonuclear fusion provides unlimited energy for all the world which is clean from long lived radioactiveMSc in Plasma Physics & Applications Laser Fusion Energy Why laser fusionDescription of the course fusion for energy production. This unique training scheme involves eight leading European centres

  1. Laser Optomechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Weijian; Ng, Kar Wei; Rao, Yi; Chase, Christopher; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cavity optomechanics explores the coupling between the optical field and the mechanical oscillation to induce cooling and regenerative oscillation in a mechanical oscillator. So far, optomechanics relies on the detuning between the cavity and an external pump laser, where the laser acts only as a power supply. Here, we report a new scheme with mutual coupling between a mechanical oscillator that supports a mirror of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and the optical field, greatly enhancing the light-matter energy transfer. In this work, we used an ultra-light-weight (130 pg) high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror in a VCSEL, whose reflectivity spectrum is designed to facilitate strong optomechanical coupling, to demonstrate optomechanically-induced regenerative oscillation of the laser optomechanical cavity with > 550 nm self-oscillation amplitude of the micro-mechanical oscillator, two to three orders of magnitude larger than typical. This new scheme not only offers an efficient approach for high-...

  2. Laser barometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abercrombie, K.R.; Shiels, D.; Rash, T.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an invention of a pressure measuring instrument which uses laser radiation to sense the pressure in an enclosed environment by means of measuring the change in refractive index of a gas - which is pressure dependent.

  3. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 18, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2012 443 Demonstration of Nanomachining With Focused

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    . Optical lasers are widely used for micromilling and micro hole drilling. [1], [2]. The size Demonstration of Nanomachining With Focused Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Beams Herman Bravo, Ben T. Szapiro in laser machining of microstruc- tures is that of extending the spatial domain to the smaller dimen- sions

  4. Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartemann, Frederic V. (Dublin, CA); Baldis, Hector A. (Pleasanton, CA); Landahl, Eric C. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.

  5. New charm results from FOCUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianco, Stefano; /Frascati

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New results from the photoproduction experiment FOCUS are reported: Dalitz plot analysis, semileptonic form factor ratios and excited meson spectroscopy. The author reports on three new results from the photoproduction experiment FOCUS: the first Dalitz plot analysis of charm meson decays using the K-matrix approach[ 1], new measurements of the D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {delta}(1020) {mu}{sup +}{nu} form factor ratios [2], and new measurements on L=1 excited meson spectroscopy [3], i.e., precise measurements of the masses and widths of the D*{sub 2}{sup +} and D*{sub 2}{sup 0} mesons, and evidence for broad states decaying to D{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} (the first such evidence in D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}). The data for this paper were collected in the Wideband photoproduction experiment FOCUS during the Fermilab 1996-1997 fixed-target run.

  6. FREE ELECTRON LASERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colson, W.B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1984). Colson, W. B. , "Free electron laser theory," Ph.D.aspects of the free electron laser," Laser Handbook i,Quant. Elect. Bendor Free Electron Laser Conference, Journal

  7. Laser photodeposition of refractory metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solanki, R.; Boyer, P.K.; Mahan, J.E.; Collins, G.J.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the deposition of the refractory metals chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten through the laser-induced gas-phase photolysis of their respective hexacarbonyls. A copper, hollow cathode laser was used at ultraviolet wavelengths matched to peaks in the absorption spectra of the carbonyl molecules. Localized room-temperature metal deposition was achieved by focusing the beam into a cell containing the carbonyl gas and helium as a buffer. No major differences were noted for deposition on a polished silicon wafer, a thermally oxidized silicon wafer, and a quartz flat.

  8. Finding beam focus errors automatically

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An automated method for finding beam focus errors using an optimization program called COMFORT-PLUS. The steps involved in finding the correction factors using COMFORT-PLUS has been used to find the beam focus errors for two damping rings at the SLAC Linear Collider. The program is to be used as an off-line program to analyze actual measured data for any SLC system. A limitation on the application of this procedure is found to be that it depends on the magnitude of the machine errors. Another is that the program is not totally automated since the user must decide a priori where to look for errors. (LEW)

  9. Focus Areas | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov.Energy02.pdf7 OPAM Flash2011-37 OPAM DOE O 413.2B Admin ChgFocus Areas Focus

  10. Cost-Effective, Customer-Focused, and Contractor-Focused Data...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effective, Customer-Focused, and Contractor-Focused Data Tracking Systems Cost-Effective, Customer-Focused, and Contractor-Focused Data Tracking Systems Better Buildings...

  11. Independent Oversight Focused Safety Management Evaluation, Idaho...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Focused Safety Management Evaluation, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - January 2001 Independent Oversight Focused Safety Management Evaluation, Idaho...

  12. Third World Ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, J.E.; Wheelon, A.D.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ballistic missiles and other means of long-range destruction, traditionally limited to a handful of industrialized nations, are fast becoming a fixture in many regional conflicts. The Third World military buildup is perhaps even more worrisome than its First World prototype, for it is far more likely to find expression in war. There are several reasons why this should be so. In the past decade the number of countries in the missile club has more than doubled, to 18. Many of the new members have been at war or are embroiled in disputes. Unlike the major powers, these countries have not had time enough to perfect systems of command and control over their new strategic forces. They have had little time to learn to manage the complexities of military brinksmanship. Finally, because many regional conflicts overlap, an escalation in the arms race tends to convey itself from one area of tension to another. For many years the big industrialized countries ignored the proliferation of ballistic missiles and sought political advantage by arming their clients. In doing so, they presumed that the bipolar alignment of power would restrain regional conflicts. The preoccupation with East-West issues overshadowed problems in the Third World. Smaller industrialized powers sold missiles to generate revenues to support their own military industries. Meanwhile the developing countries eagerly acquired missiles for the same reasons that had motivated their predecessors: to deter attack, intimidate enemies, build a technological base and win prestige.

  13. Points of Focus 2009 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    and research capability, and sincere interest in the welfare of their students. The challenge to identify its spending priorities and focus its efforts carefully. The importance of integrated planning has and long-range goals related to the development of new programs, the building of new facilities

  14. Creating Wave-Focusing Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Ramm

    2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic ideas for creating wave-focusing materials by injecting small particles in a given material are described. The number of small particles to be injected around any point is calculated. Inverse scattering problem with fixed wavenumber and fixed incident direction of the plane acoustic wave is formulated and solved.

  15. Focus Article MATLAB library LIBRA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Focus Article MATLAB library LIBRA Sabine Verboven1 and Mia Hubert2 LIBRA stands for `library), principal component regression (RPCR), partial least squares regression (RSIMPLS), classification (RDA Comp Stat 2010 2 509­515 The library for robust analysis, LIBRA, contains robust statistical methods

  16. focusing on research still growing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesare, Bernardo

    Dical sciences anD international stuDies MATHEMATICS, PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION of pharmaceutical anD pharmacological sciences PSYCHOLOGY Department of philosophy, sociology, eDucation anD applieD49 focusing on research still growing SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS

  17. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  18. Institute of Laser Engineering Osaka University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    people die every summer throughout the world. In last Japanese summer, more than 50 thousand people were taken to hospitals and 172 people died. Global warming is real and cannot wait. This picture =100 kW Reaction chamber 10 MWth Heating Laser 100 kJx1Hz = 100 kW Pellet Injector Power Generator 4

  19. Wavefront-sensor-based electron density measurements for laser-plasma accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plateau, Guillaume

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After imaging the plasma to a primary focus shortly afterfocus was 1 mm above the nozzle. The laser pulse excited a plasma

  20. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Edward M. (Pleasanton, CA); Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  1. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

    1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  2. Laser barometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abercrombie, Kevin R. (Westminster, CO); Shiels, David (Thornton, CO); Rash, Tim (Aurora, CO)

    2001-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure measuring instrument that utilizes the change of the refractive index of a gas as a function of pressure and the coherent nature of a laser light to determine the barometric pressure within an environment. As the gas pressure in a closed environment varies, the index of refraction of the gas changes. The amount of change is a function of the gas pressure. By illuminating the gas with a laser light source, causing the wavelength of the light to change, pressure can be quantified by measuring the shift in fringes (alternating light and dark bands produced when coherent light is mixed) in an interferometer.

  3. World's Largest Laser Sets New Records | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads|ofEventsWorkshop Report:WorkshopsDepartment

  4. Department of Energy Announces Completion of World's Largest Laser |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0andEnergyGlobal Nuclear Energy

  5. Design of an XUV FEL Driven by the Laser-Plasma Accelerator at the LBNL LOASIS Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Carl B.; Fawley, W.M.; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, W.P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ti:Sapphire laser system to focus ultra-short (?30 fs) laserLASER-PLASMA ACCELERATOR The LOASIS Laboratory at LBNL presently produces ultra-short (laser-plasma inter- action lengths. These LWFA-produced electron beams are high current (?10 kA) and ultra-short (

  6. Optimization of process parameters for pulsed laser milling of micro-channels on AISI H13 tool steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozel, Tugrul

    selection Laser milling process a b s t r a c t This paper focuses on understanding the influence of laser. Whenever metals are used, the laser beam heats, melts and vaporizes the metal (metal sublimation), whileOptimization of process parameters for pulsed laser milling of micro-channels on AISI H13 tool

  7. Photonic laser-driven accelerator for GALAXIE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naranjo, B.; Ho, M.; Hoang, P.; Putterman, S.; Valloni, A.; Rosenzweig, J. B. [UCLA Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the design and development of an all-dielectric laser-driven accelerator to be used in the GALAXIE (GV-per-meter Acce Lerator And X-ray-source Integrated Experiment) project's compact free-electron laser. The approach of our working design is to construct eigenmodes, borrowing from the field of photonics, which yield the appropriate, highly demanding dynamics in a high-field, short wavelength accelerator. Topics discussed include transverse focusing, power coupling, bunching, and fabrication.

  8. WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR · FISH THIS REPORT IS A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD ' S PRO- DUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL. IN 1959- DICATE WHAT IS INCLUDED BESIDES FISHMEAL AND FISH BODY OIL. #12;WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL

  9. Laser assisted arc welding for aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerschbach, P.W.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been performed using a coaxial end-effector to combine a focused laser beam and a plasma arc. The device employs a hollow tungsten electrode, a focusing lens, and conventional plasma arc torch nozzles to co-locate the focused beam and arc on the workpiece. Plasma arc nozzles were selected to protect the electrode from laser generated metal vapor. The project goal is to develop an improved fusion welding process that exhibits both absorption robustness and deep penetration for small scale (<1.5 mm thickness) applications. On aluminum alloys 6061 and 6111, the hybrid process has been shown to eliminate hot cracking in the fusion zone. Fusion zone dimensions for both stainless steel and aluminum were found to be wider than characteristic laser welds, and deeper than characteristic plasma arc welds.

  10. Laser theory in manifest Lindblad form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Henkel

    2007-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the laser theory for a single-mode laser with nonlinear gain. We focus in particular on a micromaser which is pumped with a dilute beam of excited atoms crossing the laser cavity. In the weak-coupling regime, an expansion in the coupling strength is developed that preserves the Lindblad form of the master equation, securing the positivity of the density matrix. This expansion breaks rapidly down above threshold. This can be improved with an alternative approach, not restricted to weak coupling: the Lindblad operators are expanded in orthogonal polynomials adapted to the probability distribution for the atom-laser interaction time. Results for the photon statistics and the laser linewidth illustrate the theory.

  11. World Biofuels Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very rapidly over the next two decades, provided policymakers stay the course with their policy goals. This project relied on a scenario-based analysis to study global biofuel markets. Scenarios were designed to evaluate the impact of different policy proposals and market conditions. World biofuel supply for selected scenarios is shown in Figure 1. The reference case total biofuel production increases from 12 billion gallons of ethanol equivalent in 2005 to 54 billion gallons in 2020 and 83 billion gallons in 2030. The scenarios analyzed show volumes ranging from 46 to 64 billion gallons in 2020, and from about 72 to about 100 billion gallons in 2030. The highest production worldwide occurs in the scenario with high feedstock availability combined with high oil prices and more rapid improvements in cellulosic biofuel conversion technologies. The lowest global production is found in the scenario with low feedstock availability, low oil prices and slower technology progress.

  12. Tanks focus area. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, J.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus Area to serve as the DOE-EM`s technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus Area is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE`s four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus Area program.

  13. Line-focus sun trackers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sun trackers have been a troublesome component for line-focus concentrating collector systems. The problems have included poor accuracy, component failures, false locks on clouds, and restricted tracker operating ranges. In response to these tracking difficulties, a variety of improved sun trackers have been developed. A testing program is underway at SERI to determine the tracking accuracy of this new generation of sun trackers. The three major types of trackers are defined, some recent sun tracker developments are described, and the testing that is underway is outlined.

  14. Focus Series | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf Flash2010-45.pdfFlash2011-43and StatementNovember 17,Date:Focus

  15. Focus Areas | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE) Target 1 FlightFlynn selected forFocus

  16. Final Report: Cooling Molecules with Laser Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Rosa, Michael D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain diatomic molecules are disposed to laser cooling in the way successfully applied to certain atoms and that ushered in a revolution in ultracold atomic physics, an identification first made at Los Alamos and which took root during this program. Despite their manipulation into numerous achievements, atoms are nonetheless mundane denizens of the quantum world. Molecules, on the other hand, with their internal degrees of freedom and rich dynamical interplay, provide considerably more complexity. Two main goals of this program were to demonstrate the feasibility of laser-cooling molecules to the same temperatures as laser-cooled atoms and introduce a means for collecting laser-cooled molecules into dense ensembles, a foundational start of studies and applications of ultracold matter without equivalence in atomic systems.

  17. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, Wigbert (Berkeley, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities comprising, a focused and pulsed laser, an photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  18. Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J.

    1993-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-Ray Laser Program has evolved from a design effort focusing on developing a Strategic Defense Initiative weapon that protects against Soviet ICBMs to a scientific project that is producing new technologies for industrial and medical research. While the great technical successes and failures of the X-ray laser itself cannot be discussed, this article presents the many significant achievements made as part of the X-ray laser effort that are now being used for other applications at LLNL.

  19. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  20. World nuclear outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  1. World nuclear outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  2. Analysis of Capillary Guided Laser Plasma Accelerator Experiments at LBNL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Kei; Advanced Light Source

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerator Experiments at LBNL K. Nakamura ?,† , A. J.National Labo- ratory (LBNL) [5, 6]. In this scheme, intenseof the LOASIS facility at LBNL. The laser beam was focused

  3. Sailing Before the Light: Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    at focus Andrea Macchi CNR/INO Sailing Before the Light: Laser-Plasma AccelerationDriven by RadiationSailing Before the Light: Laser-Plasma Acceleration Driven by Radiation Pressure Andrea Macchi 1 "Enrico Fermi", University of Pisa, Italy Plasma Physics Colloquium, Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied

  4. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, J.

    1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions. 4 figs.

  5. Independent Oversight Focused Program Review, Argonne National...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Independent Oversight Focused Program Review, Argonne National Laboratory-West - May 2001 Independent Oversight Focused Program Review, Argonne National Laboratory-West - May 2001...

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development & Hydrogen Fuel Quality Results Hydrogen Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development & Hydrogen Fuel Quality Results...

  7. Electricity Innovation and Health Care in the Developing World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    for a new energy education policy pathway for electricity innovation. Mechtenberg's research focusesElectricity Innovation and Health Care in the Developing World Friday, December 7, 2012 12:00 - 1 and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University Unreliable electrical infrastructures threaten global health

  8. Improving Real World Efficiency of High Performance Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this shortfall is critical as the focus on moving toward zero net energy buildings and carbon reductionImproving Real World Efficiency of High Performance Buildings Buildings End-Use Energy Efficiency Research www.energy.ca.gov/research/buildings February 2012 The Issue Highperformance buildings

  9. Biofuels' Time of Transition Achieving high performance in a world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Biofuels' Time of Transition Achieving high performance in a world of increasing fuel diversity #12;2 Table of contents #12;3 Introduction Up close: Highlights of Accenture's first biofuels study An evolving biofuels industry 1 Consumer influence Guest commentary on land-use change In focus: The food

  10. Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliss, David Emery; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 - 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

  11. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornig, H.C.

    1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal is disclosed. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught. 4 figs.

