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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have demonstrated an efficient extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source at 6.7 nm by irradiating Gd targets with 0.8 and 1.06 {mu}m laser pulses of 140 fs to 10 ns duration. Maximum conversion efficiency of 0.4% was observed within a 0.6% bandwidth. A Faraday cup observed ion yield and time of flight signals for ions from plasmas generated by each laser. Ion kinetic energy was lower for shorter pulse durations, which yielded higher electron temperatures required for efficient EUV emission, due to higher laser intensity. Picosecond laser pulses were found to be the best suited to 6.7 nm EUV source generation.

Cummins, Thomas; Li Bowen; O'Gorman, Colm; Dunne, Padraig; Sokell, Emma; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Otsuka, Takamitsu [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Yugami, Noboru; Higashiguchi, Takeshi [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kanagawa, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Jiang Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

2

Optimization Online - Energy Security: a robust optimization ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 9, 2010 ... Energy Security: a robust optimization approach to design a robust European energy supply via TIAM. F Babonneau(fbabonneau ***at***...

3

NREL-Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation Name Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation Agency...

4

Energy Optimization Standard | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Last modified on October 10, 2012. Rules Regulations Policies Program Place Michigan Name Energy Optimization Savings Standard Incentive Type Energy Efficiency Resource Standard...

5

Optimal Coupling of Energy Infrastructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a framework for integrated modeling and optimization of energy systems with multiple energy carriers. Based on the concept of energy hubs, a generic steadystate model for describing conversion and storage of multiple energy carriers, such as electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, or district heating, is developed and used for system optimization. Besides operational optimization of energy flows, the optimal structure of the system is investigated. Mathematically, the problems are stated as (mixed-integer) nonlinear programming problems. An example demonstrates the use and potential applications of the proposed method and highlights its features.

M. Geidl; G. Andersson

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Energy optimization system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for optimizing customer utility usage in a utility network of customer sites, each having one or more utility devices, where customer site is communicated between each of the customer sites and an optimization server having software for optimizing customer utility usage over one or more networks, including private and public networks. A customer site model for each of the customer sites is generated based upon the customer site information, and the customer utility usage is optimized based upon the customer site information and the customer site model. The optimization server can be hosted by an external source or within the customer site. In addition, the optimization processing can be partitioned between the customer site and an external source.

Zhou, Zhi; de Bedout, Juan Manuel; Kern, John Michael; Biyik, Emrah; Chandra, Ramu Sharat

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

7

Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China - a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO2 Emissions Title Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization...

8

Building Energy Optimization Software | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Energy Optimization Software Building Energy Optimization Software BEopt 2.1 Now Available! BEopt Version 2.1 is now available and includes major features such as: mini-split heat pumps and room air conditioners (E+); new modeling inputs; component-based air leakage estimate for existing buildings; and more. Read about the new features and visit the BEopt website to download. To help meet Building America's goal to develop market-ready energy solutions that improve efficiency of new and existing homes, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) software tool. This specialized computer program is designed to identify optimally efficient designs for new and existing homes at the lowest possible cost. BEopt produces detailed simulation-based analysis and design optimization

9

Energy storage and power conditioning system for the Shiva laser  

SciTech Connect

An optimal energy delivery system for the world's largest glass laser system has been designed based on computer modeling and operation of laser hardware. Components of the system have been tested on operating lasers at LLL. The Shiva system is now under construction and will be completed in 1977. The energy supply described here will provide cost-effective, reliable power and facilitate the gathering of data in pursuit of controlled thermonuclear reactions. (auth)

Allen, G.R.; Gagnon, W.L.; Rupert, P.R.; Trenholme, J.B.

1975-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

10

Pump Systems Optimization: Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pump Systems Pump Systems Optimization: Energy Efficiency and Bottom-Line Savings Host this one-day course to help participants learn how to identify and reduce hidden operation and energy costs. Participants will: * Identify energy savings * Increase profitability * Increase reliability * Earn seven PDH credits Attendees of the "Pump Systems Optimization" one-day course will gain valuable new skills to help them improve centrifugal pump system efficiency to reduce energy and operating costs while earning seven professional development hour (PDH) credits from the Hydraulic Institute. Topics covered include:* * Why Efficient Pump Systems Are Important

11

Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Building Energy Building Energy Optimization Software to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner With DOE Activities Solar Decathlon Building America Research Innovations Research Tools Building Science Education Climate-Specific Guidance

12

Modulation Optimization under Energy Constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider radio applications where the nodes operate on batteries so that energy consumption must be minimized while satisfying given throughput and delay requirements. In this context, we analyze the best modulation strategy to minimize the total energy consumption required to send a given number of bits. The total energy consumption includes both the transmission energy and the circuit energy consumption. We show that for both MQAM and MFSK the transmission energy decreases with the product while the circuit energy consumption increases with , where is the modulation bandwidth and the transmission time. Thus, in short-range applications where the circuit energy consumption is nonnegligible compared with the transmission energy, the total energy consumption is minimized by using the maximum system bandwidth along with an optimized transmission time . We derive this optimal for MQAM and MFSK modulation in both AWGN channels and Rayleigh fading channels. Our optimization considers both delay and peak-power constraints. Numerical examples are given, where we exhibit up to 2 energy savings over modulation strategies that minimize the transmission energy alone.

Shuguang Cui Andrea; Andrea J. Goldsmith; Ahmad Bahai

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

DPSS Laser Beam Quality Optimization Through Pump Current Tuning  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to demonstrate how a DPSS laser beam's quality parameters can be simultaneously optimized through pump current tuning. Two DPSS lasers of the same make and model were used where the laser diode pump current was first varied to ascertain the lowest RMS noise region. The lowest noise was found to be 0.13% in this region and the best M{sup 2} value of 1.0 and highest laser output power were simultaneously attained at the same current point. The laser manufacturer reported a M{sup 2} value of 1.3 and RMS noise value of .14% for these lasers. This study therefore demonstrates that pump current tuning a DPSS laser can simultaneously optimize RMS Noise, Power and M{sup 2} values. Future studies will strive to broaden the scope of the beam quality parameters impacted by current tuning.

Omohundro, Rob; /Newport Spectra-Physics, Santa Clara; Callen, Alice; /SLAC; Sukuta, Sydney; /San Jose City Coll.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

NREL-Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NREL-Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation NREL-Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation (Redirected from Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Resource Type: Presentation, Training materials Website: www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/rewg051909_walker.pdf References: Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation[1] Logo: Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation Presentation References ↑ "Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=NREL-Renewable_Energy_Optimization_Presentation&oldid=382818" Category: Tools What links here Related changes Special pages

15

Compact, high energy gas laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrically pumped gas laser amplifier unit having a disc-like configuration in which light propagation is radially outward from the axis rather than along the axis. The input optical energy is distributed over a much smaller area than the output optical energy, i.e., the amplified beam, while still preserving the simplicity of parallel electrodes for pumping the laser medium. The system may thus be driven by a comparatively low optical energy input, while at the same time, owing to the large output area, large energies may be extracted while maintaining the energy per unit area below the threshold of gas breakdown.

Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Stapleton, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM); Stratton, Thomas F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

16

Two-dimensional optimization of free electron laser designs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a "synchronous electron" at an optimal transverse radius r>0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

Prosnitz, Donald (Walnut Creek, CA); Haas, Roger A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

1982-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

18

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Building Energy Optimization...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) Software Project ID: 105 Principal Investigator: Craig Christensen Brief Description: BEopt is a computer program designed to find optimal...

19

Optimal Energy Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Optimal Energy Systems Optimal Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name Optimal Energy Systems Place Torrance, California Zip 90505 Product Manufacturer of flywheel power system, specialising in aerospace and defence sector. Coordinates 40.417285°, -79.223959° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.417285,"lon":-79.223959,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

20

Optimization Online - Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 21, 2011 ... Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with Uncertain Demand. Alexander Goryashko(ale_gory ***at*** rambler.ru)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Efficient energy conversion from laser to proton beam in a laser-foil interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demonstrated is a remarkable improvement on the energy conversion efficiency from laser to protons in a laser-foil interaction by particle simulations. The total laser-proton energy conversion efficiency becomes 16.7%, although a conventional plane foil target serves a rather low efficiency. In our previous study we found that Al multihole thin-foil target was efficient for the energy conversion from laser to protons [Y. Nodera and S. Kawata, Phys. Rev. E 78, 046401 (2008)], and the energy conversion efficiency was 9.3%. In our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the Al multihole structure is also employed, and the parameters of the Al multihole wing width and length are optimized in the paper. The present results clarify the roles of the target Al hole width and depth in the laser-proton energy conversion. The main physical reason for the enhancement of the conversion efficiency is a reduction of the laser reflection at the target surface area. The optimized multihole foil target provides a remarkable increase in the laser-proton energy conversion efficiency as shown above.

Takahashi, K.; Kawata, S.; Satoh, D.; Barada, D. [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yohtoh, 321-8585 Utsunomiya (Japan); Ma, Y. Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yohtoh, 321-8585 Utsunomiya (Japan); Department of Physics, College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China); Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Staging Laser Plasma Accelerators for Increased Beam Energy94720, USA Abstract. Staging laser plasma accelerators is anefficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser

Panasenko, Dmitriy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a {approx} 200 {micro}s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and increased reliability. The high-level requirements on the semiconductor lasers involve reliability, price points on a price-per-Watt basis, and a set of technical requirements. The technical requirements for the amplifier design in reference 1 are discussed in detail and are summarized in Table 1. These values are still subject to changes as the overall laser system continues to be optimized. Since pump costs can be a significant fraction of the overall laser system cost, it is important to achieve sufficiently low price points for these components. At this time, the price target for tenth-of-akind IFE plant is $0.007/Watt for packaged devices. At this target level, the pumps account for approximately one third of the laser cost. The pump lasers should last for the life of the power plant, leading to a target component lifetime requirement of roughly 14 Ghosts, corresponding to a 30 year plant life and 15 Hz repetition rate. An attractive path forward involes pump operation at high output power levels, on a Watts-per-bar (Watts/chip) basis. This reduces the cost of pump power (price-per-Watt), since to first order the unit price does not increase with power/bar. The industry has seen a continual improvement in power output, with current 1 cm-wide bars emitting up to 500 W QCW (quasi-continuous wave). Increased power/bar also facilitates achieving high irradiance in the array plane. On the other hand, increased power implies greater heat loads and (possibly) higher current drive, which will require increased attention to thermal management and parasitic series resistance. Diode chips containing multiple p-n junctions and quantum wells (also called nanostack structures) may provide an additional approach to reduce the peak current.

Deri, R J

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

24

Energy Optimizers USA | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Optimizers USA Optimizers USA Jump to: navigation, search Name Energy Optimizers USA Address 6 S. 3rd Street Place Tipp City, Ohio Zip 45371 Sector Biomass, Carbon, Geothermal energy, Services, Solar, Wind energy Product Business and legal services;Consulting;Energy audits/weatherization; Engineering/architectural/design;Installation;Investment/finances; Trainining and education Phone number 937-877-1919 Website http://www.energyoptimizersusa Coordinates 39.9610217°, -84.1712945° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.9610217,"lon":-84.1712945,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

25

Integrated Energy System Dispatch Optimization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

On-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, thermal and electrical storage, and curtailing/rescheduling demand options are often cost-effective to commercial and industrial sites. This collection of equipment and responsive consumption can be viewed as an integrated energy system(IES). The IES can best meet the sites cost or environmental objectives when controlled in a coordinated manner. However, continuously determining this optimal IES dispatch is beyond the expectations for operators of smaller systems. A new algorithm is proposed in this paper to approximately solve the real-time dispatch optimization problem for a generic IES containing an on-site cogeneration system subject to random outages, limited curtailment opportunities, an intermittent renewable electricity source, and thermal storage. An example demonstrates how this algorithm can be used in simulation to estimate the value of IES components.

Firestone, Ryan; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

26

Strategic Energy Management Through Optimizing the Energy Performance of Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1/12/2007 Strategic Energy Management Through Optimizing the Energy Performance of Buildings Oak ambitious federal energy goals and achieve energy independence. The energy engineers, building equipment Buildings and Industrial Energy Efficiency areas has engendered a unique, comprehensive capability

27

Fiber Laser Front Ends for High Energy, Short Pulse Lasers  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a fiber laser system for short pulse (1-10ps), high energy ({approx}1kJ) glass laser systems. Fiber lasers are ideal for these systems as they are highly reliable and enable long term stable operation.

Dawson, J; Messerly, M; Phan, H; Siders, C; Beach, R; Barty, C

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

28

Optimal Energy Management Policies for Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Optimal Energy Management Policies for Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes Vinod Sharma, Senior Member the energy available at that time. We obtain energy management policies that are throughput optimal, i.e., the data queue stays stable for the largest possible data rate. Next we obtain energy management policies

Sharma, Vinod

29

High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures.We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Thomas, David [AEgis Technologies Group, 10501 Research Rd SE, Suite D, Albuquerque, NM 87123, 505-938-9221 (United States); Lewis, Jay [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

30

Integrated Energy System Dispatch Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

savings. R EFERENCES Distributed Energy Resources Researchand A. Davis, Distributed Energy Neural Network Integrationand C. Marnay, Distributed Energy Resources At Naval Base

Firestone, Ryan; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Utility optimal scheduling in energy harvesting networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we show how to achieve close-to-optimal utility performance in energy harvesting networks with only finite capacity energy storage devices. In these networks, nodes are capable of harvesting energy from the environment. The amount ... Keywords: Lyapunov analysis, energy harvesting, queueing, stochastic network

Longbo Huang; Michael J. Neely

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Optimizing sensor movement planning for energy efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conserving the energy for motion is an important yet not-well-addressed problem in mobile sensor networks. In this article, we study the problem of optimizing sensor movement for energy efficiency. We adopt a complete energy model to characterize the ... Keywords: Mobile sensor, energy efficiency

Guiling Wang; Mary Jane Irwin; Haoying Fu; Piotr Berman; Wensheng Zhang; Tom La Porta

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Laser Power and Energy Calibrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... calibration services for meters used with the lasers, wavelengths, and power ranges shown in the following table. Other laser wavelengths, power ...

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

34

Energy Optimization (Electric) - Residential Efficiency Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Optimization (Electric) - Residential Efficiency Program Energy Optimization (Electric) - Residential Efficiency Program Energy Optimization (Electric) - Residential Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Ceiling Fans: 4 Smart Power Strip: 2 Pipe Wrap: 10 ln. ft. CFL Bulbs: 12 Refrigerator Recycling: 2 Program Info State Michigan Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount CFL Bulbs: Varies by retailer Ceiling Fan: $15 CFL Fixture: $15 LED Fixture/Downlight Kit: $20 LED Light Bulbs: $10 Smart Power Strip: $20 Room Air Conditioners: $20

35

Energy Optimization (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Optimization (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Program Energy Optimization (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Program Energy Optimization (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Other Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Manufacturing Ventilation Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate General: See program web site Custom: 50% of project cost Program Info Expiration Date 12/31/2013 State Michigan Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom: $0.06/kWh/yr saved CFL Bulbs: $1 - $5 CFL Fixtures: $22/fixture High Performance T8 Lighting Retrofit: $4-$20/fixture retrofit

36

Optimization Online - Survivable Energy Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 9, 2006... at the same time, the dayahead energy market and the reserve market in order to price through the market, beside energy, the overall cost of...

37

Optimizing Manufactured Housing Energy Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In partnership with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), two manufactured homes were located on North Carolina A&T State University's campus in Greensboro, NC and used in a side-by-side energy consumption comparison. One of the homes was built to the basic HUD code standard and the other was constructed with features expected to produce a home that was 50% more energy efficient. FSEC and NCATSU began monitoring energy performance in both homes. In addition, the performance of each unit was evaluated using a DOE2 based computer energy analysis program developed by FSEC. A comparison of the performance of the units shows a measured energy savings in the more energy efficient unit of 52% for the Heating, cooling, and DHW energy use. This compares well with the energy savings predicted by the FSEC Energy Gauge program of 57%, even when accounting for the warmer than usual winter experienced during the testing period.

McGinley, W. M.; Jones, A.; Turner, C.; Chandra, S.; Beal, D.; Parker, D. S.; Moyer, N.; McIlvaine, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Approach at the University of California, Davis Campus Title Distributed Energy Resource Optimization...

39

An Optimization of Electrode Energy and Power Density through...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Optimization of Electrode Energy and Power Density through of Variations in Inactive Material and Electrode Porosity Title An Optimization of Electrode Energy and Power Density...

40

High-Energy Laser Ponderomotive Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

A new concept of TeV-range laser ponderomotive acceleration in a plasma is proposed. Particles are accelerated in the point-like scattering by the leading front of the laser pulse, propagating at the group velocity less than the vacuum speed of light. In this scheme, the gain in particle energy is determined by the group velocity and does not depend on laser intensity, which determines the quantum probability of acceleration. The quantum and classical analysis of the scheme proposed is presented. Estimates show that the concept proposed is a promising technique for compact laser acceleration of TeV energy range.

Smetanin, I.V.; /Lebedev Inst.; Barnes, C.; /SLAC; Nakajima, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Process and Energy Optimization Revitalizes Energy Management at Eastman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2005, the Eastman-Texas Operations Energy Management Team (EMT), in response to rapidly increasing energy prices, initiated a new energy optimization program to optimize the sites energy intensity. This new program utilized a process and energy optimization (PEO) approach for identifying energy improvement projects. The EMT worked with an energy consulting company to develop and administer the program across the site during 2005 and 2006. The PEO program consisted of a short-term, high-intensity assessment of each production areas process and energy systems together to identify potential process improvement projects. The projects identified and documented during these assessments ranged from energy savings projects to production improvement projects where energy usage was optimized to improve production. In all areas assessed, there were both non-capital (behavioral) projects, as well as capital projects, with paybacks that were normally less than two years. In 2005, projects implemented saved millions of dollars and reduced natural gas usage by 173 k MMBTU and subsequently, CO2 emissions were reduced by approximately 10Klb. In addition to tangible benefits, there have been numerous intangible site benefits, including a better understanding of site energy/process integration, increased focus regarding site-wide energy optimization, improved communication and cooperation between the site utilities department and all operating areas, and development of a multi-year energy management program supported by hundreds of specific, process and energy optimization project opportunities.

Greenwaldt, W. C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Gratings for High-Energy Petawatt Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To enable high-energy petawatt laser operation we have developed the processing methods and tooling that produced both the world's largest multilayer dielectric reflection grating and the world's highest laser damage resistant gratings. We have successfully delivered the first ever 80 cm aperture multilayer dielectric grating to LLNL's Titan Intense Short Pulse Laser Facility. We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings.

Nguyen, H T; Britten, J A; Carlson, T C; Nissen, J D; Summers, L J; Hoaglan, C R; Aasen, M D; Peterson, J E; Jovanovic, I

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

43

Scientific applications for high-energy lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The convergence of numerous factors makes the time ripe for the development of a community of researchers to use the high-energy laser for scientific investigations. This document attempts to outline the steps necessary to access high-energy laser systems and create a realistic plan to implement usage. Since an academic/scientific user community does not exist in the USA to any viable extent, we include information on present capabilities at the Nova laser. This will briefly cover laser performance and diagnostics and a sampling of some current experimental projects. Further, to make the future possibilities clearer, we will describe the proposed next- generation high-energy laser, named for its inertial fusion confinement (ICF) goal, the multi-megaJoule, 500-teraWatt National Facility, or NIF.

Lee, R.W. [comp.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Energy Harvesting Communication Networks: Optimization and Demonstration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of energy. E-CROPS will combine theoret- ical modelling and performance analysis with experimen- tal1 Energy Harvesting Communication Networks: Optimization and Demonstration (The E-CROPS Project of Electrical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK 2 Mobile Communications Department, Institut

Uysal-Biyikoglu, Elif

45

Nd:Glass Laser Design for Laser ICF Fission Energy (LIFE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid / Eighteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Part 2)

John Caird et al.

46

Definition: Optimized Generator Operation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Optimized Generator Operation Optimized Generator Operation Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Optimized Generator Operation Better forecasting and monitoring of load and grid performance would enable grid operators to dispatch a more efficient mix of generation that could be optimized to reduce cost. The coordinated operation of energy storage, distributed generation, or plug-in electric vehicle assets could also result in completely avoiding central generation dispatch.[1] Related Terms sustainability References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Benefits' An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Optimized_Generator_Operation&oldid=502509" Categories:

47

Optimizing New Dark Energy Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Next generation Stage IV dark energy experiments under design during this grant, and now under construction, will enable the determination of the properties of dark energy and dark matter to unprecedented precision using multiple complementary probes. The most pressing challenge in these experiments is the characterization and understanding of the systematic errors present within any given experimental configuration and the resulting impact on the accuracy of our constraints on dark energy physics. The DETF and the P5 panel in their reports recommended Expanded support for ancillary measurements required for the long-term program and for projects that will improve our understanding and reduction of the dominant systematic measurement errors. Looking forward to the next generation Stage IV experiments we have developed a program to address the most important potential systematic errors within these experiments. Using data from current facilities it has been feasible and timely to undertake a detailed investigation of the systematic errors. In this DOE grant we studied of the source and impact of the dominant systematic effects in dark energy measurements, and developed new analysis tools and techniques to minimize their impact. Progress under this grant is briefly reviewed in this technical report. This work was a necessary precursor to the coming generations of wide-deep probes of the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The research has already had an impact on improving the efficiencies of all Stage III and IV dark energy experiments.

Tyson, J. Anthony [University of California, Davis

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

48

Quantum Cascade Laser Energy Band Diagram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are semiconductor lasers that emit in the mid- and long-wave IR bands, and are fi nding new applications in precision sensing, spectroscopy, medical, and military applications (1). Their wide tuning range and fast response time allow for faster and more precise compact trace element detectors and gas analyzers that are replacing slower and larger FTIR, mass spectroscopy, and photothermal microspectroscopy systems. Figure 1 represents the physics behind Quantum Cascade Lasers. It depicts the laser energy bands that allow QC lasing. For more information about QCLs and the physics behind

unknown authors

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Overview of Fission Safety for Laser ICF Fission Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid / Eighteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Part 2)

Per F. Peterson; Edward Blandford; Christhian Galvez

50

Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization Preprint Andy Walker National Renewable Energy Laboratory Presented at SOLAR 2008 - American Solar Energy Society (ASES) San Diego, California May 3-8, 2008 Conference Paper NREL/CP-670-42921 May 2008 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute (MRI), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337. Accordingly, the US Government and MRI retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of

51

Dual wavelength laser damage testing for high energy lasers.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As high energy laser systems evolve towards higher energies, fundamental material properties such as the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the optics limit the overall system performance. The Z-Backlighter Laser Facility at Sandia National Laboratories uses a pair of such kiljoule-class Nd:Phosphate Glass lasers for x-ray radiography of high energy density physics events on the Z-Accelerator. These two systems, the Z-Beamlet system operating at 527nm/ 1ns and the Z-Petawatt system operating at 1054nm/ 0.5ps, can be combined for some experimental applications. In these scenarios, dichroic beam combining optics and subsequent dual wavelength high reflectors will see a high fluence from combined simultaneous laser exposure and may even see lingering effects when used for pump-probe configurations. Only recently have researchers begun to explore such concerns, looking at individual and simultaneous exposures of optics to 1064 and third harmonic 355nm light from Nd:YAG [1]. However, to our knowledge, measurements of simultaneous and delayed dual wavelength damage thresholds on such optics have not been performed for exposure to 1054nm and its second harmonic light, especially when the pulses are of disparate pulse duration. The Z-Backlighter Facility has an instrumented damage tester setup to examine the issues of laser-induced damage thresholds in a variety of such situations [2] . Using this damage tester, we have measured the LIDT of dual wavelength high reflectors at 1054nm/0.5ps and 532nm/7ns, separately and spatially combined, both co-temporal and delayed, with single and multiple exposures. We found that the LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps can be significantly lowered, from 1.32J/cm{sup 2} damage fluence with 1054/0.5ps only to 1.05 J/cm{sup 2} with the simultaneous presence of 532nm/7ns laser light at a fluence of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2}. This reduction of LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps continues as the fluence of 532nm/7ns laser light simultaneously present increases. The reduction of LIDT does not occur when the 2 pulses are temporally separated. This paper will also present dual wavelength LIDT results of commercial dichroic beam-combining optics simultaneously exposed with laser light at 1054nm/2.5ns and 532nm/7ns.

Atherton, Briggs W.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kimmel, Mark W.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Investigation of efficiency optimization in free electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of trapped particles in the presence of the wiggler magnetic field and the electromagnetic radiation field in free electron lasers were investigated. From the results of computer simulations, it was found that, for a given set of parameters, the efficiency of energy extraction from the electron beam maximizes at a particular intensity of the electromagnetic radiation. Based on the physical argument of the dynamics of the trapped particles, a criterion which predicts accurately the optimum intensity of the electromagnetic radiation was obtained. (TFD)

Kwan, T.J.T.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Optimal Energy Management Policies for Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a sensor node with an energy harvesting source. The generated energy can be stored in a buffer. The sensor node periodically senses a random field and generates a packet. These packets are stored in a queue and transmitted using the energy available at that time. We obtain energy management policies that are throughput optimal, i.e., the data queue stays stable for the largest possible data rate. Next we obtain energy management policies which minimize the mean delay in the queue.We also compare performance of several easily implementable sub-optimal energy management policies. A greedy policy is identified which, in low SNR regime, is throughput optimal and also minimizes mean delay.

Sharma, Vinod; Joseph, Vinay; Gupta, Shrey

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Optimal Demand Response with Energy Storage Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider the problem of optimal demand response and energy storage management for a power consuming entity. The entity's objective is to find an optimal control policy for deciding how much load to consume, how much power to purchase from/sell to the power grid, and how to use the finite capacity energy storage device and renewable energy, to minimize his average cost, being the disutility due to load- shedding and cost for purchasing power. Due to the coupling effect of the finite size energy storage, such problems are challenging and are typically tackled using dynamic programming, which is often complex in computation and requires substantial statistical information of the system dynamics. We instead develop a low-complexity algorithm called Demand Response with Energy Storage Management (DR-ESM). DR-ESM does not require any statistical knowledge of the system dynamics, including the renewable energy and the power prices. It only requires the entity to solve a small convex optimization pr...

Huang, Longbo; Ramchandran, Kannan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Utility Optimal Scheduling in Energy Harvesting Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we show how to achieve close-to-optimal utility performance in energy harvesting networks with only finite capacity energy storage devices. In these networks, nodes are capable of harvesting energy from the environment. The amount of energy that can be harvested is time varying and evolves according to some probability law. We develop an \\emph{online} algorithm, called the Energy-limited Scheduling Algorithm (ESA), which jointly manages the energy and makes power allocation decisions for packet transmissions. ESA only has to keep track of the amount of energy left at the network nodes and \\emph{does not require any knowledge} of the harvestable energy process. We show that ESA achieves a utility that is within $O(\\epsilon)$ of the optimal, for any $\\epsilon>0$, while ensuring that the network congestion and the required capacity of the energy storage devices are \\emph{deterministically} upper bounded by bounds of size $O(1/\\epsilon)$. We then also develop the Modified-ESA algorithm (MESA) to ac...

Huang, Longbo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Optimal Power Allocation for Renewable Energy Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Battery powered transmitters face energy constraint, replenishing their energy by a renewable energy source (like solar or wind power) can lead to longer lifetime. We consider here the problem of finding the optimal power allocation under random channel conditions for a wireless transmitter, such that rate of information transfer is maximized. Here a rechargeable battery, which is periodically charged by renewable source, is used to power the transmitter. All of above is formulated as a Markov Decision Process. Structural properties like the monotonicity of the optimal value and policy derived in this paper will be of vital importance in understanding the kind of algorithms and approximations needed in real-life scenarios. The effect of curse of dimensionality which is prevalent in Dynamic programming problems can thus be reduced. We show our results under the most general of assumptions.

Sinha, Abhinav

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Low Power/Energy Compiler Optimizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction 35.2 Why compilers? 35.3 Power vs. Energy vs. Performance Power vs. Energy, Power/Energy vs. Performance, Summary 35.4 List of Optimizations Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling, Resource Hibernation, Remote Task Mapping 35.5 Future Compiler Research for Power/Energy Embedded processor and SoCs are used in many devices, ranging from pace makers, sensors, phones, and PDAs, to general-purpose handheld computers and laptops. Each of these devices has their own requirements for performance, power dissipation, and energy usage, and typically implements a particular tradeo# among these entities. Allowing components of these devices to be controlled by software has opened up opportunities for compilation and operating strategies to reduce power dissipation and energy usage, at the potential cost of performance degradation. Such control includes (1) hibernation, i.e., initiating transitions of a component between a high power, active states and lower power, hibernating s

Ulrich Kremer

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Dichroic beamsplitter for high energy laser diagnostics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Wavefront control techniques are provided for the alignment and performance optimization of optical devices. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor can be used to measure the wavefront distortion and a control system generates feedback error signal to optics inside the device to correct the wavefront. The system can be calibrated with a low-average-power probe laser. An optical element is provided to couple the optical device to a diagnostic/control package in a way that optimizes both the output power of the optical device and the coupling of the probe light into the diagnostics.

LaFortune, Kai N (Livermore, CA); Hurd, Randall (Tracy, CA); Fochs, Scott N (Livermore, CA); Rotter, Mark D (San Ramon, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

Nonlinear laser energy depletion in laser-plasma accelerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonlinear laser energydepletion in laser-plasma accelerators ? B. A. Shadwick,of intense, short-pulse lasers via excitation of plasma

Shadwick, B.A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Optimal Energy Allocation for Wireless Communications with Energy Harvesting Constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the use of energy harvesters, in place of conventional batteries with fixed energy storage, for point-to-point wireless communications. In addition to the challenge of transmitting in a channel with time selective fading, energy harvesters provide a perpetual but unreliable energy source. In this paper, we consider the problem of energy allocation over a finite horizon, taking into account channel conditions and energy sources that are time varying, so as to maximize the throughput. Two types of side information (SI) on the channel conditions and harvested energy are assumed to be available: causal SI (of the past and present slots) and full SI (of the past, present and future slots). We obtain structural results for the optimal energy allocation, via the use of dynamic programming and convex optimization techniques. In particular, if unlimited energy can be stored in the battery with harvested energy and full SI is available, we prove the optimality of a water-filling energy allocation solution w...

Ho, Chin Keong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High Energy Laser for Space Debris Removal  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has substantial relevant experience in the construction of high energy lasers, and more recently in the development of advanced high average power solid state lasers. We are currently developing new concepts for advanced solid state laser drivers for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) application, and other high average power laser applications that could become central technologies for use in space debris removal. The debris population most readily addressed by our laser technology is that of 0.1-10 cm sized debris in low earth orbit (LEO). In this application, a ground based laser system would engage an orbiting target and slow it down by ablating material from its surface which leads to reentry into the atmosphere, as proposed by NASA's ORION Project. The ORION concept of operations (CONOPS) is also described in general terms by Phipps. Key aspects of this approach include the need for high irradiance on target, 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which favors short (i.e., picoseconds to nanoseconds) laser pulse durations and high energy per pulse ({approx} > 10 kJ). Due to the target's orbital velocity, the potential duration of engagement is only of order 100 seconds, so a high pulse repetition rate is also essential. The laser technology needed for this application did not exist when ORION was first proposed, but today, a unique combination of emerging technologies could create a path to enable deployment in the near future. Our concepts for the laser system architecture are an extension of what was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), combined with high repetition rate laser technology developed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and heat capacity laser technology developed for military applications. The 'front-end' seed pulse generator would be fiber-optics based, and would generate a temporally, and spectrally tailored pulse designed for high transmission through the atmosphere, as well as efficient ablative coupling to the target. The main amplifier would use either diode-pumped or flashlamp-pumped solid state gain media, depending on budget constraints of the project. A continuously operating system would use the gas-cooled amplifier technology developed for Mercury, while a burst-mode option would use the heat capacity laser technology. The ground-based system that we propose is capable of rapid engagement of targets whose orbits cross over the site, with potential for kill on a single pass. Very little target mass is ablated per pulse so the potential to create additional hazardous orbiting debris is minimal. Our cost estimates range from $2500 to $5000 per J depending on choices for laser gain medium, amplifier pump source, and thermal management method. A flashlamp-pumped, Nd:glass heat-capacity laser operating in the burst mode would have costs at the lower end of this spectrum and would suffice to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach as a prototype system. A diode-pumped, gas-cooled laser would have higher costs but could be operated continuously, and might be desirable for more demanding mission needs. Maneuverability can be incorporated in the system design if the additional cost is deemed acceptable. The laser system would need to be coupled with a target pointing and tracking telescope with guide-star-like wavefront correction capability.

