National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for large-scale co2 storage

  1. Microsoft Word - NRAP-TRS-III-002-2012_Modeling the Performance of Large Scale CO2 Storage_20121024.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling the Performance of Large- Scale CO 2 Storage Systems: A Comparison of Different Sensitivity Analysis Methods 24 October 2012 Office of Fossil Energy NRAP-TRS-III-002-2012 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

  2. Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwaterresources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact ongroundwater systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan,Preston; Zhang,K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-10-24

    If carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies areimplemented on a large scale, the amounts of CO2 injected and sequesteredunderground could be extremely large. The stored CO2 then replaces largevolumes of native brine, which can cause considerable pressureperturbation and brine migration in the deep saline formations. Ifhydraulically communicating, either directly via updipping formations orthrough interlayer pathways such as faults or imperfect seals, theseperturbations may impact shallow groundwater or even surface waterresources used for domestic or commercial water supply. Possibleenvironmental concerns include changes in pressure and water table,changes in discharge and recharge zones, as well as changes in waterquality. In compartmentalized formations, issues related to large-scalepressure buildup and brine displacement may also cause storage capacityproblems, because significant pressure buildup can be produced. Toaddress these issues, a three-year research project was initiated inOctober 2006, the first part of which is summarized in this annualreport.

  3. On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2011-05-01

    The scale and magnitude of pressure perturbation and brine migration induced by geologic carbon sequestration is discussed assuming a full-scale deployment scenario in which enough CO{sub 2} is captured and stored to make relevant contributions to global climate change mitigation. In this scenario, the volumetric rates and cumulative volumes of CO{sub 2} injection would be comparable to or higher than those related to existing deep-subsurface injection and extraction activities, such as oil production. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization may fracture the caprock, may drive CO{sub 2}/brine leakage through localized pathways, and may cause induced seismicity. On the other hand, laterally extensive sedimentary basins may be less affected by such limitations because (i) local pressure effects are moderated by pressure propagation and brine displacement into regions far away from the CO{sub 2} storage domain; and (ii) diffuse and/or localized brine migration into overlying and underlying formations allows for pressure bleed-off in the vertical direction. A quick analytical estimate of the extent of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage projects is presented. Also discussed are pressure perturbation and attenuation effects simulated for two representative sedimentary basins in the USA: the laterally extensive Illinois Basin and the partially compartmentalized southern San Joaquin Basin in California. These studies show that the limiting effect of pressure build-up on dynamic storage capacity is not as significant as suggested by Ehlig-Economides and Economides, who considered closed systems without any attenuation effects.

  4. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nations CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

  5. Large-Scale Utilization of Biomass Energy and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the Transport and Electricity Sectors under Stringent CO2 Concentration Limit Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-08-05

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to meet atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm by the end of the century. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. A key aspect of the research presented here is that the costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are explicitly incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced globally by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the majority source, along with growing utilization of waste-to-energy. The ability to draw on a diverse set of biomass based feedstocks helps to reduce the pressure for drastic large-scale changes in land use and the attendant environmental, ecological, and economic consequences those changes would unleash. In terms of the conversion of bioenergy feedstocks into value added energy, this paper demonstrates that biomass is and will continue to be used to generate electricity as well as liquid transportation fuels. A particular focus of this paper is to show how climate policies and technology assumptions - especially the availability of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies - affect the decisions made about where the biomass is used in the energy system. The potential for net-negative electric sector emissions through the use of CCS with biomass feedstocks provides an attractive part of the solution for meeting stringent emissions constraints; we find that at carbon prices above 150$/tCO2, over 90% of biomass in the energy system is used in combination with CCS. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, it is a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. CCS is also used heavily with other fuels such as coal and natural gas, and by 2095 a total of 1530 GtCO2 has been stored in deep geologic reservoirs. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels as two representative conversion processes and shows that both technologies may be important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics.

  6. Comparing large scale CCS deployment potential in the USA and China: a detailed analysis based on country-specific CO2 transport & storage cost curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Dooley, James J.

    2011-04-18

    The United States and China are the two largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and their projected continued growth and reliance on fossil fuels, especially coal, make them strong candidates for CCS. Previous work has revealed that both nations have over 1600 large electric utility and other industrial point CO2 sources as well as very large CO2 storage resources on the order of 2,000 billion metric tons (Gt) of onshore storage capacity. In each case, the vast majority of this capacity is found in deep saline formations. In both the USA and China, candidate storage reservoirs are likely to be accessible by most sources with over 80% of these large industrial CO2 sources having a CO2 storage option within just 80 km. This suggests a strong potential for CCS deployment as a meaningful option to efforts to reduce CO2 emissions from these large, vibrant economies. However, while the USA and China possess many similarities with regards to the potential value that CCS might provide, including the range of costs at which CCS may be available to most large CO2 sources in each nation, there are a number of more subtle differences that may help us to understand the ways in which CCS deployment may differ between these two countries in order for the USA and China to work together - and in step with the rest of the world - to most efficiently reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper details the first ever analysis of CCS deployment costs in these two countries based on methodologically comparable CO2 source and sink inventories, economic analysis, geospatial source-sink matching and cost curve modeling. This type of analysis provides a valuable insight into the degree to which early and sustained opportunities for climate change mitigation via commercial-scale CCS are available to the two countries, and could facilitate greater collaboration in areas where those opportunities overlap.

  7. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  8. Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L.

    2011-07-15

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with ?-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  9. Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction August 24, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Construction activities have begun at an Illinois ethanol plant that will demonstrate carbon capture and storage. The project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy, is the first large-scale integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS) demonstration

  10. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Research: Target 2014 Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research: Target 2014 ASCRFrontcover.png Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research An ASCR / NERSC Review January 5-6, 2011 Final Report Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Report of the Joint ASCR / NERSC Workshop conducted January 5-6, 2011 Goals This workshop is being

  11. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Target 2014 Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences: Target 2014 BESFrontcover.png Final Report Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences, Report of the Joint BES/ ASCR / NERSC Workshop conducted February 9-10, 2010 Workshop Agenda The agenda for this workshop is presented here: including presentation times and speaker information. Read More » Workshop Presentations Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic

  12. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Science at NERSC HPC Requirements Reviews Requirements Reviews: Target 2014 Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion ...