  12. Laser pulse control of ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer: A computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Röder, Beate

    Laser pulse control of ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer: A computational study Luxia Wang on ultrafast HET given in Refs. 14­16. In the following we will focus on the case where a tailored laser pulse, Germany Received 31 March 2004; accepted 30 July 2004 Laser pulse control of the photoinduced 90 fs charge

  13. Control of ultrafast electron dynamics with shaped femtosecond laser pulses: from atoms to solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Control of ultrafast electron dynamics with shaped femtosecond laser pulses: from atoms to solids;1. Introduction In coherent control shaped femtosecond laser pulses are used as a tool to steer the ultrafast focus on advanced control of ultrafast electron dynamics with shaped femtosecond laser pulses

  14. The effect of excitation wavelength on dynamics of laser-produced S. S. Harilal,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    excited with either 10.6 lm CO2 laser or 1.06 lm Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser; both are considered and temperature, and most of the other properties of the plasma (emission, absorption, opacity, expansion dynamics) are formed by focusing the output pulse from a high-power laser onto a target. The plasmas formed are very

  15. Measurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 with an accuracy of 1%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kheifets, Anatoli

    , 2013) Accurate knowledge of the intensity of focused ultra-short laser pulses is crucial to the correctMeasurement of laser intensities approaching 1015 W/cm2 with an accuracy of 1% M. G. Pullen1,2 , W interpretation of experimental results in strong-field physics. We have developed a technique to measure laser

  16. BNL | CO2 Laser

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Laser The ATF is one of the only two facilities worldwide operating picosecond, terawatt-class CO2 lasers. Our laser system consists of a picoseconds pulse-injector based on...

  17. FREE-ELECTRON LASERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessler, A.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable-Wiggler Free-Electron-Laser Oscillat.ion. Phys. :_.The Los Alamos Free Electron Laser: Accelerator Perfoemance.First Operation of a Free-Electron Laser. Phys . __ Rev~.

  18. Imaging System With Confocally Self-Detecting Laser.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Robert H. (Lincoln, MA); Rogomentich, Fran J. (Concord, MA)

    1996-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a confocal laser imaging system and method. The system includes a laser source, a beam splitter, focusing elements, and a photosensitive detector. The laser source projects a laser beam along a first optical path at an object to be imaged, and modulates the intensity of the projected laser beam in response to light reflected from the object. A beam splitter directs a portion of the projected laser beam onto a photodetector. The photodetector monitors the intensity of laser output. The laser source can be an electrically scannable array, with a lens or objective assembly for focusing light generated by the array onto the object of interest. As the array is energized, its laser beams scan over the object, and light reflected at each point is returned by the lens to the element of the array from which it originated. A single photosensitive detector element can generate an intensity-representative signal for all lasers of the array. The intensity-representative signal from the photosensitive detector can be processed to provide an image of the object of interest.

  19. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, B.; /SLAC

    2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss simulated photonic crystal structure designs for laser-driven particle acceleration, focusing on three-dimensional planar structures based on the so-called ''woodpile'' lattice. We demonstrate guiding of a speed-of-light accelerating mode by a defect in the photonic crystal lattice and discuss the properties of this mode. We also discuss particle beam dynamics in the structure, presenting a novel method for focusing the beam. In addition we describe some potential coupling methods for the structure.

  20. Building a World of Difference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Waste?to?Energy Roadmapping Workshop Building a World of Difference Presentation by Patricia Scanlan, Director of Residuals Treatment Technologies, Black & Veatch

  1. Induced Current Characteristics Due to Laser Induced Plasma and Its Application to Laser Processing Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madjid, Syahrun Nur; Idris, Nasrullah [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, University of Fukui, 9-1 Bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In laser processing, suitable conditions for laser and gas play important role in ensuring a high quality of processing. To determine suitable conditions, we employed the electromagnetic phenomena associated with laser plasma generation. An electrode circuit was utilised to detect induced current due to the fast electrons propelled from the material during laser material processing. The characteristics of induced current were examined by changing parameters such as supplied voltage, laser pulse energy, number of laser shots, and type of ambient gas. These characteristics were compared with the optical emission characteristics. It was shown that the induced current technique proposed in this study is much more sensitive than the optical method in monitoring laser processing, that is to determine the precise focusing condition, and to accurately determine the moment of completion of laser beam penetration. In this study it was also shown that the induced current technique induced by CW CO{sub 2} laser can be applied in industrial material processing for monitoring the penetration completion in a stainless steel plate drilling process.

  2. Laser Safety Management Policy Statement ............................................................................................................1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Fordyce A.

    Laser Safety Management Policy Statement...........................................................2 Laser Users.............................................................................................................2 Unit Laser Safety Officer (ULSO

  3. Laser programs highlights 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides highlights of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories` laser programs. Laser uses and technology assessment and utilization are provided.

  4. BNL | ATF Laser Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be continuously escorted by someone who has such training: The training consists of an eye exam, BNL general laser safety lecture, and formal ATF laser familiarization. Untrained...

  5. Laser satellite power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  6. Noise suppression and enhanced focusability in plasma Raman amplifier with multi-frequency pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noise suppression and enhanced focusability in plasma Raman amplifier with multi-frequency pump A. Fisch Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 and Department of Astrophysical Laser pulse compression­amplification through Raman backscattering in plasmas can be facilitated

  7. Infrared nanosecond laser-metal ablation in atmosphere: Initial plasma during laser pulse and further expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jian; Wei, Wenfu; Li, Xingwen; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the dynamics of the nanosecond laser ablated plasma within and after the laser pulse irradiation using fast photography. A 1064 nm, 15 ns laser beam was focused onto a target made from various materials with an energy density in the order of J/mm{sup 2} in atmosphere. The plasma dynamics during the nanosecond laser pulse were observed, which could be divided into three stages: fast expansion, division into the primary plasma and the front plasma, and stagnation. After the laser terminated, a critical moment when the primary plasma expansion transited from the shock model to the drag model was resolved, and this phenomenon could be understood in terms of interactions between the primary and the front plasmas.

  8. Laser warning receiver to identify the wavelength and angle of arrival of incident laser light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair; Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser warning receiver is disclosed which has up to hundreds of individual optical channels each optically oriented to receive laser light from a different angle of arrival. Each optical channel has an optical wedge to define the angle of arrival, and a lens to focus the laser light onto a multi-wavelength photodetector for that channel. Each multi-wavelength photodetector has a number of semiconductor layers which are located in a multi-dielectric stack that concentrates the laser light into one of the semiconductor layers according to wavelength. An electrical signal from the multi-wavelength photodetector can be processed to determine both the angle of arrival and the wavelength of the laser light.

  9. Fiber Lasers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHall ATours, Programs and EventsFiber Lasers NIF

  10. Laser Faraday

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sandLaser Decontamination ofFaraday

  11. Short pulse laser train for laser plasma interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, J. L.; Shimada, T.; Johnson, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Hegelich, B. M.; Esquibel, D. M.; Flippo, K. A.; Gonzales, R. P.; Hurry, T. R.; Reid, S. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiframe, high-time resolution pump-probe diagnostic consisting of a consecutive train of ultrashort laser pulses ({approx}ps) has been developed for use with a chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system. A system of high quality windows is used to create a series of 1054 nm picosecond-laser pulses which are injected into the CPA system before the pulse stretcher and amplifiers. By adding or removing windows in the pulse train forming optics, the number of pulses can be varied. By varying the distance and thickness of the respective optical elements, the time in between the pulses, i.e., the time in between frames, can be set. In our example application, the CPA pulse train is converted to 527 nm using a KDP crystal and focused into a preformed plasma and the reflected laser light due to stimulated Raman scattering is measured. Each pulse samples different plasma conditions as the plasma evolves in time, producing more data on each laser shot than with a single short pulse probe. This novel technique could potentially be implemented to obtain multiple high-time resolution measurements of the dynamics of physical processes over hundreds of picoseconds or even nanoseconds with picosecond resolution on a single shot.

  12. SECOND WORLD WAR THE UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Todd C.

    RECORD OF SERVICE SECOND WORLD WAR THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER #12;IN MEMORIAM #12$,T'r 113a,. #12;#12;RECORD OF SERVICE IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR THEUNIVERSITY OF BRITISHCOLUMBIA A Supplement to the University of British Columbia War Memorial Manuscript Record. Vancouver, Canada, 1955. #12;Printed

  13. WORLD CONFERENCE AND GENEALOGICAL SEMINAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    WORLD CONFERENCE ON RECORDS AND GENEALOGICAL SEMINAR Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A. 5-8 August 1969 Research In Yugoslavia By Joze Zontar COPYRIGHT© 1969 THE GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER·DAY SAINTS, INC. AREA 0 -13 WORLD CONFERENCE ON RECORDS AND GENEALOGICAL SEMINAR Salt

  14. Physics World Archive Topological insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannesson, Henrik

    Physics World Archive Topological insulators Charles Kane, Joel Moore From Physics World February, how- ever, now uncovered a new electronic phase called a topological insulator. Putting the name; this "spin current" is a milestone in the realization of practical "spintronics". Topological insulators have

  15. Sensitivity and noise analysis of 4 km laser interferometric gravitational wave antennae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adhikari, Rana, 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Around the world, efforts are underway to commission several kilometer-scale laser interferometers to detect gravitational radiation. In the United States, there are two collocated interferometers in Hanford, Washington ...

  16. Laser welding of fused quartz

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  17. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  18. Short wavelength laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  19. Narrow gap laser welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Sklar, Edward (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables.

  20. Narrow gap laser welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milewski, J.O.; Sklar, E.

    1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables. 34 figs.

  1. Nonlinear laser energy depletion in laser-plasma accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shadwick, B.A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear laser energydepletion in laser-plasma accelerators ? B. A. Shadwick,of intense, short-pulse lasers via excitation of plasma

  2. 2011 Laser Diagnostics in Combustion Gordon Research Conference, (August 14-19, 2011, Waterville Valley Resort, Waterville Valley, NH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Settersten

    2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The vast majority of the world's energy needs are met by combustion of fossil fuels. Optimum utilization of limited resources and control of emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases demand sustained improvement of combustion technology. This task can be satisfied only by detailed knowledge of the underlying physical and chemical processes. Non-intrusive laser diagnostics continuously contribute to our growing understanding of these complex and coupled multi-scale processes. The GRC on Laser Diagnostics in Combustion focuses on the most recent scientific advances and brings together scientists and engineers working at the leading edge of combustion research. Major tasks of the community are developing and applying methods for precise and accurate measurements of fluid motion and temperatures; chemical compositions; multi-phase phenomena appearing near walls, in spray and sooting combustion; improving sensitivities, precision, spatial resolution and tracking transients in their spatio-temporal development. The properties and behaviour of novel laser sources, detectors, optical systems that lead to new diagnostic capabilities are also part of the conference program.

  3. Laser rods with undoped, flanged end-caps for end-pumped laser applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meissner, H.E.; Beach, R.J.; Bibeau, C.; Sutton, S.B.; Mitchell, S.; Bass, I.; Honea, E.

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for achieving improved performance in a solid state laser is provided. A flanged, at least partially undoped end-cap is attached to at least one end of a laserable medium. Preferably flanged, undoped end-caps are attached to both ends of the laserable medium. Due to the low scatter requirements for the interface between the end-caps and the laser rod, a non-adhesive method of bonding is utilized such as optical contacting combined with a subsequent heat treatment of the optically contacted composite. The non-bonded end surfaces of the flanged end-caps are coated with laser cavity coatings appropriate for the lasing wavelength of the laser rod. A cooling jacket, sealably coupled to the flanged end-caps, surrounds the entire length of the laserable medium. Radiation from a pump source is focused by a lens duct and passed through at least one flanged end-cap into the laser rod. 14 figs.

  4. Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okamato, H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling H. Okamoto, A.M. Sessler,effective transverse laser cooling simultaneously withlongitudinal laser cooling, two possibilities are

  5. PALM - Laser Capture Microdissection | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PALM - Laser Capture Microdissection PALM - Laser Capture Microdissection This Laser Capture Microdissection system is equipped with 100 x objective lens for enriching distinct...

  6. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holloway, Brian C.; Eklund, Peter C.; Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin C.; Shinn, Michelle

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces an output above about 50 watts/cm2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  7. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holloway, Brian C; Eklund, Peter C; Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin C; Shinn, Michelle

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces and output above about 50 watts/cm.sup.2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  8. Direct laser powder deposition - 'State of the Art'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, J.W.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developments on Laser Cladding and Rapid Prototyping have led to Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) technologies that produce net shape metal components by laser fusion of metal powder alloys. These processes are known by various names such as Directed Light Fabrication (DLF{trademark}), Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}), and Direct Metal Deposition (DMD{trademark}) to name a few. These types of processes can be referred to as direct laser powder deposition (DLPD). DLPD involves fusing metal alloy powders in the focal point of a laser (or lasers) that is (are) being controlled by Computer Aided Design-Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. DLPD technology has the capability to produce fully dense components with little need for subsequent processing. Research and development of DLPD is being conducted throughout the world. The list of facilities conducting work in this area continues to grow (over 25 identified in North America alone). Selective Laser Sintering (SLS{trademark}) is another type of SFF technology based on laser fusion of powder. The SLS technology was developed as a rapid prototyping technique, whereas DLPD is an extension of the laser cladding technology. Most of the effort in SLS has been directed towards plastics and ceramics. In SLS, the powder is pre-placed by rolling out a layer for each laser pass. The computer control selects where in the layer the powder will be sintered by the laser. Sequential layers are sintered similarly forming a shape. In DLPD, powder is fed directly into a molten metal pool formed at the focal point of the laser where it is melted. As the laser moves on the material it rapidly resolidifies to form a shape. This talk elaborates on the state of these developments.

  9. Entrepreneurial ecosystems around the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Anand R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Entrepreneurship is a vehicle of growth and job creation. America has understood it and benefitted most from following this philosophy. Governments around the world need to build and grow their entrepreneurial ecosystems ...

  10. Figure 4. World Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. World Oil Prices" " (2007 dollars per barrel)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,2029,2030...

  11. The world price of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

  12. World Air Transport Sustainability Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Statement · Develop a quantitative model to assess the carbon footprint of world aviation, including #12;15 Alternative Fuels ­ Data Required · For each major pathway, we require life-cycle CO2 footprint

  13. At Work in The World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanc, Paul D. MD; Dolan, Brian PhD

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    history of one particular smelter, I also suggest that muchdeveloping world. Few lead smelters were less seen by theAlice Hamilton visited smelters in Arizona and Missouri, she

  14. WORLD ROBOTICS 2009 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    WORLD ROBOTICS 2009 IX EXECUTIVE SUMMARY of 1. World Robotics 2009 Industrial Robots 2. World Robotics 2009 Service Robots 1. World Robotics 2009 Industrial Robots 2008 World Robot Market ­ Already affected by the economical downturn In 2008, the worldwide sales of industrial robots stagnated at about

  15. MicrobeWorld Radio and Communications Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbara Hyde

    2006-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    MicrobeWorld is a 90-second feature broadcast daily on more than 90 public radio stations and available from several sources as a podcast, including www.microbeworld.org. The feature has a strong focus on the use and adapatbility of microbes as alternative sources of energy, in bioremediation, their role in climate, and especially the many benefits and scientific advances that have resulting from decoding microbial genomes. These audio features are permanantly archived on an educational outreach site, microbeworld.org, where they are linked to the National Science Education Standards. They are also being used by instructors at all levels to introduce students to the multiple roles and potential of microbes, including a pilot curriculum program for middle-school students in New York.

  16. Laser wafering for silicon solar.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W{sub p} (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs ({approx}20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions ({approx}50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 {micro}m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

  17. System for obtaining smooth laser beams where intensity variations are reduced by spectral dispersion of the laser light (SSD)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skupsky, Stanley (Rochester, NY); Kessler, Terrance J. (Rochester, NY); Short, Robert W. (Rochester, NY); Craxton, Stephen (Rochester, NY); Letzring, Samuel A. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Soures, John (Pittsford, NY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an SSD (smoothing by spectral dispersion) system which reduces the time-averaged spatial variations in intensity of the laser light to provide uniform illumination of a laser fusion target, an electro-optic phase modulator through which a laser beam passes produces a broadband output beam by imposing a frequency modulated bandwidth on the laser beam. A grating provides spatial and angular spectral dispersion of the beam. Due to the phase modulation, the frequencies ("colors") cycle across the beam. The dispersed beam may be amplified and frequency converted (e.g., tripled) in a plurality of beam lines. A distributed phase plate (DPP) in each line is irradiated by the spectrally dispersed beam and the beam is focused on the target where a smooth (uniform intensity) pattern is produced. The color cycling enhances smoothing and the use of a frequency modulated laser pulse prevents the formation of high intensity spikes which could damage the laser medium in the power amplifiers.