Barty, C; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Beach, R; Rubenchik, A

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

62

High Energy Laser for Space Debris Removal  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has substantial relevant experience in the construction of high energy lasers, and more recently in the development of advanced high average power solid state lasers. We are currently developing new concepts for advanced solid state laser drivers for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) application, and other high average power laser applications that could become central technologies for use in space debris removal. The debris population most readily addressed by our laser technology is that of 0.1-10 cm sized debris in low earth orbit (LEO). In this application, a ground based laser system would engage an orbiting target and slow it down by ablating material from its surface which leads to reentry into the atmosphere, as proposed by NASA's ORION Project. The ORION concept of operations (CONOPS) is also described in general terms by Phipps. Key aspects of this approach include the need for high irradiance on target, 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which favors short (i.e., picoseconds to nanoseconds) laser pulse durations and high energy per pulse ({approx} > 10 kJ). Due to the target's orbital velocity, the potential duration of engagement is only of order 100 seconds, so a high pulse repetition rate is also essential. The laser technology needed for this application did not exist when ORION was first proposed, but today, a unique combination of emerging technologies could create a path to enable deployment in the near future. Our concepts for the laser system architecture are an extension of what was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), combined with high repetition rate laser technology developed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and heat capacity laser technology developed for military applications. The 'front-end' seed pulse generator would be fiber-optics based, and would generate a temporally, and spectrally tailored pulse designed for high transmission through the atmosphere, as well as efficient ablative coupling to the target. The main amplifier would use either diode-pumped or flashlamp-pumped solid state gain media, depending on budget constraints of the project. A continuously operating system would use the gas-cooled amplifier technology developed for Mercury, while a burst-mode option would use the heat capacity laser technology. The ground-based system that we propose is capable of rapid engagement of targets whose orbits cross over the site, with potential for kill on a single pass. Very little target mass is ablated per pulse so the potential to create additional hazardous orbiting debris is minimal. Our cost estimates range from $2500 to $5000 per J depending on choices for laser gain medium, amplifier pump source, and thermal management method. A flashlamp-pumped, Nd:glass heat-capacity laser operating in the burst mode would have costs at the lower end of this spectrum and would suffice to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach as a prototype system. A diode-pumped, gas-cooled laser would have higher costs but could be operated continuously, and might be desirable for more demanding mission needs. Maneuverability can be incorporated in the system design if the additional cost is deemed acceptable. The laser system would need to be coupled with a target pointing and tracking telescope with guide-star-like wavefront correction capability.

Barty, C; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Beach, R; Rubenchik, A

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

High-Energy Petawatt Capability for the Omega Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 60-beam Omega laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) has been a workhorse on the frontier of laser fusion and high-energy-density physics for more than a decade. LLE scientists are currently extending the performance of this unique, direct-drive laser system by adding high-energy petawatt capabilities.

Waxer, L.J.; Maywar, D.N.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Loucks, S.J.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Morse, S.F.B.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J.D.

2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

64

Optimal energy management and recovery for FEV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper briefly describes the latest achievements of a new functional vehicle system to overcome the range anxiety problem of Fully Electric Vehicles (FEV). This is primarily achieved by integrated control and operation strategies to optimize the ... Keywords: FEV range anxiety, GPS, all electric range, car-to-car, car-to-infrastructure, control, energy manager, environmental sensors, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), network architecture, operation strategies, radar, regenerative vacuum free braking, safety, satellite navigation, vehicle simulation, video

Kosmas Knoedler; Jochen Steinmann; Sylvain Laversanne; Stephen Jones; Arno Huss; Emre Kural; David Sanchez; Oliver Bringmann; Jochen Zimmermann

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Optimization of energy and throughput for pipelined VLSI interconnect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

given a wire length, optimized pipeline energy decreases asFigure 7 shows pipeline energy per bit versus wire length asOptimal pipeline depth is proportional to wire length, and

Hamilton, Kevin Clark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Optimized laser pulse profile for efficient radiation pressure acceleration of ions  

SciTech Connect

The radiation pressure acceleration regime of laser ion acceleration requires high intensity laser pulses to function efficiently. Moreover the foil should be opaque for incident radiation during the interaction to ensure maximum momentum transfer from the pulse to the foil, which requires proper matching of the target to the laser pulse. However, in the ultrarela-tivistic regime, this leads to large acceleration distances, over which the high laser intensity for a Gaussian laser pulse must be maintained. It is shown that proper tailoring of the laser pulse profile can significantly reduce the acceleration distance, leading to a compact laser ion accelerator, requiring less energy to operate.

Bulanov, S. S.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

67

Optimized laser pulse profile for efficient radiation pressure acceleration of ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation pressure acceleration regime of laser ion acceleration requires high intensity laser pulses to function efficiently. Moreover, the foil should be opaque for incident radiation during the interaction to ensure maximum momentum transfer from the pulse to the foil, which requires proper matching of the target to the laser pulse. However, in the ultrarelativistic regime, this leads to large acceleration distances, over which the high laser intensity for a Gaussian laser pulse must be maintained. It is shown that proper tailoring of the laser pulse profile can significantly reduce the acceleration distance, leading to a compact laser ion accelerator, requiring less energy to operate.

Bulanov, S. S. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leemans, W. P. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

Adaptive Real-Time Methodology for Optimizing Energy-Efficient...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Email Adaptive Real-Time Methodology for Optimizing Energy-Efficient Computing Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is an effective way to reduce energy and power...

69

Study on optimal train movement for minimum energy consumption.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The presented thesis project is a study on train energy consumption calculation and optimal train driving strategies for minimum energy consumption. This study is (more)

Gkortzas, Panagiotis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

A Framework for the Optimization of Integrated Energy Systems...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A Framework for the Optimization of Integrated Energy Systems(Jain and Alleyne 2012) Home > Groups > Energy Systems Integration Qinsun's picture Submitted by Qinsun(35) Member 15...

71

NIST Measurement Services: cw Laser Power and Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... estimates for the NIST laser energy measurements are ... fields of physical science, engineering, applied mathematics, statistics, biotechnology, and ...

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

72

Sustainability Study in Selective Laser Sintering An Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Sustainability Study in Selective Laser Sintering An Energy ... 2010 Vittorio de Nora Award Winner: Designing Crushing and Grinding...

73

Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Control Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) facility point design is being developed at LLNL to support an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) based energy concept. This will build upon the technical foundation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system. NIF is designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. The LIFE control systems will have an architecture partitioned by sub-systems and distributed among over 1000's of front-end processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. LIFE's automated control subsystems will require interoperation between different languages and target architectures. Much of the control system will be embedded into the subsystem with well defined interface and performance requirements to the supervisory control layer. An automation framework will be used to orchestrate and automate start-up and shut-down as well as steady state operation. The LIFE control system will be a high parallel segmented architecture. For example, the laser system consists of 384 identical laser beamlines in a 'box'. The control system will mirror this architectural replication for each beamline with straightforward high-level interface for control and status monitoring. Key technical challenges will be discussed such as the injected target tracking and laser pointing feedback. This talk discusses the the plan for controls and information systems to support LIFE.

Marshall, C; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Edwards, O; Lagin, L; Van Arsdall, P

2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

74

Theoretical Understanding of Enhanced Proton Energies from Laser-Cone Interactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the past ten years, the highest proton energies accelerated with high-intensity lasers was 58 MeV, observed in 2000 at the LLNL NOVA Petawatt laser, using flat foil targets. Recently, 67.5 MeV protons were observed in experiments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Trident laser, using one-fifth of the PW laser pulse energy, incident into novel conical targets. We present a focused study of new theoretical understanding of this measured enhancement from collisional Particle-in-Cell simulations, which shows that the hot electron temperature, number and maximum energy, responsible for the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) at the cone-top, are significantly increased when the laser grazes the cone wall. This is mainly due to the extraction of electrons from the cone wall by the laser electric field, and their boost in the forward direction by the vxB term of the Lorentz force. This result is in contrast to previous predictions of optical collection and wall-guiding of electrons in angled cones. This new wall-grazing mechanism offers the prospect to linearly increase the hot electron temperature, and thereby the TNSA proton energy, by extending the length over which the laser interacts in a grazing fashion in suitably optimized targets. This may allow achieving much higher proton energies for interesting future applications, with smaller, lower energy laser systems that allow for a high repetition rate.

Kluge, T.; Gaillard, S. A.; Bussmann, M.; Burris-Mog, T.; Kraft, S. D.; Metzkes, J.; Rassuchine, J.; Schramm, U.; Zeil, K.; Cowan, T. E. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Flippo, K. A.; Offermann, D. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gall, B. [University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Geissel, M.; Schollmeier, M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lockard, T.; Sentoku, Y. [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

75

Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 - 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

Bliss, David Emery; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Energy Optimization of Biomass Pyrolysis and Liquefaction System in CFB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass pyrolysis and liquefaction technology needs inert carrier gas and high energy consumption. On the basis of analyzing its energy consumption and the using way of char and off-gas, energy in the pyrolysis and liquefaction system in CFB is optimized ... Keywords: FB biomass pyrolysis energy consumption optimize

Zhang Jun; Teng Wenrui; Wei Xinli

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Actes JFPC 2012 Optimal Allocation of Renewable Energy Parks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Actes JFPC 2012 Optimal Allocation of Renewable Energy Parks: A Two-stage Optimization Model-economical study of renewable energy on the other hand, investigates gradual implantation of Renewable Energy (RE of energy demand, available resources, anticipated renewable engineering cost re- ductions [13]. However

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

Optimization and homotopy methods for the Gibbs free energy of ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 31, 2011 ... Optimization and homotopy methods for the Gibbs free energy of magmatic mixtures ... Category 3: Applications -- Science and Engineering. Citation: Download: ... Give us feedback Optimization Journals, Sites, Societies.

79

Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Figure 1 Energy Flows in a Building Microgrid DER-CAM solves a grid's investment optimization problem given its end-use energy loads, energy tariff structures and fuel...

80

Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and DemandRenewable Energy, former Distributed Energy Program of theOptimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand

Siddiqui, Afzal

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

Walker, A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

Walker, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Optimal Energy Storage Control Policies for the Smart Power Grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Energy Storage Control Policies for the Smart Power Grid Iordanis Koutsopoulos Vassiliki is to devise an energy storage control policy that minimizes long-term average grid operational cost. The cost the stored energy. We prove that the policy is asymptotically optimal as the storage capacity becomes large

Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

84

On Optimal Policies for Energy-Aware Servers Vincent Maccio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On Optimal Policies for Energy-Aware Servers Vincent Maccio McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario exhibit. Even for single server systems, when energy is a factor, optimal policies remain unknown[Sw]). The typical approach to developing energy-aware policies focuses on a particular metric. In [1

Smith, Spencer

85

Application Level Optimizations for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

whether application-level software optimization can improve energy efficiency and thermal behavior. We use-life multicore system to explore two issues: (i) software tun- ing to improve scalability and energyApplication Level Optimizations for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Stability Md. Ashfaquzzaman Khan

Coskun, Ayse

86

Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced plasmas for lithography application  

SciTech Connect

The progress in development of commercial system for next generation EUV lithography requires, among other factors, significant improvement in EUV photon sources such as discharge produced plasma (DPP) and laser produced plasma (LPP) devices. There are still many uncertainties in determining the optimum device since there are many parameters for the suitable and efficient energy source and target configuration and size. Complex devices with trigger lasers in DPP or with pre-pulsing in LPP provide wide area for optimization in regards to conversion efficiency (CE) and components lifetime. We considered in our analysis a promising LPP source configuration using 10-30 {mu}m tin droplet targets, and predicted conditions for the most efficient EUV radiation output and collection as well as calculating photons source location and size. We optimized several parameters of dual-beam lasers and their relationship to target size. We used our HEIGHTS comprehensive and integrated full 3D simulation package to study and optimize LPP processes with various target sizes to maximize the CE of the system.

Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The global optimization of Morse clusters by potential energy ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 15, 2003 ... The global optimization of Morse clusters by potential energy ... increase the efficiency in locating the known global minima and also to discover...

88

Optimizing New Dark Energy Experiments - Final Scientific Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final scientific report for the University of Pittsburgh portion of the collaborative grant, 'Optimizing New Dark Energy Experiments'

Jeffrey A. Newman

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

89

Optimization of Energy Saving Materials and Compressed Insulating ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 16, 2007 ... Optimization of Energy Saving Materials and Compressed Insulating Layers in the Automotive Chemical Converters by E. Litovsky, V. Issoupov,...

90

Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model Focus Area: Ethanol Topics: Market Analysis Website: www.ecn.nl/units/ps/models-and-tools/biotrans/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/biotrans-cost-optimization-model,http Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration & Implementation BIOTRANS optimizes the biofuel supply chain allocation by finding the least-cost configuration of resources and trade to meet a specified biofuel demand in the European transportation sector. The user can constrain the optimization by inputting a number of economic and technological assumptions for a specific target year. References Retrieved from

91

Laboratory high-energy astrophysics on lasers  

SciTech Connect

The tremendous range of temperatures and densities spanned by astrophysical plasmas has significant overlap with conditions attainable using high-power laser facilities. These facilities provide an opportunity to create, control, and characterize plasmas in the laboratory that mirror conditions in some of the most important cosmological systems. Moreover, laboratory experiments can enhance astrophysical understanding by focusing on and isolating important physical processes, without necessarily reproducing the exact conditions of the integral system. Basic study of radiative properties, transport phenomena, thermodynamic response and hydrodynamic evolution in plasmas under properly scaled conditions leads both directly and indirectly to improved models of complex astrophysical systems. In this paper, we will discuss opportunities for current and planned highpower lasers to contribute to the study of high-energy astrophysics.

Goldstein, W.H.; Liedahl, D.A.; Walling, R.S.; Foord, M.E.; Osterheld, A.L.; Wilson, B.G.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and HVAC operations. A real-time optimization program suchHVAC IES ISO-NE LBNL MILP NOx NP NRC NREL OLS P&DC PJM PUCT PURPA PV RETScreen RReDC Hybrid OptimizationHVAC equipment and other building energy equipment. This research is similar to the IES dispatch optimization

Firestone, Ryan Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Optimization Online - Optimal management and sizing of energy ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 30, 2012 ... Assuming the renewable energy, demand and prices evolve as ... the ratio of the amortized cost of storage to the price of electricity should be...

94

Online Modeling in the Process Industry for Energy Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"This paper discusses how steady state models are being used in the process industry to perform online energy optimization of steam and electrical systems. It presents process demands commonly found in the processing industry in terms of steam and electricity. It further discusses the methods of providing this energy for refineries, petrochemical plants, and other processing plants - chemical, paper, and metal. A typical system flow diagram is used to highlight the energy system network and describe areas where steady-state models are used. The types of models used are discussed, and a scheme for putting the models together to provide total process plant energy optimization is summarized. The types of optimization which can be implemented in a process plant is thus presented. The paper points out what steady-state modeling is needed to do online optimization of an energy network in a processing plant. Finally, a discussion of the economics on online energy optimization is presented."

Alexander, J.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Optimizing the FLASH code: preparing for Mira BG/Q and improving the laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimizing FLASH Optimizing FLASH Optimizing the FLASH code: preparing for Mira BG/Q and improving the laser ray trace April 30, 2013 6km25100off0650 CS Seminar: Optimizing the FLASH code: preparing for Mira BG/Q and improving the laser ray trace Christopher Daley The Flash Center for Computational Science, University of Chicago Tuesday, April 30, 2013 10:00-11:00 PDT Oakland Scientific Facility Room 238 FLASH is a multi-physics, component-based scientific code which has been used on the largest HPC platforms over the last decade. It has been cumulatively used by over a thousand researchers to investigate problems in astrophysics, cosmology, and in some areas of basic physics, such as turbulence. The core capabilities in FLASH include Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) and solvers for hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics. There are

96

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing maximizing thermal efficiency and optimizing energy management through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems.

Not Available

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing maximizing thermal efficiency and optimizing energy management through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Future scientific applications for high-energy lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses future applications for high-energy lasers in the areas of astrophysics and space physics; hydrodynamics; material properties; plasma physics; radiation sources; and radiative properties.

Lee, R.W. [comp.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

NIF achieves record laser energy in pursuit of fusion ignition...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

achieves record laser energy in pursuit of fusion ignition | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

100

Development of an Hourly Optimization Tool for Renewable Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

An hourly optimization tool is developed to select and size renewable energy (RE) systems to meet the energy needs for various federal facilities. The optimization is based on life cost analysis of various RE technologies including wind and PV systems. The developed hourly optimization tool is used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RE technologies using complex energy and demand charges such time-of-use (TOU) rates. The paper compares results obtained using hourly analysis instead of annual based calculations to optimize the sizing of RE systems for residential, commercial, and industrial facilities in three representative US climates.

Lee, C.; Walker, A.; Krarti, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE) Microgrid: Models & Tools (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This brochure describes Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE), a trademarked process NREL employs to produce conceptual microgrid designs. This systems-based process enables designs to be optimized for economic value, energy surety, and sustainability. Capabilities NREL offers in support of microgrid design are explained.

Not Available

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Laser wavelength effects on the charge state resolved ion energy distributions from laser-produced Sn plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser wavelength effects on the charge state resolved ion energy distributions from laser of laser wavelength on the charge state resolved ion energy distributions from laser-produced Sn plasma channel electron multiplier are used to record the charge state resolved ion energy distributions 100 cm

Najmabadi, Farrokh

103

Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages  

SciTech Connect

Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Optimized Alumina Coagulants for Water Purification - Energy ...  

Emergency usage; Patents and Patent Applications. ID Number. Title and Abstract. Primary Lab. Date. Patent 8,119,011: Optimized alumina coagulants for ...

105

Department of Energy Announces Completion of World's Largest Laser |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Department of Energy Announces Completion of World's Largest Laser Department of Energy Announces Completion of World's Largest Laser Department of Energy Announces Completion of World's Largest Laser March 31, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy today announced that the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has certified the completion of the historic effort to build the world's largest laser. Housed at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is expected to allow scientists to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory, obtaining more energy from the target than is provided by the laser. The completion of NIF opens the door to scientific advancement and discovery that promises to enhance our national security, could help break America's dependence on foreign oil, and will lead to new

106

Energetics and energy scaling of quasi-monoenergetic protons in laser radiation pressure acceleration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theoretical and computational studies of the ion energy scaling of the radiation pressure acceleration of an ultra-thin foil by short pulse intense laser irradiation are presented. To obtain a quasi-monoenergetic ion beam with an energy spread of less than 20%, two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the maximum energy of the quasi-monoenergetic ion beam is limited by self-induced transparency at the density minima caused by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. For foils of optimal thickness, the time over which Rayleigh-Taylor instability fully develops and transparency occurs is almost independent of the laser amplitude. With a laser power of about one petawatt, quasi-monogenetic protons with 200 MeV and carbon ions with 100 MeV per nucleon can be obtained, suitable for particle therapy applications.

Liu Tungchang; Shao Xi; Liu Chuansheng; Su Jaojang; Dudnikova, Galina; Sagdeev, Roald Z. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Eliasson, Bengt [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Tripathi, Vipin [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said  

SciTech Connect

A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

Sher, Mark H. (Los Altos, CA); Macklin, John J. (Stanford, CA); Harris, Stephen E. (Palo Alto, CA)

1989-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

108

Method and apparatus for optimizing the efficiency and quality of laser material processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency of laser welding and other laser material processing is optimized according to this invention by rotating the plane of polarization of a linearly polarized laser beam in relation to a work piece of the material being processed simultaneously and in synchronization with steering the laser beam over the work piece so as to keep the plane of polarization parallel to either the plane of incidence or the direction of travel of the beam in relation to the work piece. Also, depending to some extent on the particular processing being accomplished, such as welding or fusing, the angle of incidence of the laser beam on the work piece is kept at or near the polarizing or Brewster's angle. The combination of maintaining the plane of polarization parallel to plane of incidence while also maintaining the angle of incidence at or near the polarizing or Brewster's angle results in only minimal, if any, reflection losses during laser welding. Also, coordinating rotation of the plane of polarization with the translation or steering of a work piece under a laser cutting beam maximizes efficiency and kerf geometry, regardless of the direction of cut. 7 figs.

Susemihl, I.

1990-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

109

Method and apparatus for optimizing the efficiency and quality of laser material processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency of laser welding and other laser material processing is optimized according to this invention by rotating the plane of polarization of a linearly polarized laser beam in relation to a work piece of the material being processed simultaneously and in synchronization with steering the laser beam over the work piece so as to keep the plane of polarization parallel to either the plane of incidence or the direction of travel of the beam in relation to the work piece. Also, depending to some extent on the particular processing being accomplished, such as welding or fusing, the angle of incidence of the laser beam on the work piece is kept at or near the polarizing or Brewster's angle. The combination of maintaining the plane of polarization parallel to plane of incidence while also maintaining the angle of incidence at or near the polarizing or Brewster's angle results in only minimal, if any, reflection losses during laser welding. Also, coordinating rotation of the plane of polarization with the translation or steering of a work piece under a laser cutting beam maximizes efficiency and kerf geometry, regardless of the direction of cut.

Susemihl, Ingo (Norderstedt, DE)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Green Computing: Energy Consumption Optimized Service Hosting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Green Computing is a recent trend towards designing, building, and operating computer systems to be energy efficient. While programs such as Energy Star have been around since the early 1990s, recent concerns regarding global climate change and the energy ... Keywords: Green computing, data centers, energy conservation, energy efficiency, service dispatch, service hosting, service-level agreements

Walter Binder; Niranjan Suri

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Optimizing Organic Waste to Energy Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A waste-to-energy firm that recycles organic waste with energy recovery performs two environmentally beneficial functions: it diverts waste from landfills and it produces renewable energy. At the same time, the waste-to-energy firm serves and collects ... Keywords: environment, operating strategy, organic waste to energy, regulation, sustainability

Bar?? Ata; Deishin Lee; Mustafa H. Tongarlak

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Optimization of energy parameters in buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When designing buildings, energy analysis is typically done after construction has been completed, but making the design decisions while keeping energy efficiency in mind, is one way to make energy-efficient buildings. The ...

Jain, Ruchi V

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Optimal Transmission Policies for Energy Harvesting Two-hop Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a two-hop communication system with energy harvesting nodes is considered. Unlike battery powered wireless nodes, both the source and the relay are able to harvest energy from environment during communication, therefore, both data and energy causality over the two hops need to be considered. Assuming both nodes know the harvested energies in advance, properties of optimal transmission policies to maximize the delivered data by a given deadline are identified. Using these properties, optimal power allocation and transmission schedule for the case in which both nodes harvest two energy packets is developed.

Orhan, Oner

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Scalable Stochastic Optimization of Complex Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Argonne, IL 60439, USA. {mlubin ... Illinois power grid and real-time energy market. Strong scal- ...... ported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract.

115

Integratedenergy storage system for optimal energy production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This project served to analyze the effects that energy storage can have on energy production. The study was aimed at Johannes CHP bio fuel. (more)

Stevens, Kristoffer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Energy Accounting and Optimization for Mobile Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Energy accounting determines how much a software process contributes to the total system energy consumption. It is the foundation for evaluating software and has been (more)

Dong, Mian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

MULTIPARAMETER OPTIMIZATION STUDIES ON GEOTHERMAL ENERGY CYCLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

~Iilora and J. W. Tester, Geothermal Energy as a Source ofpresented at the Susanville Geothermal Energy Converence,of Practical Cycles for Geothermal Power Plants." General

Pope, W.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Efficiency United and Energy Optimization (Electric) - Residential...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Recycling: 30 Pipe Wrap: 4 Heat Pump Water Heater: 100 Programmable Thermostat: 20 Energy Savings Kit: Free with free online energy audit Equipment Requirements Clothes...

119

Energy Optimization (Electric) - Residential Efficiency Program...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ft Heat Pump Water Heater: 100 Programmable Thermostat: 20 Low Flow Aerator Kit: 10 Energy Savings Kit: Free with free online energy audit Equipment Requirements Appliances:...

120

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers enhanced this building energy optimization tool to analyze  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data, and standard occupants. BEopt has been used extensively in the U.S. Department of Energy Energy Optimization Software. U.S. Department of Energy Building America website. www.buildings.energy.gov/building_america/building_energy of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hotel Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed EnergyHotel Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed EnergyHotel Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed Energy

Siddiqui, Afzal

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

A Model to Optimize Green Energy Supply Chain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bioenergy is renewable energy derived from biological sources, to be used for production of heat, electricity and transportation fuels. The collection of biomass is a logistic process from different source locations to energy plants. The biomass-to-energy ... Keywords: supply chain, green, optimize, model

Na Liu

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION AND ANALYSIS FOR THE GIBBS FREE ENERGY FUNCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION AND ANALYSIS FOR THE GIBBS FREE ENERGY FUNCTION USING THE UNIFAC, WILSON equilibrium involves two important problems: (i) the minimization of the Gibbs free energy, and (ii of the Gibbs free energy. However, a drawback of all previous approaches is that they could not provide

Neumaier, Arnold

124

A Smart Energy System: Distributed Resource Management, Control and Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Smart Energy System: Distributed Resource Management, Control and Optimization Yong Ding, Student of distributed energy resource and consumption management, which proposes to design a networked and embedded and energy data can be acquired and processed in a distributed manner in real time. In order to improve

Beigl, Michael

125

Energy Distribution Control in Wireless Sensor Networks Through Range Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Distribution Control in Wireless Sensor Networks Through Range Optimization M.Sarper Gokturk a location-based routing framework to control the energy distribution in a network where transmission ranges--A major objective in wireless sensor networks is to find optimum routing strategies for energy efficient

Yanikoglu, Berrin

126

Energy-efficient distributed spectrum sensing with convex optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy-efficient distributed spectrum sensing with convex optimization Sina Maleki, Ashish paid to schemes that are energy-efficient. It is known that although distributed detection schemes with the number of cognitive radios. An energy-efficient distributed sensing scheme was pro- posed in [7], based

Leus, Geert

127

Optimal Routing and Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Renewable Energy Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Routing and Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Renewable Energy Networks MHR. Khouzani-constrained wireless ad-hoc networks where nodes are powered by renewable energy sources. We take into account the fact that renewable energy harvesting processes are unpredictable and stochastic in nature ­ typically depending

Sarkar, Saswati

128

Residential Energy Management system for optimization of on-site...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Energy Management system for optimization of on-site generation with HVAC Speaker(s): Ram Narayanamurthy Date: October 29, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 As the...

129

Optimization of time-based rates in forward energy markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a new two-step design approach of Time-Based Rate (TBR) programs for markets with a high penetration of variable energy sources such as wind power. First, an optimal market time horizon must be determined ...

Wang, J.

130

Cooperative Energy Network Optimization for Distributed Microgrids: Game Theoretic Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooperative Energy Network Optimization for Distributed Microgrids: Game Theoretic Approach Y. Wasa. 1 5) 6, 7) 8) 6, 9) 10) 7) Receding Horizon Fig. 1: Distributed Microgrids4) 2 2.1 n V := {1

131

Plant Optimization Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Crosscutting Research » Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Crosscutting Research » Plant Optimization Technologies Plant Optimization Technologies The Plant Optimization Technologies Program is a diverse, scientifically oriented research and development program that addresses issues affecting the way coal is used. The program's primary emphasis is to support the development of advanced technologies that use coal with near-zero emissions. To provide this support, the program identifies scientific and technological needs and develops a basic understanding of the underlying chemical and physical processes that, unless resolved, could create a technological barrier to these new coal-based concepts. The program serves as a bridge between basic science and the fabrication and testing of new technologies. Currently researchers supported by this

132

Optimal Power Policy for Energy Harvesting Transmitters with Inefficient Energy Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Optimal Power Policy for Energy Harvesting Transmitters with Inefficient Energy Storage Kaya energy is lost in the process. An optimal transmission policy maximizing the average rate within a finite; the harvested energy is variable and may be scarce, requiring tailored transmission policies to achieve

Yener, Aylin

133

HypoEnergy: Hybrid supercapacitor-battery power-supply optimization for Energy efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HypoEnergy: Hybrid supercapacitor-battery power-supply optimization for Energy efficiency Azalia the hybrid battery-supercapacitor power supply life- time. HypoEnergy combines high energy density of recharge cycles of supercapacitors. The lifetime optimizations consider nonlinear battery characteristics

134

World's Largest Laser Sets New Records | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

World's Largest Laser Sets New Records World's Largest Laser Sets New Records World's Largest Laser Sets New Records November 10, 2010 - 6:26pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? The National Ignition Facility in California fired a shot of 300 trillion neutrons -- one step closer to the amount of neutrons needed to reach fusion ignition. Scientists also used the laser to create a temperature of six million degrees Fahernheit. The world's largest laser, located at the National Ignition Facility (or NIF) in California, set new records on October 31 and November 2. Specifically, on October 31 the NIF laser fired a shot of 300 trillion neutrons, the most neutrons ever yielded by a laser to date, and one step closer to the amount of neutrons (about 10 to the 18th power) needed to

135

Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China - a Regional  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China - a Regional Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China - a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO2 Emissions Title Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China - a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO2 Emissions Publication Type Conference Proceedings Refereed Designation Refereed LBNL Report Number LBNL-81770 Year of Publication 2012 Authors Feng, Wei, Nan Zhou, Chris Marnay, Michael Stadler, and Judy Lai Conference Name 2012 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, August 12-17, 2012 Date Published 08/2012 Conference Location Pacific Grove, California ISBN Number 0-918249-XX-X Notes LBNL - XXXXX Refereed Designation Refereed Attachment Size PDF 5 MB Google Scholar BibTex RIS RTF XML Alternate URL: http://eetd.lbl.gov/node/52998

136

Optimization of the optical output in a C-to-C pulsed gas laser  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the optimum condition for maximum optical output in a C-to-C pulsed gas laser (N{sub 2} laser) showed that this condition does not happen when the two capacitances are equal (C{sub 1} = C{sub 2}) as this happens in the ``Doubling circuit`` case, but when the peaking capacitance obtains a critical value. This behavior is attributed to the electric pumping pulse formed by the temporary loading of the peaking capacitor. This electric pumping pulse increases as the peaking capacitor increases. However, for low values of the peaking capacitor the optical output follows the rise of the electric pumping pulse. On the other hand, for higher values of the peaking capacitor than a critical one, a part of the electric energy arrives at the laser channel after the laser output, while the exploitable electric energy decreases causing reduction of the optical output.