  13. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research: Target 2014 ... This workshop is being organized by the Department of Energy's Office of ...

  14. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013 Hilton Washington DCRockville Hotel and Executive Meeting Center 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-1699 Final Report Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements...

  15. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  16. COLLOQUIUM: Liquid Metal Batteries for Large-scale Energy Storage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 22, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium, PPPL (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: Liquid Metal Batteries for Large-scale Energy Storage Dr. Hojong Kim Pennsylvania State ...

  17. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017 The NERSC Program Requirements Review "Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences" is organized by the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The review's goal is to

  18. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics: Target 2017 HEPlogo.jpg The NERSC Program Requirements Review "Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics" is organized by the Department of Energy's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The review's goal is to characterize

  19. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific Computing Research: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research: Target 2017 ASCRLogo.png This is an invitation-only review organized by the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and NERSC. The general goal is to determine production high-performance computing, storage, and services that will be needed for ASCR to achieve its science goals through 2017. A specific focus

  20. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences: Target 2017 BES-Montage.png This is an invitation-only review organized by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The goal is to determine production high-performance computing, storage, and services that will be needed for BES to

  1. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics: Target 2017 NPicon.png This invitation-only review is organized by the Department of Energy's Offices of Nuclear Physics (NP) and Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and by NERSC. The goal is to determine production high-performance computing, storage, and services that will be needed for NP to achieve its science goals through 2017. The review brings together DOE Program Managers,

  2. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Environmental Research: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research: Target 2017 BERmontage.gif September 11-12, 2012 Hilton Rockville Hotel and Executive Meeting Center 1750 Rockville Pike Rockville, MD, 20852-1699 TEL: 1-301-468-1100 Sponsored by: U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) National Energy

  3. NETL CO2 Storage Frequently Asked Questions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Storage Frequently Asked Questions faq-header-big.jpg A combined portfolio of carbon management options for fossil fuel use can be implemented to manage current emission levels...

  4. Underground CO2 Storage | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Sensing Capabilities for CO2 Storage Wells Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Enhanced Sensing Capabilities for CO2 Storage Wells GE (NYSE: GE) Global Research today announced it has signed a contract with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

  5. Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects | Department of Energy Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy Storage Projects Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy Storage Projects Map of the United States showing the location of all projects created with funding from the Smart Grid Demonstration and Energy Storage Project, funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. PDF icon Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy Storage Projects More Documents

  6. Underground CO2 Storage, Natural Gas Recovery Targeted by Virginia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of an NETL-sponsored CO2 storage research project ... teamed with the National Energy Technology Laboratory ... of CO2 into a coalbed methane field in Buchanan County, ...

  7. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  8. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey J.

    2012-03-02

    IThe National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,000 users and hosting some 550 projects that involve nearly 700 codes for a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-scale computing resources NERSC provides critical staff support and expertise to help scientists make the most efficient use of these resources to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Science. In May 2011, NERSC, DOE’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for NP research over the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC’s continuing involvement in anticipating future user needs and deploying necessary resources to meet these demands. The workshop revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing NP computing. The key requirements include: 1. Larger allocations of computational resources at NERSC; 2. Visualization and analytics support; and 3. Support at NERSC for the unique needs of experimental nuclear physicists. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. The results are based upon representative samples, called “case studies,” of the needs of science teams within NP. The case studies were prepared by NP workshop participants and contain a summary of science goals, methods of solution, current and future computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, “multi-core” environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report also includes a section with NERSC responses to the workshop findings. NERSC has many initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings and all of the action items are aligned with NERSC strategic plans.

  9. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes a section that describes efforts already underway or planned at NERSC that address requirements collected at the workshop. NERSC has many initiatives in progress that address key workshop findings and are aligned with NERSC's strategic plans.

  10. On Leakage from Geologic Storage Reservoirs of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-14

    Large amounts of CO2 would need to be injected underground to achieve a significant reduction of atmospheric emissions. The large areal extent expected for CO2 plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered, such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape from the primary storage reservoir. Leakage of CO2 could also occur along wellbores. Concerns with escape of CO2 from a primary geologic storage reservoir include (1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard when leaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy, eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In order to gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address these issues and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely in geologic formations.

  11. CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    future increase in industrial efforts at CO2 storage in Colorado sedimentary basins. ... As a more sustainable energy industry is becoming a global priority, it is imperative to ...

  12. Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing For Co2 Storage Monitoring...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing For Co2 Storage Monitoring Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote...

  13. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.; Imhoff, Carl H.; Graff, Gordon L.; Li, Liyu; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Xia, Guanguang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Baskaran, Suresh; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2013-02-15

    Large-scale electrical energy storage has become more important than ever for reducing fossil energy consumption in transportation and for the widespread deployment of intermittent renewable energy in electric grid. However, significant challenges exist for its applications. Here, the status and challenges are reviewed from the perspective of materials science and materials chemistry in electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, sodium (sulfur and metal halide) batteries, Pb-acid battery, redox flow batteries, and supercapacitors. Perspectives and approaches are introduced for emerging battery designs and new chemistry combinations to reduce the cost of energy storage devices.