  18. THE FUTURE OF DIGITAL MUSIC SERVICES IN THREE STEREOTYPES; HOW FOCUS GROUPS OF END USERS SEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellekoop, Michel

    THE FUTURE OF DIGITAL MUSIC SERVICES IN THREE STEREOTYPES; HOW FOCUS GROUPS OF END USERS SEE took them in and made the band The Specials a world success. How will that process go in 2014 successfully employed to create 20 new business models for the digital music industry. Analysis with grounded

  19. Economics (College of Arts and Sciences) The economics major focuses on economics as a social science.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miles, Will

    Economics (College of Arts and Sciences) The economics major focuses on economics as a social in the world? What types of political regimes best promote economic development? Are resource-rich developing countries cursed? Are drug cartels economically sound? Can humans work towards a better economic basis

  20. SPECIAL FOCUS CURRENT SCIENCE, 2013 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

    well-known science reporters have an education in science and a great familiarity with that world. In a me- dia environment heavily tilted in favour of circulation numbers and TRP statis- tics, technology

  1. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL`s Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents.

  2. Rapid world modeling: Fitting range data to geometric primitives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feddema, J.; Little, C.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past seven years, Sandia National Laboratories has been active in the development of robotic systems to help remediate DOE`s waste sites and decommissioned facilities. Some of these facilities have high levels of radioactivity which prevent manual clean-up. Tele-operated and autonomous robotic systems have been envisioned as the only suitable means of removing the radioactive elements. World modeling is defined as the process of creating a numerical geometric model of a real world environment or workspace. This model is often used in robotics to plan robot motions which perform a task while avoiding obstacles. In many applications where the world model does not exist ahead of time, structured lighting, laser range finders, and even acoustical sensors have been used to create three dimensional maps of the environment. These maps consist of thousands of range points which are difficult to handle and interpret. This paper presents a least squares technique for fitting range data to planar and quadric surfaces, including cylinders and ellipsoids. Once fit to these primitive surfaces, the amount of data associated with a surface is greatly reduced up to three orders of magnitude, thus allowing for more rapid handling and analysis of world data.

  3. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  4. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J. (Dublin, CA); Dragon, Ernest P. (Danville, CA); Warner, Bruce E. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialogroaphic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone.

  5. Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project February 13, 2014 - 5:00am Addthis...

  6. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  7. Method and apparatus for precision laser micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim (San Ramon, CA); Warner, Bruce E. (Pleasanton, CA); Dragon, Ernest P. (Danville, CA)

    2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for micromachining and microdrilling which results in a machined part of superior surface quality is provided. The system uses a near diffraction limited, high repetition rate, short pulse length, visible wavelength laser. The laser is combined with a high speed precision tilting mirror and suitable beam shaping optics, thus allowing a large amount of energy to be accurately positioned and scanned on the workpiece. As a result of this system, complicated, high resolution machining patterns can be achieved. A cover plate may be temporarily attached to the workpiece. Then as the workpiece material is vaporized during the machining process, the vapors condense on the cover plate rather than the surface of the workpiece. In order to eliminate cutting rate variations as the cutting direction is varied, a randomly polarized laser beam is utilized. A rotating half-wave plate is used to achieve the random polarization. In order to correctly locate the focus at the desired location within the workpiece, the position of the focus is first determined by monitoring the speckle size while varying the distance between the workpiece and the focussing optics. When the speckle size reaches a maximum, the focus is located at the first surface of the workpiece. After the location of the focus has been determined, it is repositioned to the desired location within the workpiece, thus optimizing the quality of the machined area.

  8. Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, C; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Edwards, O; Lagin, L; Van Arsdall, P

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) facility point design is being developed at LLNL to support an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) based energy concept. This will build upon the technical foundation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system. NIF is designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. The LIFE control systems will have an architecture partitioned by sub-systems and distributed among over 1000's of front-end processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. LIFE's automated control subsystems will require interoperation between different languages and target architectures. Much of the control system will be embedded into the subsystem with well defined interface and performance requirements to the supervisory control layer. An automation framework will be used to orchestrate and automate start-up and shut-down as well as steady state operation. The LIFE control system will be a high parallel segmented architecture. For example, the laser system consists of 384 identical laser beamlines in a 'box'. The control system will mirror this architectural replication for each beamline with straightforward high-level interface for control and status monitoring. Key technical challenges will be discussed such as the injected target tracking and laser pointing feedback. This talk discusses the the plan for controls and information systems to support LIFE.

  9. Laser preheat enhanced ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for enhancing fuel ignition performance by preheating the fuel with laser light at a wavelength that is absorbable by the fuel prior to ignition with a second laser is provided.

  10. Laser-assisted electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, D.F.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of laser irradiation on electrodeposition processes has been investigated. These studies demonstrated that the addition of laser irradiation to an electroplating process can dramatically enhance plating rates and current efficiencies, as well as improve the morphology of the resultant electrodeposit. During the course of these investigations, the mechanism for the laser enhancement of electrodeposition processes was determined. Experimental evidence was obtained to show that laser irradiation of the substrate results in increased metal ion concentrations at the surface of the electrode due to a laser-induced Soret effect. The laser-induced Soret effect has important implications for laser-assisted electrochemical processing. The increase in the surface concentration of ions allows efficient electrodeposition from dilute solutions. As such, laser- assisted electrodeposition may develop into an environmentally conscious manufacturing process by reducing waste and limiting worker exposure to toxic chemicals.

  11. Short wavelength laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, Peter L. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A short wavelength laser (28) is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses (30, 31). A multiplicity of panels (32), mounted on substrates (34), are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path (42). When the panels (32) are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses (30, 31), single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses (44, 46) are produced.

  12. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA); Shannon, Robert R. (Tucson, AZ)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  13. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, S.A.; Shannon, R.R.

    1985-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  14. World Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind Project JumpWisconsin:WorldWorld Energy Jump to:

  15. Laser EYE SURGERY LASIK and Excimer Lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    Laser EYE SURGERY LASIK and Excimer Lasers Michael Hutchins #12;The PROBLEM opia - near sightedness. ically corrected with concave #12;THE PROBLEM eropia - far sightedness sed by a flat cornea or ort eye from different focal points in different nes of the eye. used by non-uniform curvature of the cornea

  16. Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization Max Wiedmann #12;What is TMR? · TMR is used to improve blood flow to heart muscle tissue (myocardial tissue). · This is done using a laser to create small with bypass surgery so no additional opening is required. · The surgeon uses the laser to create 20 to 40 1mm

  17. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  18. LaserFest Celebration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Alan Chodos; Elizabeth A. Rogan

    2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    LaserFest was the yearlong celebration, during 2010, of the 50th anniversary of the demonstration of the first working laser. The goals of LaserFest were: to highlight the impact of the laser in its manifold commercial, industrial and medical applications, and as a tool for ongoing scientific research; to use the laser as one example that illustrates, more generally, the route from scientific innovation to technological application; to use the laser as a vehicle for outreach, to stimulate interest among students and the public in aspects of physical science; to recognize and honor the pioneers who developed the laser and its many applications; to increase awareness among policymakers of the importance of R&D funding as evidenced by such technology as lasers. One way in which LaserFest sought to meet its goals was to encourage relevant activities at a local level all across the country -- and also abroad -- that would be identified with the larger purposes of the celebration and would carry the LaserFest name. Organizers were encouraged to record and advertise these events through a continually updated web-based calendar. Four projects were explicitly detailed in the proposals: 1) LaserFest on the Road; 2) Videos; 3) Educational material; and 4) Laser Days.

  19. FOCUS July 2000 1 The Departments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    , professor of civil engineering, gives a lesson on bedrock bioremediation at a haz- ardous waste site) was spilled at the site years ago when Pease was an Air Force Base. Engineering on the Rocks Nancy KinnerFOCUS July 2000 1 The Departments asdfghjk The Departments FOCUS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

  20. FEMP/NTDP Technology Focus New Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEMP/NTDP Technology Focus New Technology Demonstration Program Technology Focus FEMPFederal Energy Management Program Trends in Energy Management Technology: BCS Integration Technologies ­ Open Communications into a complete EMCIS. The first article [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems

  1. Transcranial Low-Level Laser Therapy Improves Neurological Performance in Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice: Effect of Treatment Repetition Regimen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been clinically applied around the world for a spectrum of disorders requiring healing, regeneration and prevention of tissue death. One area that is attracting growing interest ...

  2. WORLD ROBOTICS 2010 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    WORLD ROBOTICS 2010 VII EXECUTIVE SUMMARY of 1. World Robotics 2010 Industrial Robots 2. World Robotics 2010 Service Robots 1. World Robotics 2010 Industrial Robots Sales slump in 2009 In 2009, the worldwide economic and financial crisis caused a significant slump in the sales of industrial robots

  3. WORLD ROBOTICS 2011 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    WORLD ROBOTICS 2011 VII EXECUTIVE SUMMARY of 1. World Robotics 2011 Industrial Robots 2. World Robotics 2011 Service Robots 1. World Robotics 2011 Industrial Robots 2010: Strong comeback of the robotics and financial crisis caused a significant slump in the sales of industrial robots. Compared to 2008, considered

  4. World-Systems as Dynamic Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Douglas R.

    World-Systems as Dynamic Networks Christopher Chase-Dunn Institute for Research on World-Systems on comparative world-systems for the workshop on `analyzing complex macrosystems as dynamic networks" at the Santa Fe Institute, April 29- 30, 2004. (8341 words) v. 4-22-04 1 #12;The comparative world-systems

  5. SOFTWAREENGINEERING The World Wide Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehead, James

    SOFTWAREENGINEERING The World Wide Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning working group on the Web. WEBDAV: IETF Standard for Collaborative Authoring on the Web E. JAMES WHITEHEAD, JR. University remains to be done. What if instead you could simply edit Web documents (or any Web resource) in place

  6. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  7. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  8. Tore Bruland Building World Event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tore Bruland Building World Event Representations From Linguistic Representations Thesis of Computer and Information Science c Tore Bruland ISBN 978-82-471-2 (printed version) ISBN 978-82-471-4292-9 (electronic version) ISSN 1503-8181 Doctoral thesis at NTNU, 2013:97 #12;For Kari Marie Bruland (1937

  9. WORLD ROBOTICS 2007 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    ,200 units, down 11% on 2005 World total stock of operational industrial robots: · 951,000 units,3% greater was down by 11% in 2006, at 112,203 newly supplied industrial robots. Nevertheless, developments were quite industry increased substantially. Figure 1 Estimated yearly shipments of industrial robots 0 10,000 20

  10. World Oil: Market or Mayhem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world oil market is regarded by many as a puzzle. Why are oil prices so volatile? What is OPEC and what does OPEC do? Where are oil prices headed in the long run? Is “peak oil” a genuine concern? Why did oil prices ...

  11. The effect of task demands and artificially manipulated object salience on visual attention in real world scenes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welensky, Zachary

    2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Eye movements during real-world scene viewing have been shown to be influenced by two main mechanisms of attention allocation: bottom-up and top-down. The exact effect each mechanism has on attention allocation is the focus ...

  12. Nanometer-scale ablation using focused, coherent extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menoni, Carmen S. (Fort Collins, CO); Rocca, Jorge J. (Fort Collins, CO); Vaschenko, Georgiy (San Diego, CA); Bloom, Scott (Encinitas, CA); Anderson, Erik H. (El Cerrito, CA); Chao, Weilun (El Cerrito, CA); Hemberg, Oscar (Stockholm, SE)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ablation of holes having diameters as small as 82 nm and having clean walls was obtained in a poly(methyl methacrylate) on a silicon substrate by focusing pulses from a Ne-like Ar, 46.9 nm wavelength, capillary-discharge laser using a freestanding Fresnel zone plate diffracting into third order is described. Spectroscopic analysis of light from the ablation has also been performed. These results demonstrate the use of focused coherent EUV/SXR light for the direct nanoscale patterning of materials.

  13. The National Ignition Facility: The world's largest optical system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 192-beam fusion laser, is presently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with an expected completion in 2008. The facility contains 7,456 meter-scale optics for amplification, beam steering, vacuum barriers, focusing, polarization rotation, and wavelength conversion. A multiphase program was put in place to increase the monthly optical manufacturing rate by up to 20x while simultaneously reducing cost by up to 3x through a sub-scale development, full-scale facilitization, and a pilot production phase. Currently 80% of the optics are complete with over 50% installed. In order to manufacture the high quality optics at desired manufacturing rate of over 100 precision optics per month, new more deterministic advanced fabrication technologies had to be employed over those used to manufacture previous fusion lasers.

  14. Robust Collimation Control of Laser-Generated Ion Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawata, S; Kamiyama, D; Nagashima, T; Barada, D; Gu, Y J; Li, X; Yu, Q; Kong, Q; Wang, P X

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The robustness of a structured collimation device is discussed for an intense-laser-produced ion beam. In this paper the ion beam collimation is realized by the solid structured collimation device, which produces the transverse electric field; the electric field contributes to reduce the ion beam transverse velocity and collimate the ion beam. Our 2.5 dimensional particle-in cell simulations demonstrate that the collimation device is rather robust against the changes in the laser parameters and the collimation target sizes. The intense short-pulse lasers are now available, and are used to generate an ion beam. The issues in the laser ion acceleration include an ion beam collimation, ion energy spectrum control, ion production efficiency, ion energy control, ion beam bunching, etc. The laser-produced ion beam tends to expand in the transverse and longitudinal directions during the ion beam propagation. The ion beam collimation is focused in this paper.

  15. The world`s first commercial iron carbide plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prichard, L.C.; Schad, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper traces the development of Nucor`s investigation of clean iron unit processes, namely, direct reduction, and the decision to build and operate the world`s first commercial iron carbide plant. They first investigated coal based processes since the US has abundant coal reserves, but found a variety of reasons for dropping the coal-based processes from further consideration. A natural gas based process was selected, but the failure to find economically priced gas supplies stopped the development of a US based venture. It was later found that Trinidad had economically priced and abundant supplies of natural gas, and the system of government, the use of English language, and geographic location were also ideal. The cost estimates required modification of the design, but the plant was begun in April, 1993. Start-up problems with the plant are also discussed. Production should commence shortly.

  16. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  17. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, W.

    1985-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities. The apparatus comprises a focused and pulsed laser, a photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  18. Camera 5 megapixels Tap to focus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    Network - - - - - - - - UMTS/HSDPA/HSUPA Wi-Fi: 802.11b/g/n Bluetooth: 2.1+ EDR - - - - - - - - UMTS/HSDPA Wi-Fi: 802.11b/g Bluetooth: 2.1+ EDR World phone Operates on AT&T's 4G Network UMTS/HSDPA/HSUPA Wi

  19. Laser Safety Training Notes for URI Laser Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    ;URI Radiation Safety Office 11 Laser Output · Continuous Wave (steady output) · Pulsed (short time extremely short laser pulses (typically a few nanoseconds in duration). The Q-switch may use a rotatingLaser Safety Training Notes for URI Laser Users #12;URI Radiation Safety Office 2 Laser The word

  20. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dantus, Marcos (Okemos, MI); Lozovoy, Vadim V. (Okemos, MI); Comstock, Matthew (Milford, MI)

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  1. The Theta Laser A Low Noise Chirped Pulse Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    · Increased laser coherence · Ultra-low noise lasersOC ISO SOA #12;8 Approach Semiconductor-Based FrequencyThe Theta Laser A Low Noise Chirped Pulse Laser Dimitrios Mandridis dmandrid@creol.ucf.edu April 29, 2011 CREOL Affiliates Day 2011 #12;2 Objective: Frequency Swept (FM) Mode-locked Laser · Develop

  2. Micro free-flow isoelectric focusing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Jacob William

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To unravel the complexity of cellular systems, protein prefractionation tools can be used to reduce cell lysate complexity and increase assay sensitivity. Rapid free flow isoelectric focusing (FF-IEF) is achieved in a ...

  3. |Research Focus Statistical decision theory and evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maloney, Laurence T.

    |Research Focus Statistical decision theory and evolution Laurence T. Maloney Department recent articles by Geisler and Diehl use Bayesian statistical decision theory to model the co, an advantage that ultimately translates into `reproductive success'. The balance between predator and prey

  4. special focus Women war survivors Leadership training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Robert

    special focus Women war survivors Leadership training for the West Midlands Police Improving WEEE- owned low-carbon vehicles 30 Q&a Packing up wEEE has been made more efficient 16 managing editor Karen

  5. Two-axis sagittal focusing monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Edwin G; Stelmach, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An x-ray focusing device and method for adjustably focusing x-rays in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. The device and method can be operated remotely using two pairs of orthogonal benders mounted on a rigid, open frame such that x-rays may pass through the opening in the frame. The added x-ray flux allows significantly higher brightness from the same x-ray source.