Persephonis, P.; Giannetas, V.; Parthenios, J.; Ioannou, A.; Georgiades, C. [Univ. of Patras, Patra (Greece). Dept. of Physics

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

High energy XeBr electric discharge laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Definition: Customer Electricity Use Optimization | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Customer Electricity Use Optimization Customer Electricity Use Optimization Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Customer Electricity Use Optimization Customer electricity use optimization is possible if customers are provided with information to make educated decisions about their electricity use. Customers could be able to optimize toward multiple goals such as cost, reliability, convenience, and environmental impact.[1] Also Known As Energy conservation Related Terms electricity generation References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Functions' An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Customer_Electricity_Use_Optimization&oldid=480282" Categories: Definitions

139

Lasers, Electron Beams and New Years Resolutions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lasers, Electron Beams and New Years Resolutions Lasers, Electron Beams and New Years Resolutions Lasers, Electron Beams and New Years Resolutions March 2, 2011 - 3:43pm Addthis Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? The electron beam that powers Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser pumped out a record power input of 500 kilvolts using an innovative energy-recovery system that amplifies energy with far less power. A sufficiently powerful laser could make an effective defensive weapon, as well as accurate detection and tracking. The few folks still keeping their New Year's resolutions to work out might be the first to appreciate the recent record-breaking lift by the Energy Department's Jefferson Lab. Take a steel dumbbell. Hoist it up - lift with your legs! - onto a stand. Then add another ...and another

140

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Speaker(s): Johan Driesen Date: February 15, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Chris Marnay Ongoing changes in the operation of distribution grids call for a new way to plan grid modifications. This presentation gives an overview of possible methods of long-term planning for the deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (distributed generation, storage and controllable loads) in a given grid. The placement and sizing of the units have to be considered, making this a complex optimization problem with discrete and continuous variables. In the optimization problem, multiple objectives are often conflicting, e.g. minimal grid losses, maximal use of the resources and voltage stability. An evolutionary algorithm (genetic algorithms) is used

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser resistant multilayer high reflector coatings  

SciTech Connect

Growing laser damage sites on multilayer high reflector coatings can limit mirror performance. One of the strategies to improve laser damage resistance is to replace the growing damage sites with pre-designed benign mitigation structures. By mitigating the weakest site on the optic, the large aperture mirror will have a laser resistance comparable to the intrinsic value of the multilayer coating. To determine the optimal mitigation geometry, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD) was used to quantify the electric-field intensification within the multilayer, at the presence of different conical pits. We find that the field intensification induced by the mitigation pit is strongly dependent on the polarization and the angle of incidence (AOI) of the incoming wave. Therefore the optimal mitigation conical pit geometry is application specific. Furthermore, our simulation also illustrates an alternative means to achieve an optimal mitigation structure by matching the cone angle of the structure with the AOI of the incoming wave, except for the p-polarization wave at a range of incident angles between 30{sup o} and 45{sup o}.

Qiu, S R; Wolfe, J E; Monterrosa, A M; Feit, M D; Pistor, T V; STolz, C J

2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

142

Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

website to download. To help meet Building America's goal to develop market-ready energy solutions that improve efficiency of new and existing homes, the National Renewable...

143

Energy Optimization (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Program...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

conditioners, Chillers, Compressed air, CustomOthers pending approval, DuctAir sealing, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Equipment Insulation, Heat pumps, Lighting,...

144

NREL: Technology Deployment - Renewable Energy Optimization Tool  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NREL worked with the U.S. Navy to prioritize their 70 worldwide installations for renewable energy projects opportunities. At high priority sites, the NREL team continues...

145

Systems Modeling for the Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid / Eighteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Part 2)

W. R. Meier et al.

146

Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid / Eighteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Part 2)

R. W. Moir; H. F. Shaw; A. Caro; Larry Kaufman; J. F. Latkowski; J. Powers; P. E. A. Turchi

147

Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules Title Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-6471E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Cardoso, Gonçalo, Michael Stadler, Mohammad Bozchalui, Ratnesh Sharma, Chris Marnay, Ana Barbosa-Póvoa, and Paulo Ferrão Journal Energy Date Published 10/2013 Abstract The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem.

148

Predictive control and thermal energy storage for optimizing a multi-energy district boiler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predictive control and thermal energy storage for optimizing a multi- energy district boiler Julien of the OptiEnR research project, the present paper deals with optimizing the multi-energy district boiler to the complexity of the district boiler as a whole and the strong interactions between the sub-systems, previous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

149

Specific energy for pulsed laser rock drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of advanced high power laser technology to oil and gas well drilling has been attracting significant research interests recently among research institutes

Z. Xu; C. B. Reed; G. Konercki; R. A. Parker; B. C. Gahan; S. Batarseh; R. M. Graves; H. Figueroa; N. Skinner

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Acro Solar Lasers | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name Acro Solar Lasers Place El Paso, Texas Zip 79936 Sector Solar Product Makes solar water heating devices based on parabolic dish concentrators. References Acro Solar...

151

Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy crisis and environmental protection are gaining increasing concern in recent years. ICT (Information and Communication Technology) has a significant impact on the total electricity consumption all over the world. Telecom networks, being an ... Keywords: Energy, IP-over-WDM, Networks, Optimization, Traffic grooming

Yi Zhang; Massimo Tornatore; Pulak Chowdhury; Biswanath Mukherjee

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Energy Capture with Optimized Photovoltaic Cells under Low Lighting Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The optimization of photovoltaic devices for versatile conditions is necessary to improve the energy capture for indoor applications, such as self sufficient sensors. However, the design rules of standard outdoor solar cells are not applicable for cells ... Keywords: energy harvesting, indoor photovoltaics, low lighting conditions, photovoltaic cells

Karola Ruhle, Leonhard M. Reindl, Martin Kasemann

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF | National Nuclear  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF | National Nuclear Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF Posted By Office of Public Affairs Lawrence Livermore's National Ignition Facility (NIF) recently focused all

154

Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at Paducah Site Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at Paducah Site November 27, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Media Contact (202) 586-4940 Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that it will open negotiations with Global Laser Enrichment (GLE) for the sale of the depleted uranium hexafluoride inventory. The Department determined that GLE offered the greatest benefit to the government among those who responded to a Request for Offers (RFO) released earlier this year. Through the RFO review process, the Department also decided to enter into

155

Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF | National Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF | National Nuclear Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF Posted By Office of Public Affairs Lawrence Livermore's National Ignition Facility (NIF) recently focused all

156

Sensor Placement + Optimization Software (SPOT) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sensor Placement + Optimization Software (SPOT) Sensor Placement + Optimization Software (SPOT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: SPOT Agency/Company /Organization: Architectural Energy Corporation Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Topics: Technology characterizations Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.archenergy.com/SPOT/ Cost: Free Language: English References: http://www.archenergy.com/SPOT/ SPOT(tm) is intended to assist a designer in quantifying the existing or intended electric lighting and annual daylighting characteristics of a given space and to help establish the optimal photosensor placement for the space relative to annual performance and annual energy savings. The software was developed with classroom daylighting in mind, but can be used

157

Monitoring of energy flows and optimization of energy efficiency in a production facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present paper reports the findings of an assessment of the energy flows of a building equipped with machine tools and discusses options to optimize its energy efficiency. The energy flows in the buildings are recorded based on collected data and ... Keywords: building simulation, energy consumption, energy efficiency in production, energy flow analysis

I. Leobner; K. Ponweiser; C. Dorn; F. Bleicher

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Modeling of high energy laser ignition of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

We present a model for simulating high energy laser heating and ignition of confined energetic materials. The model considers the effect of irradiating a steel plate with long laser pulses and continuous lasers of several kilowatts and the thermal response of well-characterized high explosives for ignition. Since there is enough time for the thermal wave to propagate into the target and to create a region of hot spot in the high explosives, electron thermal diffusion of ultrashort (femto- and picosecond) lasing is ignored; instead, heat diffusion of absorbed laser energy in the solid target is modeled with thermal decomposition kinetic models of high explosives. Numerically simulated pulsed-laser heating of solid target and thermal explosion of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, triaminotrinitrobenzene, and octahydrotetranitrotetrazine are compared to experimental results. The experimental and numerical results are in good agreement.

Lee, Kyung-cheol; Kim, Ki-hong; Yoh, Jack J. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

High energy KrCl electric discharge laser  

SciTech Connect

A high energy KrCl laser for producing coherent radiation at 222 nm. Output energies on the order of 100 mJ per pulse are produced utilizing a discharge excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions, thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HCl is used as a halogen donor which undergoes a harpooning reaction with metastable Kr.sub.M * to form KrCl.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Optimal Model of Distributed Energy System by Using GAMS and Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Model of Distributed Energy System by Using GAMS andEnergy Reliability, Distributed Energy Program of the U.S.Optimal Model of Distributed Energy System by Using GAMS and

Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Ruan, Yingjun; Xuan, Ji; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Optimal Combination of Distributed Energy System in an Eco-Campus of Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Combination of Distributed Energy System in an Eco-and Renewable Energy, Distributed Energy Program of the U.S.OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEM IN AN ECO-

Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

HVAC Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project HVAC Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) optimized heat exchangers. The information generated in this study will demonstrate performance improvements that can be achieved through optimization of refrigerant circuitry for non-uniform inlet air distribution. The tubing circuitry on fin-tube heat exchangers used in residential space-conditioning systems is typically designed assuming uniform airflow through the finned passageways. However, the air flow in installed systems is highly non-uniform, resulting in mismatched refrigerant-air heat transfer that reduces the capacity of the heat exchanger and efficiency of

163

Optimal dynamic management of energy systems: implementations ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Management of multiple systems to generate energy is important with regard to the costs to incur, the effects on the environment and the flexibility of the ...... The average values of the coefficients were obtained from the dated values of ...

164

Compact, Efficient Laser Systems Required for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IFE - NIF & LIFE / Proceedings of the Nineteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (TOFE) (Part 1)

A. Bayramian et al.

165

Optimizing Process Loads in Industrial Cogeneration Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimum dispatch of energy supply systems can result in large savings in industrial facilities. Identifying the configuration of available equipment, and its loading to minimize total energy consumption to satisfy given load demands, has very high payback potential. This paper discusses an approach to determine integrated energy supply and end use optimum equipment dispatch to simultaneously satisfy given power, process steam and additional "end energy" product needs such as compressed fluids, chemical unit production, etc. Techniques applied to power generation and industrial cogeneration are extended to solving this trigeneration problem where the optimum dispatch of the final load devices (i.e. compressors, fans, pumps, etc.) are an integral part of the total energy system optimization. An example industrial trigeneration system is discussed to illustrate the application and procedures. The methods of considering alternate energy sources, for end use optimization with export power and steam generation will be illustrated. The savings associated with operations optimization readily justify the hardware and software costs required for implementation of Optimization Energy Management Systems (OEMS). An OEMS capability for this application is briefly discussed.

Ahner, D. J.; Babson, P. E.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Conserve Energy by Optimizing Air Compressor System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are many opportunities to conserve energy within an Industrial Plant without adversely impacting the operation or production. Many of these represent only relatively small savings, when compared to the overall utility bill; however, one major benefit of energy conservation is that the resultant savings in dollars goes directly to the bottom line as increased profits. To generate the same amount of profit dollars as an effective energy conservation project can generate, in cost avoidance, the plant would have to substantially increase the product shipments. This is not always possible; however, conserving energy is nearly always possible. How should one begin an energy conservation program within a major Industrial Plant? The same as any other taskone step at a time. This paper addresses one of the many small projects available within many industriesthe plant air compressing systems. It outlines how one industrial plant was able to reduce the utility bill by approximately $50,000 per year just within the compressor plant alone.

Williams, V. A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Spacecraft Power Beaming Using High-Energy Lasers, Experimental Validation  

SciTech Connect

The lifetime of many spacecrafts are often limited by degradation of their electrical power subsystem, e.g. radiation-damaged solar arrays or failed batteries. Being able to beam power from terrestrial sites using high energy lasers, could alleviate this limitation, extending the lifetime of billions of dollars of satellite assets, as well as providing additional energy for electric propulsion that can be used for stationkeeping and orbital changes. In addition, extensive research at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has shown the potential for annealing damaged solar cells using lasers. This paper describes that research and a proposed experiment to demonstrate the relevant concepts of high energy laser power beaming to an NPS-built and operated satellite. Preliminary results of ground experiment of laser illuminations of some of the solar panels of one of the spacecrafts are also presented.

Michael, Sherif [Naval Postgraduate School ECE Dep./Space Systems Academic Group, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States)

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

168

Central Networks Low Carbon Hub Optimizing renewable energy resources in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Networks Low Carbon Hub Optimizing renewable energy resources in Networks Low Carbon Hub Optimizing renewable energy resources in Lincolnshire (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Central Networks Low Carbon Hub Optimizing renewable energy resources in Lincolnshire Country United Kingdom Headquarters Location Lincolnshire, United Kingdom Coordinates 53.21788°, -0.19997° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":53.21788,"lon":-0.19997,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

169

Optimal Packet Scheduling in an Energy Harvesting Communication System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the optimal packet scheduling problem in a single-user energy harvesting wireless communication system. In this system, both the data packets and the harvested energy are modeled to arrive at the source node randomly. Our goal is to adaptively change the transmission rate according to the traffic load and available energy, such that the time by which all packets are delivered is minimized. Under a deterministic system setting, we assume that the energy harvesting times and harvested energy amounts are known before the transmission starts. For the data traffic arrivals, we consider two different scenarios. In the first scenario, we assume that all bits have arrived and are ready at the transmitter before the transmission starts. In the second scenario, we consider the case where packets arrive during the transmissions, with known arrival times and sizes. We develop optimal off-line scheduling policies which minimize the time by which all packets are delivered to the destination, under causality con...

Yang, Jing

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Ordinal optimization-based multi-energy system scheduling for building energy saving  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Buildings contribute a significant part in the energy consumption and CO2 emission in many countries. Building energy saving has thus become a hot research topic recently. The technology advances in power co-generation, on-site generation, and storage ... Keywords: building energy saving, linear programming, multi-energy system, ordinal optimization, renewable energy

Zhong-Hua Su; Qing-Shan Jia; Chen Song

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Laser Light Engines | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Laser Light Engines Laser Light Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Laser Light Engines Place Salem, New Hampshire Zip NH 03079 Sector Efficiency Product Salem-based, designs, develops and manufactures ultra-high brightness, digitally controlled laser-driven light sources. The firm contributes to green building efficiency. Coordinates 42.554485°, -88.110549° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.554485,"lon":-88.110549,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

172

Midaz Lasers Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Midaz Lasers Ltd Midaz Lasers Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Midaz Lasers Ltd Place London, United Kingdom Zip SW7 2AZ Sector Solar Product Startup developing diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers with potential applications to solar cell manufacture. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

173

Cooling Tower Considerations for Energy Optimizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy conservation strategies and production economies involve more than examining the cooling tower fan consumption of horse power. Colder water provides vast potentials for savings. Ask yourself, "What is the dollar and energy utilization value if I can obtain 1F colder water off my cooling tower than I am now getting?" Therefore, let us first examine the elements of the cooling tower to determine the areas of greatest potential improvement to generate that colder water. The air flow generated by the fan should first be looked at In both counterflow or crossflow towers to determine that maximum flow is available through pitching fans up to within the motor plate amperage limitations and fan stall point calculations. If applicable, new fiberglass state of the art fans can be installed and additional motor horse power added. However, the most dramatic improvement that can be obtained in producing colder water is to retrofit modern film fill to replace the old fashioned wood splash bar slats.

Burger, R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Detection optimization using linear systems analysis of a coded aperture laser sensor system  

SciTech Connect

Minimum detectable irradiance levels for a diffraction grating based laser sensor were calculated to be governed by clutter noise resulting from reflected earth albedo. Features on the earth surface caused pseudo-imaging effects on the sensor`s detector arras that resulted in the limiting noise in the detection domain. It was theorized that a custom aperture transmission function existed that would optimize the detection of laser sources against this clutter background. Amplitude and phase aperture functions were investigated. Compared to the diffraction grating technique, a classical Young`s double-slit aperture technique was investigated as a possible optimized solution but was not shown to produce a system that had better clutter-noise limited minimum detectable irradiance. Even though the double-slit concept was not found to have a detection advantage over the slit-grating concept, one interesting concept grew out of the double-slit design that deserved mention in this report, namely the Barker-coded double-slit. This diffractive aperture design possessed properties that significantly improved the wavelength accuracy of the double-slit design. While a concept was not found to beat the slit-grating concept, the methodology used for the analysis and optimization is an example of the application of optoelectronic system-level linear analysis. The techniques outlined here can be used as a template for analysis of a wide range of optoelectronic systems where the entire system, both optical and electronic, contribute to the detection of complex spatial and temporal signals.

Gentry, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optoelectronic Design Dept.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Laser-material interactions: A study of laser energy coupling with solids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study of laser-light interactions with solid materials ranges from low-temperature heating to explosive, plasma-forming reactions. Contained are four works concerning laser-energy coupling: laser (i) heating and (ii) melting monitored using a mirage effect technique, (iii) the mechanical stress-power generated during high-powered laser ablation, and (iv) plasma-shielding. First, a photothermal deflection (PTD) technique is presented for monitoring heat transfer during modulated laser heating of opaque solids that have not undergone phase-change. Of main interest is the physical significance of the shape, magnitude, and phase for the temporal profile of the deflection signal. Considered are the effects that thermophysical properties, boundary conditions, and geometry of the target and optical probe-beam have on the deflection response. PTD is shown to monitor spatial and temporal changes in heat flux leaving the surface due to changes in laser energy coupling. The PTD technique is then extended to detect phase-change at the surface of a solid target. Experimental data shows the onset of melt for indium and tin targets. The conditions for which melt can be detected by PTD is analyzed in terms of geometry, incident power and pulse length, and thermophysical properties of the target and surroundings. Next, monitoring high-powered laser ablation of materials with stress-power is introduced. The motivation for considering stress-power is given, followed by a theoretical discussion of stress-power and how it is determined experimentally. Experiments are presented for the ablation of aluminum targets as a function of energy and intensity. The stress-power response is analyzed for its physical significance. Lastly, the influence of plasma-shielding during high-powered pulsed laser-material interactions is considered. Crater size, emission, and stress-power are measured to determine the role that the gas medium and laser pulse length have on plasma shielding.

Shannon, M.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

decision support tool for energy storage optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the problem faced by owners of gas storage contracts of how to manage the injection/withdrawal schedule of natural gas, given historical price behavior and a predictive model of future prices. We describe a hybrid price prediction model that combines a support vector machine technique with a stochastic model for short and long-term gas prices, respectively. We present a theoretical result regarding the complexity of the scheduling problem and propose a formulation for an integer program given capacity, injectability and deliverability constraints. We also outline how this was incorporated in a decision support tool that is used by energy traders at a gas utility company. 1

Alan Holland

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

OpenEI:Projects/Search Engine Optimization | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Search Engine Optimization Search Engine Optimization Jump to: navigation, search This page is used to coordinate the OpenEI project's plans to apply Search Engine Optimization (SEO) techniques to boost the site's traffic and impact. Contents 1 Tasks 2 Targeted Keywords 3 Resources 4 Participants Tasks Optimize pages' TITLE and H1 elements Include keywords (like "energy" in TITLE and H1 elements whenever possible (and appropriate) Usually accomplished via the "DISPLAYTITLE" magic word Include appropriate DESCRIPTION and KEYWORDS meta tags in HTML Usually accomplished via Template:PageMeta Include specific and descriptive ALT attributes in our image tags Make the ALT attribute as specific as possible (e.g. "NREL Logo" is better than just "Logo") Among other things, this should lead to more traffic via Google

178

Technical challenges for the future of high energy lasers  

SciTech Connect

The Solid-State, Heat-Capacity Laser (SSHCL) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a multi-generation laser development effort scalable to the megawatt power levels with current performance approaching 100 kilowatts. This program is one of many designed to harness the power of lasers for use as directed energy weapons. There are many hurdles common to all of these programs that must be overcome to make the technology viable. There will be a in-depth discussion of the general issues facing state-of-the-art high energy lasers and paths to their resolution. Despite the relative simplicity of the SSHCL design, many challenges have been uncovered in the implementation of this particular system. An overview of these and their resolution are discussed. The overall system design of the SSHCL, technological strengths and weaknesses, and most recent experimental results will be presented.

LaFortune, K N; Hurd, R L; Fochs, S N; Rotter, M D; Pax, P H; Combs, R L; Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Yamamoto, R M

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

179

Demonstration of Integrated Optimization Software at the Baldwin Energy Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Power Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) contacts Brad tomer Director Office of Major Demonstrations National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-4692 brad.tomer@netl.doe.gov George Pukanic Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-6085 george.pukanic@netl.doe.gov PaRtIcIPant NeuCo, Inc., Boston, MA aDDItIonaL tEaM MEMBERs Dynegy Midwest Generation (host) Demonstration of integrateD optimization software at the BalDwin energy Complex Project Description NeuCo, Inc., of Boston, Massachusetts, has designed and demonstrated new integrated on-line optimization systems at Dynegy Midwest Generation's Baldwin Energy

180

Source Code Optimization and Pro ling of Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Model L2 Cache Memory L1 Cache Energy Model Energy Model Processor Core Model DC-DC ConverterSource Code Optimization and Pro ling of Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems Tajana Simunic in optimizing software performance and energy in embed- ded systems. Code optimizations are applied at three

Simunic, Tajana

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

RECENT LASER ACCIDENTS AT DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LABORATORIES  

SciTech Connect

Recent laser accidents and incidents at research laboratories across the Department of Energy complex are reviewed in this paper. Factors that contributed to the accidents are examined. Conclusions drawn from the accident reports are summarized and compared. Control measures that could have been implemented to prevent the accidents will be summarized and compared. Recommendations for improving laser safety programs are outlined and progress toward achieving them are summarized.

ODOM, CONNON R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

182

Optimized Data Fusion in Bandwidth and Energy Constrained Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimized Data Fusion in Bandwidth and Energy Constrained Sensor Networks Xianren Wu and Zhi Tian Abstract-- This paper considers the problem of decentralized data fusion (DDF) for large wireless sensor this setting, we derive the maximum likelihood (ML) data fusion rule for decentralized parameter estimation

Tian, Zhi "Gerry"

183

Optimal Offline Broadcast Scheduling with an Energy Harvesting Transmitter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider an energy harvesting transmitter broadcasting data to two receivers. Energy and data arrivals are assumed to occur at arbitrary but known instants. The goal is to minimize the total transmission time of the packets arriving within a certain time window, using the energy that becomes available during this time. An achievable rate region with structural properties satisfied by the two-user AWGN BC capacity region is assumed. Structural properties of power and rate allocation in an optimal policy are established, as well as the uniqueness of the optimal policy under the condition that all the data of the "weaker" user are available at the beginning. An iterative algorithm, DuOpt, based on block coordinate descent that achieves the same structural properties as the optimal is described. Investigating the ways to have the optimal schedule of two consecutive epochs in terms of energy efficiency and minimum transmission duration, it has been shown that DuOpt achieves best performance under the same speci...

Erkal, Hakan; Uysal-Biyikoglu, Elif

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Energy Optimization with Multi Virtual Gravity for Robotic Gait  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although people's legs are capable of a broad range of muscle-use and gait patterns, they generally prefer just two, walking and running. A popular hypothesis regarding legged locomotion is that humans and other large animals walk and run in a manner ... Keywords: Biped Robot, Virtual Gravity, Optimization, Piecewise Torque, Energy

Lipeng Yuan; Liming Yuan; Hongying Lu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

System optimization and energy conservation for Los Angeles megastructure  

SciTech Connect

Broadway Plaza in Los Angeles covers 4.5 acres with shopping, office, and hotel facilities within a single structure. Emphasis was placed on system optimization, energy conservation, and life safety in the computer-aided design for the plaza. The entire structure is described with its environmental engineering in all areas. (MCW)

Ayres, J.M.; Sun, T.Y.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R&D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost.

Meier, W R; Abbott, R; Beach, R; Blink, J; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; MacIntyre, A; Miles, R; Storm, E

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

187

Building Energy Software Tools Directory : CHP Capacity Optimizer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CHP Capacity Optimizer Back to Tool CHP Capacity Optimizer data entry screen CHP Capacity Optimizer results screen CHP Capacity Optimizer restult map...

188

Energy supply network design optimization for distributed energy systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the fluctuations in power and heat demand of the consumers in a region, this paper presents a bi-level programming model for the regional DES (distributed energy system) network planning. The model aims to minimize the total cost of the regional ... Keywords: Bi-level programming, Distributed energy system, Energy supply network, Hybrid algorithm

Ming Dong; Fenglan He; Hairui Wei

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules  

SciTech Connect

An interface module (10) for transverse energy input to dye laser modules is provided particularly for the purpose of delivering enhancing transverse energy beams (36) in the form of illumination bar (54) to the lasing zone (18) of a dye laser device, in particular to a dye laser amplifier (12). The preferred interface module (10) includes an optical fiber array (30) having a plurality of optical fibers (38) arrayed in a co-planar fashion with their distal ends (44) receiving coherent laser energy from an enhancing laser source (46), and their proximal ends (4) delivered into a relay structure (3). The proximal ends (42) of the optical fibers (38) are arrayed so as to be coplanar and to be aimed generally at a common point. The transverse energy beam array (36) delivered from the optical fiber array (30) is acted upon by an optical element array (34) to produce an illumination bar (54) which has a cross section in the form of a elongated rectangle at the position of the lasing window (18). The illumination bar (54) is selected to have substantially uniform intensity throughout.

English, Jr., Ronald E. (Tracy, CA); Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules is provided particularly for the purpose of delivering enhancing transverse energy beams in the form of illumination bar to the lasing zone of a dye laser device, in particular to a dye laser amplifier. The preferred interface module includes an optical fiber array having a plurality of optical fibers arrayed in a co-planar fashion with their distal ends receiving coherent laser energy from an enhancing laser source, and their proximal ends delivered into a relay structure. The proximal ends of the optical fibers are arrayed so as to be coplanar and to be aimed generally at a common point. The transverse energy beam array delivered from the optical fiber array is acted upon by an optical element array to produce an illumination bar which has a cross section in the form of a elongated rectangle at the position of the lasing window. The illumination bar is selected to have substantially uniform intensity throughout. 5 figs.

English, R.E. Jr.; Johnson, S.A.

1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

191

Optimal control of end-user energy storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An increasing number of retail energy markets exhibit price fluctuations and provide customers such as data centers and residential users the opportunity to buy energy at lower than average prices. Such cost savings however are hard to obtain in practice because they require users to observe the price fluctuations and shift their consumption to low price periods. We propose to use energy storage to allow users to satisfy demand at times when prices are high with energy previously bought during low-price periods. We investigate how to control the battery to minimize energy costs, subject to fluctuating prices and user demand. We formulate this problem as a Markov Decision Process and show that the optimal policy has a threshold structure. We then numerically compute the thresholds using real-world traces from existing energy markets. We show that energy storage using this policy leads to significant cost savings, and study the impact of the battery size on the optimal policy and the potential savings.

van de Ven, Peter M; Massoulie, Laurent; Salonidis, Theodoros

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the electricity bill of a data center constitutes a significant portion of its overall operational costs, reducing this has become important. We investigate cost reduction opportunities that arise by the use of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This represents a deviation from the usual use of these devices as mere transitional fail-over mechanisms between utility and captive sources such as diesel generators. We consider the problem of opportunistically using these devices to reduce the time average electric utility bill in a data center. Using the technique of Lyapunov optimization, we develop an online control algorithm that can optimally exploit these devices to minimize the time average cost. This algorithm operates without any knowledge of the statistics of the workload or electricity cost processes, making it attractive in the presence of workload and pricing uncertainties. An interesting feature of our algorithm is that its deviation from optimality reduces as the...

Urgaonkar, Rahul; Neely, Michael J; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

High energy mode locked fiber oscillators for high contrast, high energy petawatt laser seed sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a high-energy petawatt laser beam line the ASE pulse contrast is directly related to the total laser gain. Thus a more energetic input pulse will result in increased pulse contrast at the target. We have developed a mode-locked fiber laser with high quality pulses and energies exceeding 25nJ. We believe this 25nJ result is scalable to higher energies. This oscillator has no intra-cavity dispersion compensation, which yields an extremely simple, and elegant laser configuration. We will discuss the design of this laser, our most recent results and characterization of all the key parameters relevant to it use as a seed laser. Our oscillator is a ring cavity mode-locked fiber laser [1]. These lasers operate in a self-similar pulse propagation regime characterized by a spectrum that is almost square. This mode was found theoretically [2] to occur only in the positive dispersion regime. Further increasing positive dispersion should lead to increasing pulse energy [2]. We established that the positive dispersion required for high-energy operation was approximately that of 2m of fiber. To this end, we constructed a laser cavity similar to [1], but with no gratings and only 2m of fiber, which we cladding pumped in order to ensure sufficient pump power was available to achieve mode-locked operation. A schematic of the laser is shown in figure 1 below. This laser produced low noise 25nJ pulses with a broad self similar spectrum (figure 2) and pulses that could be de-chirped to <100fs (figure 3). Pulse contrast is important in peta-watt laser systems. A major contributor to pulse contrast is amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), which is proportional to the gain in the laser chain. As the oscillator strength is increased, the required gain to reach 1PW pulses is decreased, reducing ASE and improving pulse contrast. We believe these lasers can be scaled in a stable fashion to pulse energies as high as 100nJ and have in fact seen 60nJ briefly in our lab, which is work still in progress. At this level, even if the pulses are not perfect, post-oscillator pulse cleaning can be used to create a clean high energy pulse for injection into a peta-watt laser beam line.

Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; An, J; Kim, D; Barty, C J

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources using Model Predictive Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an isolated power system (rural microgrid), Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response can be used to complement fossil fueled generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with the goals of minimizing fuel costs and changes in power output of diesel generators, minimizing costs associated with low battery life of energy storage and maintaining system frequency at the nominal operating value. Two control modes are considered for controlling the energy storage to compensate either net load variability or wind variability. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the aforementioned problem and the performance is compared to an open-loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies using high and low wind profiles, as well as, different MPC prediction horizons demonstrate the efficacy of the closed-loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties in wind and demand.

Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Butler-Purry, Karen

2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

195

Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the development and application of a dispatch optimization algorithm for integrated energy systems (IES) comprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, energy storage devices, and demand response opportunities. This work is intended to aid commercial and industrial sites in making use of modern computing power and optimization algorithms to make informed, near-optimal decisions under significant uncertainty and complex objective functions. The optimization algorithm uses a finite set of randomly generated future scenarios to approximate the true, stochastic future; constraints are included that prevent solutions to this approximate problem from deviating from solutions to the actual problem. The algorithm is then expressed as a mixed integer linear program, to which a powerful commercial solver is applied. A case study of United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Centers (P&DC) in four cities and under three different electricity tariff structures is conducted to (1) determine the added value of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current, heuristic control strategies; (2) determine the value of limited electric load curtailment opportunities, with and without cogeneration; and (3) determine the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon operations of a cogeneration system. Key results for the P&DC sites studied include (1) in locations where the average electricity and natural gas prices suggest a marginally profitable cogeneration system, optimal control can add up to 67% to the value of the cogeneration system; optimal control adds less value in locations where cogeneration is more clearly profitable; (2) optimal control under real-time pricing is (a) more complicated than under typical time-of-use tariffs and (b) at times necessary to make cogeneration economic at all; (3) limited electric load curtailment opportunities can be more valuable as a compliment to the cogeneration system than alone; and (4) most of the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon IES is determined during the system design stage; for the IES system considered, there is little difference between least-cost control and least-carbon control.