  14. DOE Manual Studies 11 Major CO2 Geologic Storage Formations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A comprehensive study of 11 geologic formations suitable for permanent underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage is contained in a new manual issued by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Evaluating a new approach to CO2 capture and storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluating a new approach to CO2 capture and storage Evaluating a new approach to CO2 capture and storage In a perspective paper published in Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, researchers examined a new approach that could potentially overcome many barriers to deployment and jumpstart this process on a commercial scale. September 13, 2015 Map of the contiguous United States shows the location of facilities that produce high-value chemicals/products and the amount of carbon dioxide

  16. CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins. Applied

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins. Applied Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins. Applied Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations This

  17. Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

  18. Early opportunities of CO2 geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2014-11-12

    Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation or in late planning stages. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO2 per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >99% respectively).Four typical source-sink pairs are studied by a techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and experienced economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 15USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a net economic benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  19. Harvey Wasserman! Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Harvey Wasserman! Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics Research: Target 2017 Meeting Goals & Process! ! --- 1 --- December 3 , 2 012 Logistics: Schedule * Agenda o n w orkshop w eb p age - h%p://www.nersc.gov/science/requirements/HEP * Mid---morning / a <ernoon b reak, l unch * Self---organizaBon for dinner * MulBple s cience a reas, o ne w orkshop - Science---focused b ut c rosscu?ng d iscussion - Explore a reas o f c ommon n eed ( within H EP) *

  20. First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Maine | Department of Energy First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Installed Off the Coast of Maine First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Installed Off the Coast of Maine October 1, 2013 - 12:33pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Third Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. A 65-foot tall, 20-kilowatt wind turbine with a white rotor and a yellow tower on a floating platform in the ocean. Castine, Maine - On May 31, 2013, the University of Maine's

  1. A High-Performance Rechargeable Iron Electrode for Large-Scale Battery-Based Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Yang, C; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Inexpensive, robust and efficient large-scale electrical energy storage systems are vital to the utilization of electricity generated from solar and wind resources. In this regard, the low cost, robustness, and eco-friendliness of aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries are particularly attractive and compelling. However, wasteful evolution of hydrogen during charging and the inability to discharge at high rates have limited the deployment of iron-based aqueous batteries. We report here new chemical formulations of the rechargeable iron battery electrode to achieve a ten-fold reduction in the hydrogen evolution rate, an unprecedented charging efficiency of 96%, a high specific capacity of 0.3 Ah/g, and a twenty-fold increase in discharge rate capability. We show that modifying high-purity carbonyl iron by in situ electro-deposition of bismuth leads to substantial inhibition of the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The in situ formation of conductive iron sulfides mitigates the passivation by iron hydroxide thereby allowing high discharge rates and high specific capacity to be simultaneously achieved. These major performance improvements are crucial to advancing the prospect of a sustainable large-scale energy storage solution based on aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.034208jes] All rights reserved.

  2. A Report on Simulation-Driven Reliability and Failure Analysis of Large-Scale Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Lipeng; Wang, Feiyi; Oral, H. Sarp; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.; Cao, Qing

    2014-11-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) storage systems provide data availability and reliability using various hardware and software fault tolerance techniques. Usually, reliability and availability are calculated at the subsystem or component level using limited metrics such as, mean time to failure (MTTF) or mean time to data loss (MTTDL). This often means settling on simple and disconnected failure models (such as exponential failure rate) to achieve tractable and close-formed solutions. However, such models have been shown to be insufficient in assessing end-to-end storage system reliability and availability. We propose a generic simulation framework aimed at analyzing the reliability and availability of storage systems at scale, and investigating what-if scenarios. The framework is designed for an end-to-end storage system, accommodating the various components and subsystems, their interconnections, failure patterns and propagation, and performs dependency analysis to capture a wide-range of failure cases. We evaluate the framework against a large-scale storage system that is in production and analyze its failure projections toward and beyond the end of lifecycle. We also examine the potential operational impact by studying how different types of components affect the overall system reliability and availability, and present the preliminary results

  3. NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential | Department of Energy NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage Potential NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage Potential September 28, 2015 - 9:49am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) today released the fifth edition of the Carbon Storage Atlas (Atlas V), which shows prospective carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resources of at least 2,600 billion metric tons - an increase

  4. Modeling long-term CO2 storage, sequestration and cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.

    2013-11-11

    The application of numerical and analytical models to the problem of storage, sequestration and migration of carbon dioxide in geologic formations is discussed. A review of numerical and analytical models that have been applied to CO2 sequestration are presented, as well as a description of frameworks for risk analysis. Application of models to various issues related to carbon sequestration are discussed, including trapping mechanisms, density convection mixing, impurities in the CO2 stream, changes in formation porosity and permeability, the risk of vertical leakage, and the impacts on groundwater resources if leakage does occur. A discussion of the development and application of site-specific models first addresses the estimation of model parameters and the use of natural analogues to inform the development of CO2 sequestration models, and then surveys modeling that has been done at two commercial-scale CO2 sequestration sites, Sleipner and In Salah, along with a pilot-scale injection sites used to study CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers (Frio) and an experimental site designed to test monitoring of CO2 leakage in the vadose zone (ZERT Release Facility).

  5. SUBTASK 2.19 – OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF CO2 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Melanie; Schlasner, Steven; Sorensen, James; Hamling, John

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in large quantities during electricity generation and by industrial processes. These CO2 streams vary in terms of both composition and mass flow rate, sometimes substantially. The impact of a varying CO2 stream on pipeline and storage operation is not fully understood in terms of either operability or infrastructure robustness. This study was performed to summarize basic background from the literature on the topic of operational flexibility of CO2 transport and storage, but the primary focus was on compiling real-world lessons learned about flexible operation of CO2 pipelines and storage from both large-scale field demonstrations and commercial operating experience. Modeling and pilot-scale results of research in this area were included to illustrate some of the questions that exist relative to operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects with variable CO2 streams. It is hoped that this report’s real-world findings provide readers with useful information on the topic of transport and storage of variable CO2 streams. The real-world results were obtained from two sources. The first source consisted of five full-scale, commercial transport–storage projects: Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah, Weyburn, and Illinois Basin–Decatur. These scenarios were reviewed to determine the information that is available about CO2 stream variability/intermittency on these demonstration-scale projects. The five projects all experienced mass flow variability or an interruption in flow. In each case, pipeline and/or injection engineers were able to accommodate any issues that arose. Significant variability in composition has not been an issue at these five sites. The second source of real- world results was telephone interviews conducted with experts in CO2 pipeline transport, injection, and storage during which commercial anecdotal information was acquired to augment that found during the literature search of the five full-scale projects. The experts represented a range of disciplines and hailed from North America and Europe. Major findings of the study are that compression and transport of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) purposes in the United States has shown that impurities are not likely to cause transport problems if CO2 stream composition standards are maintained and pressures are kept at 10.3 MPa or higher. Cyclic, or otherwise intermittent, CO2 supplies historically have not impacted in-field distribution pipeline networks, wellbore integrity, or reservoir conditions. The U.S. EOR industry has demonstrated that it is possible to adapt to variability and intermittency in CO2 supply through flexible operation of the pipeline and geologic storage facility. This CO2 transport and injection experience represents knowledge that can be applied in future CCS projects. A number of gaps in knowledge were identified that may benefit from future research and development, further enhancing the possibility for widespread application of CCS. This project was funded through the Energy & Environmental Research Center–U.S. Department of Energy Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme.