  6. Laser-ultrasonic inspection of hybrid laser-arc welded HSLA-65 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lévesque, D.; Rousseau, G.; Monchalin, J.-P. [National Research Council Canada, Boucherville, QC (Canada); Wanjara, P.; Cao, X. [National Research Council Canada, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) process is a relatively low heat input joining technology that combines the synergistic qualities of both the high energy density laser beam for deep penetration and the arc for wide fit-up gap tolerance. This process is especially suitable for the shipbuilding industry where thick-gauge section, long steel plates have been widely used in a butt joint configuration. In this study, preliminary exploration was carried out to detect and visualize the welding defects using laser ultrasonics combined with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). Results obtained on 9.3 mm thick butt-welded HSLA-65 steel plates indicated that the laser-ultrasonic SAFT inspection technique can successfully detect and visualize the presence of porosity, lack of fusion and internal crack defects. This was further confirmed by X-ray digital radiography and metallography. The results obtained clearly show the potential of using the laser-ultrasonic technology for the automated inspection of hybrid laser-arc welds.

  7. The BErkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA): A 10 GeV Laser Plasma Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leemans, W.P.; Duarte, R.; Esarey, E.; Fournier, S.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Lockhart, D.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, C.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, S.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview is presented of the design of a 10 GeV laser plasma accelerator (LPA) that will be driven by a PW-class laser system and of the BELLA Project, which has as its primary goal to build and install the required Ti:sapphire laser system for the acceleration experiments. The basic design of the 10 GeV stage aims at operation in the quasi-linear regime, where the laser excited wakes are largely sinusoidal and offer the possibility of accelerating both electrons and positrons. Simulations show that a 10 GeV electron beam can be generated in a meter scale plasma channel guided LPA operating at a density of about 1017 cm-3 and powered by laser pulses containing 30-40 J of energy in a 50- 200 fs duration pulse, focused to a spotsize of 50-100 micron. The lay-out of the facility and laser system will be presented as well as the progress on building the facility.

  8. Self-guided wakefield experiments driven by petawatt class ultra-short laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangles, S P D; Bellei, C; Dangor, A E; Kamperidis, C; Kneip, S; Nagel, S R; Willingale, L; Najmudin, Z

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the extension of self-injecting laser wakefield experiments to the regime that will be accessible with the next generation of petawatt class ultra-short pulse laser systems. Using linear scalings, current experimental trends and numerical simulations we determine the optimal laser and target parameters, i.e. focusing geometry, plasma density and target length, that are required to increase the electron beam energy (to > 1 GeV) without the use of external guiding structures.

  9. The effect of solvent on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campo, Karen Kay

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its introduction in 1988, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI) has developed into a useful analytical tool in the biological field. The work presented here focuses on the effect of solvent on MALDI ion yields...

  10. Nonlinear Phenomena Induced by Millijoule Femtosecond Laser Pulses at an Air-water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strycker, Benjamin

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Femtosecond laser pulses with millijoule energy have the potential to be used in many applications for remote sensing in marine environments. In this dissertation, we investigate some of the basic phenomena involved when a loosely focused...

  11. Laser Heater and seeded Free Electron Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dattoli, G; Sabia, E

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we consider the effect of laser heater on a seeded Free Electron Laser. We develop a model embedding the effect of the energy modulation induced by the heater with those due to the seeding. The present analysis is compatible with the experimental results obtained at FERMI displaying secondary maxima with increasing heater intensity. The treatment developed in the paper confirms and extends previous analyses and put in evidence further effects which can be tested in future experiments.

  12. Laser velocimetry study of the flow field in a centrifugal pump with a shrouded impeller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moran, Michael Kevin

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides laser velocimetry measurements of the flow field within a centrifugal pump. The pump had a shrouded impeller of 254 mm diameter with five blades of backswept design. Measurements were made using a laser-two-focus (L2F...

  13. Dynamics of femto-and nanosecond laser ablation plumes investigated using optical emission spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    . Plasma formation occurs when a high powered pulsed laser is focused onto a target such that the energy, such as pulse duration, energy, and wave- length; along with the target properties and surrounding conditions,10 ion beams11 of various charge states, laser-ablation inductively coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (LA

  14. THE EFFECTS OF LASER FORMING ON SUPERELASTIC NITI SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS Paper # P529

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    THE EFFECTS OF LASER FORMING ON SUPERELASTIC NITI SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS Paper # P529 Andrew J Abstract This work focuses on application of the laser forming process to NiTi shape memory alloys. While all NiTi shape memory alloys exhibit both superlasticity and the shape memory effect, this study

  15. Modeling of EUV Emission and Conversion Efficiency from Laser-Produced Tin Plasmas for Nanolithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Modeling of EUV Emission and Conversion Efficiency from Laser-Produced Tin Plasmas simulation tools. Here, we investigate the radiative properties of tin and tin-doped foam plasmas heated by 1 at intermediate focus (IF). Laser-generated plasmas containing lithium, xenon or tin are potentially good emission

  16. PAPER www.rsc.org/loc | Lab on a Chip Laser-induced cavitation based micropump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    PAPER www.rsc.org/loc | Lab on a Chip Laser-induced cavitation based micropump Rory Dijkinka as versatile and robust pumping techniques. Here, we present a cavitation based technique, which is able cavitation event is created by focusing a laser pulse in a conventional PDMS microfluidic chip close

  17. Laser-PlasmaWakefield Acceleration with Higher Order Laser Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, C.G.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design considerations for a laser-plasma linear collider,"E.Esarey, and W.P.Leemans, "Free-electron laser driven bythe LBNL laser-plasma accelerator," in Proc. Adv. Acc. Con.

  18. Nonlinear laser energy depletion in laser-plasma accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shadwick, B.A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    k p k 0 and assume a short laser pulse, k p L ? 2. WithE 0 = mc? p /q. For a short laser pulse, ? ? ? short-pulse lasers via excitation of

  19. 2003 Laser Diagnostic in Combustion Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark G. Allen

    2004-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The GRC Laser Diagnostics in Combustion aims at bringing together scientists and engineers working in the front edge of research and development to discuss and find new ways to solve problems connected to combustion diagnostics. Laser-based techniques have proven to be very efficient tools for studying combustion processes thanks to features as non-intrusiveness in combination with high spatial and temporal resolution. Major tasks for the community are to develop and apply techniques for quantitative measurements with high precision e.g of species concentrations, temperatures, velocities and particles characteristics (size and concentration). These issues are of global interest, considering that the major part of the World's energy conversion comes from combustion sources and the influence combustion processes have on the environment and society.

  20. Summary Report from Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials Summary Report from Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials This report provides information about the Theory Focus...

  1. International Congeress on Plasma Physics, Nice, France, 25-29 October 2004 Chaotic particle dynamics in free-electron lasers with coaxial wiggler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dynamics in free-electron lasers with coaxial wiggler B. Farokhi and S. Mobarakabadi Islamic Azad University of Arak, Arak, Iran The motion of a relativistic test electron in a free-electron laser orbits. Earlier investigations of chaos in free ­ electron lasers have focused on chaotic behavior

  2. Precision laser aiming system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Brandon R. (Albuquerque, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  3. Excimer laser chemical problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennant, R.; Peterson, N.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques need to be developed to maintain XeF and XeCl laser performance over long periods of time without degradation resulting from chemical processes occurring within the laser. The dominant chemical issues include optical damage, corrosions of laser materials, gas contamination, and control of halogen concentration. Each of these issues are discussed and summarized. The methods of minimizing or controlling the chemical processes involved are presented.

  4. Next Generation Lunch: Revealing the World’s First 3D Printed Car (text version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version for the Next Generation Lunch: Revealing the World’s First 3D Printed Car Video.

  5. Fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for molten material analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hansheng; Rai, Awadesh K.; Singh, Jagdish P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor, including a laser light source, a harmonic separator for directing the laser light, a dichroic mirror for reflecting the laser light, a coupling lens for coupling the laser light at an input of a multimode optical fiber, a connector for coupling the laser light from an output of the multimode optical fiber to an input of a high temperature holder, such as a holder made of stainless steel, and a detector portion for receiving emission signal and analyzing LIBS intensities. In one variation, the multimode optical fiber has silica core and silica cladding. The holder includes optical lenses for collimating and focusing the laser light in a molten alloy to produce a plasma, and for collecting and transmitting an emission signal to the multimode optical fiber.

  6. Novel fluorinated laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel class of dye is disclosed which is particularly efficient and stable for dye laser applications, lasing between 540 and 570 nm.

  7. Laser Desorption Analysis | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mounted on standardized EMSL platens and attached to a vacuum manipulator. Several excitation, or pump, nanosecond and femtosecond lasers are available in the laboratory for...

  8. ATF CO2 LASER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    *Operate at low pressure <<1 atm *Bandwidth P (10 atm supports a picosecond pulse) 4 Ultrafast gas lasers require high pressure Inverse Fourier Transform for discrete spectrum...

  9. Laser Desorption Analysis | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and TOF mass spectrometers; neutral particle detection using a second multiphoton ionization or REMPI laser system; and UHV surface diagnostic equipment (AES, LEED, XPS)....

  10. BNL | Nd:YAG Laser

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nd:YAG Laser The Nd:YAG laser is located in a class 1000 clean room (the YAG Room) near the electron gun end of the ATF accelerator. The clean area also includes a separate laser...

  11. BNL | CFN Laser System Qualifications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lasers. This standard requires each Class 3B and 4 laser user to have a pre-assignment eye examination by an ophthalmologist, which is recorded on Part B of the Laser Medical...

  12. Laser Program annual report 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neal, E.M.; Murphy, P.W.; Canada, J.A.; Kirvel, R.D.; Peck, T.; Price, M.E.; Prono, J.K.; Reid, S.G.; Wallerstein, L.; Wright, T.W. (eds.)

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: target design and experiments; target materials development; laboratory x-ray lasers; laser science and technology; high-average-power solid state lasers; and ICF applications studies.

  13. Characteristic x-ray emission from undermines plasmas irradiated by ultra-intense lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, Christoph

    2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Between FY09 and FY11 we have conducted more than a dozen three-week experimental campaigns at high-power laser facilities around the world to investigate laser-channeling through x-ray and optical imaging and the conversion from laser-energy to xrays. We have performed simultaneous two-wavelength x-ray imaging (K-alpha and He-alpha) to distinguish the hot-plasma region (hot-spot) from the laser-produced electrons (K-alpha). In addition, we have initiated a new collaboration with SNL and have performed first shots on the 100 TW beamlet chamber to commission a fast x-ray streak camera to be used to investigate the temporal evolution of our K-alpha sources. We also collaborated on campaigns at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) and the LANL Trident laser to employ laser produced x-ray sources for Thomson scattering off dense matter.

  14. Gras Dowr joins world`s FPSO fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gras Dowr, a floating production, storage, and offloading vessel (FPSD) for Amerada Hess Ltd.`s North Sea Durward and Dauntless fields, is one of the latest additions to the world`s growing FPSO fleet. The Gras Dowr, anchored in about 90 m of water, lies between the Durward (U.K. Block 21/16) and Dauntless (U.K. Block 21/11) fields, about 3.5 km from the subsea wellhead locations. The Gras Dowr`s main functions, according to Bluewater Offshore Production Systems Ltd., are to: receive fluids from well risers; process incoming fluids to separate the fluid into crude, water, and gas; store dry crude oil and maintain the required temperature; treat effluent to allow for water discharge to the sea; compress gas for gas lift as a future option; provide chemical injection skid for process chemical injection; use a part of the produced gas for fuel gas, and flare excess gas; inject treated seawater into the injection wells; house power generation for process and offloading operation and utilities; offload to a tandem moored shuttle tanker including receiving liquid fuel from the same tanker; provide accommodations for operating and maintenance crews; allow helicopters landings and takeoffs; allow handling and storage of goods transported by supply vessels; moor a shuttle tanker; and control the subsea wells.

  15. Infusing Real World Experiences into ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napier, Terrence

    Infusing Real World Experiences into ENGINEERING EDUCATION #12;This project is a collaboration with the authors and NAE. #12;Infusing Real World Experiences into Engineering Education 2012 #12;2 Preface The aim

  16. Multiple Scales in Small-World Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasturirangan, Rajesh

    1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-world architectures may be implicated in a range of phenomena from networks of neurons in the cerebral cortex to social networks and propogation of viruses. Small-world networks are interpolations of regular and ...

  17. Online Games, Virtual Worlds, and Social Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemmers, Oliver

    JOUR 447: Online Games, Virtual Worlds, and Social Networks Virtual Island Making #12;One element in the look and design of the virtual islands. JOUR 447: Online Games, Virtual Worlds, and Social Networks

  18. Remote lensless focusing of a light beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrov, Nikolai I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Remote focusing of light in a graded-index medium via mode interference is demonstrated using exact analytical solutions of the wave equation. Strong focusing of light occurs at extremely long distances and it revivals periodically with distance due to mode interference. High efficiency transfer of a strongly focused subwavelength spot through optical waveguide over large distances takes place with a period of revival. Super-oscillatory hot-spots with the sizes which are beyond the conventional Abbe diffraction limit can be observed at large distances from the source. This can provide the possibility to detect optical super-resolution information in the far-field without any evanescent waves. Far-field super-resolution imaging capabilities of a graded-index waveguide are also analyzed.

  19. The perfect heist : recipes from around the world.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lafleur, Jarret Marshall; Purvis, Liston Keith; Roesler, Alexander William; Westland, Paul [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Of the many facets of the criminal world, few have captured society's fascination as has that of high stakes robbery. The combination of meticulousness, cunning, and audacity required to execute a real-life Ocean's Eleven may be uncommon among criminals, but fortunately it is common enough to extract a wealth of lessons for the protection of high-value assets. To assist in informing the analyses and decisions of security professionals, this paper surveys 23 sophisticated and high-value heists that have occurred or been attempted around the world, particularly over the past three decades. The results, compiled in a Heist Methods and Characteristics Database, have been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively, with the goals of both identifying common characteristics and characterizing the range and diversity of criminal methods used. The analysis is focused in six areas: (1) Defeated Security Measures and Devices, (2) Deception Methods, (3) Timing, (4) Weapons, (5) Resources, and (6) Insiders.

  20. The emerging multi-polar world and China's grand game

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Rajan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This talk outlines a scenario describing an emerging multipolar world that is aligned with geographical regions. The stability and security of this multipolar world is examined with respect to demographics, trade (economics), resource constraints, and development. In particular I focus on Asia which has two large countries, China and India, competing for resources and markets and examine the emerging regional relations, opportunities and threats. These relationships must overcome many hurdles - the Subcontinent is in a weak position politically and strategically and faces many threats, and China's growing power could help stabilize it or create new threats. Since the fate of 1.5 billion (2.4 billion by 2050) people depends on how the Subcontinent evolves, this talk is meant to initiates a discussion of what China and India can do to help the region develop and stabilize.

  1. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  2. Sunergy World | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to: navigation,SunElectra JumpSundance Power LLCSunergy World

  3. Wind World | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers Home Kyoung's pictureWind Power Energia JumpMaps.jpgWind World

  4. The University is home to the Centre for Photonics and Photonic Materials, which facilitates collaborative work focused on cutting-edge research in the field of Photonics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    a single laser, and using filters to change the wavelength of the light, researchers hope to be able equipment. Exploring the optical properties of Aerogel Aerogels are the world's lightest solid materials, composed of up to 99.98 per cent air by volume. Aerogels are solids, but behave like air

  5. "Extreme Project Management" One World Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiltinan, Mark

    "Extreme Project Management" One World Trade Center A special presentation with a discussion of managing multiple large projects at the World Trade Center site with multiple adjacencies, complicated 1984), PE, PMP, is the Program Director for One World Trade Center. Lynda Tollner, is a Program

  6. Neal Lane: Science in a Flat World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal Lane

    2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Lane discusses the changes that have taken place in the world since World War II that have made it "flatter," referring to Thomas L. Friedman's book, The World is Flat. Friedman's main premise is that inexpensive telecommunications is bringing about unhampered international competition, the demise of economic stability, and a trend toward outsourcing services, such as computer programming, engineering and science research.

  7. Neal Lane: Science in a Flat World

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Neal Lane

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lane discusses the changes that have taken place in the world since World War II that have made it "flatter," referring to Thomas L. Friedman's book, The World is Flat. Friedman's main premise is that inexpensive telecommunications is bringing about unhampered international competition, the demise of economic stability, and a trend toward outsourcing services, such as computer programming, engineering and science research.

  8. ThousandWorlds Collected Issue 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NDtfbRLDS COLLECTED Covers: Carol Walske Dedication Welcome to ThousandWorlds Background to ThousandWorlds cartoon It's A Man's World That Share of Glory/The Father The Gem of Harrrow (filk) That Share of Glory/The Uncles The Gdnvue Saga, Downport version...

  9. Laser Micromachining: Advantages of Liquid Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Laser Micromachining: Advantages of Liquid Environments Marc J. Palmeri Princeton University Arnold Lab #12;Outline · Motivation ­ Applications of laser micromachining ­ Problems with laser micromachining · How do lasers work? · What is laser micromachining? · Micromachining assembly · Methods

  10. LANL | Physics | Trident Laser Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery science at Trident Laser Facility Several important discoveries and first observations have been made at the Trident Laser Facility, a unique three-beam neodymium-glass...