Firestone, Ryan Michael

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

Method for optimizing output in ultrashort-pulse multipass laser amplifiers with selective use of a spectral filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for optimizing multipass laser amplifier output utilizes a spectral filter in early passes but not in later passes. The pulses shift position slightly for each pass through the amplifier, and the filter is placed such that early passes intersect the filter while later passes bypass it. The filter position may be adjust offline in order to adjust the number of passes in each category. The filter may be optimized for use in a cryogenic amplifier.

Backus, Sterling J. (Erie, CO); Kapteyn, Henry C. (Boulder, CO)

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

197

Realistic Industrial Scale Energy Optimization: Part I - Organizing and Executing Energy Conservation Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With increased cost and reduced availability of energy, plant managers are reviewing their options to optimize energy utilization to reduce operating costs. This paper deals with the organization and execution of an energy conservation program which will maximize savings through the most efficient utilization of energy that will meet the preponderance of constraints which are found in the process industry. The first part of this paper provides a realistic and practical approach to organizing and executing an energy conservation program. The energy audit is particularly stressed. Part II will discuss the analytic techniques which are employed during the engineering phase of the program. Included are: targeting methods, process optimization, heat exchange optimization, cost estimation and project selection by linear programming.

Jones, W. T.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Method for Determining Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages B. Polly, M. Gestwick, M. Bianchi, R. Anderson, S. Horowitz, C. Christensen, and R. Judkoff National Renewable Energy Laboratory April 2011 ii NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process,

199

Optimization of Electric Energy Consumption in Marginal California Oilfields: Oilfields Energy Consumption Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High electrical cost has always constituted a major expense item in the operation of oilfields. Such high costs are particularly critical to small oil and gas operators. There are opportunities that can substantially reduce electric cost and improve energy usage efficiency. For small operators, this could mean a difference between premature abandonment and continued recovery. Energy reduction in oil production supports the need for energy reduction across all industries brought on by recent electrical en...

2001-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

200

Renewable Energy Optimization Report for Naval Station Newport  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage the development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. As part of this effort, EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island. NREL's Renewable Energy Optimization (REO) tool was utilized to identify RE technologies that present the best opportunity for life-cycle cost-effective implementation while also serving to reduce energy-related carbon dioxide emissions and increase the percentage of RE used at NAVSTA Newport. The technologies included in REO are daylighting, wind, solar ventilation preheating (SVP), solar water heating, photovoltaics (PV), solar thermal (heating and electric), and biomass (gasification and cogeneration). The optimal mix of RE technologies depends on several factors including RE resources; technology cost and performance; state, utility, and federal incentives; and economic parameters (discount and inflation rates). Each of these factors was considered in this analysis. Technologies not included in REO that were investigated separately per NAVSTA Newport request include biofuels from algae, tidal power, and ground source heat pumps (GSHP).

Robichaud, R.; Mosey, G.; Olis, D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Energy-Optimal Scheduling in Low Duty Cycle Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy consumption of a wireless sensor node mainly depends on the amount of time the node spends in each of the high power active (e.g., transmit, receive) and low power sleep modes. It has been well established that in order to prolong node's lifetime the duty-cycle of the node should be low. However, low power sleep modes usually have low current draw but high energy cost while switching to the active mode with a higher current draw. In this work, we investigate a MaxWeightlike opportunistic sleep-active scheduling algorithm that takes into account time- varying channel and traffic conditions. We show that our algorithm is energy optimal in the sense that the proposed ESS algorithm can achieve an energy consumption which is arbitrarily close to the global minimum solution. Simulation studies are provided to confirm the theoretical results.

Aydin, Nursen; Ercetin, Ozgur

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The Relationship between Water and Energy: Optimizing Water and Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In an effort to conserve water, drought-proof operating plants and control costs, the critical relationship of water and energy is clearly exposed. Five years of effort has transpired into countless studies, more than 100 projects and a clear understanding that the highest value opportunities for water conservation usually exist where there is the strongest interaction of water and energy. Steam management systems, process cooling, high quality water production and waste water treatment represent high probability areas for water conservation and value capture. These are not the only areas to reduce water management infrastructure and environmental footprint but they represent areas with the high potential for efforts to return bottom line value.

Finley, T.; Fennessey, K.; Light, R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

absorption chiller and space-heating. optimal dispatch The full optimizationabsorption chiller and space-heating. optimal dispatch The full optimization

Firestone, Ryan Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Optimal Power Flow of Multiple Energy Carriers(Geidl and Andersson...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

topics related to ESI Prospects for Nuclear Power(Davis 2012) A Framework for the Optimization of Integrated Energy Systems(Jain and Alleyne 2012) Energy System...

205

Red-green-blue polymer light-emitting diode pixels printed by optimized laser-induced forward transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Red-green-blue polymer light-emitting diode pixels printed by optimized laser-induced forward tri-color organic light-emitting diode (OLED) pixels. At reduced pressures, and with a defined donor already been used to fabricate basic small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)2,3 and polymeric

206

Steam distribution and energy delivery optimization using wireless sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Extreme Measurement Communications Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) explores the deployment of a wireless sensor system with a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework in the ORNL campus. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize the energy delivery within the steam distribution system. We address the goal of achieving significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam valves/traps. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capabilities. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observe the state measurements of these sensors. Our assessments are based on analysis of the wireless sensor measurements. We describe Fourier-spectrum based algorithms that interpret acoustic vibration sensor data to characterize flows and classify the steam system status. We are able to present the sensor readings, steam flow, steam trap status and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Lake, Joe E [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Electret-based cantilever energy harvester: design and optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report in this paper the design, the optimization and the fabrication of an electret-based cantilever energy harvester. We develop the mechanical and the electrostatic equations of such a device and its implementation using Finite Elements (FEM) and Matlab in order to get an accurate model. This model is then used in an optimization process. A macroscopic prototype (3.2cm^{2}) was built with a silicon cantilever and a Teflon\\textregistered electret. Thanks to this prototype, we manage to harvest 17\\muW with ambient-type vibrations of 0.2g on a load of 210M{\\Omega}. The experimental results are consistent with simulation results.

Boisseau, S; Sylvestre, A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Advancing Adaptive Optics Technology: Laboratory Turbulence Simulation and Optimization of Laser Guide Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. , White, J. , and Chan, S. , Laser guide star upgrade ofM. , First light of the ESO Laser Guide Star Facility, inand van Dam, M. , Keck I Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

Rampy, Rachel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Energy Payback Optimization of Thermoelectric Power Generator Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analytic model for optimizing thermoelectric power generation system is developed and utilized for parametric studies. This model takes into account the external thermal resistances with hot and cold reservoirs. In addition, the spreading thermal resistance in the module substrates is considered to find the impact of designing small fraction of thermo elements per unit area. Previous studies are expanded by a full optimization of the electrical and thermal circuits. The optimum condition satisfies both electrical load resistance match with the internal resistance and the thermal resistance match with the heat source and the heat sink. Thermoelectric element aspect ratio and fill factor are found to be key parameters to optimize. The optimum leg length and the maximum output power are determined by a simple formula. The output power density per mass of the thermoelectric material has a peak when thermo elements cover a fractional area of ~1%. The role of the substrate heat spreading for thermoelectric power generation is equally significant as thermoelement. For a given heat source, the co-optimization of the heat sink and the thermoelectric module should be performed. Active cooling and the design of the heat sink are customized to find the energy payback for the power generation system. The model includes both the air cooled heat sinks and the water cooled micro channels. We find that one can reduce the mass of thermoelement to around 3~10 % of that in commercial modules for the same output power, as long as the module and elements are designed properly. Also one notes that higher heat flux sources have significantly larger energy payback and reduced cost per output power.

Kazuaki Yazawa; Ali Shakouri

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

}@lea.uni-paderborn.de Abstract--For electric and hybrid electric cars, commonly nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries. The BMW Mini-E is an all electric powered car field-tested in the United States, United KingdomOptimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based

Noé, Reinhold

211

Laser-Material Interactions: A Study of Laser Energy Coupling with Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1971) Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation, Academic Presin Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation, (Academic Press,for modeling gas discharge lasers", Boulder, Colo. : Univ.

Shannon, M.A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Emissions and Energy: An Integral Approach Using an Online Energy Management and Optimization Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the expected legislation on the horizon in the U.S., the cost of CO2 emissions will have significant impact on industrial plant operations in the near future. Our purpose in this presentation is to show real industrial examples in which, with the existing equipment, continuous CO2 emissions reductions were achieved while, at the same time, optimizing the energy systems using an online model. We will show the importance of including the cost of CO2 emissions and how they should properly be taken into account when managing energy systems. Furthermore, we will illustrate how an optimization model is used for evaluating case studies to suggest the most cost effective energy system modifications while taking into account CO2 emissions costs. Several examples and results corresponding to the application of such systems to refineries will be discussed. In addition, the integration of CO2 emission costs and constraints into the online energy system models and their optimization is also explained.

Ruiz, D.; Ruiz, C.; Santollani, O.; Reitmeier, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Optimization of a solar cooling system with interior energy storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the optimization of the performance of a solar absorption cooling system composed by four units with interior energy storage. A full dynamic simulation model that includes the solar collector field, the absorption heat pump system and the building load calculation has been developed. It has been applied to optimize the coupling of a system based on this new technology of solar powered absorption heat pump, to a bioclimatic building recently constructed in the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. The absorption heat pump system considered is composed by four heat pumps that store energy in the form of crystallized salts so that no external storage capacity is required. Each heat pump is composed of two separate barrels that can charge (store energy from the solar field) and discharge (deliver heat or cold to the building) independently. Different configurations of the four units have been analysed taking into account the storage possibilities of the system and its capacity to respond to the building loads. It has been shown how strong the influence of the control strategies in the overall performance is, and the importance of using hourly simulations models when looking for highly efficient buildings. (author)

Sanjuan, C.; Soutullo, S.; Heras, M.R. [Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency in Buildings Unit, CIEMAT, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

OPTIMUM ENERGY ABSORPTION OF A SHORT-PULSE LASER IN A DOPED DIELECTRIC SLAB  

SciTech Connect

A model is used to calculate energy absorption efficiency when a short-pulse laser impinges on a dielectric slab doped with an impurity for which the electrons have a resonant line at the laser wavelength. The amount of the energy resonant absorption is due to the overlapping between laser spectrum and resonance spectrum. The energy absorption efficiency can be maximized for a certain degree of doping concentration (at a given pulselength) and also for a certain pulselength (at a given doping concentration). For a modest amount of impurity, the resonant absorption may increase the fraction of energy absorption up to tens of percent of laser energy at 100s optical cycles when the laser wavelength is tuned within 1% of the resonant line. Dimensionless parameters are constructed so that the scaling to various parameters: laser wavelength, laser pulselength, dielectric constant, slab thickness, impurity concentration, resonant linewidth, and separation between the laser wavelength and the line resonance, could easily be obtained.

L. ANG

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Optimal Control of Residential Energy Storage Under Price Fluctuations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AbstractAn increasing number of retail energy markets exhibit price fluctuations and provide home users the opportunity to buy energy at lower than average prices. However, such cost savings are hard to realize in practice because they require human users to observe the price fluctuations and shift their electricity demand to low price periods. We propose to temporarily store energy of low price periods in a home battery and use it later to satisfy user demand when energy prices are high. This enables home users to save on their electricity bill by exploiting price variability without changing their consumption habits. We formulate the problem of minimizing the cost of energy storage purchases subject to both user demands and prices as a Markov Decision Process and show that the optimal policy has a threshold structure. We also use a numerical example to show that this policy can lead to significant cost savings, and we offer various directions for future research. Index TermsBattery storage, dynamic pricing, dynamic programming, energy storage, threshold policy. I.

Nidhi Hegde; Laurent Massouli; Theodoros Salonidis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Combustion Optimization at Allegheny Energy's Armstrong Power Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual air and coal flow measurement instruments have been installed on Allegheny Energy's Armstrong Station with a goal to balance the individual burner air to fuel ratios to minimize NOx, reduce the LOI level in the ash and improve heat rate. These signals are also being incorporated into the NOx optimization package, ULTRAMAX (R). Armstrong Station is a 180 MW front wall boiler burning a low sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Twelve Foster Wheeler IFS low NOx burners are fed by two ball mills, three ...

2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

217

An Application of Integrated Thermal and Electrical Energy Cogeneration Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The savings associated with operations optimization of power generation and cogeneration facilities are large, and readily justify the hardware and software costs required for implementation of Energy Management Optimization Systems (EMOS). The objective of such systems is to minimize the total energy operating costs for specified power and steam load profiles, including the purchase of external power and/or steam, and the use of internal self-generation equipment. The EMOS may require online operation using current measurements (e.g. flow, powers, temperatures, etc.), and calculating optimum energy purchase and equipment dispatch within time periods consistent with changing ambients, loads and/or purchase energy price conditions. The automatic recognition of changes in equipment status and system operating configuration may be required. The EMOS may also consider the electrical distribution system to minimize losses, and to ensure that tbe optimum thermal power dispatch may be reliably delivered to the loads under tbe existing distribution configuration within electrical equipment operating limits. Automatic generation dispatch may also be required. A system which incorporates the requirements of the above specification and more, has been designed, installed and is operational at a large industrial cogeneration facility. A description of the specifics of this entire system is beyond tbe scope of this paper, however, a discussion of selected system features will be given. This application involves the simultaneous optimization of energy supply for in-plant power and process steam from many highly integrated system components. Cogeneration plants, as shown in Figure 1, are generally characterized by multiple sources of energy, various types of prime movers (e.g. boilers, waste heat recovery, steam and gas turbines, etc.), and varying requirements for process heat and electrical power, particularly if bulk power is being purchased, or dispatched to a utility grid as in the case of Independent Power Producers. In addition, the operating characteristics of tbe equipment and loads are continuously changing due to outage of equipment, changes in process steam and electrical demands, ambient conditions and performance deterioration. The ability to coordinate and optimize the simultaneous operation of the various components to meet all the energy requirements at minimum cost is a formidable task. In addition to the thermal optimization of boilers, gas turbines, and various types of condensing and autoextraction steam turbines, the system also considers the electrical distribution system, where changing bus configurations, power and voltage control impose additional constraints and limits which are solved in the optimum dispatch. The application incorporates automatic closed loop control of many process set points with a sophisticated system of permissives and automatic generation control features. Since a high on-line operating factor is essential, many design features are incorporated for signal validation and malfunction identification, and to make the system robust to instrument failure and drift. The system can be used as an on-line or off-line supervisory program. For on line implementation, closed loop response, fail safe operation and interfacing with process control systems are key closed loop implementation considerations. The system involves the interaction of several modules. The following will describe selected modules and how they interface to satisfy existing loads at minimum cost.

Ahner, D. J.; Mills, R. J.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Weather forecast-based optimization of integrated energy systems.  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we establish an on-line optimization framework to exploit detailed weather forecast information in the operation of integrated energy systems, such as buildings and photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems. We first discuss how the use of traditional reactive operation strategies that neglect the future evolution of the ambient conditions can translate in high operating costs. To overcome this problem, we propose the use of a supervisory dynamic optimization strategy that can lead to more proactive and cost-effective operations. The strategy is based on the solution of a receding-horizon stochastic dynamic optimization problem. This permits the direct incorporation of economic objectives, statistical forecast information, and operational constraints. To obtain the weather forecast information, we employ a state-of-the-art forecasting model initialized with real meteorological data. The statistical ambient information is obtained from a set of realizations generated by the weather model executed in an operational setting. We present proof-of-concept simulation studies to demonstrate that the proposed framework can lead to significant savings (more than 18% reduction) in operating costs.

Zavala, V. M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Krause, T.; Anitescu, M.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Neutron Transport and Nuclear Burnup Analysis for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid / Eighteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Part 2)

Kevin J. Kramer; Jeffery F. Latkowski; Ryan P. Abbott; John K. Boyd; Jeffrey J. Powers; Jeffrey E. Seifried

220

In the OSTI Collections: Free-Electron Lasers | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Free-Electron Lasers Free-Electron Lasers Existing Free-Electron Lasers Using Free-Electron Lasers for Measurement and Defense New Free-Electron Laser Designs References Research Organizations Reports available from OSTI's Information Bridge While most types of laser produce coherent light from electric charges bound within atoms, molecules, or solids, unbound charges are the light source in free-electron lasers. Lasers of this type can operate at higher frequencies than are easily achieved with bound-electron lasers. Various uses and designs of free-electron lasers are the focus of different projects sponsored through the Department of Energy. Lasers, like any source of light or other electromagnetic waves, produce waves when some of the electric charges they contain go from having a

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221

Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at Lawrence Livermore's  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 For immediate release: 08/26/2013 | NR-13-08-04 High Resolution Image All NIF experiments are controlled and orchestrated by the integrated computer control system in the facility's control room. It consists of 950 front-end processors attached to about 60,000 control points, including mirrors, lenses, motors, sensors, cameras, amplifiers, capacitors and diagnostic instruments. Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at Lawrence Livermore's National Ignition Facility Breanna Bishop, LLNL, (925) 423-9802, bishop33@llnl.gov High Resolution Image The preamplifiers of the National Ignition Facility are the first step in increasing the energy of laser beams as they make their way toward the target chamber. LIVERMORE, Calif. -- In the early morning hours of Aug.13, Lawrence

222

Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

223

Energy optimization for the design of cornbased ethanol plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we address the problem of optimizing corn-based bioethanol plants through the use of heat integration and mathematical programming techniques. The goal is to reduce the operating costs of the plant. Capital cost, energy usage, and yields all contribute to prduction cost. Yield and energy use also influence the viability of cornbased ethanol as a sustainable fuel. We first propose a limited superstructure of alternative designs including the various process units and utility streams involved in ethanol production. Our objective is to determine the connections in the network and the flow in each stream in the network such that we minimize the energy requirement of the overall plant. This is accomplished through the formulation of a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem involving mass and energy balances for all the units in the system, where the model is solved through two nonlinear programming subproblems. We then perform a heat integration study on the resulting flowsheet; the modified flowsheet includes multieffect distillation columns and further reduces energy consumption. The results indicate that it is possible to reduce the current steam consumption required in the transformation of corn into fuel grade ethanol by more than 40 % compared to initial basic design.

Andreas Peschel; Mariano Martn; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Wade Martinson; Luca Zullo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Annual Energy Consumption Analysis and Energy Optimization of a Solar-Assisted Heating Swimming Pool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the energy efficiency calculations and optimization for an indoor solar-assisted heating swimming pool in GuangZhou. The heating energy requirements for maintaining the pool constant temperature were investigated, which can be divided into three main parts: heat loss due to surface water evaporation, conduction and convective heat loss, and heat demand for heating fresh water. Then, an all-year solar radiation model for slope with varying orientation and incline angle is introduced, and relevant results are given based on typical year weather data in GuangZhou. Furthermore, annual energy consumption model and life cycle cost optimization model is established, and optimal results are analyzed based on an indoor solar-assisted heating swimming pool with 200m2 surface area in GuangZhou.

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.; Meng, O.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Fine-tuning molecular energy levels by nonresonant laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We evaluate the shifts imparted to vibrational and rotational levels of a linear molecule by a nonresonant laser field at intensities of up to 10^12 W/cm^2. Both types of shift are found to be either positive or negative, depending on the initial rotational state acted upon by the field. An adiabatic field-molecule interaction imparts a rotational energy shift which is negative and exceeds the concomitant positive vibrational shift by a few orders of magnitude. The rovibrational states are thus pushed downward in such a field. A nonresonant pulsed laser field that interacts nonadiabatically with the molecule is found to impart rotational and vibrational shifts of the same order of magnitude. The nonadiabatic energy transfer occurs most readily at a pulse duration which amounts to about a tenth of the molecule's rotational period, and vanishes when the sudden regime is attained for shorter pulses. We applied our treatment to the much studied 87Rb_2 molecule in the last bound vibrational levels of its lowest singlet and triplet electronic states. Our calculations indicate that 15 ns and 1.5 ns laser pulses of an intensity in excess of 5x10^9 W/cm^2 are capable of dissociating the molecule due to the vibrational shift. Lesser shifts can be used to fine tune the rovibrational levels and thereby to affect collisional resonances by the nonresonant light. The energy shifts may be discernible spectroscopically, at a 10 MHz resolution.

Mikhail Lemeshko; Bretislav Friedrich

2010-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

226

Optimizing the design and operation of aquifer thermal energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems is complicated by significant uncertainties in ones ability to reliably predict the response of the aquifer to fluid and thermal fluxes. Overdesigning the system, to compensate for these uncertainties, reduces the potential economic and energy benefits of an ATES system. Underdesigning the system results in systems that fail to meet design targets. Unfortunately, standard aquifer characterization methods and hydrologic models do not provide adequate information to overcome these uncertainties. Thus, expensive full-scale tests are generally recommended to develop an adequate-understanding of the systems response. However, the standard engineering {open_quotes}design-build-operate{close_quotes} process is not. appropriate for ATES systems because an optimal design cannot be completed without some operational experience, i.e., field tests. A more adaptive engineering process is required. This engineering process should be flexible enough to allow the design to be adjusted during the operation, as monitoring data become available and as an understanding of the system response increases. Engineering approaches being developed for environmental restoration of contaminated soil and groundwater can be adapted to optimally design and operate ATES systems.

Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Optimization of Two-photon Excited Fluorescence Enhancement between Tunable and Broadband Femtosecond Laser Pulse Excitations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project explores optimization of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) enhancement between tunable narrowband and un-tuned broadband femtosecond (fs) laser pulse excitations for two-photon microscopy (TPM). The research is conducted preliminarily in time domain and comprehensively in frequency domain to understand the physics behind TPEF enhancement by un-tuned sub-10 fs nearly transform-limited pulse (TLP) versus tunable 140 fs pulse. The preliminary study on inverse proportionality of TPEF yield to fs-pulse duration delimits a general lower-bound to narrowband fs-pulse regime (pulse duration > 40 fs) with assumption of dye-molecule frequency invariant response. Deviations from this inverse proportionality in broadband fs-pulse regime (pulse duration < 40 fs) highlights dye-molecule frequency variant response, necessity of group delay dispersion (GDD) compensation, and broadband TLP for TPEF enhancement. The follow-up comparative study is made on un-tuned sub-10 fs TLP versus tunable 140 fs pulse excitations using three dye-phantoms (Indo-1, FITC, and TRITC) representative of fluorescent probes with similar TPEF characteristics. The integrated experimental system, with custom-designed GDD compensation, dispersion-less laser-beam expanding and focusing, and compound-lens for efficient fluorescence collection with good spectral resolution, ensures accurate TPEF measurements. Differentiated TPEF enhancements of Indo-1 (1.6), FITC (6.7), and TRITC (5.2) proportionally agree with calculated ones due to the overlap of fs-pulse second harmonic (SH) power spectrum with dye-molecule two-photon excitation (TPE) spectrum. Physically speaking, with broadband sub-10 fs TLP readily involved in both degenerate (v1 = v2) and non-degenerate (v1 ? v2) two-photon absorption (TPA), this un-tuned ultrashort fs-pulse excitation simultaneously allows for more accessibility to TPA-associated final states and diversely promotes population of thus excited dye-molecules with the three dye-phantoms. Under environmental influences (mutual quenching through one-photon absorption(s) and solvent effect), multicolor TPEF enhancement observed from a mixture of the three dyes shows promise of sub-10 fs TLP as simultaneous excitation for multiple-dye labeled samples in contrast to compromised excitation with narrowband fs-pulse tuning. Both single- and multicolor TPEF enhancements clarify tradeoff between tunability of narrowband fs-pulse and un-tuned broadband fs-pulse excitations, being instructive to further considerations on optimization of TPEF enhancement by strategic utilization of broadband fs-pulse for better performance of TPM.

Wang, Chao

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenser Water Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-58634 Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenser Water Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization Tengfang Xu Contents HVAC WATER SYSTEMS.............................................................................................. 2 Cooling tower and condenser water optimization

229

Optimal operation and design of solar-thermal energy storage systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present thesis focuses on the optimal operation and design of solar-thermal energy storage systems. First, optimization of time-variable operation to maximize revenue through selling and purchasing electricity to/from ...

Lizarraga-Garca, Enrique

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: CHP Capacity Optimizer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Related Links CHP Capacity Optimizer CHP Capacity Optimizer logo Selecting the proper installed capacity for cooling, heating, and power (CHP) equipment is critical to the...

231

Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the optimization of cogeneration dispatch in a deregulatedcomprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity,of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current,

Firestone, Ryan Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Demontration of Integrated Optimization Software at the Baldwin Energy Complex  

SciTech Connect

This project encompassed the design, development, and demonstration of integrated online optimization systems at Dynegy Midwest Generation's Baldwin Energy Complex (BEC) located in Baldwin, Illinois. The overall project objective was to improve coal-based generation's emission profile, efficiency, maintenance requirements and plant asset life in order to enhance the long-term viability of the United States abundant coal resources. Five separate but integrated optimization products were developed, addressing combustion, sootblowing, SCR operations, overall unit thermal performance, and plant-wide availability optimization. Optimization results are inherently unit-specific and cannot be known for a particular generating unit in advance. However, NeuCo believed that the following were reasonable targets for the completed, integrated set of products: Furnace NOx reduction improvement by 5%, Heat rate improvement by 1.5%, Increase of annual Available MWh by 1.5%, Commensurate reductions in greenhouse gases, mercury, and particulates; and Commensurate increases in profitability from lower costs, improved reliability, and greater commercial availability. The goal during Phase I was to establish each system and demonstrate their integration in unified plant optimization. Efforts during Phase I focused on: (1) developing, deploying, integrating, and testing prototypes for each of the five products; (2) identifying and addressing issues required for the products to integrate with plant operations; and (3) systematically collecting and assimilating feedback to improve subsequent product releases. As described in the Phase II continuation application NeuCo successfully achieved the goal for Phase I. The goal of Phase II was to improve upon the products installed and tested in Phase I and to quantify the benefits of the integrated system. As this report documents, NeuCo has also successfully achieved the goal for Phase II. The overall results of the project, compared with the project goals, are: (1) NOx Reduction: The 5% target for NOx reduction was exceeded with average CEMS and SCR Inlet (furnace) NOx reduction of between 12% and 14%. (2) Heat Rate Improvement: The optimization systems delivered an average heat rate improvement of between 0.67% and 0.7%. This falls short of the 1.5% heat rate improvement target largely because Cyclone Stability (availability) and CEMS and SCR Inlet NOx were prioritized over heat rate in the event they needed to be traded-off with one another. A different prioritization of objectives could have driven a different balance, thereby meeting the target of 1.5% improvement. There were also several factors that could have been masking greater heat rate improvements such as the decrease in fuel density over the course of the project and the impact of actions taken as a result of advice provided by the optimizers that are difficult to quantify. (3) Increased Annual Available MWh: Although difficult to measure precisely, the target of increasing available MWh's by 1.5% was met by providing prioritized alerts and knowledge-based diagnostics for a wide array of plant equipment and process anomalies; helping the plant to move from high sulfur, high Btu Illinois coal to PRB and run that fuel at low stoichiometries without derates; and improved management of cyclone flame quality as well as improved vigilance with respect to cyclone conditions which avoided some degree of temporary de-rate due to cyclone slag build up. (4) Commensurate Reductions in Greenhouse Gases, Mercury, and Particulates: Reductions in all three of these indices can be associated directly with the optimization leverage observed in the heat rate and NOx reductions. (5) Commensurate Increases in Profitability from Lower Costs, Improved Reliability, and Greater Commercial Availability: Commensurate improvements in costs, reliability and availability resulted from the previously described benefits. Also playing a role were the sustained operation of the cyclones while using more available, less expensive but off-design fuel; more effective catal

Rob James; John McDermott; Sanjay Patnaik; Steve Piche`

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

233

Optimal Packet Scheduling on an Energy Harvesting Broadcast Link  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The minimization of transmission completion time for a given number of bits per user in an energy harvesting multi-user communication system, where the energy harvesting instants are known in an offline manner is considered. The two-user case is studied for simplicity of exposition. A two dimensional achievable rate region with structural properties satisfied by the AWGN Broadcast Channel capacity region is assumed. It is shown that even though all the bits are available at the beginning, a non-negative amount of energy from each energy harvest is deferred for later use such that the transmit power starts at its lowest value and rises as time progresses. The optimal scheduler ends the transmission to both users at exactly the same time. Exploiting the special structure in the problem, the iterative offline algorithm, FlowRight, which was proposed in earlier literature, is adapted and proved to solve this problem. The iterative solution has polynomial complexity in the number of harvests used, and is observed ...

Antepli, Mehmet Akif; Erkal, Hakan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. CO 2 COMPRESSION AT THE FOSSIL ENERGY COMPLEX ..106States. Starting from todays fossil energy system, assessDesign of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and

Ogden, Joan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Design Optimization for an X-Ray Free Electron Laser Driven by SLAC Linac  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FREE ELECTRON LASER DRIVEN BY SLAC LINAC Ming Xie, LawrenceLaser (FEL) driven by the SLAC linac. The study assumes theis carried out for the SLAC FEL over all independent system

Xie, Ming

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Energy Spread Reduction of Electron Beams Produced via Laser Wake  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds great promise for producing ultra-compact stages of GeV scale, high quality electron beams for applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and high energy colliders. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses can be self-guided by relativistic plasma waves over tens of vacuum diffraction lengths, to give >1 GeV energy in cm-scale low density plasma using ionization-induced injection to inject charge into the wake at low densities. This thesis describes a series of experiments which investigates the physics of LWFA in the self-guided blowout regime. Beginning with high density gas jet experiments the scaling of the LWFA-produced electron beam energy with plasma electron density is found to be in excellent agreement with both phenomenological theory and with 3-D PIC simulations. It is also determined that self-trapping of background electrons into the wake exhibits a threshold as a function of the electron density, and at the densities required to produce electron beams with energies exceeding 1 GeV a different mechanism is required to trap charge into low density wakes. By introducing small concentrations of high-Z gas to the nominal He background the ionization-induced injection mechanism is enabled. Electron trapping is observed at densities as low as 1.3 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} in a gas cell target, and 1.45 GeV electrons are demonstrated for the first time from LWFA. This is currently the highest electron energy ever produced from LWFA. The ionization-induced trapping mechanism is also shown to generate quasi-continuous electron beam energies, which is undesirable for accelerator applications. By limiting the region over which ionization-induced trapping occurs, the energy spread of the electron beams can be controlled. The development of a novel two-stage gas cell target provides the capability to tailor the gas composition in the longitudinal direction, and confine the trapping process to occur only in a limited, defined region. Using this technique a 460 MeV electron beam was produced with an energy spread of 5%. This technique is directly scalable to multi-GeV electron beam generation with sub-percent energy spreads.