  6. Technical and economical aspects of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage in deep oceans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarv, H.; John, J.

    2000-07-01

    The authors examined the technical and economical feasibility of two options for large-scale transportation and ocean sequestration of captured CO{sub 2} at depths of 3000 meters or greater. In one case, CO{sub 2} was pumped from a land-based collection center through six parallel-laid subsea pipelines. Another case considered oceanic tanker transport of liquid carbon dioxide to an offshore floating platform or a barge for vertical injection through a large-diameter pipe to the ocean floor. Based on the preliminary technical and economic analyses, tanker transportation and offshore injection through a large-diameter, 3,000-meter vertical pipeline from a floating structure appears to be the best method for delivering liquid CO{sub 2} to deep ocean floor depressions for distances greater than 400 km. Other benefits of offshore injection are high payload capability and ease of relocation. For shorter distances (less than 400 km), CO{sub 2} delivery by subsea pipelines is more cost-effective. Estimated costs for 500-km transport and storage at a depth of 3000 meters by subsea pipelines or tankers were under 2 dollars per ton of stored CO{sub 2}. Their analyses also indicates that large-scale sequestration of captured CO{sub 2} in oceans is technologically feasible and has many commonalities with other strategies for deepsea natural gas and oil exploration installations.

  7. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  8. Jumpstarting commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage with ethylene production and enhanced oil recovery in the US Gulf

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Middleton, Richard S.; Levine, Jonathan S.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Carey, J. William; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2015-04-27

    CO2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology has yet to be widely deployed at a commercial scale despite multiple high-profile demonstration projects. We suggest that developing a large-scale, visible, and financially viable CCUS network could potentially overcome many barriers to deployment and jumpstart commercial-scale CCUS. To date, substantial effort has focused on technology development to reduce the costs of CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Here, we propose that near-term investment could focus on implementing CO2 capture on facilities that produce high-value chemicals/products. These facilities can absorb the expected impact of the marginal increase in the cost of production onmore » the price of their product, due to the addition of CO2 capture, more than coal-fired power plants. A financially viable demonstration of a large-scale CCUS network requires offsetting the costs of CO2 capture by using the CO2 as an input to the production of market-viable products. As a result, we demonstrate this alternative development path with the example of an integrated CCUS system where CO2 is captured from ethylene producers and used for enhanced oil recovery in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.« less

  9. NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Atlas V), which shows prospective carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resources of at least 2,600 billion metric tons - an increase over the findings of the 2012 Atlas. Atlas V is a ...

  10. New Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Hundreds of Years of CO2 Storage Potential |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Hundreds of Years of CO2 Storage Potential New Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Hundreds of Years of CO2 Storage Potential December 21, 2012 - 9:58am Addthis Atlas IV was created by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and includes input from the more than 400 organizations in 43 states and four Canadian provinces that make up the Department’s seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (as shown above). <a

  11. ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Wenzhong Gao

    2012-09-30

    The Project Objective is to design innovative energy storage architecture and associated controls for high wind penetration to increase reliability and market acceptance of wind power. The project goals are to facilitate wind energy integration at different levels by design and control of suitable energy storage systems. The three levels of wind power system are: Balancing Control Center level, Wind Power Plant level, and Wind Power Generator level. Our scopes are to smooth the wind power fluctuation and also ensure adequate battery life. In the new hybrid energy storage system (HESS) design for wind power generation application, the boundary levels of the state of charge of the battery and that of the supercapacitor are used in the control strategy. In the controller, some logic gates are also used to control the operating time durations of the battery. The sizing method is based on the average fluctuation of wind profiles of a specific wind station. The calculated battery size is dependent on the size of the supercapacitor, state of charge of the supercapacitor and battery wear. To accommodate the wind power fluctuation, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery energy system (BESS) and super-capacitor is adopted in this project. A probability-based power capacity specification approach for the BESS and super-capacitors is proposed. Through this method the capacities of BESS and super-capacitor are properly designed to combine the characteristics of high energy density of BESS and the characteristics of high power density of super-capacitor. It turns out that the super-capacitor within HESS deals with the high power fluctuations, which contributes to the extension of BESS lifetime, and the super-capacitor can handle the peaks in wind power fluctuations without the severe penalty of round trip losses associated with a BESS. The proposed approach has been verified based on the real wind data from an existing wind power plant in Iowa. An intelligent controller that increases battery life within hybrid energy storage systems for wind application was developed. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and simulation results are analyzed. A permanent magnet synchronous generator, coupled with a variable speed wind turbine, is connected to a power grid (14-bus system). A rectifier, a DC-DC converter and an inverter are used to provide a complete model of the wind system. An Energy Storage System (ESS) is connected to a DC-link through a DC-DC converter. An intelligent controller is applied to the DC-DC converter to help the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) to regulate output power and also to control the operation of the battery and supercapacitor. This ensures a longer life time for the batteries. The detailed model is simulated in PSCAD/EMTP. Additionally, economic analysis has been done for different methods that can reduce the wind power output fluctuation. These methods are, wind power curtailment, dumping loads, battery energy storage system and hybrid energy storage system. From the results, application of single advanced HESS can save more money for wind turbines owners. Generally the income would be the same for most of methods because the wind does not change and maximum power point tracking can be applied to most systems. On the other hand, the cost is the key point. For short term and small wind turbine, the BESS is the cheapest and applicable method while for large scale wind turbines and wind farms the application of advanced HESS would be the best method to reduce the power fluctuation. The key outcomes of this project include a new intelligent controller that can reduce energy exchanged between the battery and DC-link, reduce charging/discharging cycles, reduce depth of discharge and increase time interval between charge/discharge, and lower battery temperature. This improves the overall lifetime of battery energy storages. Additionally, a new design method based on probability help optimize the power capacity specification for BESS and super-capacitors. Recommendations include experimental implementation of the controller and energy storage systems in laboratory environment for further testing and verification, which will help commercialization of the proposed system design and controller.