  11. Focused ion beam micromilling and articles therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, B.C.; Stutz, R.A.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are disclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters. 6 figs.

  12. Course Focus HORT 225: Landscape Graphics I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    Course Focus HORT 225: Landscape Graphics I By Rebekah VanWieren The last words I include unique graphic representation styles. The course begins by looking at the diversity of work of the course is spent learning and exploring the various graphic communication tools used to visualize

  13. Synthesis of focusing-and-deflection columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szilagyi, M.; Mui, P.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Szilagyi and Szep have demonstrated that focusing lenses of high performances can be constructed from a column of circular plate electrodes. Later, Szilagyi modified that system to include dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components by partitioning each plate into eight equal sectors. It has already been shown that the additional quadrupole components can indeed bring about substantial improvements in the focusing of charged particle beams. In this article, that design procedure is expanded to construct columns capable of both focusing and deflecting particle beams by just introducing additional dipole components. In this new design, the geometry of the system remains unchanged. The only extra complication is the demand for more individual controls of the sector voltages. Two sample designs, one for negative ions and one for electrons, are presented showing that in both cases a {plus_minus}2.3 mrad diverging beam can be focused down to a spot of less than 50 nm in radius over a scanning circular area of radius 0.25 mm. The details of the two systems are given in Sec. IV along with the source conditions. The performance of the negative ion system is found to be comparable to the published data. For the relativistic electron system, the interaction of individual components to reduce various aberrations is investigated. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

  14. Focused ion beam micromilling and articles therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, Bruce C. (Los Alamos, NM); Stutz, Roger A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are isclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters.

  15. Regional Focus on GM Crop Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, George M.

    Regional Focus on GM Crop Regulation THE RECENT MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE DEVEL- opments in Brazil for com- mercial genetically modified (GM) crops in both the scientific and regulatory arena. The release of GM crops in these coun- tries might result in the unintentional entry of GM seeds into neighboring

  16. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation prototype tool. In the past, several combinations of laser and rock variables were investigated at standard conditions and reported in the literature. More recent experiments determined the technical feasibility of laser perforation on multiple samples of rock, cement and steel. The fiber laser was capable of penetrating these materials under a variety of conditions, to an appropriate depth, and with reasonable energy requirements. It was determined that fiber lasers are capable of cutting rock without causing damage to flow properties. Furthermore, the laser perforation resulted in permeability improvements on the exposed rock surface. This report discusses the design and development of a customized laser pressure cell; experimental design and procedures, and the resulting data on pressure-charged samples exposed to the laser beam. An analysis provides the resulting effect of downhole pressure conditions on the laser/rock interaction process.

  17. Titan Laser Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Titan Titan is a two-beam laser platform. The nanosecond "long-pulse" beam is one of the Janus lasers, up to 1 kJ at 1.053 m. The "short-pulse" beam is 1-to-10 ps and energies up...

  18. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  19. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  20. Dye laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  1. Drive laser Photocathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Drive laser Gun cavity Scale 2" 3"0 1" Photocathode Schematic Overview of a Free Electron Laser Steel Sleeve Compressed Cs2CrO4:Ti Pellet (0.725g) 1.27 cm Nickel-Assisted Hermetic Braze #12;Foundation

  2. Laser Programs Highlight 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, R.R.

    1997-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Our contributions to laser science and technology and corresponding applications range from concept to design of the National Ignition Facility, transfer of Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation technology to the private sector, and from new initiatives in industry and defense to micro-optics for improving human vision.

  3. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  4. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  5. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  6. Laser dividing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, Jr., R. Edward (Tracy, CA); Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser beam dividing apparatus (10) having a first beam splitter (14) with an aperture (16) therein positioned in the path of a laser beam (12) such that a portion of the laser beam (12) passes through the aperture (16) onto a second beam splitter (20) and a portion of the laser beam (12) impinges upon the first beam splitter (14). Both the first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) are, optionally, made from a dichroic material such that a green component (24) of the laser beam (12) is reflected therefrom and a yellow component (26) is refracted therethrough. The first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) further each have a plurality of facets (22) such that the components (24, 26) are reflected and refracted in a number equaling the number of facets (22).

  7. Catalac free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  8. How much laser power can propagate through fusion plasma?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel M. Lushnikov; Harvey A. Rose

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Propagation of intense laser beams is crucial for inertial confinement fusion, which requires precise beam control to achieve the compression and heating necessary to ignite the fusion reaction. The National Ignition Facility (NIF), where fusion will be attempted, is now under construction. Control of intense beam propagation may be ruined by laser beam self-focusing. We have identified the maximum laser beam power that can propagate through fusion plasma without significant self-focusing and have found excellent agreement with recent experimental data, and suggest a way to increase that maximum by appropriate choice of plasma composition with implication for NIF designs. Our theory also leads to the prediction of anti-correlation between beam spray and backscatter and suggests the indirect control of backscatter through manipulation of plasma ionization state or acoustic damping.

  9. 2009 Laser Diagnostics in Combustion GRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volker Sick

    2009-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-intrusive laser diagnostics for the spatially and temporally resolved measurement of temperature, chemical composition, and flow parameters have emerged over the last few decades as major tools for the study of both fundamental and applied combustion science. Many of the important advances in the field can be attributed to the discussions and ideas emanating from this meeting. This conference, originating in 1981 and held biennially, focuses on laser-based methods for measurement of both macroscopic parameters and the underlying microscale physical and chemical processes. Applications are discussed primarily to elucidate new chemical and physical issues and/or interferences that need to be addressed to improve the accuracy and precision of the various diagnostic approaches or to challenge the community of diagnosticians to invent new measurement techniques. Combustion environments present special challenges to the optical diagnostics community as they address measurements relevant to turbulence, spray and mixture formation, or turbulence/chemistry interactions important in practical combustion systems as well as fundamental chemical reactions in stationary laminar flames. The diagnostics considered may be generally classed as being incoherent, where the signals are radiated isotropically, or coherent, where the signals are generated in a directed, beam-like fashion. Both of the foregoing may employ either electronic or Raman resonance enhancement or a combination of both. Prominent incoherent approaches include laser induced fluorescence (LIF), spontaneous Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, laser induced incandescence, molecular flow tagging, and Mie scattering and their two- and three-dimensional imaging variants. Coherent approaches include coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM), polarization spectroscopy (PS), laser induced grating spectroscopy (LIGS) and laser-based absorption spectroscopy. Spectroscopic modelling and validation are key elements to extract accurate parameter measurements and discussions focusing on key energy transfer processes, collisional models, and lineshapes. The properties and behaviour of lasers, optical arrangements and techniques, spectrally-selective and dispersive instruments and detectors are also important determinants of successful measurements and are discussed in detail. Recent developments in the conference have highlighted the application of techniques developed for combustion research that find application in other areas such as biological, atmospheric, chemical engineering or plasma processes.

  10. Free electron laser designs for laser amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prosnitz, Donald (Walnut Creek, CA); Szoke, Abraham (Fremont, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for laser beam amplification by means of free electron laser techniques. With wiggler magnetic field strength B.sub.w and wavelength .lambda..sub.w =2.pi./k.sub.w regarded as variable parameters, the method(s) impose conditions such as substantial constancy of B.sub.w /k.sub.w or k.sub.w or B.sub.w and k.sub.w (alternating), coupled with a choice of either constant resonant phase angle or programmed phase space "bucket" area.

  11. On the evolution of cured voxel in bulk photopolymerization upon focused Gaussian laser exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhole, Kiran, E-mail: kirandipali@gmail.com; Gandhi, Prasanna [Suman Mashruwala Advance Microengineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076 (India); Kundu, T. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076 (India)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Unconstrained depth photopolymerization is emerging as a promising technique for fabrication of several polymer microstructures such as self propagating waveguides, 3D freeform structures by bulk lithography, and polymer nanoparticles by flash exposure. Experimental observations reveal governing physics beyond Beer Lambert's law and scattering effects. This paper seeks to model unconstrained depth photopolymerization using classical nonlinear Schrödinger equation coupled with transient diffusion phenomenon. The beam propagation part of the proposed model considers scattering effects induced due to spatial variation of the refractive index as a function of the beam intensity. The critical curing energy model is used to further predict profile of polymerized voxel. Profiles of photopolymerized voxel simulated using proposed model are compared with the corresponding experimental results for several cases of exposure dose and duration. The comparison shows close match leading to conclusion that the experimentally observed deviation from Beer Lambert's law is indeed due to combined effect of diffusion of photoinitiator and scattering of light because of change in the refractive index.

  12. Dynamic Recompartmentalization of Supported Lipid Bilayers Using Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    repetition rate of 2.7 kHz at 3 nJ pulse energy for 100 ms produces a dark blurry spot (2 µm fwhm of these applications depend on high peak intensities (>1013 W/cm2) achieved within the focal volume under low-energy Information). The bilayer was maintained wet by sandwiching the sample with a DI water-filled hanging drop

  13. Creating a Well-focused Laser-accelerated Proton Beam as a Driver for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department of Energy CarlsbadWinter Crayt heProton

  14. Colliding Laser Pulses for Laser-Plasma Accelerator Injection Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    Colliding Laser Pulses for Laser-Plasma Accelerator Injection Control G. R. Plateau, , C. G. R acceleration is a key challenge to achieve compact, reliable, tunable laser-plasma accelerators (LPA) [1, 2]. In colliding pulse injection the beat between multiple laser pulses can be used to control energy, energy

  15. Editorial Focus Fish Smell. Focus on "Odorant Specificity of Single Olfactory Bulb Neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    Editorial Focus Fish Smell. Focus on "Odorant Specificity of Single Olfactory Bulb Neurons to Amino bulb, or antennal lobe. The precise nature of these odor features is yet to be determined for the most of this type in the fish, precise subclasses of olfactory bulb neurons for coding biologically significant

  16. Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacGowan, Brian J. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (El Granada, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses of short duration (32). An ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulse of long duration (12) is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier (28), by a streaming plasma (22) that is produced by illuminating a solid target (16, 18) with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation (20). The short pulse of ultraviolet or X-ray laser radiation (32), which may be amplified to high power (40, 42), is separated out by passage through a slit aperture (30) in the opaque barrier (28).

  17. Fiber optic coupling of a microlens conditioned, stacked semiconductor laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, R.J.; Benett, W.J.; Mills, S.T.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The output radiation from the two-dimensional aperture of a semiconductor laser diode array is efficiently coupled into an optical fiber. The two-dimensional aperture is formed by stacking individual laser diode bars on top of another in a ``rack and stack`` configuration. Coupling into the fiber is then accomplished using individual microlenses to condition the output radiation of the laser diode bars. A lens that matches the divergence properties and wavefront characteristics of the laser light to the fiber optic is used to focus this conditioned radiation into the fiber. 3 figs.

  18. Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Trebes, J.E.

    1987-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or x- ray laser pulses of short duration. An ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulse of long duration is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier, by a streaming plasma that is produced by illuminating a solid target with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation. The short pulse of ultraviolet or x-ray laser radiation, which may be amplified to high power, is separated out by passage through a slit aperture in the opaque barrier.

  19. Method for laser welding a fin and a tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuerschbach, Phillip W. (Tijeras, NM); Mahoney, A. Roderick (Albuquerque, NM); Milewski, John O (Santa Fe, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of laser welding a planar metal surface to a cylindrical metal surface is provided, first placing a planar metal surface into approximate contact with a cylindrical metal surface to form a juncture area to be welded, the planar metal surface and cylindrical metal surface thereby forming an acute angle of contact. A laser beam, produced, for example, by a Nd:YAG pulsed laser, is focused through the acute angle of contact at the juncture area to be welded, with the laser beam heating the juncture area to a welding temperature to cause welding to occur between the planar metal surface and the cylindrical metal surface. Both the planar metal surface and cylindrical metal surface are made from a reflective metal, including copper, copper alloys, stainless steel alloys, aluminum, and aluminum alloys.

  20. Focused electron and ion beam systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Persaud, Arun; Ji, Qing; Jiang, Ximan

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam system is based on a plasma generator in a plasma ion source with an accelerator column. The electrons are extracted from a plasma cathode in a plasma ion source, e.g. a multicusp plasma ion source. The beam can be scanned in both the x and y directions, and the system can be operated with multiple beamlets. A compact focused ion or electron beam system has a plasma ion source and an all-electrostatic beam acceleration and focusing column. The ion source is a small chamber with the plasma produced by radio-frequency (RF) induction discharge. The RF antenna is wound outside the chamber and connected to an RF supply. Ions or electrons can be extracted from the source. A multi-beam system has several sources of different species and an electron beam source.

  1. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  2. Radio frequency focused interdigital linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Donald A.; Starling, W. Joel

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An interdigital (Wideroe) linear accelerator employing drift tubes, and associated support stems that couple to both the longitudinal and support stem electromagnetic fields of the linac, creating rf quadrupole fields along the axis of the linac to provide transverse focusing for the particle beam. Each drift tube comprises two separate electrodes operating at different electrical potentials as determined by cavity rf fields. Each electrode supports two fingers, pointing towards the opposite end of the drift tube, forming a four-finger geometry that produces an rf quadrupole field distribution along its axis. The fundamental periodicity of the structure is equal to one half of the particle wavelength .beta..lamda., where .beta. is the particle velocity in units of the velocity of light and .lamda. is the free space wavelength of the rf. Particles are accelerated in the gaps between drift tubes. The particle beam is focused in regions inside the drift tubes.

  3. World Net Nuclear Electric Power Generation, 1980-2007 - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    U.S. Energy Information ... World Net Nuclear Electric ... Dataset Activity Stream World Net Nuclear Electric Power Generation, 1980-2007 International data showing world net...

  4. Permanent magnet focused X-band photoinjector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U. L. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Rosenzweig, James (Los Angeles, CA)

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high energy photoelectron injector integrates the photocathode directly into a multicell linear accelerator with no drift space between the injection and the linac. High electron beam brightness is achieved by accelerating a tightly focused electron beam in an integrated, multi-cell, X-band rf linear accelerator (linac). The photoelectron linac employs a Plane-Wave-Transformer (PWT) design which provides strong cell-to-cell coupling, easing manufacturing tolerances and costs.

  5. The plasma focus as a thruster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Richard Lee

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: _____________________ Bruce Freeman (Chair of Committee) _____________________ Wayne Saslow (Member) _____________________ James Rock (Member... of the coaxial geometry is the outer electrode counteracts the magnetic field produced by the center electrode, resulting in minimal magnetic field outside the electrode system. Figure 2.1 shows a simplified schematic of the plasma focus, and Figure 2.2 is a...

  6. Focus group discussions of daylighting practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, B.F.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Buildings and Community systems and conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of an ongoing effort to enhance the commercial use of federally developed technologies. One such technology is the use of daylighting practices in the design of nonresidential buildings. This document is a report of the findings from meetings of focus groups conducted to gain insight into building designers' perceptions and attitudes about daylighting systems.

  7. Focusing DIRC Design for Super B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Va'Vra, J.; /SLAC

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present a new design of the Focusing DIRC for the Barrel PID to be used at the proposed Super-B factory. The new imaging optics is made of a solid Fused Silica block with a double folded optics using two mirrors, one cylindrical and one flat, focusing photons on a detector plane conveniently accessible for the detector access. The design assumes that the BaBar bar boxes are re-used without any modification, including the wedges and windows. Each bar box will have its own focusing block, which will contain 40 H-9500 (or H-8500) MaPMTs according to present thinking. There are 12 bar boxes in the entire detector, so the entire SuperB FDIRC system would have 480 MaPMTs. The design is very compact and therefore reduces sensitivity to the background. The chosen MaPMTs are fast enough to be able both to reject the background and to perform the chromatic correction. The 3D optics simulation is coded with the Mathematica program. The work in this paper was a basis of the LDRD proposal made to SLAC in 2009 [1].

  8. Laser induced plasma on copper target, a non-equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oumeziane, Amina Ait, E-mail: a.aitoumeziane@gmail.com; Liani, Bachir [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria)] [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria); Parisse, Jean-Denis [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)] [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive numerical model for the UV laser ablation of metal targets, it focuses mainly on the prediction of laser induced plasma thresholds, the effect of the laser-plasma interaction, and the importance of the electronic non-equilibrium in the laser induced plume and its expansion in the background gas. This paper describes a set of numerical models for laser-matter interaction between 193-248 and 355?nm lasers and a copper target. Along with the thermal effects inside the material resulting from the irradiation of the latter with the pulsed laser, the laser-evaporated matter interaction and the plasma formation are thoroughly modelled. In the laser induced plume, the electronic nonequilibrium and the laser beam absorption have been investigated. Our calculations of the plasmas ignition thresholds on copper targets have been validated and compared to experimental as well as theoretical results. Comparison with experiment data indicates that our results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, the inclusion of electronic non-equilibrium in our work indicated that this important process must be included in models of laser ablation and plasma plume formation.