Pollock, B

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

237

From Waste to Hydrogen: An Optimal Design of Energy Production and Distribution Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 From Waste to Hydrogen: An Optimal Design of Energy Production and Distribution Network Nathan and distribution systems for hydrogen production from agricultural residues, which is a representative green energy of producing clean energy from renewable resources. This paper focuses on the optimal design of the production

Fan, Yueyue

238

An optimization framework for the energy management of carrier ethernet networks with Multiple Spanning Trees  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose an energy management framework to optimize the energy consumption of networks using the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol such as Carrier Grade Ethernet networks. The objective is to minimize the energy consumption of nodes and links while considering ... Keywords: Carrier Grade Ethernet, Green networking, Network design, Routing optimization, Spanning Trees, Traffic engineering

Antonio Capone; Daniele Corti; Luca Gianoli; Brunilde Sans

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Energy-Delay Tradeoffs in Combinational Logic using Gate Sizing and Supply Voltage Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy-Delay Tradeoffs in Combinational Logic using Gate Sizing and Supply Voltage Optimization savings to the energy profile of a circuit. These savings are obtained by using gate sizing and supply of energy to delay is derived from a linear delay model extended to multiple supplies. The optimizations

Nikolic, Borivoje

240

Wind resource evaluation at the Caltech Field Laboratory for Optimized Wind Energy (FLOWE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind resource evaluation at the Caltech Field Laboratory for Optimized Wind Energy (FLOWE) Quinn;Caltech Field Laboratory for Optimized Wind Energy (reduced visual signature) #12;Field Study Results 6 continuous hours existing wind farms Planform Kinetic Energy Flux = U (W m-2) mean power above cut

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Phase-only shaped laser pulses in optimal control theory: Application to indirect photofragmentation dynamics in the weak-field limit  

SciTech Connect

We implement phase-only shaped laser pulses within quantum optimal control theory for laser-molecule interaction. This approach is applied to the indirect photofragmentation dynamics of NaI in the weak-field limit. It is shown that optimized phase-modulated pulses with a fixed frequency distribution can substantially modify transient dissociation probabilities as well as the momentum distribution associated with the relative motion of Na and I.

Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels E. [Department of Chemistry, Building 207, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2012-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

242

Optimizing electron-positron pair production on kilojoule-class high-intensity lasers for the purpose of pair-plasma creation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expressions for the yield of electron-positron pairs, their energy spectra, and production rates have been obtained in the interaction of multi-kJ pulses of high-intensity laser light interacting with solid targets. The Bethe-Heitler conversion of hard x-ray bremsstrahlung [D. A. Gryaznykh, Y. Z. Kandiev, and V. A. Lykov, JETP Lett. 67, 257 (1998); K. Nakashima and H. Takabe, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1505 (2002)] is shown to dominate over direct production (trident process) [E. P. Liang, S. C. Wilks, and M. Tabak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4887 (1998)]. The yields and production rates have been optimized as a function of incident laser intensity by the choice of target material and dimensions, indicating that up to 5x10{sup 11} pairs can be produced on the OMEGA EP laser system [L. J. Waxer et al., Opt. Photonics News 16, 30 (2005)]. The corresponding production rates are high enough to make possible the creation of a pair plasma.

Myatt, J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Short, R. W.; Stoeckl, C.; Storm, M. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

current and forecasted energy prices, energy demand, and DERarises in energy loads, energy prices and IES equipmentenergy loads, and energy prices, regulatory constraints on

Firestone, Ryan Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

DOE Science Showcase - Free-Electron Lasers | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Free-Electron Lasers Free-Electron Lasers Free-Electron Lasers absorb and release energy at any wavelength and can be controlled more precisely than conventional lasers by producing intense powerful light in brief bursts with extreme precision. This innovative technology has opened doors to a vast array of possibilities for manufacturing and for basic research. Read more in the white paper In OSTI Collections: Free-Electron Lasers by Dr. William Watson, Physicist, OSTI staff. Free-Electron Lasers Results in DOE Databases Science.gov Ciencia.Science.gov (Español) WorldWideScience.org Energy Citations Database DOE Information Bridge Relevant Subject Clusters FREE ELECTRON LASERS PARTICLE ACCELERATORS ENGINEERING LASERS ELECTRON BEAMS ACCELERATORS WIGGLER MAGNETS EQUIPMENT ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

245

Energy Secretary Chu to Receive Arthur L. Schawlow Award at the Laser  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Secretary Chu to Receive Arthur L. Schawlow Award at the Energy Secretary Chu to Receive Arthur L. Schawlow Award at the Laser Institute of America Annual Meeting Energy Secretary Chu to Receive Arthur L. Schawlow Award at the Laser Institute of America Annual Meeting September 28, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington D.C. --- U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu will receive the Arthur L. Schawlow Award at the Laser Institute of America Annual Meeting tomorrow in Anaheim, CA, in recognition of his contributions to applications of lasers in science. Chu, who won the 1997 Nobel Prize in physics for his work using lasers to cool and trap atoms, will address conference attendees. Who: What When: Where: U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu Award reception and remarks at the Laser Institute of America Annual Meeting Wednesday, September 29, 12:30 pm

246

Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and Operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab has been developing the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) for several years. Given load curves for energy services requirements in a building microgrid (u grid), fuel costs and other economic inputs, and a menu of available technologies, DER-CAM finds the optimum equipment fleet and its optimum operating schedule using a mixed integer linear programming approach. This capability is being applied using a software as a service (SaaS) model. Optimisation problems are set up on a Berkeley Lab server and clients can execute their jobs as needed, typically daily. The evolution of this approach is demonstrated by description of three ongoing projects. The first is a public access web site focused on solar photovoltaic generation and battery viability at large commercial and industrial customer sites. The second is a building CO2 emissions reduction operations problem for a University of California, Davis student dining hall for which potential investments are also considered. And the third, is both a battery selection problem and a rolling operating schedule problem for a large County Jail. Together these examples show that optimization of building u grid design and operation can be effectively achieved using SaaS.

Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; DeForest, Nicholas; Donadee, Jon; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; Lai, Judy

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Energy spread inhibition of compact electron bunch driven by circularly polarized laser pulse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of energy dispersion of a direct laser accelerated electron bunch emerging from a nano-meshed graphene target is investigated. To study the effects of the laser polarization state on the energy spread, numerical calculations and particle-in-cell simulations of evolving one-dimensional confined electron bunch dynamics are performed. It is proved that a circularly polarized laser pulse can inhibit energy dispersion more efficiently than a linearly polarized laser pulse with the same laser and target parameters. That is because the Coulomb expansion of the electron bunch gets more attenuated for a circularly polarized laser pulse compared with a linearly polarized pulse due to the slowly varying temporal laser intensity.

Wen Meng [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Wu Haicheng; Lu Yuanrong; Chen Jiaer; Yan, Xueqing [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jin Luling [Department of Physics, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Laser Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... over a wide range of powers, energies, and wavelengths. ... the SI units for laser power and energy. ... Novel power meter for high-efficiency laser diode ...

2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

249

NREL-Optimizing Rooftop Space with SolOpt Presentation | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NREL-Optimizing Rooftop Space with SolOpt Presentation NREL-Optimizing Rooftop Space with SolOpt Presentation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Optimizing Rooftop Space with SolOpt Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Solar Topics: Implementation, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Presentation, Guide/manual, Training materials Website: www.solaramericacities.energy.gov/pdfs/2010_annual_meeting/Thu400_SWH_ Optimizing Rooftop Space with SolOpt Screenshot References: Optimizing Rooftop Space with SolOpt[1] Logo: Optimizing Rooftop Space with SolOpt This presentation answers the question: "How do you decide what type of solar system should be used for a specific facility?" References ↑ "Optimizing Rooftop Space with SolOpt"

250

Optimal Sleep-Wake Policies for an Energy Harvesting Sensor Node  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Sleep-Wake Policies for an Energy Harvesting Sensor Node Vinay Joseph, Vinod Sharma in the energy buffer. We obtain energy management policies which minimize a linear combination of the mean queue energy management policies were identified which made the system work in energy neutral operation

Sharma, Vinod

251

Optimization of the utilization of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emission reduction targets as well as the scarcity of fossil resources make a transition of the energy system towards a carbon free electricity supply necessary. Promising energy resources are solar and wind energy. The challenging characteristics of ... Keywords: energy system model, geographic information system (GIS), linear optimization, power supply, renewable energy, simulation, supergrid

Tino Aboumahboub; Katrin Schaber; Peter Tzscheutschler; Thomas Hamacher

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

xxiii Energy Pricing and Tariffper year. Energy Pricing and Tariff Structure Electricityrescheduled. Energy Pricing and Tariff Structure Electricity

Firestone, Ryan Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Optimal numerical realization of the energy balance equation for wind wave models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The optimal numerical realization of the energy balance equation in wind wave models is proposed. The scheme is separated into two parts: the numerical source term integration and the energy propagation numerical realization. The first one is based on ...

Igor V. Lavrenov

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage System in Solar Energy Electric Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Owing to sun's rays distributing randomly and discontinuously and load fluctuation, energy storage system is very important in Solar Energy Electric Vehicle (SEEV). The combinatorial optimization by genetic algorithm and neural network was used to optimize ... Keywords: battery flywheel, genetic algorithm, neural network

Shiqiong Zhou; Longyun Kang; Miaomiao Cheng; Binggang Cao

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Software optimization for performance, energy, and thermal distribution: Initial case studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As an initial step in our Green Software research, this paper investigates whether software optimization at the application level can help achieve higher energy efficiency and better thermal behavior. We use both direct measurements and modeling to quantify ... Keywords: system-level energy consumption, software optimization, performance-energy-thermal distribution, green software, energy efficiency, power estimator, multicore systems, regressing measurements, custom-designed suite, microbenchmarks, software tuning, scalability, parallel application

M. A. Khan; C. Hankendi; A. K. Coskun; M. C. Herbordt

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Energy consumption forecasting in process industry using support vector machines and particle swarm optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are applied in predicting energy consumption in the first phase of oil refining at a particular oil refinery. During cross-validation process of the SVM training Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm ... Keywords: energy prediction, particle swarm optimization (PSO), support vector machines (SVM)

Milena R. Petkovi?; Milan R. Rapai?; Boris B. Jakovljevi?

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Optimal selection and sizing of distributed energy resources for distributed power systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimal selection and sizing of distributed energy resources is an important research problem in the development of distributed power systems. This paper presents a methodology for optimal selection and sizing of distributed energy resources in integrated microgrids using the evolutionary strategy. Integrated microgrid is an innovative architecture in distributed power systems

Thillainathan Logenthiran; Dipti Srinivasan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

X-ray lasers and methods utilizing two component driving illumination provided by optical laser means of relatively low energy and small physical size  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of this invention to provide an X-ray laser that is driven by an optical laser or lasers of relatively low energy and small physical size. Another object of this invention is to provide a method of driving an X-ray laser with an optical laser or lasers of relatively low energy and small physical size. Additional objects, advantages and novel features of the invention are set forth in part in the description included in this report. The objects and advantages of the invention may be realized and attained by means of the instrumentalities and combinations particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 8 figs.

Rosen, M.D.; Matthews, D.L.

1989-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

259

TIMELY DELIVERY OF LASER INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY (LIFE)  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A key goal of the NIF is to demonstrate fusion ignition for the first time in the laboratory. Its flexibility allows multiple target designs (both indirect and direct drive) to be fielded, offering substantial scope for optimization of a robust target design. In this paper we discuss an approach to generating gigawatt levels of electrical power from a laser-driven source of fusion neutrons based on these demonstration experiments. This 'LIFE' concept enables rapid time-to-market for a commercial power plant, assuming success with ignition and a technology demonstration program that links directly to a facility design and construction project. The LIFE design makes use of recent advances in diode-pumped, solid-state laser technology. It adopts the paradigm of Line Replaceable Units utilized on the NIF to provide high levels of availability and maintainability and mitigate the need for advanced materials development. A demonstration LIFE plant based on these design principles is described, along with the areas of technology development required prior to plant construction. A goal-oriented, evidence-based approach has been proposed to allow LIFE power plant rollout on a time scale that meets policy imperatives and is consistent with utility planning horizons. The system-level delivery builds from our prior national investment over many decades and makes full use of the distributed capability in laser technology, the ubiquity of semiconductor diodes, high volume manufacturing markets, and U.S. capability in fusion science and nuclear engineering. The LIFE approach is based on the ignition evidence emerging from NIF and adopts a line-replaceable unit approach to ensure high plant availability and to allow evolution from available technologies and materials. Utilization of a proven physics platform for the ignition scheme is an essential component of an acceptably low-risk solution. The degree of coupling seen on NIF between driver and target performance mandates that little deviation be adopted from the NIF geometry and beamline characteristics. Similarly, the strong coupling between subsystems in an operational power plant mandates that a self-consistent solution be established via an integrated facility delivery project. The benefits of separability of the subsystems within an IFE plant (driver, chamber, targets, etc.) emerge in the operational phase of a power plant rather than in its developmental phase. An optimized roadmap for IFE delivery needs to account for this to avoid nugatory effort and inconsistent solutions. For LIFE, a system design has been established that could lead to an operating power plant by the mid-2020s, drawing from an integrated subsystem development program to demonstrate the required technology readiness on a time scale compatible with the construction plan. Much technical development work still remains, as does alignment of key stakeholder groups to this newly emerging development option. If the required timeline is to be met, then preparation of a viable program is required alongside the demonstration of ignition on NIF. This will enable timely analysis of the technical and economic case and establishment of the appropriate delivery partnership.

Dunne, A M

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

260

Computational Research Challenges and Opportunities for the Optimization of Fossil Energy Power Generation System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emerging fossil energy power generation systems must operate with unprecedented efficiency and near-zero emissions, while optimizing profitably amid cost fluctuations for raw materials, finished products, and energy. To help address these challenges, the fossil energy industry will have to rely increasingly on the use advanced computational tools for modeling and simulating complex process systems. In this paper, we present the computational research challenges and opportunities for the optimization of fossil energy power generation systems across the plant lifecycle from process synthesis and design to plant operations. We also look beyond the plant gates to discuss research challenges and opportunities for enterprise-wide optimization, including planning, scheduling, and supply chain technologies.

Zitney, S.E.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Thermal vs energy optimization for dvfs-enabled processors in embedded systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract In the past, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) has been widely used for power and energy optimization in embedded system design. As thermal issues become increasingly prominent, we propose design-time thermal optimization techniques for embedded systems. By carefully planning DVFS at design time, our techniques proactively optimize system thermal profile, prevent run-time thermal emergencies, minimize cooling costs, and optimize system performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work addressing embedded system designtime thermal optimization using DVFS. We formulate minimization of application peak temperature in the presence of real-time constraints as a nonlinear programming problem. This provides a powerful framework for system designers to determine a proper thermal solution and provide a lower bound on the minimum temperature achievable by DVFS. Furthermore, we examine the differences between optimal energy solutions and optimal peak temperature solutions. Experimental results indicate that optimizing energy consumption can lead to unnecessarily high temperature. Finally, we propose a thermal-constrained energy optimization procedure to minimize system energy consumption under a constraint on peak temperature. I.

Yongpan Liu; Huazhong Yang; Robert P. Dick; Hui Wang; Li Shang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Energy Secretary Chu to Receive Arthur L. Schawlow Award at the Laser  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Receive Arthur L. Schawlow Award at the Receive Arthur L. Schawlow Award at the Laser Institute of America Annual Meeting Energy Secretary Chu to Receive Arthur L. Schawlow Award at the Laser Institute of America Annual Meeting September 28, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington D.C. --- U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu will receive the Arthur L. Schawlow Award at the Laser Institute of America Annual Meeting tomorrow in Anaheim, CA, in recognition of his contributions to applications of lasers in science. Chu, who won the 1997 Nobel Prize in physics for his work using lasers to cool and trap atoms, will address conference attendees. Who: What When: Where: U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu Award reception and remarks at the Laser Institute of America Annual Meeting Wednesday, September 29, 12:30 pm Anaheim Marriott Hotel

263

Optimizing Rooftop Space with SolOpt - Home - Energy ...  

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated ... State policy maker can ...

264

Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stadler. 2003. Distributed energy resources in practice: ARyan. 2004. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption2003. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology

Firestone, Ryan Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Towards a unified cost optimal methodology for designing low energy buildings in the mediterranean sea region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increasing sustainability problems our world faces because of the thoughtless energy consumption and emissions production puts an increasing pressure for immediate and drastic energy saving measures. Although the consumption of energy - through appropriate ... Keywords: cost optimal, design methodology, low energy building, mediterranean

Stratis Kanarachos; Ahmed Medhat; Georgette Kanarachou; Mona Fanny

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Optimization Online - Energy Savings in Wireless Mesh Networks in ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan 24, 2011 ... Abstract: Energy consumption of communication systems is ... Keywords: Energy savings, wireless Mesh Networks, Green networking.

267

NIST Measurement Services: cw Laser Power and Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... LASER POWER METER Detector Model No: Display ... sponsored by NIST, NIST annual reports, and ... under a worldwide program coordinated by ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

268

Optimizing HVAC Control to Improve Building Comfort and Energy Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates the benefits of optimal control in well-designed and operated buildings using a case study. The case study building was built in 2001. The HVAC and control systems have been installed with state-of-the-art equipment which include a terminal box temperature integrated minimum airflow reset. The building has been used and operated based on the design intents. This paper presents both the existing and the optimal control schedules, which include the VAV box operation schedule, AHUs optimal control, chiller and chilled water pump control, and boiler and hot water pump control. The measured hourly HVAC electricity consumption shows that annual savings of up to 40% can be achieved with an optimal control schedule.

Song, L.; Joo, I.; Dong, D.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.; Hansen, K.; Quiroz, L.; Swiatek, A.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Local energy management through mathematical modeling and optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) Extensions to the core TOTEM model include a demand charge model, used for making daily optimal control decisions when the electric bill includes a charge based on the monthly maximum power draw. The problem of ...

Craft David (David Loren), 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Optimizing Energy Management Strategy and Degree of Hybridization for a Hydrogen Fuel Cell SUV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous work examined degree of hybridization on the fuel economy of a hybrid electric sport utility vehicle. It was observed that not only was the vehicle control strategy important, but that its definition should be coupled with the component sizing process. Both degree of hybridization and the energy management strategy have been optimized simultaneously in this study. Simple mass scaling algorithms were employed to capture the effect of component and vehicle mass variations as a function of degree of hybridization. Additionally, the benefits of regenerative braking and power buffering have been maximized using optimization methods to determine appropriate battery pack sizing. Both local and global optimization routines were applied to improve the confidence in the solution being close to the true optimum. An optimal configuration and energy management strategy that maximizes the benefit of hybridization for a hydrogen fuel cell hybrid SUV was derived. The optimal configuration was explored, and sensitivity to drive cycle in the optimization process was studied.

Keith Wipke Tony; Tony Markel; Doug Nelson

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

BPA Wins Platts Global Energy Award for Grid Optimization | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BPA Wins Platts Global Energy Award for Grid Optimization BPA Wins Platts Global Energy Award for Grid Optimization BPA Wins Platts Global Energy Award for Grid Optimization December 18, 2013 - 2:25pm Addthis Platts awarded the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) a Global Energy Award for grid optimization on December 12 in New York City for its development of a synchrophasor network. BPA is part of the Recovery Act-funded Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Program, in which 19 utilities have partnered with the Department of Energy to provide real-time visibility of the entire western power system that covers 14 states, two Canadian provinces and a portion of the Baja Peninsula in Mexico. Through a dedicated, secure network provided by Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Program, BPA is sharing synchrophasor data with 10 other utilities,

272

Addressing Control of Hazardous Energy (COHE) Requirements in a Laser Safety Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OSHA regulation 29CFR1910.147 specifies control of hazardous energy requirements for 'the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees.' Class 3B and Class 4 laser beams must be considered hazardous energy sources because of the potential for serious eye injury; careful consideration is therefore needed to safely de-energize these lasers. This paper discusses and evaluates control of hazardous energy principles in this OSHA regulation, in ANSI Z136.1 ''Safe Use of Lasers,'' and in ANSI Z244.1 ''Control of Hazardous Energy, Lockout/Tagout and Alternative Methods.'' Recommendations are made for updating and improving CoHE (control of hazardous energy) requirements in these standards for their applicability to safe laser operations.

Woods, Michael; /SLAC

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

A Modeling and Optimization Approach for Multiple Energy Carrier Power Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a general power flow and optimization approach for power systems including multiple energy carriers, such as electricity, natural gas, and district heat. The model is based on a conceptual approach for the inclusion of distributed resources. Couplings between the different energy carriers are regarded explicitly, enabling investigations in power flow and marginal price interactions. Optimal demand, conversion, and transmission of multiple energy carriers within a system is formulated as a combined optimal power flow problem. A numerical example demonstrates how the method can be used for different system studies. I.

Martin Geidl; Gran Andersson

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.  

SciTech Connect

The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub-models for overall analysis of the system. It also provides control over key user input parameters and the ability to effectively consolidate vital output results for uncertainty/sensitivity analysis and optimization procedures. The preliminary analysis has shown promising advanced fuel cycle scenarios that include Pressure Water Reactors Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) and dedicated HEST waste incineration facilities. If deployed, these scenarios may substantially reduce nuclear waste inventories approaching environmentally benign nuclear energy system characteristics. Additionally, a spent fuel database of the isotopic compositions for multiple design and control parameters has been created for the VHTR-HEST input fuel streams. Computational approaches, analysis metrics, and benchmark strategies have been established for future detailed studies.

Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

An optimization-model-based interactive decision support system for regional energy management systems planning under uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, an interactive decision support system (UREM-IDSS) has been developed based on an inexact optimization model (UREM, University of Regina Energy Model) to aid decision makers in planning energy management systems. Optimization modeling, ... Keywords: Decision making, Energy management systems, Green house gas, Interactive decision support system, Optimization, Sustainable development, Uncertainty

Y. P. Cai; G. H. Huang; Q. G. Lin; X. H. Nie; Q. Tan

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Optimized renewable energy forecasting in local distribution networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The integration of renewable energy sources (RES) into local energy distribution networks becomes increasingly important. Renewable energy highly depends on weather conditions, making it difficult to maintain stability in such networks. To still enable ...

Robert Ulbricht; Ulrike Fischer; Wolfgang Lehner; Hilko Donker

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Optimization of running strategies based on anaerobic energy and ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 13, 2013 ... We extend this analysis, based on the equation of motion and aerobic energy, to include a balance of anaerobic energy (or accumulated...

278

Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO2 Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chinese cities and climate zones. To optimize each buildingare shown in the building climate zone map in Figure 1. Theon the following factors: Climate zones and building energy

Feng, Wei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Efficient energy transfer in light-harvesting systems, I: optimal temperature, reorganization energy and spatialtemporal correlations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the mechanisms of efficient and robust energy transfer in light-harvesting systems provides new insights for the optimal design of artificial systems. In this paper, we use the FennaMatthewsOlson (FMO) ...

Wu, Jianlan

280

QoS supporting and optimal energy allocation for a cluster based wireless sensor network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become a very active and important area of research due to their potential in civil and military applications. A lot of research works focus on energy efficient routing protocols due to the limited energy of battery-powered ... Keywords: Clustering, Data loss rate, Optimal energy allocation, QoS, Source-to-sink delay, Wireless sensor network

Shensheng Tang; Wei Li

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Optimal Transmission Policies over Vector Gaussian Broadcast Channels with Energy Harvesting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Transmission Policies over Vector Gaussian Broadcast Channels with Energy Harvesting framework. In [2], energy management policies which stabilize the data queue This work was supported by NSF, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 Abstract--We consider an energy harvesting transmitter

Ulukus, Sennur

282

Analysis and Optimization of the Power Cycle Based on the Cold Energy of Liquefied Natural Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid natural gas (LNG) delivered by sea-ships contains considerable cryogenic energy which can be used for power generation before its evaporation and introduction into the system of pipe line. Electric power generation utilizing LNG cold energy is ... Keywords: liquefied natural gast, cold energy recovery, pinch analysis, exergy, optimization

Lu Yuanwei; Yang Hongchang; Ma Chongfang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Optimal operational strategy for hybrid renewable energy system using genetic algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Off-grid settlements require efficient, reliable and cost-effective renewable energy as alternative to the power supplied by diesel generator. Techno-economic analysis is required to find the optimum renewable energy system in the long run. This paper ... Keywords: genetic algorithm, hybrid system, operation strategy, optimization, renewable energy

Juhari Ab. Razak; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Zulkifli Mohd Nopiah; Azami Zaharim; Yusoff Ali

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Software Optimization for Performance, Energy, and Thermal Distribution: Initial Case Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software Optimization for Performance, Energy, and Thermal Distribution: Initial Case Studies Md and modeling to quantify power, energy and temperature for a given software method. The infrastructure includes two case studies. In the first one, we use software tuning for improving the scalability and energy

Coskun, Ayse

285

Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Approach at the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load Electricity input to Flow Battery Figure 16: The Forecasted Energy Needs and DG Operating Schedule Electricity Only load Figure 18 Forecast Energy Demand and Energy Demand Rescheduled to Minimize Cost under PG electrical loads. Figure 1 shows an example result of the investment and planning optimization running in Web

286

Optimal operational strategy for hybrid renewable energy system using genetic algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Off-grid settlements require efficient, reliable and cost-effective renewable energy as alternative to the power supplied by diesel generator. Techno-economic analysis is required to find the optimum renewable energy system in the long run. This paper ... Keywords: genetic algorithms, hybrid system, operation strategy, optimization, renewable energy

Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Azami Zaharim; Yusoff Ali; Zulkifli Mohd Nopiah; Juhari Ab. Razak; Nor Salim Muhammad

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

ADV-MAC: Analysis and optimization of energy efficiency through data advertisements for wireless sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks with the objective of minimizing energy consumption. For example, Sensor-MAC (S-MAC) was proposed to reduce energy consumption by introducing a duty cycle. ... Keywords: Advertisement-based MAC, Energy efficiency, MAC layer performance optimization, MAC protocol

Surjya Ray; Ilker Demirkol; Wendi Heinzelman

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Optimization of wind turbine energy and power factor with an evolutionary computation algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of wind turbine energy and power factor with an evolutionary computation algorithm the energy capture from the wind and enhance the quality of the power produced by the wind turbine, and harmonic distortion. As the generation of wind energy on an industrial scale is relatively new, the area

Kusiak, Andrew

289

Optimal Design of Hybrid Energy System with PV/ Wind Turbine/ Storage: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Design of Hybrid Energy System with PV/ Wind Turbine/ Storage: A Case Study Rui Huang development of photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine and battery technologies, hybrid energy system has received of the hybrid energy system that consists of PV arrays, wind turbines and battery storage and use that to define

Low, Steven H.

290

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

292

Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers for Internal Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

We have begun building the ''Mercury'' laser system as the first in a series of new generation diode-pumped solid-state lasers for inertial fusion research. Mercury will integrate three key technologies: diodes, crystals, and gas cooling, within a unique laser architecture that is scalable to kilojoule and megajoule energy levels for fusion energy applications. The primary near-term performance goals include 10% electrical efficiencies at 10 Hz and 100J with a 2-10 ns pulse length at 1.047 mm wavelength. When completed, Mercury will allow rep-rated target experiments with multiple chambers for high energy density physics research.

Payne, S A; Bibeau, C; Beach, R J; Bayramian, A; Chanteloup, J C; Ebbers, C A; Emanuel, M A; Orth, C D; Rothenberg, J. E; Schaffers, K I; Skidmore, J A; Sutton, S B; Zapata, L E; Powell, H T

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Mercury and Beyond: Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers for Inertial Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

We have begun building the ''Mercury'' laser system as the first in a series of new generation diode-pumped solid-state lasers for inertial fusion research. Mercury will integrate three key technologies: diodes, crystals, and gas cooling, within a unique laser architecture that is scalable to kilojoule energy levels for fusion energy applications. The primary performance goals include 10% electrical efficiencies at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length at 1.047 pm wavelength. When completed, Mercury will allow rep-rated target experiments with multiple target chambers for high energy density physics research.

Bibeau, C.; Beach, R.J.; Bayramian, A.; Chanteloup, J.C.; Ebbers, C.A.; Emanuel, M.A.; Orth, C.D.; Rothenberg, J.E.; Schaffers, K.I.; Skidmore, J.A.; Sutton, S.B.; Zapata, L.E.; Payne, S.A.; Powell, H.T.

1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

294

Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio {Pi}. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at {tau}{sub d} {<=} 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of {tau}{sub d} = 5 - 7, {Pi} = 4 - 8. (lasers)

Mezhenin, A V; Azyazov, V N

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

A Framework for the Optimization of Integrated Energy Systems(Jain and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A Framework for the Optimization of Integrated Energy Systems(Jain and A Framework for the Optimization of Integrated Energy Systems(Jain and Alleyne 2012) Home > Groups > Energy Systems Integration Qinsun's picture Submitted by Qinsun(35) Member 15 November, 2012 - 13:19 Literature Review The author proposed a generalized, control-oriented, exergy-based objective function for optimizing the ESI. It was generalized form for ESI. The metric is suitable for power and thermal systems. It provide an objective modular. The method used in the paper was exergy and feedforward control It provided optimal control and generalized the objectives Groups: Energy Systems Integration Login to post comments Latest documents Qinsun Research topics related to ESI Posted: 15 Nov 2012 - 13:55 by Qinsun Qinsun Prospects for Nuclear Power(Davis 2012)

296

Transmission with Energy Harvesting Nodes in Fading Wireless Channels: Optimal Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wireless systems comprised of rechargeable nodes have a significantly prolonged lifetime and are sustainable. A distinct characteristic of these systems is the fact that the nodes can harvest energy throughout the duration in which communication takes place. As such, transmission policies of the nodes need to adapt to these harvested energy arrivals. In this paper, we consider optimization of point-to-point data transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter which has a limited battery capacity, communicating in a wireless fading channel. We consider two objectives: maximizing the throughput by a deadline, and minimizing the transmission completion time of the communication session. We optimize these objectives by controlling the time sequence of transmit powers subject to energy storage capacity and causality constraints. We, first, study optimal offline policies. We introduce a directional water-filling algorithm which provides a simple and concise interpretation of the necessary optimality conditions. ...

Ozel, Omur; Yang, Jing; Ulukus, Sennur; Yener, Aylin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

OPTIMAL POWER DISPATCH AND CONVERSION IN SYSTEMS WITH MULTIPLE ENERGY CARRIERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces a general optimization approach for power dispatch and conversion in power systems that include multiple energy carriers such as electricity, natural gas, and district heating. The classical Economic Dispatch method is modified in order to account for certain system properties, such as the possibility of conversion between the different energy carriers, or local overproduction and power feedback to the grid. In this work both a system model as well as an optimization approach are developed which are suitable for the integration of an arbitrary number of energy carriers. Analytical results show how the optimal conversion of power affects the marginal prices related to the different energy carriers. Finally the proposed optimization procedure is demonstrated in numerical examples.

Martin Geidl; Gran Andersson

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings NOTICE Due to the current lapse of federal funding, Berkeley Lab websites are accessible, but may not be...

299

Real-Time Loop Scheduling with Energy Optimization Via DVS and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Real-Time Loop Scheduling with Energy. Optimization Via DVS and ABB for Multi -core. Embedded System. Guochen Hua1, Meng Wang1, Zili Shao1, Hui Liu2,...

300

Optimal Power Flow of Multiple Energy Carriers(Geidl and Andersson 2007) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Optimal Power Flow of Multiple Energy Carriers(Geidl and Andersson 2007) Optimal Power Flow of Multiple Energy Carriers(Geidl and Andersson 2007) Home > Groups > Energy Systems Integration Qinsun's picture Submitted by Qinsun(35) Member 15 November, 2012 - 13:04 Literature Review The author proposed a linear static state model for multiple energy carriers. The optimal power flow and economic dispatch was determined. The method is a simple method of integrated system planning The methods used in the paper are linear deterministic system without control signal, optimal power flow and economic dispatch The proposed method stabilized the power grid, reduced the marginal cost of electricity, and increased the marginal cost of natural gas. The strength of the proposed method is following: 1. it is integrated; 2. it secures to converge;

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Advanced Vacuum Clean Equipment Optimizer Ltd AVACO | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vacuum Clean Equipment Optimizer Ltd AVACO Vacuum Clean Equipment Optimizer Ltd AVACO Jump to: navigation, search Name Advanced Vacuum & Clean Equipment Optimizer Ltd (AVACO) Place Daegu, Daegu, Korea (Republic) Product Korean manufacturer of flat panel display equipments; makes sputtering equipment for cell manufacturing. Coordinates 35.88871°, 128.614868° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.88871,"lon":128.614868,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

302

Path placement optimization of manipulators based on energy consumption: application to the orthoglide 3-axis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with the optimal path placement for a manipulator based on energy consumption. It proposes a methodology to determine the optimal location of a given test path within the workspace of a manipulator with minimal electric energy used by the actuators while taking into account the geometric, kinematic and dynamic constraints. The proposed methodology is applied to the Orthoglide~3-axis, a three-degree-of-freedom translational parallel kinematic machine (PKM), as an illustrative example.