  12. Techno-economic Modeling of the Integration of 20% Wind and Large-scale Energy Storage in ERCOT by 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross Baldick; Michael Webber; Carey King; Jared Garrison; Stuart Cohen; Duehee Lee

    2012-12-21

    This study’s objective is to examine interrelated technical and economic avenues for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) grid to incorporate up to and over 20% wind generation by 2030. Our specific interests are to look at the factors that will affect the implementation of both high level of wind power penetration (> 20% generation) and installation of large scale storage.

  13. A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yuan; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale energy storage represents a key challenge for renewable energy and new systems with low cost, high energy density and long cycle life are desired. In this article, we develop a new lithium/polysulfide (Li/PS) semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage, with lithium polysulfide (Li{sub 2}S{sub 8}) in ether solvent as a catholyte and metallic lithium as an anode. Unlike previous work on Li/S batteries with discharge products such as solid state Li{sub 2}S{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}S, the catholyte is designed to cycle only in the range between sulfur and Li{sub 2}S{sub 4}. Consequently all detrimental effects due to the formation and volume expansion of solid Li{sub 2}S{sub 2}/Li{sub 2}S are avoided. This novel strategy results in excellent cycle life and compatibility with flow battery design. The proof-of-concept Li/PS battery could reach a high energy density of 170 W h kg{sup -1} and 190 W h L{sup -1} for large scale storage at the solubility limit, while keeping the advantages of hybrid flow batteries. We demonstrated that, with a 5 M Li{sub 2}S{sub 8} catholyte, energy densities of 97 W h kg{sup -1} and 108 W h L{sup -1} can be achieved. As the lithium surface is well passivated by LiNO{sub 3} additive in ether solvent, internal shuttle effect is largely eliminated and thus excellent performance over 2000 cycles is achieved with a constant capacity of 200 mA h g{sup -1}. This new system can operate without the expensive ion-selective membrane, and it is attractive for large-scale energy storage.

  14. QCD Thermodynamics at High Temperature Peter Petreczky Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics (NP),

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    QCD Thermodynamics at High Temperature Peter Petreczky Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics (NP), Bethesda MD, April 29-30, 2014 NY Center for Computational Science 2 Defining questions of nuclear physics research in US: Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) "The Frontiers of Nuclear Science", 2007 Long Range Plan "What are the phases of strongly interacting matter and what roles do they play in the cosmos ?" "What does QCD predict for

  15. Novel Concepts Research in Geologic Storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2006-09-30

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for the storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs of the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the July-September 2006 period of the project. As discussed in the following report, the main accomplishments were reservoir modeling for the Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' and design and feasibility support tasks. Work continued on the development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO2 capture systems, permitting, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. In addition, an integrated risk analysis of the proposed system was completed. Finally, slipstream capture construction issues were evaluated with AEP to move the project toward an integrated carbon capture and storage system at the Mountaineer site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase project is proceeding according to plans.

  16. Alabama Project Testing Potential for Combining CO2 Storage with Enhanced

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Methane Recovery | Department of Energy Project Testing Potential for Combining CO2 Storage with Enhanced Methane Recovery Alabama Project Testing Potential for Combining CO2 Storage with Enhanced Methane Recovery June 16, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- Field testing the potential for combining geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage with enhanced methane recovery is underway at a site in Alabama by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) team of regional partners. Members of the Southeast

  17. Scenario Development and Analysis of Hydrogen as a Large-Scale Energy Storage Medium (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D. M.

    2009-06-10

    The conclusions from this report are: (1) hydrogen has several important advantages over competing technologies, including - very high storage energy density (170 kWh/m{sup 3} vs. 2.4 for CAES and 0.7 for pumped hydro) which allows for potential economic viability of above-ground storage and relatively low environmental impact in comparison with other technologies; and (2) the major disadvantage of hydrogen energy storage is cost but research and deployment of electrolyzers and fuel cells may reduce cost significantly.

  18. First-Generation Risk Profiles Help Predict CO2 Storage Site...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    September 18, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - In support of large-scale carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) projects, a collaboration of five U.S. Department...

  19. Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A project important to demonstrating the commercial viability of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology has completed the first year of injecting carbon dioxide from an industrial plant at a large-scale test site in Illinois.

  20. Probabilistic cost estimation methods for treatment of water extracted during CO2 storage and EOR

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graham, Enid J. Sullivan; Chu, Shaoping; Pawar, Rajesh J.