  9. Design Innovation Global network of designers, engineers, and innovators challenging complex real world problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    and eight different countries. The course is now focused on teaching students the innovation methods multiple times, not only does it maximize student learning, it maximizes project insights for the student engineering students with real world engineering challenges, the course has evolved over the ages to meet

  10. Army Virtual Housing Experience The Army virtual housing experience provides Soldiers and Families world class

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Army Virtual Housing Experience Fact Sheet OVERVIEW The Army virtual housing experience provides Soldiers and Families world class customer focused housing information which allows them to make informed housing choices regarding off-post, privatized or government housing upon receipt of orders by using

  11. Quantum electrodynamics in a laser and the electron laser collision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi-Ren Zhang

    2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum electrodynamics in a laser is formulated, in which the electron-laser interaction is exactly considered, while the interaction of an electron and a single photon is considered by perturbation. The formulation is applied to the electron-laser collisions. The effect of coherence between photons in the laser is therefore fully considered in these collisions. The possibility of $\\gamma-$ray laser generation by use of this kind of collision is discussed.

  12. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute- GRI) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). When compared to its competitors; the HPFL represents a technology that is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. Work performed under this contract included design and implementation of laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of high power laser energy on a variety of rock types. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation or side tracking prototype tool. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on laser/rock interaction under confining pressure as would be the case for all drilling and completion operations. As such, the results would be applicable to drilling, perforation, and side tracking applications. In the past, several combinations of laser and rock variables were investigated at standard conditions and reported in the literature. More recent experiments determined the technical feasibility of laser perforation on multiple samples of rock, cement and steel. The fiber laser was capable of penetrating these materials under a variety of conditions, to an appropriate depth, and with reasonable energy requirements. It was determined that fiber lasers are capable of cutting rock without causing damage to flow properties. Furthermore, the laser perforation resulted in permeability improvements on the exposed rock surface. This report has been prepared in two parts and each part may be treated as a stand-alone document. Part 1 (High Energy Laser Drilling) includes the general description of the concept and focuses on results from experiments under the ambient lab conditions. Part 2 (High Energy Laser Perforation and Completion Techniques) discusses the design and development of a customized laser pressure cell; experimental design and procedures, and the resulting data on pressure-charged samples exposed to the laser beam. An analysis provides the resulting effect of downhole pressure conditions on the laser/rock interaction process.

  13. Coupled parallel waveguide semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukai, S.; Kapon, E.; Katz, J.; Lindsey, C.; Rav-Noy, Z.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation of a new type of tunable laser, where the two separately controlled individual lasers are placed vertically in parallel, has been demonstrated. One of the cavities (''control'' cavity) is operated below threshold and assists the longitudinal mode selection and tuning of the other laser. With a minor modification, the same device can operate as an independent two-wavelength laser source.

  14. Ultra-fast laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dantus, Marcos; Lozovoy, Vadim V

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser system is provided which selectively excites Raman active vibrations in molecules. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and remote sensing.

  15. 1982 laser program annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Grow, G.R. (eds.)

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual report covers the following eight sections: (1) laser program review, (2) laser systems and operation, (3) target design, (4) target fabrication, (5) fusion experiments program, (6) Zeus laser project, (7) laser research and development, and (8) energy applications. (MOW)

  16. LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement Each department that acquires or operates lasers for use in the university's Laser Safety Manual. Reason for Policy/Purpose If improperly used or controlled, lasers can produce multiple injuries, including burns, blindness, and electrocution. This policy and the university

  17. Laser Plasma Material Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaaf, Peter; Carpene, Ettore [Universitaet Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface treatment by means of pulsed laser beams in reactive atmospheres is an attractive technique to enhance the surface features, such as corrosion and wear resistance or the hardness. Many carbides and nitrides play an important role for technological applications, requiring the mentioned property improvements. Here we present a new promising fast, flexible and clean technique for a direct laser synthesis of carbide and nitride surface films by short pulsed laser irradiation in reactive atmospheres (e.g. methane, nitrogen). The corresponding material is treated by short intense laser pulses involving plasma formation just above the irradiated surface. Gas-Plasma-Surface reactions lead to a fast incorporation of the gas species into the material and subsequently the desired coating formation if the treatment parameters are chosen properly. A number of laser types have been used for that (Excimer Laser, Nd:YAG, Ti:sapphire, Free Electron Laser) and a number of different nitride and carbide films have been successfully produced. The mechanisms and some examples will be presented for Fe treated in nitrogen and Si irradiated in methane.

  18. Lateral coupled cavity semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salzman, J.; Lang, R.J.; Yariv, A.

    1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a monolithic lateral-coupled laser array comprised of at least two stripe laser cavities of different effective length in close parallel proximity to each other for coupling of radiation. The longer of the stripe laser cavities is cleaved to provide separate parts, and the parts are cleaved coupled to form one strip laser cavity lateral coupled to the shorter laser cavity. A separate stripe contact varies the relative currents supplied to each laser cavity, including the cleaved coupled cavities of the longer of the stripe laser cavities.

  19. Femtosecond laser induced breakdown for combustion diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotzagianni, M. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (ICE-HT), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), 26504 Patras (Greece); Couris, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (ICE-HT), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), 26504 Patras (Greece); Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), Universite de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The focused beam of a 100 fs, 800 nm laser is used to induce a spark in some laminar premixed air-methane flames operating with variable fuel content (equivalence ratio). The analysis of the light escaping from the plasma revealed that the Balmer hydrogen lines, H{sub {alpha}} and H{sub {beta}}, and some molecular origin emissions were the most prominent spectral features, while the CN ({Beta}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}-{Chi}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}) band intensity was found to depend linearly with methane content, suggesting that femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can be a useful tool for the in-situ determination and local mapping of fuel content in hydrocarbon-air combustible mixtures.

  20. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  1. Bow shocks formed by plasma collisions in laser irradiated semi-cylindrical cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    the axis to form a dense bright plasma focus. Later in time a long lasting bow shock is observed to develop a location near the cavity axis, where it collides forming a bright high density plasma focusBow shocks formed by plasma collisions in laser irradiated semi-cylindrical cavities Jorge Filevich

  2. Laser cutting apparatus for nuclear core fuel subassembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walch, Allan P. (Manchester, CT); Caruolo, Antonio B. (Vernon, CT)

    1982-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of the invention is to provide a system and apparatus which employs laser cutting to disassemble a nuclear core fuel subassembly. The apparatus includes a gantry frame (C) which straddles the core fuel subassembly (14), an x-carriage (22) travelling longitudinally above the frame which carries a focus head assembly (D) having a vertically moving carriage (46) and a laterally moving carriage (52), a system of laser beam transferring and focusing mirrors carried by the x-carriage and focusing head assembly, and a shroud follower (F) and longitudinal follower (G) for following the shape of shroud (14) to maintain a beam focal point (44) fixed upon the shroud surface for accurate cutting.

  3. EA-1655: Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Laser Acquisition, Installation and Use for Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Laser Acquisition, Installation and Use for Research and Development

  4. Los Alamos Lab: MST: Focus on Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5LetLooking down theElectrodynamics,Focus on

  5. Fermilab | Employee Advisory Group | Focus Group Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New Mexico Feb. 13, 2013Focus Group Report A random sampling of

  6. Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NUMBER 5 MAY 2004 Terahertz radiation from laser acceleratedand millimeter wave radiation from laser acceleratedNo. 5, May 2004 Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated

  7. "Defense-in-Depth" Laser Safety and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J J

    2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the largest and most energetic laser in the world contained in a complex the size of a football stadium. From the initial laser pulse, provided by telecommunication style infrared nanoJoule pulsed lasers, to the final 192 laser beams (1.8 Mega Joules total energy in the ultraviolet) converging on a target the size of a pencil eraser, laser safety is of paramount concern. In addition to this, there are numerous high-powered (Class 3B and 4) diagnostic lasers in use that can potentially send their laser radiation travelling throughout the facility. With individual beam paths of up to 1500 meters and a workforce of more than one thousand, the potential for exposure is significant. Simple laser safety practices utilized in typical laser labs just don't apply. To mitigate these hazards, NIF incorporates a multi layered approach to laser safety or 'Defense in Depth.' Most typical high-powered laser operations are contained and controlled within a single room using relatively simplistic controls to protect both the worker and the public. Laser workers are trained, use a standard operating procedure, and are required to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as Laser Protective Eyewear (LPE) if the system is not fully enclosed. Non-workers are protected by means of posting the room with a warning sign and a flashing light. In the best of cases, a Safety Interlock System (SIS) will be employed which will 'safe' the laser in the case of unauthorized access. This type of laser operation is relatively easy to employ and manage. As the operation becomes more complex, higher levels of control are required to ensure personnel safety. Examples requiring enhanced controls are outdoor and multi-room laser operations. At the NIF there are 192 beam lines and numerous other Class 4 diagnostic lasers that can potentially deliver their hazardous energy to locations far from the laser source. This presents a serious and complex potential hazard to personnel. Because of this, a multilayered approach to safety is taken. This paper presents the philosophy and approach taken at the NIF in the multi-layered 'defense-in-depth' approach to laser safety.

  8. Laser assisted crystallization of ferromagnetic amorphous ribbons: A multimodal characterization and thermal model study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katakam, Shravana; Santhanakrishnan, S.; Smith, Casey; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Dahotre, Narendra B. [Laboratory of Laser Materials Processing and Synthesis Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76207 (United States); Devaraj, Arun; Bowden, Mark; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Ramanujan, R. V. [Schhol of Materials Science and Engineering Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on laser-based de-vitrification of amorphous soft magnetic Fe-Si-B ribbons and its consequent influence on the magnetic properties. Laser processing resulted in a finer scale of crystallites due to rapid heating and cooling during laser annealing compared to conventional furnace annealing process. A significant increase in saturation magnetization is observed for laser-annealed ribbons compared to both as-received and furnace annealed samples coupled with an increase in coercivity compared to the as received samples. The combined effect of thermal histories and stresses developed during laser annealing results in the formation of nano-crystalline phase along the laser track. The phase evolution is studied by micro-XRD and TEM analysis. Solute partitioning and compositional variation within the phases are obtained by Local Electrode Atom probe analysis. The evolution of microstructure is rationalized using a Finite Element based heat transfer multi-physics model.

  9. Laser Assisted Crystallization of Ferromagnetic Amorphous Ribbons: A Multimodal Characterization and Thermal Model Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katakam, Shravana K.; Devaraj, Arun; Bowden, Mark E.; Santhanakrishnan, S.; Smith, Casey; Ramanujan, Raju; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on laser-based de-vitrification of amorphous soft magnetic Fe-Si-B ribbons and its consequent influence on the magnetic properties. Laser processing resulted in a finer scale of crystallites due to rapid heating and cooling during laser annealing compared to conventional furnace annealing process. A significant increase in saturation magnetization is observed for laser-annealed ribbons compared to both as-received and furnace annealed samples coupled with an increase in coercivity compared to as received sample. The combined effect of thermal histories and stresses developed during laser annealing results in the formation of nano-crystalline phase along the laser track. The phase evolution is traced with the aid of micro-XRD and TEM analysis. The solute partitioning and compositional variation within the phases are obtained by Local Electrode Atom probe analysis. The evolution of microstructure is rationalized using a Finite Element based heat transfer multi-physics model.

  10. Geothermal California: California Claims the World's Highest...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    World's Highest Geothermal Power Output with Potential for Even More Production With Advanced Techniques Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  11. Keeping Tabs on the World's Dangerous Chemicals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia chemical engineer Nancy Jackson has worked in laboratories around the world to help ensure that chemicals are used safely and kept secure.

  12. Three Wishes for the World (with comment)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cooperation. But once Hitler was gone, the world wasorganized at Nuremberg by Hitler and his cronies. Duringexperiences. Nevertheless, Hitler’s rallies were too big for

  13. Student's algorithm solves real-world problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    real-world problems," said David Kratzer of the Laboratory's High Performance Computer Systems group and the Supercomputing Challenge coordinator. The goal of the year-long...

  14. Janus Laser Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Janus Janus is a dual beam Nd:glass laser. Each beam is independent and capable of 1 kJ at 1.053 m with pulse lengths from about 1 ns to 20 ns, Frequency doubling is available,...

  15. Terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Benjamin S. (Benjamin Stanford), 1974-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of the terahertz frequency range has long been impeded by the relative dearth of compact, coherent radiation sources of reasonable power. This thesis details the development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) ...

  16. FREE-ELECTRON LASERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessler, A.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the electric field of the radiation, this energy-exchangewhere the electric field of the radiation would The energydue to the electric field of the laser radiation, but in

  17. Pulsed Laser Deposition | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is composed of the following: An electro-polished stainless-steel chamber pumped via a turbo molecular pump and backed by a rotary scroll dry pump An excimer laser (KrF) for...

  18. Laser Plasma Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processes. A typical configuration uses a low intensity laser beam (2nd, 3rd, or 4th harmonic of 1054-nm) to probe a plasma volume. The Thomson scattered light is collected by a...

  19. "Calling of the church to mission and to unity”: Bishop Lesslie Newbigin and the integration of the International Missionary Council with the World Council of Churches 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laing, Mark Thomas Bowie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The post-colonial quest to reorganise and restructure missions became focused on the question of how the International Missionary Council (IMC) should relate to the World Council of Churches (WCC), as international symbols ...

  20. Laser Programs, the first 25 years, 1972-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, E.M.

    1998-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Welcome to Laser Programs. I am pleased that you can share in the excitement of 25 years of history since we began as a small program of 125 people to our current status as a world premier laser and applied science research team of over 1700 members. It is fitting that this program, which was founded on the dream of developing inertial confinement fusion technology, should celebrate this anniversary the same year that the ground is broken for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Also at the same time, we are feeling the excitement of moving forward the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology toward private sector use and developing many alternate scientific applications and technologies derived from our core programs. It is through the hard work of many dedicated scientists, engineers, technicians, and administrative team members that we have been able to accomplish the remarkable internationally recognized achievements highlighted here. I hope this brochure will help you enjoy the opportunity to share in the celebration and pride of our scientific accomplishments; state-of-the-art facilities; and diligent, dedicated people that together make our Laser Programs and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the best in the world.

  1. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  2. Insulator for laser housing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

  3. Dark Soliton Fiber Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Zhang; D. Y. Tang; L. M. Zhao; X. Wu; Q. L. Bao; K. P. Loh

    2009-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the experimental observation of stable dark solitons in an all normal dispersion fiber laser. We found experimentally that dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the fiber laser under strong continuous wave (CW) emission. However, only under appropriate pump strength and negative cavity feedback, stable single or multiple dark soliton could be achieved. Furthermore, we show that the features of the observed dark solitons could be well understood based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE).

  4. Fundamentals of Laser Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    ) Helium neon (NIR) Erbium (NIR) Helium neon (NIR) Hydrogen fluoride (NIR) Carbon dioxide (FIR) Carbon. These three properties of laser light are what can make it more hazardous than ordinary light. Laser light can dioxide (FIR) 0.594 0.610 0.627 0.633 0.647 0.570-0.650 0.694 0.840 1.064 1.

  5. In situ diode laser absorption measurements of plasma species in a gaseous electronics conference reference cell reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -salt diode lasers are used to probe fluorocarbon-based plasmas used for etching of silicon and silicon to process chemistry. In our initial research, we have focused on fluorocarbon- based plasmas such as those

  6. Commercialization plan laser-based decoating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F2 Associates Inc. (F2) is a small, high-technology firm focused on developing and commercializing environmentally friendly laser ablation systems for industrial-rate removal of surface coatings from metals, concrete, and delicate substrates such as composites. F2 has a contract with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to develop and test a laser-based technology for removing contaminated paint and other contaminants from concrete and metal surfaces. Task 4.1 in Phase 2 of the Statement of Work for this DOE contract requires that F2 ``document its plans for commercializing and marketing the stationary laser ablation system. This document shall include a discussion of prospects for commercial customers and partners and may require periodic update to reflect changing strategy. This document shall be submitted to the DOE for review.`` This report is being prepared and submitted in fulfillment of that requirement. This report describes the laser-based technology for cleaning and coatings removal, the types of laser-based systems that have been developed by F2 based on this technology, and the various markets that are emerging for this technology. F2`s commercialization and marketing plans are described, including how F2`s organization is structured to meet the needs of technology commercialization, F2`s strategy and marketing approach, and the necessary steps to receive certification for removing paint from aircraft and DOE certification for D and D applications. The future use of the equipment built for the DOE contract is also discussed.