Ur-Rehman, Raza; Chablat, Damien; Wenger, Philippe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Optimization of a kinetic laser-plasma interaction code for large parallel systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we simulate the interaction between intense laser radiation and a fully ionized plasma by solving a Vlasov-Maxwell system using the "Particle-In-Cell" (PIC) method. This method provides a very detailed description of the plasma dynamics, ... Keywords: PIC method, high-performance computing, parallel sparse solver

Olivier Coulaud; Michal Dussere; Pascal Hnon; Erik Lefebvre; Jean Roman

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Demonstration and Optimization of a Drive Laser for an X-Band Photoinjector  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a drive laser for an S-band (2.86 GHz) rf photoinjector, designed to provide a pulse that has a flat temporal and spatial profile, has been built, commissioned, and put into service as part of the LLNL Compton-scattering monoenergetic {gamma}-ray source program. This laser is based on an all-fiber oscillator and front-end amplification system, and provides both the laser light to generate the electrons as well as the rf signal that is amplified to accelerate them. Now, a new 11.424 GHz photoinjector is being developed, which has required a revised design for the laser system. The higher frequency has placed more stringent requirements on the synchronization stability, delivered pulse length, and pulse rise times to maintain the desired emittance. Presented here are the overall design and measured performance of the current system and a discussion of what changes are being made to address observed shortcomings and more demanding requirements to make the system ready for the next-generation Compton-scattering monoenergetic {gamma}-ray source.

Gibson, D J; Anderson, S G; Betts, S M; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Shverdin, M Y; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

2009-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

305

Optimal Design and Operation of Energy Polygeneration Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

downstream sections such as the gas turbine, FT process and the methanol process. In this thesis, the optimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 2.5 Methanol Synthesis Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 2.6 Gas Turbine million Btu for natural gas and oil [20]. Coal resources are also widely distributed around the world

Barton, Paul I.

306

Optimization of high-performance superscalar architectures for energy efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years reducing power has become a critical design goal for high-performance microprocessors. This work attempts to bring the power issue to the earliest phase of high-performance microprocessor development. We propose a methodology for power-optimization ...

V. Zyuban; P. Kogge

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Update on diode-pumped solid-state laser experiments for inertial fusion energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have completed the initial phase of the diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) experimental program to validate the expected pumping dynamics and extraction cross-sections of Yb{sup 3+}-doped Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F (Yb:S-FAP) crystals. Yb:S-FAP crystals up to 25 x 25 x 175 mm in size have been grown for this purpose which have acceptable loss characteristics (energy transmission properties of a Yb:S-FAP rod. The small signal gain under saturated pumping conditions was measured. These measurements imply an emission cross section of 6.0 x 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2} that falls within error bars of the previously reported value of 7.3 x 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2}, obtained from purely spectroscopic techniques. The effects of radiation trapping on the emission lifetime have been quantified. The long lifetime of Yb:S-FAP has beneficial effects for diode-pumped amplifier designs, relative to materials with equivalent cross sections but shorter lifetimes, in that less peak pump intensity is required (thus lower diode costs) and that lower spontaneous emission rates lead to a reduction in amplified spontaneous emission. Consequently, up to 1.7 J/cm{sup 3} of stored energy density was achieved in a 6x6x44 mm Yb:S-FAP amplifier rod; this stored energy density is large relative to typical flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass values of 0.3 to 0.5 J/cm{sup 3}. A 2.4 kW peak power InGaAs diode array has been fabricated by Beach, Emanuel, and co-workers which meets the central wavelength, bandwidth, and energy specifications for the author`s immediate experiments. These results further increase their optimism of being able to produce a {approximately} 10% efficient diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy.

Marshall, C.; Smith, L.; Payne, S.

1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cost of energy consumption at peak times is higher thantime constraints, variable maintenance costs, fixed-batch energytime-step of the timespan E(cost()) is the expected energy

Firestone, Ryan Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Energy Optimization of Bioethanol Production via Hydrolysis of Switchgrass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biogas rich in methane that can be reused to obtain energy. Later, the water is treated in an aerated

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

310

Optimization of Power and Energy Densities in Supercapacitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications. Presentation Title...

311

Searching for the Optimal Mix of Solar and Efficiency in Zero Net Energy Buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Zero net energy (ZNE) buildings employ efficiency to reduce energy consumption and solar technologies to produce as much energy on site as is consumed on an annual basis. Such buildings leverage utility grids and net-metering agreements to reduce solar system costs and maintenance requirements relative to off-grid photovoltaic (PV)-powered buildings with batteries. The BEopt software was developed to efficiently identify cost-optimal building designs using detailed hour-by-hour energy simulation programs to evaluate the user-selected options. A search technique identifies optimal and near-optimal building designs (based on energy-related costs) at various levels of energy savings along the path from a reference building to a ZNE design. In this paper, we describe results based on use of the BEopt software to develop cost-optimal paths to ZNE for various climates. Comparing the different cases shows optimal building design characteristics, percent energy savings and cash flows at key points along the path, including the point at which investments shift from building improvements to purchasing PV, and PV array sizes required to achieve ZNE. From optimizations using the BEopt software for a 2,000-ft{sup 2} house in 4 climates, we conclude that, relative to a code-compliant (IECC 2006) reference house, the following are achievable: (1) minimum cost point: 22 to 38% source energy savings and 15 to 24% annual cash flow savings; (2) PV start point: 40 to 49% source energy savings at 10 to 12% annual cash flow savings; (3) break-even point: 43 to 53% source energy savings at 0% annual cash flow savings; and (4) ZNE point: 100% source energy savings with 4.5 to 8.1 kW{sub DC} PV arrays and 76 to 169% increase in cash flow.

Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Anderson, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Optimization of Dispersed Energy Supply -Stochastic Programming with Recombining  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the wind energy fed into the electrical network as well as the regional concentration in the north plant park can hardly be saved. In this context, electrical energy storage offers a possibility. The latter is used for the analysis of a regional energy system model, which is described in Section 1

Römisch, Werner

313

NIF achieves record laser energy in pursuit of fusion ignition | National  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

achieves record laser energy in pursuit of fusion ignition | National achieves record laser energy in pursuit of fusion ignition | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > NIF achieves record laser energy in pursuit ... NIF achieves record laser energy in pursuit of fusion ignition Posted By Office of Public Affairs NNSA Blog The NNSA's National Ignition Facility (NIF) surpassed a critical

314

Climate Change: Anticipated Effects on High-Energy Laser Weapon Systems in Maritime Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study quantifies the potential impacts on ship-defense high-energy-laser (HEL) performance due to atmospheric effects in the marine boundary layer driven by recent observations and analysis of worldwide sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The ...

Steven T. Fiorino; Robb M. Randall; Richard J. Bartell; Adam D. Downs; Peter C. Chu; C. W. Fan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Undulator-Based Laser Wakefield Accelerator Electron Beam Energy Spread and Emittance Diagnostic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design and current status of experiments to couple the Tapered Hybrid Undulator (THUNDER) to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser plasma accelerator (LPA) to measure electron beam energy spread and emittance are presented.

Bakeman, M.S.; Van Tilborg, J.; Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A.; Osterhoff, J.; Sokollik, T.; Lin, C.; Robinson, K.E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, Cs.; Weingartner, R.; Gruner, F.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Electron energy boosting in laser-wake-field acceleration with external magnetic field Bapprox1 T and laser prepulses  

SciTech Connect

Hundred-mega-electron-volt electron beams with quasi-monoenergetic distribution, and a transverse geometrical emittance as small as approx0.02 pi mm mrad are generated by low power (7 TW, 45 fs) laser pulses tightly focused in helium gas jets in an external static magnetic field, Bapprox1 T. Generation of monoenergetic beams strongly correlates with appearance of a straight, at least 2 mm length plasma channel in a short time before the main laser pulse and with the energy of copropagating picosecond pedestal pulses (PPP). For a moderate energy PPP, the multiple or staged electron self-injection in the channel gives several narrow peaks in the electron energy distribution.

Hosokai, Tomonao [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Zhidkov, Alexei [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Yamazaki, Atsushi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Mizuta, Yoshio [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Uesaka, Mitsuru [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 22-2 Shirane-shirakata, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Kodama, Ryosuke [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

317

BEopt: Software for Identifying Optimal Building Designs on the Path to Zero Net Energy; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A zero net energy (ZNE) building produces as much energy on-site as it uses on an annual basis--using a grid-tied, net-metered photovoltaic (PV) system and active solar. The optimal path to ZNE extends from a base case to the ZNE building through a series of energy-saving building designs with minimal energy-related owning and operating costs. BEopt is a computer program designed to find optimal building designs along the path to ZNE. A user selects from among predefined options in various categories to specify options to be considered in the optimization. Energy savings are calculated relative to a reference. The reference can be either a user-defined base-case building or a climate-specific Building America Benchmark building automatically generated by BEopt. The user can also review and modify detailed information on all available options and the Building America Benchmark in a linked options library spreadsheet.

Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.; Givler, T.; Courtney, A.; Barker, G.

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

A General Framework for the Optimization of Energy Harvesting Communication Systems with Battery Imperfections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy harvesting has emerged as a powerful technology for complementing current battery-powered communication systems in order to extend their lifetime. In this paper a general framework is introduced for the optimization of communication systems in which the transmitter is able to harvest energy from its environment. Assuming that the energy arrival process is known non-causally at the transmitter, the structure of the optimal transmission scheme, which maximizes the amount of transmitted data by a given deadline, is identified. Our framework includes models with continuous energy arrival as well as battery constraints. A battery that suffers from energy leakage is studied further, and the optimal transmission scheme is characterized for a constant leakage rate.

Devillers, Bertrand

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Model Predictive Control-based Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources  

SciTech Connect

Distributed energy resources, such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response, can be used to complement conventional generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging, especially in isolated systems. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation performance. The goals of the optimization problem are to minimize fuel costs and maximize the utilization of wind while considering equipment life of generators and energy storage. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve a look-ahead dispatch optimization problem and the performance is compared to an open loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the closed loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties and variability caused in the system.

Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Lian, Jianming; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

320

Transmission with energy harvesting nodes in fading wireless channels: Optimal policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AbstractWireless systems comprised of rechargeable nodes have a significantly prolonged lifetime and are sustainable. A distinct characteristic of these systems is the fact that the nodes can harvest energy throughout the duration in which communication takes place. As such, transmission policies of the nodes need to adapt to these harvested energy arrivals. In this paper, we consider optimization of point-to-point data transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter which has a limited battery capacity, communicating in a wireless fading channel. We consider two objectives: maximizing the throughput by a deadline, and minimizing the transmission completion time of the communication session. We optimize these objectives by controlling the time sequence of transmit powers subject to energy storage capacity and causality constraints. We, first, study optimal offline policies. We introduce a directional water-filling algorithm which provides a simple and concise interpretation of the necessary optimality conditions. We show the optimality of an adaptive directional water-filling algorithm for the throughput maximization problem. We solve the transmission completion time minimization problem by utilizing its equivalence to its throughput maximization counterpart. Next, we consider online policies. We use stochastic dynamic programming to solve for the optimal online policy that maximizes the average number of bits delivered by a deadline under stochastic fading and energy arrival processes with causal channel state feedback. We also propose near-optimal policies with reduced complexity, and numerically study their performances along with the performances of the offline and online optimal policies under various different configurations. Index TermsEnergy harvesting, rechargeable wireless networks, throughput maximization, transmission completion time minimization, directional water-filling, dynamic programming. I.

Omur Ozel; Student Member; Kaya Tutuncuoglu; Student Member; Jing Yang; Student Member; Sennur Ulukus; Aylin Yener

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

X-ray lasers and methods utilizing two component driving illumination provided by optical laser means of relatively low energy and small physical size  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray laser (10), and related methodology, are disclosed wherein an X-ray laser target (12) is illuminated with a first pulse of optical laser radiation (14) of relatively long duration having scarcely enough energy to produce a narrow and linear cool plasma of uniform composition (38). A second, relatively short pulse of optical laser radiation (18) is uniformly swept across the length, from end to end, of the plasma (38), at about the speed of light, to consecutively illuminate continuously succeeding portions of the plasma (38) with optical laser radiation having scarcely enough energy to heat, ionize, and invert them into the continuously succeeding portions of an X-ray gain medium. This inventive double pulse technique results in a saving of more than two orders of magnitude in driving optical laser energy, when compared to the conventional single pulse approach.

Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (El Granada, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Photo of the Week: Laser Beats Rock | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Laser Beats Rock Laser Beats Rock Photo of the Week: Laser Beats Rock April 8, 2013 - 5:28pm Addthis On August 5, 2012, the Curiosity rover touched down on the surface of Mars. The ChemCam instrument package, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is a device mounted on the Mars Curiosity rover that uses two remote sensing instruments: the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). The LIBS fires a powerful laser that determines chemical compositions of rock and soil samples, while the RMI takes photos of the samples within the rover's vicinity. In this photo, the ChemCam is being prepared in the clean room prior to the launch of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission. Learn more about the ChemCam. | Photo courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory.

323

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet), Thermal Test Facility (TTF), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management Scientists at this living laboratory develop optimal solutions for managing energy flows within buildings and transportation systems. The built environment is stressing the utility grid to a greater degree than ever before. Growing demand for electric vehicles, space conditioning, and plug loads presents a critical opportunity for more effective energy management and development of efficiency technologies. Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing this opportunity. Through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems,

324

Renewable Energy Optimization Report for Naval Station Newport...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites Robi Robichaud, Gail Mosey, and Dan...

325

dlCC Opt: Optimization Software for Renewable Energy Projects  

There are numerous options for renewable energy systems development. Location, size, type of system, and a number of other criteria need to be ...

326

Determining Optimal Locations for New Wind Energy Development in Iowa.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this research is to generate the most accurate model possible for predicting locations most suitable for new wind energy development using a (more)

Mann, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Optimization of Hierarchical Lattice Structures for Energy Absorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... potential to outperform foams in many applications, including energy absorption. ... of Fe-C Alloy as a Function of Cooling Rate and Local Solidification Time.

328

Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for several years. Given load curves for energy services requirements in a building microgrid (grid), fuel costs and other economic inputs, and a menu of available...

329

Residential Energy Management system for optimization of on-site generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Energy Management system for optimization of on-site generation Residential Energy Management system for optimization of on-site generation with HVAC Speaker(s): Ram Narayanamurthy Date: October 29, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 As the individual movements towards Net Zero Energy Homes (NZEH) and the SmartGrid converge on residential buildings, three major challenges need to be addressed: Flatten the highly peaked electric load profile of low energy homes Provide easy integration of energy efficiency into existing homes Provide builders and consumers with visibility into building operation, and ease of management. A Home Energy Management System (HEMS) owned by the consumer, capable of two way communications with Utility DR/SmartGrid/AMI is required to resolve these challenges. The HEMS will need to increase energy efficiency of building operations, provide consumers feedback and

330

Efficient energy transfer in light-harvesting systems, I: optimal temperature, reorganization energy, and spatial-temporal correlations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the mechanisms of efficient and robust energy transfer in light-harvesting systems provides new insights for the optimal design of artificial systems. In this paper, we use the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein complex and phycocyanin 645 (PC 645) to explore the general dependence on physical parameters that help maximize the efficiency and maintain its stability. With the Haken-Strobl model, the maximal energy transfer efficiency (ETE) is achieved under an intermediate optimal value of dephasing rate. Guided by the insight, we use the generalized Bloch-Redfield (GBR) equation approach to correctly describe dissipative exciton dynamics and find that maximal ETE can be achieved under various physical conditions, including temperature, reorganization energy, and spatial-temporal correlations in noise. We also identify regimes of reorganization energy where the ETE changes monotonically with temperature or spatial correlation and therefore cannot be optimized with respect to these two variables.

Wu, Jianlan; Shen, Young; Cao, Jianshu; Silbey, Robert J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy for each ton of coal processed. Thus, the oxygen plants in a commercial coal conversion facility may require 150 megawatts. Design of the oxygen plants will require close attention to energy consumption. Many coal conversion processes can accept oxygen at less than the historical 99.5% purity with significant savings in energy and cost. The air separation process is reviewed with emphasis on optimum oxygen purity. An energy reduction of 8.4% can be achieved when oxygen purity is reduced from 99.5% to 95%. Oxygen is a major tonnage chemical which is also highly energy intensive. The current United States capacity of about 80 thousand tons per day places it in the top five of basic chemicals, and its energy requirement of 350 to 450 kilowatt hours per ton makes it a major energy consumer. The growing synfuels industry -- conversion of coal into hydrocarbon fuels and chemical feed-stocks -- will greatly increase the production of oxygen and presents major opportunities for energy conservation.

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

: Enabling Energy Optimizations in GPGPUs Jingwen Leng1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-level simulator GPGPU-Sim and demonstrate the energy savings by utilizing dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and clock gating. Traditional DVFS reduces GPU energy consumption by 14.4% by lever- aging within-efficiency problems have been difficult owing to the lack of a suit- able power modeling infrastructure. Researchers

Aamodt, Tor

333

Optimal Routing and Assignment of Consultants for Energy Education, Inc.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy Education, Inc. EEI, a US management consulting firm, specializes in implementing energy conservation programs for schools, universities, and large churches. Similar to many consulting firms, travel expenses are among its largest budget items. ... Keywords: cluster analysis, consulting, employee assignment, vehicle routing

Junfang Yu; Randy Hoff

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Vibration-based MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Power Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The simplicity associated with piezoelectric micro-generators makes them very attractive for MEMS applications in which ambient vibrations are harvested and converted into electric energy. These micro-generators can become an alternative to the battery-based ... Keywords: Piezoelectric materials, Energy conversion, shaped cantilever, MEMS

Othman Sidek, Salem Saadon

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Optimal Design of Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) for Wireless SCADA System for Energy Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For energy deficit countries, the design of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) based energy management systems for optimal distribution is of high interest. Such design involves development of Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) which is considered ... Keywords: Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), Tele-Control Interface (TCI), Wireless Communication

Muhammad Aamir; Javier Poncela; Muhammad Aslam Uqaili; B. S. Chowdhry; Nishat Ahmad Khan

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

GA based energy loss minimization approach for optimal sizing & placement of distributed generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed Generators (DG) provide the lowest cost solution to handle low voltage or overload problems. In conjunction with such problems, a technique of energy saving is introduced by placement of distributed generation (DG) in distribution systems. ... Keywords: Distributed generation (DG), energy saving, genetic algorithms (GA), optimal sizing and placement

Deependra Singh; Devender Singh; K. S. Verma

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Modeling and optimizing maintenance schedule for energy systems subject to degradation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, with the increasing investment on distributed energy system (DES), maintenance management has played an important role in improving the system performance. This paper aims to integrate the conception of the multiple attribute value theory ... Keywords: Distributed energy system, Imperfect maintenance, Multi-attribute model, Optimal schedule, Sequential preventive maintenance

Tangbin Xia; Lifeng Xi; Xiaojun Zhou; Shichang Du

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Optimizing Energy Use in the Process Industries: Volumes 1-4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large process industry plants may meet shaft power requirements through use of electric motor drives, steam turbine drives, or combustion engines. Current research on optimizing energy use in process industries provides a methodology for evaluating the electric drive option and available techniques for reducing total energy consumption.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Optimal control of a grid-connected hybrid electrical energy storage system for homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integrating residential photovoltaic (PV) power generation and electrical energy storage (EES) systems into the Smart Grid is an effective way of utilizing renewable power and reducing the consumption of fossil fuels. This has become a particularly interesting ... Keywords: hybrid electrical energy storage system, optimal control, smart grid

Yanzhi Wang, Xue Lin, Massoud Pedram, Sangyoung Park, Naehyuck Chang

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Optimizing architectural and structural aspects of buildings towards higher energy efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this on-going work, we aim at contributing to the issue of energy consumption by proposing tools to automatically define some aspects of the architectural and structural design of buildings. Our framework starts with a building design, and automatically ... Keywords: construction costs, energy efficiency, intelligent building design, multi-objective optimization, sustainable development

lvaro Fialho; Youssef Hamadi; Marc Schoenauer

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Energy-optimal SRAM supply voltage scheduling under lifetime and error constraints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work addresses the energy efficiency of the memory architecture in safety-critical systems that have to guarantee a given level of service and a minimum lifetime. We specifically target SRAM structures in which decreased reliability manifests itself ... Keywords: NBTI, SRAM, aging, energy optimization, reliability

Andrea Calimera, Enrico Macii, Massimo Poncino

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Breakeven costs of storage in optimized solar energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results are described of an analysis of the breakeven cost, or value, of energy storage to solar energy systems. It is shown that the value of storage depends strongly both on solar fraction of the solar energy system in which the storage is employed, and on the cost of the collectors used in the system. Various strategies for dealing with this ambiguity are presented, and it is shown that for a broad class of technically and economically practical solar energy systems, storage costs need only be low enough to make a system employing very small amounts of storage practical. Reductions in cost of collectors will thereafter produce greater reductions in the total system costs or provide greater fuel displacement at constant total system cost than will reductions in the cost of storage, within limits discussed. The analysis makes use of a simple, accurate representation of solar energy system performance which may prove useful in other contexts.

Leigh, R. W.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

High-Energy Petawatt Project at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-energy petawatt laser, OMEGA EP, is currently under construction at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Integrated into the existing OMEGA laser, it will support three major areas of research: (a) backlighting of high-energy-density plasmas, (b) integrated fast ignition experiments, and (c) high-intensity physics. The laser will provide two beams combined collinearly and coaxially with short pulses (~1 to 100 ps) and high energy (2.6 kJ at 10 ps). Cone-in-shell fuel-assembly experiments and simulations of short-pulse heated cryogenic targets are being performed in preparation for cryogenic integrated fast ignitor experiments on OMEGA EP.

Stoeckl, C.; Delettrez, J.A.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Loucks, S.J.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Maywar, D.N.; Morse, S.F.B.; Myatt, J.; Rigatti, A.L.; Waxer, L.J.; Zuegel, J.D.; Stephens, R.B.

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

344

Development of a Predictive Optimal Controller for Thermal Energy Storage Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the development and simulation of a predictive optimal controller for thermal energy storage systems. The `optimal' strategy minimizes the cost of operating the cooling plant over the simulation horizon. The particular case of a popular ice storage system (ice-on-coil with internal melt) has been investigated in a simulation environment. Various predictor models have been analyzed with respect to their performance in forecasting cooling load data and information on ambient conditions (dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures). The predictor model provides load and weather information to the optimal controller in discrete time steps. An optimal storage charging and discharging strategy is planned at every time step over a fixed look-ahead time window utilizing newly available information. The first action of the optimal sequence of actions is executed over the next time step and the planning process is repeated at every following time step. The effect of the length of the...

Gregor Henze; Robert H. Dodier; Moncef Krarti

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

An energy optimal power supply for digital circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy efficiency of digital circuits continues to be a major factor in determining the size and weight of battery-operated electronics. Integration of more functionality in a single system has made battery longevity ...

Ramadass, Yogesh Kumar

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Optimal design and operation of energy polygeneration systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polygeneration is a concept where multiple energy products are generated in a single plant by tightly integrating multiple processes into one system. Compared to conventional single-product systems, polygeneration systems ...

Chen, Yang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemical Engineering

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Optimization and homotopy methods for the Gibbs free energy of ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tions with quiet lava flows, low energy Strombolian explosions or Hawaiian lava .... it should be computed at least once in each mesh element for each time step ...... brought by range reductions: the computational cost of the reduction is largely.

348

Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

also conducted with the week-ahead DER- CAM to assess the CO 2 emissions reductions and energy cost savings from rescheduling electrical loads. Figure 1 shows an example result...

349

Kansas City Power and Light- Energy Optimizer Programmable Thermostat Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Kansas City Power and Light (KCP&L) offers a free Honeywell programmable thermostat, worth $300, and free installation to qualifying customers to manage energy usage. Only residential and small...

350

Kansas City Power & Light- Energy Optimizer Programmable Thermostat Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Kansas City Power and Light (KCP&L) offers a free Honeywell programmable thermostat, worth $300, and free installation to qualifying customers to manage energy usage. Only residential and small...

351

Optimization of Electric Energy Consumption in Marginal California Oilfields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents a pilot study of electricity consumption in California oilfields that found significant potential for reducing costs through energy efficiency improvements. It offers suggestions for reducing electricity consumption that, if implemented, could result in a system-wide demand reduction and reduce the need for additional generation and power infrastructure capacity. Moreover, reducing oilfield energy costs would reduce the overall cost of oil production, helping marginal wells remain a...

2003-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

352

Control and Room Temperature Optimization of Energy Efficient Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The building sector consumes a large part of the energy used in the United States and is responsible for nearly 40% of greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore economically and environmentally important to reduce the building energy consumption to realize massive energy savings. In this paper, a method to control room temperature in buildings is proposed. The approach is based on a distributed parameter model represented by a three dimensional (3D) heat equation in a room with heater/cooler located at ceiling. The latter is resolved using finite element methods, and results in a model for room temperature with thousands of states. The latter is not amenable to control design. A reduced order model of only few states is then derived using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is computed based on the reduced model, and applied to the full order model to control room temperature.

Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Double-plateau in the energy distribution of electrons scattered by ions-pairs in a strong laser field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Double-plateau in the energy distribution of electrons scattered by ions-pairs in a strong laser) The energy distribution of electrons scattered from single ions and from pairs of ions in a strong laser solution of the energy distribution for instantaneous Coulomb collisions in three dimensions

Kull, Hans-Jörg

354

High-Fidelity Nuclear Energy System Optimization towards an Environmentally Benign, Sustainable, and Secure Energy Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of MCNPX for highfidelity fuel cycle component simulations. The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. In this dissertation, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The reactor systems include the AP1000, VHTR, and HEST. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics for each was used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. The High Level Waste (HLW) stream produced by typical nuclear systems was characterized according to the radionuclides that are key contributors to long-term waste management issues. The TRU component of the waste stream becomes the main radiological concern for time periods greater than 300 years. A TRU isotopic assessment was developed and implemented to produce a priority ranking system for the TRU nuclides as related to long-term waste management and their expected characteristics under irradiation in the different reactor systems of the NES. Detailed 3D whole-core models were developed for analysis of the individual reactor systems of the NES. As an inherent part of the process, the models were validated and verified by performing experiment-to-code and/or code-to-code benchmarking procedures, which provided substantiation for obtained data and results. Reactor core physics and material depletion calculations were performed and analyzed. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques. The NES has demonstrated great potential for providing safe, clean, and secure energy and doing so with foreseen advantages over the LEU once-through fuel cycle option. The main advantages exist due to better utilization of natural resources by recycling the used nuclear fuel, and by reducing the final amount and time span for which the resulting HLW must be isolated from the public and the environment due to radiological hazard. If deployed, the NES can substantially reduce the long-term radiological hazard posed by current HLW, extend uranium resources, and approach the characteristics of an environmentally benign energy system.

Ames, David E.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

NRELs Renewable Energy Optimization (REopt) Tool: Models & Tools (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

m o d e l s & t o o l s NREL's Renewable Energy Optimization (REopt) Tool NREL's REopt tool is an early screening tool that identifies and prioritizes renewable energy (RE) projects at a single site, or across a portfolio of geographically dispersed sites, to meet agency goals. Key Features * Optimization. REopt considers RE resources, energy rates, and utility policies to identify the most cost-effective technologies to meet energy goals. * Integration. REopt simultaneously models the complex hourly interactions of multiple thermal and electric RE technologies, along with conventional energy sources. * Low cost. REopt provides a quick and low-cost method to identify the most economically and technically viable technologies for further study.

356

Experimental investigations to optimize the utilization of energy resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In world more than 65% of non-renewable fuels are consumed by thermal, gas, nuclear, diesel power plants and process industries. They emit huge amount of pollutants and skew up large quantities of ash in to environment causing pollution and lead to adverse ... Keywords: energy, environment, management, resources, safety

Gurumurthy Vijayan Iyer; Nikos E. Mastorakis

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Analyzing utilization rates in data centers for optimizing energy management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we explore academic data center utilization rates from an energy management perspective with the broader goal of providing decision support for green computing. The utilization rate is defined as the overall extent to which data center ... Keywords: Utilization Rates,Cloud,Data Centers,Forecasting,Green IT

Michael Pawlish; Aparna S. Varde; Stefan A. Robila

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Control and Optimization Meet the Smart Power Grid - Scheduling of Power Demands for Optimal Energy Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The smart power grid aims at harnessing information and communication technologies to enhance reliability and enforce sensible use of energy. Its realization is geared by the fundamental goal of effective management of demand load. In this work, we envision a scenario with real-time communication between the operator and consumers. The grid operator controller receives requests for power demands from consumers, with different power requirement, duration, and a deadline by which it is to be completed. The objective is to devise a power demand task scheduling policy that minimizes the grid operational cost over a time horizon. The operational cost is a convex function of instantaneous power consumption and reflects the fact that each additional unit of power needed to serve demands is more expensive as demand load increases.First, we study the off-line demand scheduling problem, where parameters are fixed and known. Next, we devise a stochastic model for the case when demands are generated continually and sched...

Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The escalating energy prices and the increasing environmental impact posed by the industrial usage of energy have spurred industry to adopt various approaches to conserving energy and mitigating negative environmental impact. This work aims at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels, process waste heat) to guarantee providing a stable energy supply, as industrial process energy sources must be a stable and reliable system. The thermal energy transform systems (turbines, refrigerators, heat exchangers) must be selected and designed carefully to provide the energy demand at the different forms (heat, cool, power). This dissertation introduces optimization-based approaches to address the following problems: Design of cogeneration systems with solar and fossil systems Design and integration of solar-biofuel-fossil cogeneration systems Design of solar-assisted absorption refrigeration systems and integration with the processing facility Development of thermally-coupled dual absorption refrigeration systems, and Design of solar-assisted trigeneration systems Several optimization formulations are introduced to provide methodical and systematic techniques to solve the aforementioned problems. The approach is also sequenced into interacting steps. First, heat integration is carried out to minimize industrial heating and cooling utilities. Different forms of external-energy sources (e.g., solar, biofuel, fossil fuel) are screened and selected. To optimize the cost and to overcome the dynamic fluctuation of the solar energy and biofuel production systems, fossil fuel is used to supplement the renewable forms of energy. An optimization approach is adopted to determine the optimal mix of energy forms (fossil, bio fuels, and solar) to be supplied to the process, the system specifications, and the scheduling of the system operation. Several case studies are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the devised procedure. The results show that solar trigeneration systems have higher overall performance than the solar thermal power plants. Integrating the absorption refrigerators improves the energy usage and it provides the process by its cooling demand. Thermal coupling of the dual absorption refrigerators increases the coefficient of performance up to 33 percent. Moreover, the process is provided by two cooling levels.