    2015-08-08

    Extraction and treatment of in situ water can minimize risk for large-scale CO2 injection in saline aquifers during carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), and for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Additionally, treatment and reuse of oil and gas produced waters for hydraulic fracturing will conserve scarce fresh-water resources. Each treatment step, including transportation and waste disposal, generates economic and engineering challenges and risks; these steps should be factored into a comprehensive assessment. We expand the water treatment model (WTM) coupled within the sequestration system model CO2-PENS and use chemistry data from seawater and proposed injection sites in Wyoming, to demonstratemore » the relative importance of different water types on costs, including little-studied effects of organic pretreatment and transportation. We compare the WTM with an engineering water treatment model, utilizing energy costs and transportation costs. Specific energy costs for treatment of Madison Formation brackish and saline base cases and for seawater compared closely between the two models, with moderate differences for scenarios incorporating energy recovery. Transportation costs corresponded for all but low flow scenarios (<5000 m3/d). Some processes that have high costs (e.g., truck transportation) do not contribute the most variance to overall costs. Other factors, including feed-water temperature and water storage costs, are more significant contributors to variance. These results imply that the WTM can provide good estimates of treatment and related process costs (AACEI equivalent level 5, concept screening, or level 4, study or feasibility), and the complex relationships between processes when extracted waters are evaluated for use during CCUS and EOR site development.« less

  1. Using Pressure and Volumetric Approaches to Estimate CO2 Storage Capacity in Deep Saline Aquifers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thibeau, Sylvain; Bachu, Stefan; Birkholzer, Jens; Holloway, Sam; Neele, Filip; Zhou, Quanlin

    2014-12-31

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where CO2 storage capacity is evaluated both volumetrically (with “open” and/or “closed” approaches) and through flow modeling. These examples show that the “open aquifer” CO2 storage capacity estimation can strongly exceed the cumulative CO2 injection from the flow model, whereas the “closed aquifer” estimates are a closer approximation to the flow-model derived capacity. Anmore » analogy to oil recovery mechanisms is presented, where the primary oil recovery mechanism is compared to CO2 aquifer storage without producing formation water; and the secondary oil recovery mechanism (water flooding) is compared to CO2 aquifer storage performed simultaneously with extraction of water for pressure maintenance. This analogy supports the finding that the “closed aquifer” approach produces a better estimate of CO2 storage without water extraction, and highlights the need for any CO2 storage estimate to specify whether it is intended to represent CO2 storage capacity with or without water extraction.« less

  2. Evaluating a new approach to CO2 capture and storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sector to continue generating electricity at coal-fired and natural-gas power plants. The strategy involves capturing and compressing CO2 at large, stationary sources, such as...

  3. CO2 Capture and Storage Project, Education and Training Center...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... When operations begin in 2013, the CO2 will be captured from Archer Daniels Midland's ... The project is led by Archer Daniels Midland, in a partnership that includes Schlumberger ...

  4. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  5. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a brief summary of those relevant to issues raised by researchers at the workshop.

  6. Economic analysis of large-scale hydrogen storage for renewable utility applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenung, Susan M.

    2011-08-01

    The work reported here supports the efforts of the Market Transformation element of the DOE Fuel Cell Technology Program. The portfolio includes hydrogen technologies, as well as fuel cell technologies. The objective of this work is to model the use of bulk hydrogen storage, integrated with intermittent renewable energy production of hydrogen via electrolysis, used to generate grid-quality electricity. In addition the work determines cost-effective scale and design characteristics and explores potential attractive business models.

  7. DOE Best Practices Manual Focuses on Site Selection for CO2 Storage |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Best Practices Manual Focuses on Site Selection for CO2 Storage DOE Best Practices Manual Focuses on Site Selection for CO2 Storage January 5, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The most promising methods for assessing potential carbon dioxide (CO2) geologic storage sites - a crucial component of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology - is the focus of the latest in a series of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CCS "best practices" manuals. Developed by

  8. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  9. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program Office ,

    2009-09-30

    In May 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BER-funded research over the subsequent three to five years. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. Chief among them: scientific progress in BER-funded research is limited by current allocations of computational resources. Additionally, growth in mission-critical computing -- combined with new requirements for collaborative data manipulation and analysis -- will demand ever increasing computing, storage, network, visualization, reliability and service richness from NERSC. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. It also presents a number of"case studies" as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BER. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this"case study" format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and 3-5 year computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel,"multi-core" environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years.

  10. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondaryaccumulation at shallow depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    2007-05-31

    Geologic storage of CO2 can be a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases only if it can bedemonstrated that leakage from proposed storage reservoirs and associatedhazards are small or can be mitigated. Risk assessment must evaluatepotential leakage scenarios and develop a rational, mechanisticunderstanding of CO2 behavior during leakage. Flow of CO2 may be subjectto positive feedbacks that could amplify leakage risks and hazards,placing a premium on identifying and avoiding adverse conditions andmechanisms. A scenario that is unfavorable in terms of leakage behavioris formation of a secondary CO2 accumulation at shallow depth. This paperdevelops a detailed numerical simulation model to investigate CO2discharge from a secondary accumulation, and evaluates the role ofdifferent thermodynamic and hydrogeologic conditions. Our simulationsdemonstrate self-enhancing as well as self-limiting feedbacks.Condensation of gaseous CO2, 3-phase flow of aqueous phase -- liquid CO2-- gaseous CO2, and cooling from Joule-Thomson expansion and boiling ofliquid CO2 are found to play important roles in the behavior of a CO2leakage system. We find no evidence that a subsurface accumulation of CO2at ambient temperatures could give rise to a high-energy discharge, aso-called "pneumatic eruption."

  11. co2-saline-storage | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for 2-D seismic, 3-D seismic, vertical seismic profiling, crosswell seismic and microseismic technologies. Which Reservoir for Low Cost Capture, Transportation, and Storage? -...

  12. DOE-Sponsored Drilling Projects Demonstrate Significant CO2 Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - an important component of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology development - has been completed in projects supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. ...