  7. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser compares with other lasers used in past experimental work, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. Variables investigated include laser power, beam intensity, external purging of cut materials, sample orientation, beam duration, beam shape, and beam frequency. The investigation also studied the thermal effects on the two sample rock types and their methods of destruction: spallation for sandstone, and thermal dissociation for limestone. Optimal operating conditions were identified for each rock type and condition. As a result of this experimental work, the HPFL has demonstrated a better capability of cutting and drilling limestone and sandstone when compared with other military and industrial lasers previously tested. Consideration should be given to the HPFL as the leading candidate for near term remote high power laser applications for well construction and completion.

  8. Aerosol Imaging with a Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogan, Michael J.; /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore; Boutet, Sebastien; /SLAC; Chapman, Henry N.; /DESY /Hamburg U.; Marchesini, Stefano; /LBL, Berkeley; Barty, Anton; Benner, W.Henry /LLNL, Livermore; Rohner, Urs; /LLNL, Livermore /TOFWERK AG; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; /LLNL, Livermore; Bajt, Sasa; /DESY; Woods, Bruce; /LLNL, Livermore; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; Hajdu, Janos; /Uppsala U.; Schulz, Joachim; /DESY

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Lasers have long played a critical role in the advancement of aerosol science. A new regime of ultrafast laser technology has recently be realized, the world's first soft xray free electron laser. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, user facility produces a steady source of 10 femtosecond pulses of 7-32 nm x-rays with 10{sub 12} photons per pulse. The high brightness, short wavelength, and high repetition rate (>500 pulses per second) of this laser offers unique capabilities for aerosol characterization. Here we use FLASH to perform the highest resolution imaging of single PM2.5 aerosol particles in flight to date. We resolve to 35 nm the morphology of fibrous and aggregated spherical carbonaceous nanoparticles that existed for less than two milliseconds in vacuum. Our result opens the possibility for high spatialand time-resolved single particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science.

  9. Proton radiography of magnetic field produced by ultra-intense laser irradiating capacity-coil target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, W W; Chen, J; Cai, H B; He, S K; Zhou, W M; Shan, L Q; Lu, F; Wu, Y C; Hong, W; Liu, D X; Bi, B; Zhang, F; Xue, F B; Li, B Y; Zhang, B; He, Y L; He, W; Jiao, J L; Dong, K G; Zhang, F Q; Deng, Z G; Zhang, Z M; Cui, B; Han, D; Zhou, K N; Wang, X D; Zhao, Z Q; Cao, L F; Zhang, B H; He, X T; Gu, Y Q

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-intense ultra-short laser is firstly used to irradiate the capacity-coil target to generate magnetic field. The spatial structure and temporal evolution of huge magnetic fields were studied with time-gated proton radiography method. A magnetic flux density of 40T was measured by comparing the proton deflection and particle track simulations. Although the laser pulse duration is only 30fs, the generated magnetic field can last for over 100 picoseconds. The energy conversion efficiency from laser to magnetic field can reach as high as ~20%. The results indicate that tens of tesla (T) magnetic field could be produced in many ultra intense laser facilities around the world, and higher magnetic field could be produced by picosecond lasers.

  10. Free-electron laser driven by the LBNL laser-plasma accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, C. B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Free-electron laser driven by the LBNL laser-plasmaA design of a compact free-electron laser (FEL), generatingare considered. Keywords: Free-electron laser, laser-plasma

  11. Numerical modeling of radiation-dominated and quantum-electrodynamically strong regimes of laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolov, Igor V. [Space Physics Research Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Naumova, Natalia M. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, UMR 7639 ENSTA, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Nees, John A. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science and FOCUS Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-strong laser pulses can be so intense that an electron in the focused beam loses significant energy due to {gamma}-photon emission while its motion deviates via the radiation back-reaction. Numerical methods and tools designed to simulate radiation-dominated and quantum-electrodynamically strong laser-plasma interactions are summarized here.

  12. Adiabatic Tip-Plasmon Focusing for Nano-Raman Spectroscopy. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adiabatic Tip-Plasmon Focusing for Nano-Raman Spectroscopy. Adiabatic Tip-Plasmon Focusing for Nano-Raman Spectroscopy. Abstract: True nanoscale optical spectroscopy requires the...

  13. Independent Oversight Focused Review, Kansas City Plant, Summary...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Review, Kansas City Plant, Summary Report - December 2001 Independent Oversight Focused Review, Kansas City Plant, Summary Report - December 2001 December 2001 Focused Review of...

  14. Energy Department to Launch New Energy Innovation Hub Focused...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Launch New Energy Innovation Hub Focused on Advanced Batteries and Energy Storage Energy Department to Launch New Energy Innovation Hub Focused on Advanced Batteries and Energy...

  15. Delivering Renewable Hydrogen: A Focus on Near-Term Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivering Renewable Hydrogen: A Focus on Near-Term Applications Delivering Renewable Hydrogen: A Focus on Near-Term Applications Agenda for the Delvering Renewable Hydrogen...

  16. DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups with Primary Stakeholders in Seattle -- Final Report DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups...

  17. DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rating Program Focus Groups with Primary Stakeholders in Seattle -- Final Report DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups with Primary Stakeholders in...

  18. System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions Comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with gasoline and diesel engines will be conducted with focus on...

  19. Summary Report from DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials Summary Report from DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials This report provides a summary of feedback from...

  20. Technology Entrepreneurship Program Real-world practice with real-world technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technology Entrepreneurship Program Real-world practice with real-world technologies What it's all about Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Technology Entrepreneurship Program (TEP) provides university students with access to PNNL-developed available technologies. Laboratory staff work

  1. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high energy physics applications.

  2. Managing Risk in the Modern World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenton, Norman

    Managing Risk in the Modern World Applications of Bayesian Networks A Knowledge Transfer Report By Norman Fenton and Martin Neil #12;13 MANAGING RISK IN THE MODERN WORLD Applications of Bayesian Networks of Agena, a company that specialises in risk management for critical systems. Norman is an Affiliated

  3. HISTORY 483 THE FIRST WORLD WAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habib, Ayman

    HISTORY 483 THE FIRST WORLD WAR Summer 2012 Saturday 9:00 ­ 14:30 ST139 Instructor: Paul Ramsey By far the most significant event of the twentieth century the legacy of the First World War continues, military, social, and economic spheres of the war ­ and the concept of `total war'. Students

  4. Exploring the World of Plants and Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Exploring the World of Plants and Soils 4-H Plant , Soils, and Entomology Curriculum 18 U.S.C. 707 Project Book 2 Publication 380-021 2014 #12;Exploring the World of Plants and Soil: Stems and Stamens ................................................................................................................. 3 Activity 1 The Stages of a Plant's Life

  5. OECD/IEA 2013 World Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, Léonie

    © OECD/IEA 2013 World Renewable Energy Outlook 2030-2050 Paolo Frankl Head, Renewable Energy 2030 2035 TWh Coal Renewables Gas Nuclear Oil Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2012 New Policies important renewable energy source in industry in 2050 solar thermal contributes mainly to low

  6. Decentralized Probabilistic World Modeling with Cooperative Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Steven

    the multimodal sensing capabilities of modern personal devices, such a probabilistic world model can in the form of personal devices such as advanced mobile phones. Indeed, on a world-wide scale, the number of mobile phones now exceeds the number of more traditional computing devices such as PCs. These personal

  7. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  8. Klystron having electrostatic quadrupole focusing arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maschke, A.W.

    1983-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A klystron includes a source for emitting at least one electron beam, and an accelerator for accelerating the beam in a given direction through a number of drift tube sections successively aligned relative to one another in the direction of the beam. A number of electrostatic quadrupole arrays are successively aligned relative to one another along at least one of the drift tube sections in the beam direction for focusing the electron beam. Each of the electrostatic quadrupole arrays forms a different quadrupole for each electron beam. Two or more electron beams can be maintained in parallel relationship by the quadrupole arrays, thereby enabling space charge limitations encountered with conventional single beam klystrons to be overcome. 4 figs.

  9. GTL technologies focus on lowering costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corke, M.J. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., London (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Difficulties in the development of major natural-gas production projects and the limitations imposed by saturated markets for LNG or pipeline gas have focused attention on alternative gas utilization approaches. At the same time, technology improvements have transformed the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) conversion of natural gas-to-liquid (GTL) hydrocarbons from a technically interesting but uneconomic option into an option worthy of serious consideration. This two-part series reviews GTL technology developments which have led to today`s situation (Part 1) and examines the economics of GTL conversion (Part 2). The economic viability of GTL projects mainly depends on feed-gas pricing, investment costs, and the potential to produce liquids with natural-gas production.

  10. Focus on the Physics of Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risler, Thomas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the spectacular achievements of molecular biology in the second half of the twentieth century and the crucial advances it permitted in cancer research, the fight against cancer has brought some disillusions. It is nowadays more and more apparent that getting a global picture of the very diverse and interlinked aspects of cancer development necessitates, in synergy with these achievements, other perspectives and investigating tools. In this undertaking, multidisciplinary approaches that include quantitative sciences in general and physics in particular play a crucial role. This `focus on' collection contains 19 articles representative of the diversity and state-of-the-art of the contributions that physics can bring to the field of cancer research.

  11. Digital reverse propagation in focusing Kerr media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goy, Alexandre; Psaltis, Demetri [Laboratoire d'Optique, School of Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lenses allow the formation of clear images in homogeneous linear media. Holography is an alternative imaging method, but its use is limited to cases in which it provides an advantage, such as three-dimensional imaging. In nonlinear media, lenses no longer work. The light produces intensity-dependent aberrations. The reverse propagation method used in digital holography to form images from recorded holograms works even in Kerr media [M. Tsang, D. Psaltis, and F. G. Omenetto, Opt. Lett. 28, 1873 (2003).]. The principle has been experimentally demonstrated recently in defocusing media [C. Barsi, W.Wan, and J.W. Fleischer, Nat. Photonics 3, 211 (2009).]. Here, we report experimental results in focusing media.

  12. Electron acceleration in cavitated laser produced ion channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naseri, N. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada) [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Pesme, D. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada) [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Rozmus, W. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada)] [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is concerned with the channeling of a relativistic laser pulse in an underdense plasma and with the subsequent generation of fast electrons in the cavitated ion channel. The laser pulse has a duration of several hundreds of femtoseconds and its power P{sub L} exceeds the critical power for laser channeling P{sub ch}, with P{sub ch}?1.1P{sub c}, P{sub c} denoting the critical power for relativistic self-focusing. The laser pulse is focused in a plasma of electron density n{sub 0} such that the ratio n{sub 0}/n{sub c} lies in the interval [10{sup ?3},10{sup ?1}], n{sub c} denoting the critical density. The laser-plasma interaction under such conditions is investigated by means of three dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations. It is observed that the steep laser front gives rise to the excitation of a surface wave which propagates along the sharp radial boundaries of the electron free channel created by the laser pulse. The mechanism responsible for the generation of relativistic electrons observed in the PIC simulations is also analyzed by means of a test particles code. The fast electrons are found to be generated by the combination of a surface wave and of the betatron resonance. The maximum electron energy observed in the simulations is scaled as a function of P{sub L}/P{sub c}; it reaches 350–600 MeV for P{sub L}/P{sub c} = 70–140.

  13. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  14. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  15. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  16. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  17. Controlling molecules with lasers and lasers with molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Jason Matthew, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I investigate quantum control of spin in molecules using shaped ultrafast lasers and the dynamics of those lasers when their cavities are modified to include programmable molecular masks. The ability to control quantum ...

  18. Recent advances in solid-state organic lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenais, Sébastien; 10.1002/pi.3173

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic solid-state lasers are reviewed, with a special emphasis on works published during the last decade. Referring originally to dyes in solid-state polymeric matrices, organic lasers also include the rich family of organic semiconductors, paced by the rapid development of organic light emitting diodes. Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources are potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. In this review, we describe the basic photophysics of the materials used as gain media in organic lasers with a specific look at the distinctive feature of dyes and semiconductors. We also outline the laser architectures used in state-of-the-art organic lasers and the performances of these devices with regard to output power, lifetime, and beam quality. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments in terms of wavelength coverage, wavelength agility, efficiency and compactness, or towards integrated low-cost sources, with a special focus on the gr...

  19. Laser sources and techniques for spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program focuses on the development of novel laser and spectroscopic techniques in the IR, UV, and VUV regions for studying combustion related molecular dynamics at the microscopic level. Laser spectroscopic techniques have proven to be extremely powerful in the investigation of molecular processes which require very high sensitivity and selectivity. The authors approach is to use quantum electronic and non-linear optical techniques to extend the spectral coverage and to enhance the optical power of ultrahigh resolution laser sources so as to obtain and analyze photoionization, fluorescence, and photoelectron spectra of jet-cooled free radicals and of reaction products resulting from unimolecular and bimolecular dissociations. New spectroscopic techniques are developed with these sources for the detection of optically thin and often short-lived species. Recent activities center on regenerative amplification of high resolution solid-state lasers, development of tunable high power mid-IR lasers and short-pulse UV/VUV tunable lasers, and development of a multipurpose high-order suppressor crossed molecular beam apparatus for use with synchrotron radiation sources. This program also provides scientific and technical support within the Chemical Sciences Division to the development of LBL`s Combustion Dynamics Initiative.

  20. FY 2000 Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes activities of the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area for the past year.

  1. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, P.A.; Anderson, A.T.; Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dielectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections is disclosed. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections. 4 figs.

  2. RF laser plasma measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollen, W.M.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major difficulties with excimer lasers has been the presence of impurities, introduced, for example, by the electrodes present in the D.C. discharge approach. Use of microwave excitation makes possible an electrodeless discharge, thereby reducing the risk of introducing impurities into the laser mix. In this approach a tube containing the laser mix is inserted in a waveguide or microwave cavity; the microwaves then break down the laser mix to form a discharge and further interact to heat that discharge. In such microwave discharges, strong fluorescence seems limited to approximately 100 ns. In the same time frame, the fluorescence has also been observed to collapse to the wall. The wall collapse may be related to the reduced fluorescence (reduced radiation area), although burn-up of the lasing components seems more likely. The collapse to the wall reduces the ability to lase by decreasing the active volume. A better understanding of this effect needs to be obtained before a microwave-driven laser can be further developed. This research effort was directed towards obtaining a fundamental understanding of the collapse of the fluorescence to the tube walls. The ultimate goal is to understand the collapse sufficiently to prevent or reduce its effects; to this end, a number of basic plasma physics experiments have been carried out. A complete understanding has not yet been reached.

  3. LASER SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    LASER SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR LASER SAFETY AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY LUBBOCK, TEXAS September 2002 #12;V-1 TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY LASER SAFETY MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION I ­ MANAGEMENT OF LASER LICENSE Introduction A. Laser Safety Program I - 1 B. Radiation Laser Safety Committee I

  4. Model of Thermal Wavefront Distortion in Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Detectors I: Thermal Focusing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. G. Beausoleil; E. D'Ambrosio; W. Kells; J. Camp; E K. Gustafson; M. M. Fejer

    2002-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a steady-state analytical and numerical model of the optical response of power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson laser gravitational-wave detectors to thermal focusing in optical substrates. We assume that the thermal distortions are small enough that we can represent the unperturbed intracavity field anywhere in the detector as a linear combination of basis functions related to the eigenmodes of one of the Fabry-Perot arm cavities, and we take great care to preserve numerically the nearly ideal longitudinal phase resonance conditions that would otherwise be provided by an external servo-locking control system. We have included the effects of nonlinear thermal focusing due to power absorption in both the substrates and coatings of the mirrors and beamsplitter, the effects of a finite mismatch between the curvatures of the laser wavefront and the mirror surface, and the diffraction by the mirror aperture at each instance of reflection and transmission. We demonstrate a detailed numerical example of this model using the MATLAB program Melody for the initial LIGO detector in the Hermite-Gauss basis, and compare the resulting computations of intracavity fields in two special cases with those of a fast Fourier transform field propagation model. Additional systematic perturbations (e.g., mirror tilt, thermoelastic surface deformations, and other optical imperfections) can be included easily by incorporating the appropriate operators into the transfer matrices describing reflection and transmission for the mirrors and beamsplitter.

  5. Calculation of laser induced impulse based on the laser supported detonation wave model with dissociation, ionization and radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Li, E-mail: ligan0001@gmail.com; Mousen, Cheng; Xiaokang, Li [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)] [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the laser intensity range that the laser supported detonation (LSD) wave can be maintained, dissociation, ionization and radiation take a substantial part of the incidence laser energy. There is little treatment on the phenomenon in the existing models, which brings obvious discrepancies between their predictions and the experiment results. Taking into account the impact of dissociation, ionization and radiation in the conservations of mass, momentum and energy, a modified LSD wave model is developed which fits the experimental data more effectively rather than the existing models. Taking into consideration the pressure decay of the normal and the radial rarefaction, the laser induced impulse that is delivered to the target surface is calculated in the air; and the dependencies of impulse performance on laser intensity, pulse width, ambient pressure and spot size are indicated. The results confirm that the dissociation is the pivotal factor of the appearance of the momentum coupling coefficient extremum. This study focuses on a more thorough understanding of LSD and the interaction between laser and matter.