Tora, Eman

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Electra: An Electron Beam Pumped KrF Rep-Rate Laser System for Inertial Fusion Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Average Power Laser and Other IFE R&D / Eighteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Part 1)

P. M. Burns et al.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Characterizing the energy distribution of laser-generated relativistic electrons in cone-wire targets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transport of relativistic electrons in a solid Cu wire target has been modeled with the implicit hybrid particle-in-cell code LSP to investigate the electron energy distribution and energy coupling from the high-intensity, short-pulse laser to electrons entering to the wire. Experiments were performed on the TITAN laser using a 1.5 mm long Cu wire attached to a Au cone tip at the laser intensity of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} which was irradiated into the cone. The simulated Cu K{alpha} wire profile and yields matched the measurements using a two-temperature energy distribution. These modeling results show that the cold component of the energy spectrum can be determined with {+-}100 keV accuracy from the fit to the initial experimental fall-off of the K{alpha} emission while the simulated profiles were relatively insensitive to the hotter component of the electron distribution (>4 MeV). The slope of measured escaped electrons was used to determine the hotter temperature. Using exponential energy distributions, the laser-to-electron-in-wire coupling efficiencies inferred from the fits decreased from 3.4% to 1.5% as the prepulse energy increases up to 1 J. The comparison of the energy couplings using the exponential and Relativistic Maxwellian distribution functions showed that the energy inferred in the cold component is independent of the type of the distribution function.

Sawada, H.; Beg, F. N. [Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Higginson, D. P.; Ma, T. [Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Link, A.; Wilks, S. C.; McLean, H. S.; Perez, F.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Characterization and Optimization of a Powder Feed Nozzle for High Deposition Laser Cladding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on structural components and is widely used in the maritime, oil and gas exploration, and energy industries or wear resistant materials is known as cladding. Cladding is widely used in oil and gas exploration

Omiecinski, Curtis

363

SOLAR PUMPED LASER MICROTHRUSTER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of microsatellites requires the development of engines to modify their orbit. It is natural to use solar energy to drive such engines. For an unlimited energy source the optimal thruster must use a minimal amount of expendable material to minimize launch costs. This requires the ejected material to have the maximal velocity and, hence, the ejected atoms must be as light as possible and be ejected by as high an energy density source as possible. Such a propulsion can be induced by pulses from an ultra-short laser. The ultra-short laser provides the high-energy concentration and high-ejected velocity. We suggest a microthruster system comprised of an inflatable solar concentrator, a solar panel, and a diode-pumped fiber laser. We will describe the system design and give weight estimates.

Rubenchik, A M; Beach, R; Dawson, J; Siders, C W

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

364

Lasers and Optoelectronic Components Used with Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... example, beam profile and relative intensity noise ... for the laser wavelengths and energies for which ... The laser power and energy measurements are ...

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

365

Optimization of an electret-based energy harvester  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thanks to miniaturisation, it is today possible to imagine self-powered systems that use vibrations to produce their own electrical energy. Many energy-harvesting systems already exist. Some of them are based on the use of electrets: electrically charged dielectrics that can keep charges for years. This paper presents an optimisation of an existing system and proves that electret-based electrostatic energy scavengers can be excellent solutions to power microsystems even with low-level ambient vibrations. Thereby, it is possible to harvest up to 200\\muW with vibrations lower than 1G of acceleration (typically 50\\mumpp at 50Hz) using thin SiO2 electrets with an active surface of 1 cm^{2} and a mobile mass of 1g. This paper optimises such a system (geometric, electrostatic and mechanical parameters), using FEM (Finite Element Method) software (Comsol Multiphysics) and Matlab to compute the parameters and proves the importance of such an optimisation to build efficient systems. Finally, it shows that the use of e...

Boisseau, S; Sylvestre, A; 10.1088/0964-1726/19/7/075015

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources  

SciTech Connect

Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT`s with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

O`Sullivan, G. [Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States); Bonn, R.; Bower, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Energy enhancement of proton acceleration in combinational radiation pressure and bubble by optimizing plasma density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The combinational laser radiation pressure and plasma bubble fields to accelerate protons are researched through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. The dephasing length of the accelerated protons bunch in the front of the bubble and the density gradient effect of background plasma on the accelerating phase are analyzed in detail theoretically. The radiation damping effect on the accelerated protons energy is also considered. And it is demonstrated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the protons bunch energy can be increased by using the background plasma with negative density gradient. However, radiation damping makes the maximal energy of the accelerated protons a little reduction.

Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie Baisong [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shan Zhang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Hong Xueren [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Wang Hongyu [Department of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China); Shanghai Bright-Tech Information Technology Co. Ltd, Shanghai 200136 (China)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Capsule: an energy-optimized object storage system for memory-constrained sensor devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent gains in energy-efficiency of new-generation NAND flash storage have strengthened the case for in-network storage by data-centric sensor network applications. This paper argues that a simple file system abstraction is inadequate for realizing the full benefits of high-capacity low-power NAND flash storage in data-centric applications. Instead we advocate a rich object storage abstraction to support flexible use of the storage system for a variety of application needs and one that is specifically optimized for memory and energy-constrained sensor platforms. We propose Capsule, an energy-optimized log-structured object storage system for flash memories that enables sensor applications to exploit storage resources in a multitude of ways. Capsule employs a hardware abstraction layer that hides the vagaries of flash memories for the application and supports energy-optimized implementations of commonly used storage objects such as streams, files, arrays, queues and lists. Further, Capsule supports checkpointing and rollback of object states to tolerate software faults in sensor applications running on inexpensive, unreliable hardware. Our experiments demonstrate that Capsule provides platform-independence, greater functionality, more tunability, and greater energy-efficiency than existing sensor storage solutions, while operating even within the memory constraints of the Mica2 Mote. Our experiments not only demonstrate the energy and memory-efficiency of I/O operations in Capsule but also shows that Capsule consumes less than 15% of the total energy cost in a typical sensor application.

Gaurav Mathur; Peter Desnoyers; Deepak Ganesan; Prashant Shenoy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Overview of the principal Brookhaven energy system optimization models. [BESOM, three variants, and two applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Brookhaven Energy System Optimization Model (BESOM), three of its variants, and two examples of characteristic applications are described. BESOM is a linear-programming model that was developed for the quantitative evaluation of energy technologies and policies within a systems framework. The model is designed to examine interfuel substitutions in the context of constraints on the availability of competing resources and technologies. BESOM provides a snapshot of the national energy system configuration, while MARKAL and TESOM provide, respectively, a farsighted time dimension and a simulation capability for the examination of the evolution of a national energy system over a time horizon.

Kydes, A S

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Light incoherence theory revisited by Heisenberg time-energy uncertainty challenges solar cell optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of the efficiency of solar cells is a major challenge for renewable energies. Using a rigorous theoretical approach, we show that the photocurrent generated in a solar cell depends strongly on the degree of coherence of the incident light. In accordance with Heisenberg uncertainty time-energy, incoherent light at photons of carrier energy lower than the active material bandgap can be absorbed whereas coherent light at the same carrier energy cannot. We identify cases where incoherence does enhance efficiency. This result has a dramatical impact on the way solar cells must be optimized regarding sunlight. As an illustration, surface-corrugated GaAs and c-Si thin-film solar cells are considered.

Herman, Aline; Deparis, Olivier

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power Systems for Demand Charge Mitigation (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.

Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Degree of compression and energy efficiency of a capillary compressor of femtosecond laser pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A relation between the degree of pulse compression and energy efficiency is derived for femtosecond laser pulse compressors that utilise spectral broadening of pulses in a gas-filled capillary. We show that the degree of compression has a maximum at an energy efficiency from 15% to 30%. A 15-fold compression of a 290-fs pulse with an energy efficiency of 24% is demonstrated.

Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Kostryukov, P V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Potential Energy Savings from Optimized Schedule and Economizer Cycles in the Moody Library at UTMB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a study which was initiated in order to estimate the potential energy savings due to optimizing the HVAC operation schedule and using economizer cycles in the Moody Library Building located at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Texas (UTMB).

Liu, M.; Athar, A.; Reddy, T. A.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Decision system based on neural networks to optimize the energy efficiency of a petrochemical plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy efficiency of industrial plants is an important issue in any type of business but particularly in the chemical industry. Not only is it important in order to reduce costs, but also it is necessary even more as a means of reducing the amount ... Keywords: Cost optimization, Crude oil distillation, Data mining, Decision system, Expert system, Neural network, Petrochemical plant

Iigo Monedero; Flix Biscarri; Carlos Len; Juan I. Guerrero; Rocio Gonzlez; Luis Prez-Lombard

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Optimal control in energy conversion of small wind power systems with permanent-magnet-synchronous-generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of experimental investigation of a low-power wind energy conversion system (WECS), based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) connected directly to the turbine. A development system was built in order to ... Keywords: hardware-in-the-loop simulation, maximum power point tracking, optimal control, permanent-magnet synchronous generator, wind system

C. Vlad; I. Munteanu; A. I. Bratcu; E. Ceanga

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Zettawatt-Exawatt Lasers and Their Applications in Ultrastrong-Field Physics High Energy Front  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since its birth, the laser has been extraordinarily effective in the study and applications of laser-matter interaction at the atomic and molecular level and in the nonlinear optics of the bound electron. In its early life, the laser was associated with the physics of electron volts and of the chemical bond. Over the past fifteen years, however, we have seen a surge in our ability to produce high intensities, five to six orders of magnitude higher than was possible before. At these intensities, particles, electrons and protons, acquire kinetic energy in the mega-electron-volt range through interaction with intense laser fields. This opens a new age for the laser, the age of nonlinear relativistic optics coupling even with nuclear physics. We suggest a path to reach an extremely high-intensity level $10^{26-28} $W/cm$^2$ in the coming decade, much beyond the current and near future intensity regime $10^{23} $W/cm$^2$, taking advantage of the megajoule laser facilities. Such a laser at extreme high intensity co...

Tajima, T

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Optimal Sleep-Wake policies for an energy harvesting sensor node  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AbstractWe study a sensor node with an energy harvesting source. In any slot, the sensor node is in one of two modes: Wake or Sleep. The generated energy is stored in a buffer. The sensor node senses a random field and generates a packet when it is awake. These packets are stored in a queue and transmitted in the wake mode using the energy available in the energy buffer. We obtain energy management policies which minimize a linear combination of the mean queue length and the mean data loss rate. Then, we obtain two easily implementable suboptimal policies and compare their performance to that of the optimal policy. Next, we extend the Throughput Optimal policy developed in our previous work to sensors with two modes. Via this policy, we can increase the throughput and stabilize the data queue by allowing the node to sleep in some slots and to drop some generated packets. This policy requires minimal statistical knowledge of the system. We also modify this policy to decrease the switching costs. Keywords: Energy harvesting sensor nodes, Sleep-Wake Policies, Throughput Optimal Policies.

Vinay Joseph; Vinod Sharma; Utpal Mukherji

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization  

SciTech Connect

UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL'?s feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

Dr. Jose Nainaparampil

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

379

Science on high-energy lasers: From today to the NIF  

SciTech Connect

This document presents both a concise definition of the current capabilities of high energy lasers and a description of capabilities of the NIF (National Ignition Facility). Five scientific areas are discussed (Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics, Material Properties, Plasma Physics, Radiation Sources, and Radiative Properties). In these five areas we project a picture of the future based on investigations that are being carried on today. Even with this very conservative approach we find that the development of new higher energy lasers will make many extremely exciting areas accessible to us.

Lee, R.W.; Petrasso, R.; Falcone, R.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

High-energy electron-helium scattering in a Nd:YAG laser field  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of the scattering of electrons by helium atoms in the presence of 1.17 eV photons from a Nd:YAG laser. The incident energy of the electrons was in the range 50-350 eV, and the polarization of the laser was arranged to be parallel to electrons scattered through 135 deg. Energy-shifted peaks corresponding both to one- and two-photon emission were observed. Calculations using the Kroll-Watson approximation are perfectly consistent with the data.

Harak, B. A. de [Physics Department, Illinois Wesleyan University, P.O. Box 2900, Bloomington, Illinois 61702-2900 (United States); Ladino, L.; MacAdam, K. B.; Martin, N. L. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

HOT ELECTRON ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM ULTRA-INTENSE LASER SOLID INTERACTIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of electron energy distributions from ultra-intense (>10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser-solid interactions using an electron spectrometer are presented. These measurements were performed on the Vulcan petawatt laser at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Callisto laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The effective hot electron temperatures (T{sub hot}) have been measured for laser intensities (I{lambda}{sup 2}) from 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} to 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} for the first time, and T{sub hot} is found to increase as (I{lambda}{sup 2}){sup 0.34} {+-} 0.4. This scaling agrees well with the empirical scaling published by Beg et al. (1997), and is explained by a simple physical model that gives good agreement with experimental results and particle-in-cell simulations.

Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Kruer, W; Patel, P; Shepherd, R

2008-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

382

HOT ELECTRON ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM ULTRA-INTENSE LASER SOLID INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental data of electron energy distributions from ultra-intense (>10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser-solid interactions using the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Vulcan petawatt laser. These measurements were made using a CCD-based magnetic spectrometer. We present details on the distinct effective temperatures that were obtained for a wide variety of targets as a function of laser intensity. It is found that as the intensity increases from 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, a 0.4 dependence on the laser intensity is found. Between 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} and 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}, a gradual rolling off of temperature with intensity is observed.

Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Kruer, W L; Moon, S; Patel, N; Patel, P K; Shepherd, R; Snavely, R

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

383

BEopt(TM) Software for Building Energy Optimization: Features and Capabilities  

SciTech Connect

BEopt is a computer program designed to find optimal building designs along the path to ZNE. A user selects from predefined options in various categories to specify options to be considered in the optimization. Energy savings are calculated relative to a reference. The reference can be either a user-defined base-case building or a climate-specific Building America Benchmark building automatically generated by BEopt. The user can also review and modify detailed information on all available options in a linked options library spreadsheet. BEopt calls the DOE2 and TRNSYS simulation engines and uses a sequential search technique to automate the process of identifying optimal building designs along the path to ZNE. BEopt finds these optimal and near-optimal designs based on discrete building options reflecting realistic construction options. BEopt handles special situations with positive or negative interactions between options in different categories. The BEopt software includes a results browser that allows the user to navigate among different design points and retrieve detailed results regarding energy end-use and option costs in different categories. Multiple cases, based on a selected parameter such as climate, can be included in a BEopt project file for comparative purposes.

Christensen, C.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Courtney, A.; Spencer, J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Evaluation of the potential to upgrade the Sandia Atomic Iodine Laser SAIL-1 to higher output energies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The predicted output energy of the Sandia Atomic Iodine Laser SAIL-1 is given for various numbers of preamplifier stages and for various small signal gains in each stage. Additional possibilities for further increasing the output energy are given.

Riley, M.E.; Palmer, R.E.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Optimal energy management of a micro-grid with renewable energy resources and demand response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the introduction of smart energy grids and extensive penetration of renewable energy resources in distribution networks

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Sum-Rate Optimal Power Policies for Energy Harvesting Transmitters in an Interference Channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper considers a two-user Gaussian interference channel with energy harvesting transmitters. Different than conventional battery powered wireless nodes, energy harvesting transmitters have to adapt transmission to availability of energy at a particular instant. In this setting, the optimal power allocation problem to maximize sum throughput within a given deadline is formulated. The convergence of the proposed iterative coordinate descent method for the problem is proved and the short-term throughput maximizing offline power allocation policy is found. Examples for interference regions with known sum capacities are given with directional water-filling interpretations when possible. Next, stochastic data arrivals are addressed. Finally online and/or distributed near-optimal policies are proposed. Performance of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated through simulations.

Tutuncuoglu, Kaya

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Decentralized Delay Optimal Control for Interference Networks with Limited Renewable Energy Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider delay minimization for interference networks with renewable energy source, where the transmission power of a node comes from both the conventional utility power (AC power) and the renewable energy source. We assume the transmission power of each node is a function of the local channel state, local data queue state and local energy queue state only. In turn, we consider two delay optimization formulations, namely the decentralized partially observable Markov decision process (DEC-POMDP) and Non-cooperative partially observable stochastic game (POSG). In DEC-POMDP formulation, we derive a decentralized online learning algorithm to determine the control actions and Lagrangian multipliers (LMs) simultaneously, based on the policy gradient approach. Under some mild technical conditions, the proposed decentralized policy gradient algorithm converges almost surely to a local optimal solution. On the other hand, in the non-cooperative POSG formulation, the transmitter nodes are non-cooperat...

Huang, Huang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

On-line economic optimization of energy systems using weather forecast information.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We establish an on-line optimization framework to exploit weather forecast information in the operation of energy systems. We argue that anticipating the weather conditions can lead to more proactive and cost-effective operations. The framework is based on the solution of a stochastic dynamic real-time optimization (D-RTO) problem incorporating forecasts generated from a state-of-the-art weather prediction model. The necessary uncertainty information is extracted from the weather model using an ensemble approach. The accuracy of the forecast trends and uncertainty bounds are validated using real meteorological data. We present a numerical simulation study in a building system to demonstrate the developments.

Zavala, V. M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Krause, T.; Anitescu, M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Input Price Risk and Optimal Timing of Energy Investment: Choice between Fossil- and Biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ve consider energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncer- tainty on the choice of technolog2 and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. Ve provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types.

Pauli Murto; Gjermund Nese

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Automatic Calibration of a Building Energy Simulation Model Using a Global Optimization Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simulation model used to analyze the energy performance of an existing building should be calibrated to measured consumption data from the building so the simulation output closely follows the measured time series energy consumption data and shows the same temperature dependence. This paper has used optimization software to show that a simple simulation program which is a coding of the ASHRAE 'Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure' can be automatically calibrated to measured data. The measured data used in this case study was simulation data to which a small amount of white noise had been added.

Lee, S. U.; Claridge, D.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Approach at the University of California, Davis Campus Title Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Approach at the University of California, Davis Campus Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2011 Authors Stadler, Michael, Chris Marnay, Jonathan Donadee, Judy Lai, Olivier Mégel, Prajesh Bhattacharya, and Afzal S. Siddiqui Pagination 51 Date Published 02/2011 Publisher LBNL City Berkeley Keywords building optimization, distributed energy resources (der), electricity markets and policy group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department Abstract Together with OSIsoft LLC as its private sector partner and matching sponsor, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) won an FY09 Technology Commercialization Fund (TCF) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to commercialize Berkeley Lab's optimizing program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) using a software as a service (SaaS) model with OSIsoft as its first non-scientific user. OSIsoft could in turn provide optimization capability to its software clients. In this way, energy efficiency and/or carbon minimizing strategies could be made readily available to commercial and industrial facilities. Specialized versions of DER-CAM dedicated to solving OSIsoft's customer problems have been set up on a server at Berkeley Lab. The objective of DER-CAM is to minimize the cost of technology adoption and operation or carbon emissions, or combinations thereof. DER-CAM determines which technologies should be installed and operated based on specific site load, price information, and performance data for available equipment options. An established user of OSIsoft's PI software suite, the University of California, Davis (UCD), was selected as a demonstration site for this project. UCD's participation in the project is driven by its motivation to reduce its carbon emissions. The campus currently buys electricity economically through the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA). The campus does not therefore face compelling cost incentives to improve the efficiency of its operations, but is nonetheless motivated to lower the carbon footprint of its buildings. Berkeley Lab attempted to demonstrate a scenario wherein UCD is forced to purchase electricity on a standard time-of-use tariff from Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), which is a concern to Facilities staff. Additionally, DER-CAM has been set up to consider the variability of carbon emissions throughout the day and seasons. Two distinct analyses of value to UCD are possible using this approach. First, optimal investment choices for buildings under the two alternative objectives can be derived. Second, a week-ahead building operations forecaster has been written that executes DER-CAM to find an optimal operating schedule for buildings given their expected building energy services requirements, electricity prices, and local weather. As part of its matching contribution, OSIsoft provided a full implementation of PI and a server to install it on at Berkeley Lab. Using the PItoPI protocol, this gives Berkeley Lab researchers direct access to UCD's PI data base. However, this arrangement is in itself inadequate for performing optimizations. Additional data not included in UCD's PI database would be needed and the campus was not able to provide this information. This report details the process, results, and lessons learned of this commercialization project.

392

Timely Delivery of Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IFE - NIF & LIFE / Proceedings of the Nineteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (TOFE) (Part 1)

M. Dunne et al.

393

Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IFE - NIF & LIFE / Proceedings of the Nineteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (TOFE) (Part 1)

Jeffery F. Latkowski et al.

394

Efficient energy transfer in light-harvesting systems, I: optimal temperature, reorganization energy, and spatial-temporal correlations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the mechanisms of efficient and robust energy transfer in light-harvesting systems provides new insights for the optimal design of artificial systems. In this paper, we use the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein complex and phycocyanin 645 (PC 645) to explore the general dependence on physical parameters that help maximize the efficiency and maintain its stability. With the Haken-Strobl model, the maximal energy transfer efficiency (ETE) is achieved under an intermediate optimal value of dephasing rate. To avoid the infinite temperature assumption in the Haken-Strobl model and the failure of the Redfield equation in predicting the Forster rate behavior, we use the generalized Bloch-Redfield (GBR) equation approach to correctly describe dissipative exciton dynamics and find that maximal ETE can be achieved under various physical conditions, including temperature, reorganization energy, and spatial-temporal correlations in noise. We also identify regimes of reorganization energy where the ETE changes monotonically with temperature or spatial correlation and therefore cannot be optimized with respect to these two variables.

Jianlan Wu; Fan Liu; Young Shen; Jianshu Cao; Robert J. Silbey

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

395

Energy Optimization of Bioethanol Production via Gasification of Switchgrass. Revision submitted to AIChE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we address the conceptual design of the bioethanol process from switchgrass via gasification. A superstructure is postulated for optimizing energy use that embeds direct or indirect gasification, followed by steam reforming or partial oxidation. Next, the gas composition is adjusted with membrane-PSA or water gas shift. Membrane separation, absorption with ethanol-amines and PSA are considered for the removal of sour gases. Finally, two synthetic paths are considered, high alcohols catalytic process with two possible distillation sequences, and syngas fermentation with distillation, corn grits, molecular sieves and pervaporation as alternative deshydration processes. The optimization of the superstructure is formulated as an MINLP problem using short-cut models, and solved through a special decomposition scheme that is followed by heat integration. The optimal process consists of direct gasification followed by steam reforming, removal of the excess of hydrogen and catalytic synthesis, yielding a potential operating cost of $0.41/gal

Mariano Martn; Ignacio E. Grossmann

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Optimization Online Digest -- February 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... Optimization for Power System Configuration with Renewable Energy in Remote Areas ... Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with...

397

Neutronics Assessment of Blanket Options for the HAPL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Chamber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on lasers, direct drive targets and a dry wall chamber [1]. A primary focus is the development of a tungsten-armored-explosion. Only a thin region of the armor (10-100 µm) will experience the highly cyclic x-ray and ion energy deposition transients. The FW structure behind the armor as well as the blanket will operate under quasi

Raffray, A. René

398

Harvesting and storing laser energy with graphene-cu compound structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphene-metal compound structure has been reported as a novel and outstanding component used in electrical and optical devices. We report on a first-principles study of graphene-cu compound structure, showing its capacity of converting laser energy into electrical power and storing the harvested energy for a long time. A real-time and real-space time-dependent density functional method (TDDFT) is applied for the simulation of electrons dynamics and energy absorption. The laser-induced charge transfer from copper layer to graphene layer is observed and represented by plane-averaged electron difference and dipoles. The effects of laser frequency on the excitation energy and charge transfer are studied as well. The enhancement of C-C {\\sigma}-bond and decreasing of electron density corresponding to {\\pi}-bond within graphene layer indicate the way in which the transferred-charges are stored. In addition, the shift and oscillations of dipole along z-direction after the application of laser pulse offer a concept ...

Gong, Wenbin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Alumina reduction by laser sustained plasma for aluminum-based renewable energy cycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel alumina (Al 2O3) reduction technique for a renewable energy cycling system based on aluminum is proposed. Al 2O3 powder was fed into laser-sustained plasma and thermally dissociated. The produced Al was expanded to supersonic speeds through a nozzle. From the Al and argon line distributions in the flow direction

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condenser water optimization Tengfang Xu Contents HVAC WATERHVAC Water Systems Cooling tower and condenser water optimization

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Applications of laser diagnostics in energy conservation research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the past decade, intensive research and development has demonstrated the feasibility, checked the accuracy, and extended the sensitivity of laser diagnostics for combustion systems. Combinations of diagnostics can now provide in-situ, time-, and space-resolved measurements of temperature, velocity, and species concentration. Although these tools are powerful, they also can be exceedingly difficult to use, and their application remains largely in the hands of specialized instrument developers rather than problem-oriented researchers. This report outlines a variety of applications for existing diagnostics that may interest both instrument developers and researchers in particular fields.

Hutchinson, R.A.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Throughput Optimal Policies for Energy Harvesting Wireless Transmitters with Non-Ideal Circuit Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterizing the fundamental tradeoffs for maximizing energy efficiency (EE) versus spectrum efficiency (SE) is a key problem in wireless communication. In this paper, we address this problem for a point-to-point additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with the transmitter powered solely via energy harvesting from the environment. In addition, we assume a practical on-off transmitter model with non-ideal circuit power, i.e., when the transmitter is on, its consumed power is the sum of the transmit power and a constant circuit power. Under this setup, we study the optimal transmit power allocation to maximize the average throughput over a finite horizon, subject to the time-varying energy constraint and the non-ideal circuit power consumption. First, we consider the off-line optimization under the assumption that the energy arrival time and amount are a priori known at the transmitter. Although this problem is non-convex due to the non-ideal circuit power, we show an efficient optimal solution that in g...

Xu, Jie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

FEASIBILITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING LASER INERTIAL FUSION AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is developing technology for Laser IFE with the goal of producing electricity from the heat generated by the implosion of deuterium-tritium (DT) targets. Alternatively, the Laser IFE device could be coupled to a hydrogen generation system where the heat would be used as input to a water-splitting process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The production of hydrogen in addition to electricity would allow fusion energy plants to address a much wider segment of energy needs, including transportation. Water-splitting processes involving direct and hybrid thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis are currently being developed as means to produce hydrogen from high temperature nuclear fission reactors and solar central receivers. This paper explores the feasibility of this concept for integration with a Laser IFE plant, and it looks at potential modifications to make this approach more attractive. Of particular interest are: (1) the determination of the advantages of Laser IFE hydrogen production compared to other hydrogen production concepts, and (2) whether a facility of the size of FTF would be suitable for hydrogen production.

Gorensek, M

2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

404

66 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 1, NO. 2, JULY 2010 Optimization of Wind Turbine Performance With  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

66 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 1, NO. 2, JULY 2010 Optimization of Wind Turbine, torque, tower acceleration, wind turbine vibrations. I. INTRODUCTION I NTEREST in renewable energy has to carbon taxation has become a catalyst in the quest for clean energy. Wind energy has been most

Kusiak, Andrew

405

Multi-objective design and optimization of district energy systems including polygeneration energy conversion technologies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the present context of finding ways to decrease CO2 emissions linked with human activity, district energy systems including polygeneration energy conversion technologies are likely (more)

Weber, Cline Isabelle

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

House geometries are among the many House geometries are among the many options users can enter in BEopt. Results shown here are rendered in SketchUp and show neighboring houses for shading analysis. To achieve Building America's ambitious energy-efficiency goals, it becomes increasingly important that researchers can identify the most cost-effective, high-performance improvements. BEopt has proven to be an invaluable analysis tool enabling Building America and its research partners to progress to zero net-energy new homes and deep energy retrofits. There are many energy analysis software tools out there-some do optimization, some do residential analysis, some do retrofit analysis, some come pre-packaged with options and costs, etc. With support from DOE's Building America program, researchers at the National Renewable Energy

407

First measurements of laser-accelerated proton induced luminescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present our first results about laser-accelerated proton induced luminescence in solids. In the first part, we describe the optimization of the proton source as a function of the target thickness as well as the laser pulse duration and energy. Due to the ultra high contrast ratio of our laser beam, we succeeded in using targets ranging from the micron scale down to nanometers thickness. The two optimal thicknesses we put in evidence are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Laser pulse duration shows a small influence on proton maximum energy, whereas the latter turns out to vary almost linearly as a function of laser energy. Thanks to this optimisation work, we have been able to acquire images of the proton energy deposition in a solid scintillator.

Floquet, V.; Ceccotti, T.; Dobosz Dufrenoy, S.; Bonnaud, G.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph. [CEA, IRAMIS, SPAM, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Gremillet, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91297 Arpajon (France)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Laser metrology for coherent multi-telescope arrays - Energy ...  

Solar Photovoltaic; Solar ... ENG-48 between the United States Department of Energy and the ... of space objects such as satellites requires an improved ...

409

From the Optimizing Thermostat to a Smart Energy Management System: Models,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

From the Optimizing Thermostat to a Smart Energy Management System: Models, From the Optimizing Thermostat to a Smart Energy Management System: Models, Benchmark, and Insights Speaker(s): Yong Liang Date: May 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Janie Page Nowadays, users in the retail electricity market only need to pay a fixed rate for electricity. This strategy results in lack of coordination between demand and supply and costs significant waste. A shift from fixed rate pricing in retail markets could potentially yield many benefits. Time-varying pricing promotes the substitution of off-peak consumption for peak consumption, reducing strain on the electrical system, the need for costly and inefficient "peaker" plants, and waste in electricity delivery. However, existing research supports what common sense suggests:

410

Framework for Link-Level Energy Efficiency Optimization with Informed Transmitter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dramatic increase of network infrastructure comes at the cost of rapidly increasing energy consumption, which makes optimization of energy efficiency (EE) an important topic. Since EE is often modeled as the ratio of rate to power, we present a mathematical framework called fractional programming that provides insight into this class of optimization problems, as well as algorithms for computing the solution. The main idea is that the objective function is transformed to a weighted sum of rate and power. A generic problem formulation for systems dissipating transmit-independent circuit power in addition to transmit-dependent power is presented. We show that a broad class of EE maximization problems can be solved efficiently, provided the rate is a concave function of the transmit power. We elaborate examples of various system models including time-varying parallel channels. Rate functions with an arbitrary discrete modulation scheme are also treated. The examples considered lead to water-filling solutions,...

Isheden, Christian; Jorswieck, Eduard; Fettweis, Gerhard

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Plant Wide Assessment of Energy Usage Utilizing SitEModelling as a Tool for Optimizing Energy Consumption  

SciTech Connect

The Evonik Degussa Corporation is the global market leader in the specialty chemicals industry. Innovative products and system solutions make an indispensable contribution to our customers' success. We refer to this as "creating essentials". In fiscal 2004, Degussa's 45,000 employees worldwide generated sales of 11.2 billion euros and operating profits (EBIT) of 965 million euros. Evonik Degussa Corporation has performed a plant wide energy usage assessment at the Mapleton, Illinois facility, which consumed 1,182,330 MMBTU in 2003. The purpose of this study was to identify opportunities for improvement regarding the plants utility requirements specific to their operation. The production is based mainly on natural gas usage for steam, process heating and hydrogen production. The current high price for natural gas in the US is not very competitive compared to other countries. Therefore, all efforts must be taken to minimize the utility consumption in order to maximize market position and minimize fixed cost increases due to the rising costs of energy. The main objective of this plant wide assessment was to use a methodology called Site Energy Modelling (SitE Modelling) to identify areas of potential improvement for energy savings, either in implementing a single process change or in changing the way different processes interact with each other. The overall goal was to achieve energy savings of more than 10% compared to the 2003 energy figures of the Mapleton site. The final savings breakdown is provided below: - 4.1% savings for steam generation and delivery These savings were accomplished through better control schemes, more constant and optimized loading of the boilers and increased boiler efficiency through an advanced control schemes. - 1.6% savings for plant chemical processing These saving were accomplished through optimized processing heating efficiency and batch recipes, as well as an optimized production schedule to help equalize the boiler load (e.g. steam consumption).