  13. Large-Scale Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large-Scale Computational Fluid Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  14. Third Carbon Sequestration Atlas Estimates Up to 5,700 Years of CO2 Storage

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Potential in U.S. and Portions of Canada | Department of Energy Third Carbon Sequestration Atlas Estimates Up to 5,700 Years of CO2 Storage Potential in U.S. and Portions of Canada Third Carbon Sequestration Atlas Estimates Up to 5,700 Years of CO2 Storage Potential in U.S. and Portions of Canada December 1, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - There could be as much as 5,700 years of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage potential available in geologic formations in the United States and portions

  15. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 STORAGE AND SINK ENHANCEMENT OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Bock; Richard Rhudy; Howard Herzog; Michael Klett; John Davison; Danial G. De La Torre Ugarte; Dale Simbeck

    2003-02-01

    This project developed life-cycle costs for the major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} storage and sink enhancement. The technologies evaluated included options for storing captured CO{sub 2} in active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of carbon sequestration in forests and croplands. The capture costs for a nominal 500 MW{sub e} integrated gasification combined cycle plant from an earlier study were combined with the storage costs from this study to allow comparison among capture and storage approaches as well as sink enhancements.

  16. An Inexpensive Aqueous Flow Battery for Large-Scale Electrical Energy Storage Based on Water-Soluble Organic Redox Couples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, B; Hoober-Burkhardt, L; Wang, F; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2014-05-21

    We introduce a novel Organic Redox Flow Battery (ORBAT), for Meeting the demanding requirements of cost, eco-friendliness, and durability for large-scale energy storage. ORBAT employs two different water-soluble organic redox couples on the positive and negative side of a flow battery. Redox couples such as quinones are particularly attractive for this application. No precious metal catalyst is needed because of the fast proton-coupled electron transfer processes. Furthermore, in acid media, the quinones exhibit good chemical stability. These properties render quinone-based redox couples very attractive for high-efficiency metal-free rechargeable batteries. We demonstrate the rechargeability of ORBAT with anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid on the negative side, and 1,2-dihydrobenzoquinone- 3,5-disulfonic acid on the positive side. The ORBAT cell uses a membrane-electrode assembly configuration similar to that used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Such a battery can be charged and discharged multiple times at high faradaic efficiency without any noticeable degradation of performance. We show that solubility and mass transport properties of the reactants and products are paramount to achieving high current densities and high efficiency. The ORBAT configuration presents a unique opportunity for developing an inexpensive and sustainable metal-free rechargeable battery for large-scale electrical energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.orgilicenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.

  17. DOE-Funded Project Testing Laser CO2 Monitoring at Carbon Storage Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A project that uses lasers to monitor carbon dioxide (CO2) is being analyzed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) drive to improve greenhouse gas-monitoring abilities at CO2 storage sites. The project is managed by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  18. DOE Selects Projects to Monitor and Evaluate Geologic CO2 Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy today announced the selection of 19 projects to enhance the capability to simulate, track, and evaluate the potential risks of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in geologic formations.

  19. Department of Energy, Shell Canada to Collaborate on CO2 Storage Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and Shell Canada announced today they intend to collaborate in field tests to validate advanced monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) technologies for underground storage of carbon dioxide (CO2).

  20. Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing Important Geologic CO2 Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon dioxide injection -- an important part of carbon capture and storage technology -- is underway as part of a pilot study of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in the Citronelle Field of Mobile County, Alabama.

  1. CO2 Capture and Storage Project, Education and Training Center Launched in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Decatur, Illinois | Department of Energy CO2 Capture and Storage Project, Education and Training Center Launched in Decatur, Illinois CO2 Capture and Storage Project, Education and Training Center Launched in Decatur, Illinois September 20, 2012 - 10:28am Addthis The new National Sequestration Education Center (NSEC) is a 15,000 square-foot sustainably designed center that will contain classrooms and training and laboratory facilities. | Photo courtesy of Richland Community College. The new

  2. Regional Partner Announces Plans for Carbon Storage Project Using CO2

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Captured from Coal-Fired Power Plant | Department of Energy Regional Partner Announces Plans for Carbon Storage Project Using CO2 Captured from Coal-Fired Power Plant Regional Partner Announces Plans for Carbon Storage Project Using CO2 Captured from Coal-Fired Power Plant July 20, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Southern Company and the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB), one of seven members of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Regional Carbon

  3. Modelling the deployment of CO2 storage in U.S. gas-bearing shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-10-23

    The proliferation of commercial development in U.S. gas-bearing shales helped to drive a twelve-fold increase in domestic gas production between 2000 and 2010, and the nation’s gas production rates continue to grow. While shales have long been regarded as a desirable caprock for CCS operations because of their low permeability and porosity, there is increasing interest in the feasibility of injecting CO2 into shales to enhance methane recovery and augment CO2 storage. Laboratory work published in recent years observes that shales with adsorbed methane appear to exhibit a stronger affinity for CO2 adsorption, offering the potential to drive additional CH4 recovery beyond primary production and perhaps the potential to store a larger volume of CO2 than the volume of methane displaced. Recent research by the authors on the revenues associated with CO2-enhanced gas recovery (CO2-EGR) in gas-bearing shales estimates that, based on a range of EGR response rates, the average revenue per ton of CO2 for projects managed over both EGR and subsequent storage-only phases could range from $0.50 to $18/tCO2. While perhaps not as profitable as EOR, for regions where lower-cost storage options may be limited, shales could represent another “early opportunity” storage option if proven feasible for reliable EGR and CO2 storage. Significant storage potential exists in gas shales, with theoretical CO2 storage resources estimated at approximately 30-50 GtCO2. However, an analysis of the comprehensive cost competitiveness of these various options is necessary to understand the degree to which they might meaningfully impact U.S. CCS deployment or costs. This preliminary analysis shows that the degree to which EGR-based CO2 storage could play a role in commercial-scale deployment is heavily dependent upon the offsetting revenues associated with incremental recovery; modeling the low revenue case resulted in only five shale-based projects, while under the high revenue case, shales accounted for as much as 20 percent of total U.S. storage in the first 20 years of deployment. Interestingly, even in this highest revenue case, there appear to be no negative-cost projects that would be profitable in a no-policy environment as modeled under the assumptions employed. While this reflects a very first look at the potential for shales, it is clear that more laboratory and experimental work are needed to reduce uncertainty in key variables and begin to differentiate and identify high-potential shales for early pilot study.