  6. System for obtaining smooth laser beams where intensity variations are reduced by spectral dispersion of the laser light (SSD)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skupsky, S.; Kessler, T.J.; Short, R.W.; Craxton, S.; Letzring, S.A.; Soures, J.

    1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In an SSD (smoothing by spectral dispersion) system which reduces the time-averaged spatial variations in intensity of the laser light to provide uniform illumination of a laser fusion target, an electro-optic phase modulator through which a laser beam passes produces a broadband output beam by imposing a frequency modulated bandwidth on the laser beam. A grating provides spatial and angular spectral dispersion of the beam. Due to the phase modulation, the frequencies (''colors'') cycle across the beam. The dispersed beam may be amplified and frequency converted (e.g., tripled) in a plurality of beam lines. A distributed phase plate (DPP) in each line is irradiated by the spectrally dispersed beam and the beam is focused on the target where a smooth (uniform intensity) pattern is produced. The color cycling enhances smoothing and the use of a frequency modulated laser pulse prevents the formation of high intensity spikes which could damage the laser medium in the power amplifiers. 8 figures.

  7. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  8. Hybrid laser with CMOS photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Johanna S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, an interesting approach for a photonic laser source is presented. By using integrated photonic resonators with an external gain medium, we are able to build a laser that offers a number of advantages including ...

  9. TUFTS UNIVERSITY LASER SAFETY PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennett, Daniel

    with laser safety regulations promulgated by state, federal, and local agencies. The LSO administers and Maximum Permissible Exposures 12 X. Electrical Hazards 12 XI. General Safety Procedures 13 XII. Laser

  10. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing. Quarterly report, September 13-December 12, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, S.

    1984-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation has undertaken to investigate, develop, and characterize laser-assisted processing techniques utilized to produce the fine line, thin metal grid structures that are required to fabricate high-efficiency solar cells. Two basic techniques for metal deposition will be investigated, as follows: (1) photochemical decomposition of liquid or gas phase organometallic compounds utilizing either a focused, CW ultraviolet laser (System 1) or a mask and ultraviolet flood illumination, such as that provided by a repetitively pulsed, defocused excimer laser (System 2), for pattern definition, and (2) thermal deposition of metals from organometallic solutions or vapors utilizing a focused, CW laser beam as a local heat source to draw the metallization pattern. The purpose of this contract is to investigate the various existing laser-assisted film deposition techniques in order to develop a new, cost-effective technology for solar cell metallization. The tasks that will be performed in the conduct of these investigations are detailed. In the first three months of this contract, a comprehensive literature search has been carried out on the various state-of-the-art laser-assisted techniques for metal deposition, including laser chemical vapor deposition and laser photolysis of organometallics, as well as laser-enhanced electroplating. A compact system for the experiments involving laser-assisted photolysis of gas-phase compounds has been designed and constructed. Initial experiments on laser-enhanced electro-plating have yielded very promising results, with linewidths as fine as 25 ..mu..m and plating speeds as high as 12 ..mu..m/sec being achieved.

  11. Arco chimie focuses on PA at FOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, D.

    1992-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Arco Chimie France (Fos-sur-Mer), at a recent meeting at its southern France manufacturing site, emphasized that future strategy is strongly focused on its propylene oxide (PO) and derivatives activities. The F2.5 billion ($466 million)-Fe billion/year operation manufactures 200,000 m.t./year of PO, about 70% for captive use and the balance for the merchant market; 550,000 m.t./year of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE); 97,000 m.t./year of polyols; and 70,000 m.t./year of propylene glycols. There has been talk of Arco modifying its Fos MTBE plant to make it flexible for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) output; the parent company already operates an MTBE/ETBE pilot unit at Corpus Christi, TX. But Arco Chimie notes there is insufficient bioethanol feedstock availability to convert all production to ETBE. The company would also require investment in new storage capacity for ethanol and ETBE. However, France's biofuels program is not yet clearly defined, and it is politically sensitive because it depends heavily on government subsidies offered to farmers. That, says Arco, makes it impossible to have an accurate idea of how much ethanol will be available.

  12. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, Aaron S. (Broomall, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  13. Improved focusing-and-deflection columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mui, P.H.; Szilagyi, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our earlier design procedures for constructing quadrupole columns are further expanded to include octupole corrector units and ``octupole`` deflectors with no third-order harmonics. The additional complications are finer partitioning of the plates and increased number of voltage controllers. Two sample designs, one having only the additional octupole deflectors and one having both the deflectors and the correctors, are presented and compared to our previous quadrupole system. The additional octupole components are shown to be capable of increasing the current density from 30% to more than 300% for a four-plate system, designed to focus and scan the electron beam over a circular area of 0.25 mm radius. The electron beam is assumed to have an initial divergence of {plus_minus}2.3 mrad, an initial energy of 6 kV, a total energy spread of 1 eV, and a final acceleration of 30 keV. These systems are then slightly reoptimized for a superficial comparison with the commercially available column by Micrion Corporation. The numerical results indicate a potential for substantial improvements, demonstrating the power of this design procedure. Finally, a discussion is presented on how the individual components can interact with each other to reduce the various aberrations. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

  14. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, A.S.

    1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  15. A process for risk-focused maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lofgren, E.V.; Cooper, S.E.; Kurth, R.E.; Phillips, L.B. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a process for focusing maintenance resources on components that enable nuclear plant systems to perform their essential functions and on components whose failure may initiate challenges to safety systems, so as to have the greatest impact in decreasing risk. The process provides criteria, based on risk, for deciding which components are critical to risk and determining what maintenance activities are required to ensure reliable operation of those risk-critical components. Two approaches are provided for selection of risk-critical components. One approach uses the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); the other is based on the methodology developed for this report, which has a basis in PRA although it does not use the results of a PRA study. Following identification of risk-critical components, both approaches use a single methodology for determining what maintenance activities are required to ensure reliable operation of the identified components. The report also provides demonstrations of application of the two approaches to selection of risk-critical components and demonstrations of application of the methodology for determining what maintenance activities are required to an active standby safety system, a normally operating system, and passive components. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Laser Assisted Emittance Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe here the laser assisted emittance exchange (LAEE) technique. A laser operating in the transverse mode (TEM10 or TEM01) is used to interact with the electron beam in a dispersive region and to initiate the transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange. It is shown that with the LAEE one can generate an electron beam with ultralow transverse emittance, which allows one to significantly bring down the size of an X-ray free electron laser (FEL) and greatly extend the availability of these light sources. The technique can also be used to enhance the performances of X-ray FELs in storage rings. The timing and energy jitter problems for the standard emittance exchange and LAEE techniques are also discussed.

  17. Laser isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cotter, Theodore P. (Munich, DE); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM); Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  18. Laser cooling of infrared sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselbeck, M. P. (Michael P.); Sheik-Bahae, M (Mansoor); Thiede, J. (Jared); Distel, J. R. (James R.); Greenfield, S. R. (Scott R.); Patterson, Wendy M.; Bigotta, S.; Imangholi, B.; Seletskiy, D. (Denis); Bender, D.; Vankipuram, V.; Vadiee, N.; Epstein, Richard I.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of laser cooling of solids. In this all-solid-state approach to refrigeration, heat is removed radiatively when an engineered material is exposed to high power laser light. We report a record amount of net cooling (88 K below ambient) that has been achieved with a sample made from doped fluoride glass. Issues involved in the design of a practical laser cooler are presented. The possibility of laser cooling of semiconductor sensors is discussed.

  19. Changing patterns of world energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, S.H.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The substantial increases in oil prices since 1973 have had tremendous impacts on world energy, and particularly on oil consumption. These impacts have varied across regions and energy types. As shown in a table, from 1960 through 1973 the real price of internationally traded crude oil, as measured in constant US dollars, changed very little. In this stable oil price environment, Free World energy consumption grew at 5.3% per year and oil use rose at 7.5% per year, increasing its share of Free World energy consumption from 43 to 56%. 6 tables.

  20. World Meteorological Organization | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind Project JumpWisconsin:WorldWorld Energy JumpWorld

  1. World Power Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind Project JumpWisconsin:WorldWorld Energy JumpWorldNJ

  2. World Watch Institute Feed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind Project JumpWisconsin:WorldWorld EnergyDiego,World Watch

  3. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplkment au no 12, Tome 38, Dkcembre 1977, page C6-43 ABSORPTION OF CO, LASER LIGHT BY A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    au CO2 et le plasma produit par un dispositif plasma focus est examink des points de w e thtorique et. -The interaction between a pulsed, CO* laser beam and the plasma produced in a plasma focus device. The plasma is the dense pinch formed in a plasma focus device [I]. (*) Now at Ecole Polytechnique FedCrale de

  4. Interpenetration and stagnation in colliding laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Shboul, K. F. [Center for Materials Under eXtreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [Center for Materials Under eXtreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Harilal, S. S., E-mail: hari@purdue.edu; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under eXtreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Center for Materials Under eXtreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Costello, J. T. [School of Physical Sciences and NCPST, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [School of Physical Sciences and NCPST, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Yabuuchi, T.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 5650871 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 5650871 (Japan); Hirooka, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated plasma stagnation and interaction effects in colliding laser-produced plasmas. For generating colliding plasmas, two split laser beams were line-focused onto a hemi-circular target and the seed plasmas so produced were allowed to expand in mutually orthogonal directions. This experimental setup forced the expanding seed plasmas to come to a focus at the center of the chamber. The interpenetration and stagnation of plasmas of candidate fusion wall materials, viz., carbon and tungsten, and other materials, viz., aluminum, and molybdenum were investigated in this study. Fast-gated imaging, Faraday cup ion analysis, and optical emission spectroscopy were used for diagnosing seed and colliding plasma plumes. Our results show that high-Z target (W, Mo) plasma ions interpenetrate each other, while low-Z (C, Al) plasmas stagnate at the collision plane. For carbon seed plasmas, an intense stagnation was observed resulting in longer plasma lifetime; in addition, the stagnation layer was found to be rich with C{sub 2} dimers.

  5. Laser and acoustic lens for lithotripsy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Makarewicz, Anthony J. (San Ramon, CA); London, Richard A. (Orinda, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An acoustic focusing device whose acoustic waves are generated by laser radiation through an optical fiber. The acoustic energy is capable of efficient destruction of renal and biliary calculi and deliverable to the site of the calculi via an endoscopic procedure. The device includes a transducer tip attached to the distal end of an optical fiber through which laser energy is directed. The transducer tip encapsulates an exogenous absorbing dye. Under proper irradiation conditions (high absorbed energy density, short pulse duration) a stress wave is produced via thermoelastic expansion of the absorber for the destruction of the calculi. The transducer tip can be configured into an acoustic lens such that the transmitted acoustic wave is shaped or focused. Also, compressive stress waves can be reflected off a high density/low density interface to invert the compressive wave into a tensile stress wave, and tensile stresses may be more effective in some instances in disrupting material as most materials are weaker in tension than compression. Estimations indicate that stress amplitudes provided by this device can be magnified more than 100 times, greatly improving the efficiency of optical energy for targeted material destruction.

  6. Laser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Robin

    - velopment of techniques that have allowed the ion motion to be cooled into the ground state of the confiningLaser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION Laser cooling of neutral atoms in the past decades has been a breakthrough in the understanding of their dy- namics and led to the seminal proposals of laser cooling

  7. Novel Applications of Ultrafast Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dantus, Marcos

    21 Novel Applications of Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy Professor of chemistry and Adjunct Professor LASER PULSESare considered photonic reagents that can be used to study and control chemistry by our group. We are engaged in developing the laser technology as well as the novel applications that become

  8. Laser acceleration of ion beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Egorova; A. V. Filatov; A. V. Prozorkevich; S. A. Smolyansky; D. B. Blaschke; M. Chubaryan

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider methods of charged particle acceleration by means of high-intensity lasers. As an application we discuss a laser booster for heavy ion beams provided, e.g. by the Dubna nuclotron. Simple estimates show that a cascade of crossed laser beams would be necessary to provide additional acceleration to gold ions of the order of GeV/nucleon.

  9. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    LIBS-1 Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy LIBS ANALYSIS OF METAL SURFACES Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;LIBS-2 Laser­Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) LIBS ANALYSIS OF METAL SURFACES of species at a distance or in hard­to­reach or hazardous environments. Laser­Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

  10. Le laser : une brve introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Tiggelen, Bart

    Le laser : une brève introduction Christian Chardonnet Directeur du Laboratoire Charles Fabry (CNRS Lasers (CNRS/Université Paris 13) Le 9 avril 2010 #12;Les sources de lumière l'ampoule électrique Les;Zoom : x1000 x1000 x1000 x1000 x100 Le spectre du soleil I.R. U.V. Comparaison du rayonnement laser et

  11. Single element laser beam shaper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shukui (Yorktown, VA); Michelle D. Shinn (Newport News, VA)

    2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.

  12. Laser correcting mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H. (Danville, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved laser correction mirror (10) for correcting aberrations in a laser beam wavefront having a rectangular mirror body (12) with a plurality of legs (14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28) arranged into opposing pairs (34, 36, 38, 40) along the long sides (30, 32) of the mirror body (12). Vector force pairs (49, 50, 52, 54) are applied by adjustment mechanisms (42, 44, 46, 48) between members of the opposing pairs (34, 36, 38, 40) for bending a reflective surface 13 of the mirror body 12 into a shape defining a function which can be used to correct for comatic aberrations.

  13. Multistable monochromatic laser solitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genevet, P.; Columbo, L.; Barland, S.; Giudici, M.; Gil, L.; Tredicce, J. R. [Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Institut Non-Lineaire de Nice, UMR 6618, F-06560 Valbonne (France)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spectral properties of stationary laser solitons (LSs) generated in two broad-area vertical cavity surface emitting lasers coupled to each other in face-to-face configuration [P. Genevet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123905 (2008)]. We demonstrate experimentally that LS emission occurs on a single longitudinal mode frequency of the compound cavity. Multistability is reported among differently 'colored' LSs. We also develop a theoretical model beyond the single longitudinal mode approximation whose numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  14. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  15. Electromagnetically Induced Guiding and Superradiant Amplification of Counter-Propagating Lasers in Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisch, N.J.; Shvets, G.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of counter-propagating laser pulses in a plasma in considered. When the frequencies of the two lasers are close, nonlinear modification of the refraction index results in the mutual focusing of the two beams. A short (of order the plasma period) laser pulse can be nonlinearly focused by a long counter-propagating beam which extends over the entire guiding length. It is also demonstrated that a short (< 1/ omega (sub p)) laser pulse can be superradiantly amplified by a counter-propagating long low-intensity pump while remaining ultra-short. Particle-in-Cell simulations indicate that pump depletion can be as high as 40%. This implies that the long pump is efficiently compressed in time without frequency chirping and pulse stretching, making the superradiant amplification an interesting alternative to the conventional method of producing ultra-intense pulses by the chirped-pulse amplification.

  16. Spatial Filter with Volume Gratings for High-peak-power Multistage Laser Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Yi-zhou; Zheng, Guang-wei; Shen, Ben-jian; Pan, Heng-yue; Li, Liu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The regular spatial filters comprised of lens and pinhole are essential component in high power laser systems, such as lasers for inertial confinement fusion, nonlinear optical technology and directed-energy weapon. On the other hand the pinhole is treated as a bottleneck of high power laser due to harmful plasma created by the focusing beam. In this paper we present a spatial filter based on angular selectivity of Bragg diffraction grating to avoid the harmful focusing effect in the traditional pinhole filter. A spatial filter consisted of volume phase gratings in two-pass amplifier cavity were reported. Two-dimensional filter was proposed by using single Pi-phase-shifted Bragg grating, numerical simulation results shown that its angular spectrum bandwidth can be less than 160urad. The angular selectivity of photo-thermo-refractive glass and RUGATE film filters, construction stability, thermal stability and the effects of misalignments of gratings on the diffraction efficiencies under high-pulse-energy laser...

  17. Laser Phase Errors in Seeded Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention as a method for producing transform-limited pulses in the soft x-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality and impede production of transform-limited pulses. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

  18. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology Analysis Group

    1995-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  19. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  20. Composites World 2013 | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CW 2013 Oct 25 2013 12:00 AM - 04:00 PM Composites World - Carbon Fiber Knoxville, Tennessee Crowne Plaza Knoxville 401 W. Summit Hill Dr., Knoxville, TN 37902 CONTACT : Email:...