Ralf Janowsky, Ph.D.; Tracey Mole, Ph.D.

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

412

Flight Experiments On Energy Scaling For In-Space Laser Propulsion  

SciTech Connect

As a preparatory study on space-borne laser propulsion, flight experiments with a parabolic thruster were carried out on an air cushion table. The thruster was mounted like a sail on a puck, allowing for laser-driven motion in three degrees of freedom (3 DOF) in artificial weightlessness. Momentum coupling is derived from point explosion theory for various parabolic thruster geometries with respect to energy scaling issues. The experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions and with results from vertical free flights. Experimental results for the air-breakdown threshold and POM ablation inside the thruster are compared with fluence data from beam propagation modeling.

Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert [Institute of Technical Physics, German Aerospace Center, D-70569 Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40 (Germany); Wollenhaupt, Eric; Roeser, Hans-Peter [Institute of Space Systems, University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31 (Germany)

2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

413

Enhancing the energy of terahertz radiation from plasma produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Terahertz (THz) radiation from atomic clusters illuminated by intense femtosecond laser pulses is investigated. By studying the angular distribution, polarization properties and energy dependence of THz waves, we aim to obtain a proper understanding of the mechanism of THz generation. The properties of THz waves measured in this study differ from those predicted by previously proposed mechanisms. To interpret these properties qualitatively, we propose that the radiation is generated by time-varying quadrupoles, which are produced by the ponderomotive force of the laser pulse.

Jahangiri, Fazel [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashida, Masaki; Tokita, Shigeki; Sakabe, Shuji [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nagashima, Takeshi; Hangyo, Masanori [Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

414

Fermilab Central Computing Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study  

SciTech Connect

This report is developed as part of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update under the provisions of DOE Document 6430.1, Chapter XIII-21, Section 14, paragraph a. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis and should be considered as a supplement to the Title I Design Report date March 1986 wherein energy related issues are discussed pertaining to building envelope and orientation as well as electrical systems design.

Krstulovich, S.F.

1986-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

415

Energy exchange between a laser beam and charged particles using inverse transition radiation and method for its use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for exchanging energy between relativistic charged particles and laser radiation using inverse diffraction radiation or inverse transition radiation. The beam of laser light is directed onto a particle beam by means of two optical elements which have apertures or foils through which the particle beam passes. The two apertures or foils are spaced by a predetermined distance of separation and the angle of interaction between the laser beam and the particle beam is set at a specific angle. The separation and angle are a function of the wavelength of the laser light and the relativistic energy of the particle beam. In a diffraction embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the diffraction effect due to the apertures in the optical elements. In a transition embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the transition effect due to pieces of foil placed in the particle beam path.

Kimura, Wayne D. (Bellevue, WA); Romea, Richard D. (Seattle, WA); Steinhauer, Loren C. (Bothell, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Integration of Low Energy Technologies for Optimal Building and Space Conditioning Design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

EnergyPlus is the DOE's newest building energy simulation engine. It was developed specifically to support the design of low energy building systems. This project focused on developing new low energy building simulation models for EnergyPlus, verifying and validating new and existing EnergyPlus models and transferring the new technology to the private sector. The project focused primarily on geothermal and radiant technologies, which are related by the fact that both are based on hydronic system design. As a result of this project eight peer reviewed journal and conference papers were added to the archival literature and five technical reports were published as M.S. theses and are available in the archival literature. In addition, several reports, including a trombe wall validation report were written for web publication. Thirteen new or significantly enhanced modules were added to the EnergyPlus source code and forty-two new or significantly enhanced sections were added to the EnergyPlus documentation as a result of this work. A low energy design guide was also developed as a pedagogical tool and is available for web publication. Finally several tools including a hybrid ground source heat pump optimization program and a geothermal heat pump parameter estimation tool were developed for research and design and are available for web publication.

D.E. Fisher

2006-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

417

Optimal Indoor Air Temperature Considering Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort in the Shanghai Area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indoor air temperature is the most important control parameter in air conditioning systems. It not only impacts the thermal comfort of occupants, but also also greatly affects the energy consumption in air conditioning systems. The lower the indoor air temperature is in summer or the higher the indoor temperature is in winter, the more energy the air conditioning system will consume. For the sake of energy conservation, the indoor air should be set as high as possible in summer and as low as possible in winter. Meanwhile, indoor thermal comfort should be considered. This paper will establish the optimal indoor air temperature for an air-conditioning system aiming at both energy savings and thermal comfort in the Shanghai area, based on the PMV equation and extensive field investigation.

Yao, Y.; Lian, Z.; Hou, Z.; Liu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Toward zero net energy buildings : optimized for energy use and cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, there has been a push toward zero net energy buildings (ZNEBs). While there are many options to reduce the energy used in buildings, it is often difficult to determine which are the most appropriate technologies ...

Brown, Carrie Ann, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

1742 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 55, NO. 6, JULY 2008 An Adaptive System for Optimal Solar Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Adaptive System for Optimal Solar Energy Harvesting in Wireless Sensor Network Nodes Cesare Alippi, Fellow, with solar energy being the most inter- esting one in outdoor deployments due to its relatively high power transferring circuit for optimally conveying solar energy into rechargeable batteries even in not optimal

Alippi, Cesare

420

Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "laser energy optimization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Laser-Mechanical Drilling for Geothermal Energy: Low-Contact Drilling Technology to Enable Economical EGS Wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Foro Energy is developing a unique capability and hardware system to transmit high power lasers over long distances via fiber optic cables. This laser power is integrated with a mechanical drilling bit to enable rapid and sustained penetration of hard rock formations too costly to drill with mechanical drilling bits alone. The laser energy that is directed at the rock basically softens the rock, allowing the mechanical bit to more easily remove it. Foro Energys laser-assisted drill bits have the potential to be up to 10 times more economical than conventional hard-rock drilling technologies, making them an effective way to access the U.S. energy resources currently locked under hard rock formations.

None

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Methodology, morphology, and optimization of carbon nanotube growth for improved energy storage in a double layer capacitor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this thesis is to optimize the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on a conducting substrate for use as an electrode to improve energy density in a double-layer capacitor. The focus has been on several areas, ...

Ku, Daniel C. (Daniel Chung-Ming), 1985-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling Foro Energy: High Power Lasers - Long Distances (Performer Video)  

SciTech Connect

The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video from Foro Energy are Joel Moxley, Founder and CEO, Mark Zediker, Founder and CTO, and Paul Deutch, President and COO. Steven Chu, Secretary of Energy, also appears briefly in this video to praise the accomplishment of a high powered laser that can transmit that power long distances for faster and more powerful drilling of geothermal, oil, and gas wells.

None Available

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

424

Effects of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and its influence on the topography of the Fe thin film grown in pulsed laser deposition facility  

SciTech Connect

The effect of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in laser induced Fe plasma is investigated using time-resolved fast gated imaging. The snow plow and shock wave models are fitted to the experimental results and used to estimate the ablation parameters and the density of gas atoms that interact with the ablated species. It is observed that RT instability develops during the interface deceleration stage and grows for a considerable time for higher laser energy fluence. The effects of RT instabilities formation on the surface topography of the Fe thin films grown in pulsed laser deposition system are investigated (i) using different laser energy fluences for the same wavelength of laser radiation and (ii) using different laser wavelengths keeping the energy fluence fixed. It is concluded that the deposition achieved under turbulent condition leads to less smooth deposition surfaces with bigger sized particle agglomerates or network.

Mahmood, S. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Rawat, R. S.; Wang, Y.; Lee, S.; Tan, T. L.; Springham, S. V.; Lee, P. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Laser ablation of electronic materials including the effects of energy coupling and plasma interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

20, 171 5. K. Jain, Excimer laser lithography (SPIE OpticalGijbels, F. Adams (Eds. ), Laser Ionization Mass Analysis (G. Befeki, Principles of laser plasmas (Wiley Interscience,

Zeng, Xianzhong

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Energy absorption by laser fusion targets determined by ion calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

The absorbed energy determined by the ion calorimeters was used as a basis for computations of the target behavior. Both neutron yield and x-ray spectra thus obtained were in agreement with the measured values within the precision of both calculations and experiments. Some results are described. (MOW)

Rupert, V.C.; Gunn, S.R.; Holzrichter, J.F.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Dynamic optimization for commercialization of renewable energy: an example for solar photovoltaics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are several studies of optimal allocation of research and development resources over the time horizon of a project. The primary result of the basic noncompetitive models in this literature is that the optimal strategy is to choose a research intensity and ending date for the project such that the marginal costs of accelerating the project equals the marginal benefits of introducing the product sooner. This literature provides useful insights for the government planner who must allocate R&D resources for renewable energy development. However, several characteristics distinguish the process from the typical R&D planning problem. Specifically, with PV development, where the goal is to maximize the net present value of activities leading to cost reduction in commercial modules, there are (1) significant lag-times between investment in laboratory research and resulting effects in the marketplace, (2) a learning curve associated with the manufacturing process that also reduces the cost s of PV modules, (3) interim benefits from technical advances, (4) no clear end point to the R&D process, but rather a tapering off of the value of advances in technical efficiency, (5) significant uncertainty in the R&D process, (6) a family of products rather than an individual technology, (7) a co-mingling of government and private resources with implications for efficient management. A dynamic model is developed to characterize the optimal intensity and timing of government and private resource allocation for basic research in improving the technical efficiency of cells and subsidies to the manufacturing process to encourage progress on the learning curve. A series of propositions regarding optimal paths for each are examined. While the research is purely analytical, the results are useful for conceptualizing the R&D planning process. They also provide a basis for a numerical study that can address whether current levels and historic patterns of funding are optimal.

Richards, Kenneth, R.; Ashton, W. Bradley; McVeigh, James

2000-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

428

Delay Constrained Scheduling over Fading Channels: Optimal Policies for Monomial Energy-Cost Functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A point-to-point discrete-time scheduling problem of transmitting $B$ information bits within $T$ hard delay deadline slots is considered assuming that the underlying energy-bit cost function is a convex monomial. The scheduling objective is to minimize the expected energy expenditure while satisfying the deadline constraint based on information about the unserved bits, channel state/statistics, and the remaining time slots to the deadline. At each time slot, the scheduling decision is made without knowledge of future channel state, and thus there is a tension between serving many bits when the current channel is good versus leaving too many bits for the deadline. Under the assumption that no other packet is scheduled concurrently and no outage is allowed, we derive the optimal scheduling policy. Furthermore, we also investigate the dual problem of maximizing the number of transmitted bits over $T$ time slots when subject to an energy constraint.

Lee, Juyul

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Laser spectroscopy of the antiprotonic helium atom its energy levels and state lifetimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The antiprotonic atom is a three-body exotic system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus. Its surprising longevity was found and has been studied for more than 10 years. In this work, transition energies and lifetimes of this exotic atom were systematically studied by using the antiproton beam of AD(Antiproton Decelerator) facility at CERN, with an RFQ antiproton decelerator, a narrow-bandwidth laser, Cerenkov counters with fast-response photomultiplier tubes, and cryogenic helium target systems. Thirteen transition energies were determined with precisions of better than 200 ppb by a laser spectroscopy method, together with the elimination of the shift effect caused by collisions with surrounding atoms. Fifteen lifetimes (decay rates) of short-lived states were determined from the time distributions of the antiproton-annihilation signals and the resonance widths of the atomic spectral lines. The relation between the magnitude of the decay rates and the transition multipolarity was inv...

Hidetoshi, Yamaguchi

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine  

SciTech Connect

The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

431

Optimization Online - Global Optimization Submissions - 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization and homotopy methods for the Gibbs free energy of magmatic mixtures ... On DC. optimization algorithms for solving minmax flow problems

432

A laser-wire beam-energy and beam-profile monitor at the BNL linac  

SciTech Connect

In 2009 a beam-energy monitor was installed in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. This device measures the energies of electrons stripped from the 40mA H{sup -} beam by background gas. Electrons are stripped by the 2.0x10{sup -7}torr residual gas at a rate of {approx}1.5x10{sup -8}/cm. Since beam electrons have the same velocities as beam protons, the beam proton energy is deduced by multiplying the electron energy by m{sub p}/m{sub e}=1836. A 183.6MeV H{sup -} beam produces 100keV electrons. In 2010 we installed an optics plates containing a laser and scanning optics to add beam-profile measurement capability via photodetachment. Our 100mJ/pulse, Q-switched laser neutralizes 70% of the beam during its 10ns pulse. This paper describes the upgrades to the detector and gives profile and energy measurements.

Connolly, R.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

433

Diode-pumped solid-state laser drivers for inertial fusion energy  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews work on flashlamp-pumped solid state lasers and discusses diode-pumped solid state lasers, the Mercury laser in particular. It also discusses ICF lasers beyond Mercury.

Bibeau, C; Marshall, C D; Payne, S A; Powell, H T

1998-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

434

Energy distributions of carriers in quantum dot laser structures Simon Osborne, Peter Blood, Peter Smowton, Julie Lutti  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy distributions of carriers in quantum dot laser structures Simon Osborne, Peter Blood, Peter probability distribution in energy with a global Fermi level2, possibly because of the strong interaction under quasi-equilibrium conditions. An understanding of the energy distribution of electrons

New Mexico, University of

435

Modeling Resource, Infrastructure, and Policy Cost Layers for Optimizing Renewable Energy Investment and Deployment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a framework for creating a common spatial canvass that can bring together considerations of resource availability, infrastructure reliability, and development costs while strategizing renewable energy investment. We describe the underlying models and methodologies that annotate an investment plan for potential sites over a time-period with costs and constraints which may be imposed on distance from infrastructure, system impact on infrastructure, and policy incentives. The framework is intended as an enabler for visualization, optimization and decision making across diverse dimensions while searching for lucrative investment-plans.

Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Protopopescu, Vladimir A [ORNL; Malinchik, Sergey [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Ives, Barry [Lockheed Martin Corporation

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Preliminary Evaluation of an Energy & Reserve Co-optimization Market Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the background and motivation for the revision of the reserve market design in the service area of the Independent System Operator New England (ISO-NE). Due to previous experience with initial reserve markets that exposed noticeable market design flaws, the ISO embarked on a program to revise the two market elements that are analyzed in this report. The two market elements are a Forward Reserve Market and a co-optimized energy and reserve market in real time. The project to analyze ...

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Monitoring and Optimization of Building Operations of a Low-Energy School Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ambitious design and energy concept of the new Gebhard-Mller-Schule (GMS) school building in Biberach/Riss, Germany proved itself during the first three school years of operation. The intended target value of 30 kWh/(m2a) overall heating energy consumption was almost met during the second year of operation in 2006 and finally achieved in 2007, due to well-working optimization measures, which were identified through monitoring of the building operation. Heating and cooling energy is mainly provided by a groundwater well plant, which serves as a heat source for two heat pumps as well as a direct cooling source for supplying the radiant heating and cooling system that is integrated in the concrete floor and ceiling slabs (thermally activated building component systems TABS). Indoor air conditioning and server room cooling are also connected to the groundwater cooling system. The main component of the groundwater well plant is a submersible pump on the bottom of the well which is located underneath the building. The pump supplies the building reliably with geothermal energy, but also consumes a significant amount of electricity. Monitoring and optimization of the buildings operation, funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology in Germany, revealed fundamental findings about the operation of the system and the possibilities to improve the buildings performance. Since 2005, the measurements show a continuous increase in efficiency, particularly in the field of auxiliary energies. This significantly increased performance clearly shows the potential of the use of groundwater for heating and cooling purposes and of thermally activated building component systems. In addition the measurements reveal the sensitivity of the system efficiency in terms of operating parameters.

Koenigsdorff, R.; Heinrich, S.; Baumann, O.; Reiser, C.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

ETRANS: an energy transport system optimization code for distributed networks of solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The optimization code ETRANS was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to design and estimate the costs associated with energy transport systems for distributed fields of solar collectors. The code uses frequently cited layouts for dish and trough collectors and optimizes them on a section-by-section basis. The optimal section design is that combination of pipe diameter and insulation thickness that yields the minimum annualized system-resultant cost. Among the quantities included in the costing algorithm are (1) labor and materials costs associated with initial plant construction, (2) operating expenses due to daytime and nighttime heat losses, and (3) operating expenses due to pumping power requirements. Two preliminary series of simulations were conducted to exercise the code. The results indicate that transport system costs for both dish and trough collector fields increase with field size and receiver exit temperature. Furthermore, dish collector transport systems were found to be much more expensive to build and operate than trough transport systems. ETRANS itself is stable and fast-running and shows promise of being a highly effective tool for the analysis of distributed solar thermal systems.

Barnhart, J.S.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 {micro}m of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83} eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The {sub 17}Pb{sub 83} flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}, separated from the Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83} by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF{sub 2}), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm diameter fuel pebbles. The fission blanket is cooled by the same radial flibe flow that travels through perforated ODS walls to the reflector blanket. This reflector blanket is 75 cm thick comprised of 2 cm diameter graphite pebbles cooled by flibe. The flibe extraction plenum surrounds the reflector bed. Detailed neutronics designs studies are performed to arrive at the described design. The LFFH engine thermal power is controlled using a technique of adjusting the {sup 6}Li/{sup 7}Li enrichment in the primary and secondary coolants. The enrichment adjusts system thermal power in the design by increasing tritium production while reducing fission. To perform the simulations and design of the LFFH engine, a new software program named LFFH Nuclear Control (LNC) was developed in C++ to extend the functionality of existing neutron transport and depletion software programs. Neutron transport calculations are performed with MCNP5. Depletion calculations are performed using Monteburns 2.0, which utilizes ORIGEN 2.0 and MCNP5 to perform a burnup calculation. LNC supports many design parameters and is capable of performing a full 3D system simulation from initial startup to full burnup. It is able to iteratively search for coolant {sup 6}Li enrichments and resulting material compositions that meet user defined performance criteria. LNC is utilized throughout this study for time dependent simulation of the LFFH engine. Two additional methods were developed to improve the computation efficiency of LNC calculations. These methods, termed adaptive time stepping and adaptive mesh refinement were incorporated into a separate stand alone C++ library name the Adaptive Burnup Library (ABL). The ABL allows for other client codes to call and utilize its functionality. Adaptive time stepping is useful for automatically maximizing the size of the depletion time step while maintaining a desired level of accuracy. Adaptive meshing allows for analysis of fixed fuel configurations that would normally require a computationally burdensome number of depletion zones. Alternatively, Adaptive M

Kramer, K

2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

440

An optimization-based approach for facility energy management with uncertainties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective energy management for facilities is becoming increasingly important in view of rising energy costs, the government mandate on reduction of energy consumption, and human comfort requirements. This paper presents a daily energy management formulation and the corresponding solution methodology for HVAC systems. The problem is to minimize the energy and demand costs through control of HVAC units while satisfying human comfort, system dynamics, load limit constraints, and other requirements. The problem is difficult in view of the facts that the system is nonlinear, time-varying, building-dependent, and uncertain and that the direct control of a large number of HVAC components is difficult. In this paper, HVAC setpoints are control variables developed on top of a direct digital control (DDC) system. A method that combines Lagrangian relaxation, neural networks, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed to predict system dynamics and uncontrollable load and to optimize the setpoints. Numerical testing and prototype implementation results show that our method can effectively reduce total costs, manage uncertainties, and shed the load; is computationally efficient; and is significantly better than existing methods.

Jun Xu; Peter B. Luh; Phd William; E. Blankson; Ron Jerdonek; Khalil Shaikh

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings Title Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5193E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Garbesi, Karina, Vagelis Vossos, Alan H. Sanstad, and Gabriel Burch Document Number LBNL-5193E Pagination 59 Date Published October Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the 'direct-DC house' with respect to today's typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly influenced by climate. While direct-DC for residential applications will most likely arise as a spin-off of developments in the commercial sector-because of lower barriers to market entry and larger energy benefits resulting from the higher coincidence between load and insolation-this paper demonstrates that there are substantial benefits in the residential sector as well. Among residential applications, space cooling derives the largest energy savings from being delivered by a direct-DC system. It is the largest load for the average residence on a national basis and is particularly so in high-load regions. It is also the load with highest solar coincidence.

442

Laser Systems for Orbital Debris Removal  

SciTech Connect

The use of a ground based laser for space debris cleaning was investigated by the ORION project in 1996. Since that study the greatest technological advance in the development of high energy pulsed laser systems has taken place within the NIF project at LLNL. The proposed next laser system to follow the NIF at LLNL will be a high rep rate version of the NIF based on diode-pumping rather than flashlamp excitation; the so called 'LIFE' laser system. Because a single 'LIFE' beamline could be built up in a few year time frame, and has performance characteristics relevant to the space debris clearing problem, such a beamline could enable a near term demonstration of space debris cleaning. Moreover, the specifics of debris cleaning make it possible to simplify the LIFE laser beyond what is required for a fusion drive laser, and so substantially reduce its cost. Starting with the requirements for laser intensity on the target, and then considering beam delivery, we will flow back the laser requirements needed for space debris cleaning. Using these derived requirements we will then optimize the pulse duration, the operational regime, and the output pulse energy of the laser with a focus of simplifying its overall design. Anticipated simplifications include operation in the heat capacity regime, eliminating cooling requirements on the laser gain slabs, and relaxing B-integral and birefrigence requirements.

Rubenchik, A M; Barty, C P; Beach, R J; Erlandson, A C; Caird, J A

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

443

Simulation and optimization of hot dry rock geothermal energy conversion systems: process conditions and economics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is currently engaged in a field program aimed at designing and testing man-made geothermal reservoirs in hot granitic formations of low permeability created by hydraulic fracturing. A very important segment of the program is concerned with defining and optimizing several parameters related to the performance of the reservoir and their impact on the potential commercial feasibility of the hot dry rock technique. These include effective heat transfer area, permeation water loss, depth to the reservoir, geothermal temperature gradient, reservoir temperature, mass flow rate, and geochemistry. In addition, the optimization of the energy end use system (process or district heating, electricity or cogeneration) is directly linked to reservoir performance and associated costs. This problem has been studied using several computer modeling approaches to identify the sensitivity of the cost of power to reservoir and generation plant parameters. Also examined were a variety of important economic elements including rate of return on invested capital, discount or interest rates, taxes, cash flow, energy selling price, plant and reservoir lifetime, drilling and surface plant costs, and royalties.

Tester, J.W.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies.

Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Application Study of the Pump Water Flow Station for Building Energy Consumption Monitoring and Control Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a new building energy monitoring and pump speed control method. The pump speed is controlled to maintain the system resistance at an optimized value to approach the best pump efficiency and save pump power. The system resistance can be obtained by the pump head and the water flow rate calculated by the pump water-flow station (PWS), which was recently developed. The PWS measures the water flow rate using the pump head, pump speed, and pump performance curve. This method has been experimentally proved in real HVAC systems. A case study was demonstrated in this paper for application of this new method in a Continuous Commissioning (CC) practice. The case study shows that the PWS can control the pump speed to maintain the optimized system operating point. It can also measure the water flow rate and monitor energy consumption continuously with low installation and almost no maintenance cost. The results show that the new technology can save pump power and increase pump efficiency significantly.

Liu, G.; Liu, M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies.

Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Compliance of SLAC_s Laser Safety Program with OSHA Requirements for the Control of Hazardous Energy  

SciTech Connect

SLAC's COHE program requires compliance with OSHA Regulation 29CFR1910.147, 'The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout)'. This regulation specifies lockout/tagout requirements during service and maintenance of equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the equipment, or release of stored energy, could cause injury to workers. Class 3B and Class 4 laser radiation must be considered as hazardous energy (as well as electrical energy in associated equipment, and other non-beam energy hazards) in laser facilities, and therefore requires careful COHE consideration. This paper describes how COHE is achieved at SLAC to protect workers against unexpected Class 3B or Class 4 laser radiation, independent of whether the mode of operation is normal, service, or maintenance.

Woods, Michael; /SLAC

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Optimal Design of Integration of Intelligent, Adaptive Solar (PV) Power Generator with Grid for Domestic Energy Management System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a novel system based on integration of solar power generator with grid for optimal utilization of energy by minimizing the power drawn from grid. A prototype grid integrated PV system comprising of PV module (2*75Wp), battery bank ... Keywords: Solar power Generator (SPG), Domestic Energy Management, Bi-directional Inverter, Photovoltaic(PV), Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

S. N. Singh; Pooja Singh; Swati Kumari; Swati

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Design of a Power Oscillation Damper for DFIG-based Wind Energy Conversion System Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimizer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a method to design a Power Oscillation Damper (POD) for Double-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS), operating with voltage control loop. Based on eigen values information from Small Signal Stability ... Keywords: Computational Intelligence, double fed induction generator, power oscillation damper, modified particle swarm optimizer, small signal stability analysis, wind energy conversion system

Huazhang Huang; C. Y. Chung

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

1995 Edward teller lecture. Patience and optimism  

SciTech Connect

Remarks made in the author{close_quote}s acceptance lecture for the 1995 Edward Teller Medal are presented and expanded. Topics covered include research on nuclear-pumped lasers, the first direct e-beam-pumped laser, direct energy conversion and advanced fuel fusion, plus recent work on inertial electrostatic confinement. {open_quote}{open_quote}Patience{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}optimism{close_quote}{close_quote} are viewed as essential elements needed by scientists following the {open_quote}{open_quote}zig-zag{close_quote}{close_quote} path to fusion energy production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Miley, G.H. [Fusion Studies Laboratory University of Illinois, 100 NEL, 103 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2984 (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenser Water OptimizationCleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization2 Cooling tower and condenser water

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Optimization Online Digest -- July 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mathematical optimization for the inverse problem of intensity modulated ... The global optimization of Morse clusters by potential energy transformations

453

A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fresh water resources in many of the world's oil producing regions, such as western Texas, are scarce, while produced water from oil wells is plentiful, though unfit for most applications due to high salinity and other contamination. Disposing of this water is a great expense to oil producers. This research seeks to advance a technology developed to treat produced water by reverse osmosis and other means to render it suitable for agricultural or industrial use, while simultaneously reducing disposal costs. Pilot testing of the process thus far has demonstrated the technology's capability to produce good-quality water, but process optimization and control were yet to be fully addressed and are focuses of this work. Also, the use of renewable resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy consumption of various process design alternatives, and to test control strategies. By preserving the mechanical energy of the concentrate stream of the reverse osmosis membrane, process energy requirements can be reduced several fold from that of the current configuration. Process control schemes utilizing basic feedback control methods with proportional-integral (PI) controllers are proposed, with the feasibility of the strategy for the most complex process design verified by successful dynamic simulation. A macro-driven spreadsheet was created to allow for quick and easy cost comparisons of renewable energy sources in a variety of locations. Using this tool, wind and solar costs were compared for cities in regions throughout Texas. The renewable energy resource showing the greatest potential was wind power, with the analysis showing that in windy regions such as the Texas Panhandle, wind-generated power costs are approximately equal to those generated with diesel fuel.

Mareth, Brett

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this final report, we describe research results from Phase 2 of a technical/economic study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS). CO{sub 2} capture and storage, or alternatively, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, involves capturing CO{sub 2} from large point sources and then injecting it into deep underground reservoirs for long-term storage. By preventing CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere, this technology has significant potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil-based facilities in the power and industrial sectors. Furthermore, the application of CCS to power plants and hydrogen production facilities can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electric vehicles (EVs) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) and, thus, can also improve GHG emissions in the transportation sector. This research specifically examines strategies for transitioning to large-scale coal-derived energy systems with CCS for both hydrogen fuel production and electricity generation. A particular emphasis is on the development of spatially-explicit modeling tools for examining how these energy systems might develop in real geographic regions. We employ an integrated modeling approach that addresses all infrastructure components involved in the transition to these energy systems. The overall objective is to better understand the system design issues and economics associated with the widespread deployment of hydrogen and CCS infrastructure in real regions. Specific objectives of this research are to: Develop improved techno-economic models for all components required for the deployment of both hydrogen and CCS infrastructure, Develop novel modeling methods that combine detailed spatial data with optimization tools to explore spatially-explicit transition strategies, Conduct regional case studies to explore how these energy systems might develop in different regions of the United States, and Examine how the design and cost of coal-based H{sub 2} and CCS infrastructure depend on geography and location.

Nils Johnson; Joan Ogden

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

A mixed-integer linear optimization model for local energy system planning based on simplex and branch-and-bound algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Mixed-integer linear optimization model is developed to support the decision making for the sustainable use of energy in the local area. It details exploitation of primary energy sources, electrical and thermal generation, enduse sectors and emissions. ... Keywords: branch-and-bound algorithm, local energy system, low-carbon society, mixed-integer linear optimization, simplex algorithm

Hongbo Ren; Weisheng Zhou; Weijun Gao; Qiong Wu

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Optimization Online - All Areas Submissions - February 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... Optimization for Power System Configuration with Renewable Energy in Remote Areas ... Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with...

457

Optimization Online - Robust Optimization Submissions - 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sanjay Mehrotra, He Zhang. Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with Uncertain Demand Alexander Goryashko, Arkadi Nemirovski.

458

Optimization Online - Optimizing Trading Decisions for Hydro ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 10, 2011 ... Optimizing Trading Decisions for Hydro Storage Systems using Approximate ... Keywords: OR in Energy, Approximate Dynamic Programming,...

459

ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF TWO-ELECTRON IONIZATION OF HELIUM IN AN INTENSE LASER FIELD.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is well known that a neutral atom interacting with a strong laser field will ionize at sufficiently high intensity even for photon energies well below the ionization threshold. When the required number of photons becomes very large, this process is best described by the suppression of the Coulomb barrier by the laser's oscillating electric field, allowing the electron to tunnel into the continuum. As the laser intensity is increased, more tightly bound electrons may be successively liberated by this mechanism. Such a sequential multiple ionization, long accepted as a reasonable approach to the formidable problem of a multielectron atom interacting nonperturbatively with an intense electromagnetic field, provides fair estimates of the various charge state appearance intensities while the tunneling rates are in excellent agreement with single ionization yields. However, more accurate measurements revealed systematic and very large deviations from the tunneling rates: near appearance intensity under standard experimental conditions, the observed double ion yield is several orders of magnitude larger than predicted by the sequential rate. It soon became clear that electrons could not be considered as independent and that electron-electron correlation had to be taken into account. Dynamic correlations have been considered in several theories. First qualitatively in the shakeoff model; then empirically through the e-2e cross-section in the quantum/classical three-step model (tunnel ionization, acceleration by the oscillating electric field and e-2e recollision with the ion); recently through the so-called intense field many-body-S-matrix theory and a purely empirical model of collective tunnel ionization. The validity of these ideas has been examined using numerical models. The measurement of total ion yields over a dynamic range exceeding ten orders of magnitude, a major breakthrough made possible by the availability of high-repetition rate lasers at the beginning of the 90's, was for a long time the only quantitative data to confront theory.

LAFON,R.; CHALOUPKA,J.L.; SHEEHY,B.; DIMAURO,L.F.; PAUL,P.M.; AGOSTINI,P.; KULANDER,K.C.

2000-09-24T23:59:59.000Z