  4. Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utilization | Department of Energy Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and Utilization Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and Utilization January 25, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A breakthrough carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) project in Texas has begun capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) and piping it to an oilfield for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Read the project factsheet The project at Air Products

  5. The Rosetta Resources CO2 Storage Project - A WESTCARB GeologicPilot Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trautz, Robert; Benson, Sally; Myer, Larry; Oldenburg, Curtis; Seeman, Ed; Hadsell, Eric; Funderburk, Ben

    2006-01-30

    WESTCARB, one of seven U.S. Department of Energypartnerships, identified (during its Phase I study) over 600 gigatonnesof CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations located in the Westernregion. The Western region includes the WESTCARB partnership states ofAlaska, Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon and Washington and theCanadian province of British Columbia. The WESTCARB Phase II study iscurrently under way, featuring three geologic and two terrestrial CO2pilot projects designed to test promising sequestration technologies atsites broadly representative of the region's largest potential carbonsinks. This paper focuses on two of the geologic pilot studies plannedfor Phase II -referred to-collectively as the Rosetta-Calpine CO2 StorageProject. The first pilot test will demonstrate injection of CO2 into asaline formation beneath a depleted gas reservoir. The second test willgather data for assessing CO2 enhanced gas recovery (EGR) as well asstorage in a depleted gas reservoir. The benefit of enhanced oil recovery(EOR) using injected CO2 to drive or sweep oil from the reservoir towarda production well is well known. EaR involves a similar CO2 injectionprocess, but has received far less attention. Depleted natural gasreservoirs still contain methane; therefore, CO2 injection may enhancemethane production by reservoir repressurization or pressure maintenance.CO2 injection into a saline formation, followed by injection into adepleted natural gas reservoir, is currently scheduled to start inOctober 2006.

  6. Novel Concepts Research in Geologic Storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2007-06-30

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for the storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs of the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the April-June 2007 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the main accomplishments related to preparation to move forward with a 100,000-300,000 metric tons CO{sub 2}/year capture and sequestration project at the Mountaineer site. The program includes a 10 to 30-megawatt thermal product validation at the Mountaineer Plant where up to 300,000 metric tons CO{sub 2}/year will be captured and sequestered in deep rock formations identified in this work. Design and feasibility support tasks such as development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, permitting, reservoir storage simulations, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site were developed for the project. Plans to facilitate the next steps of the project will be the main work remaining in this portion of the project as the program moves toward the proposed capture and sequestration system.

  7. Novel Concepts Research in Geologic Storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2007-03-31

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for the storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs of the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the January-March 2007 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the main accomplishment was an announcement by AEP to move forward with a {approx}100,000 metric tons CO{sub 2}/year capture and sequestration project at the Mountaineer site. This decision was the outcome of last several years of research under the current DOE funded project involving the technology, site-specific characterization, modeling, risk assessment, etc. This news marks a significant accomplishment for DOE's research program to translate the theoretical potential for carbon sequestration into tangible measures and approaches for the region. The program includes a 30-megawatt thermal product validation at the Mountaineer Plant where up to 100,000 metric tons CO{sub 2}/year will be captured and sequestered in deep rock formations identified in this work. Plans include further steps at Mountaineer with capture and storage at a very expedited pace. Work continued on the design and feasibility support tasks such as development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, permitting, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase of the project has reached a major milestone. Plans to facilitate the next steps of the project will be the main work remaining in this portion of the project as the program moves toward the proposed capture and sequestration system.

  8. CO2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; Miller, Quin R. S.; Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions involves coupling CO2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gases (CH4 and CO2) andmore » associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH4:CO2 gas systems, where CH4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH4/CO2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural gas production.« less

  9. Center for Geologic Storage of CO2 (GSCO2) | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Center for Geologic Storage of CO2 (GSCO2) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Center for Geologic Storage of CO2 (GSCO2) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page GSCO<sub>2</sub> Director Scott M. Frailey Lead Institution University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Year Established 2014 Mission To generate new conceptual, mathematical,

  10. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2005-05-26

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiation on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoir, Battelle has been awarded a project to investigate the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. This project is the Phase III of Battelle's work under the Novel Concepts in Greenhouse Gas Management grant. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations and potentially in nearby deep coal seams. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the January through March 2005 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the technical activities focused on development of injection well design, preparing a Class V Underground Injection Control permit, assessment of monitoring technologies, analysis of coal samples for testing the capture system by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, and presentation of project progress at several venues. In addition, related work has progressed on a collaborative risk assessment project with Japan research institute CREIPI and technical application for the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership.

  11. Geochemical Implications of CO2 Leakage Associated with Geologic Storage: A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2012-07-09

    Leakage from deep storage reservoirs is a major risk factor associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Different scientific theories exist concerning the potential implications of such leakage for near-surface environments. The authors of this report reviewed the current literature on how CO2 leakage (from storage reservoirs) would likely impact the geochemistry of near surface environments such as potable water aquifers and the vadose zone. Experimental and modeling studies highlighted the potential for both beneficial (e.g., CO2 re sequestration or contaminant immobilization) and deleterious (e.g., contaminant mobilization) consequences of CO2 intrusion in these systems. Current knowledge gaps, including the role of CO2-induced changes in redox conditions, the influence of CO2 influx rate, gas composition, organic matter content and microorganisms are discussed in terms of their potential influence on pertinent geochemical processes and the potential for beneficial or deleterious outcomes. Geochemical modeling was used to systematically highlight why closing these knowledge gaps are pivotal. A framework for studying and assessing consequences associated with each factor is also presented in Section 5.6.

  12. Ancient Lava Flows Trap CO2 for Long-Term Storage in Big Sky Injection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How can a prehistoric volcanic eruption help us reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere today? The answer is found in the basalt formations created by the lava – formations that can be used as sites for injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) captured from industrial sources in a process called carbon capture and storage. The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership recently injected 1,000 metric tons of CO2 into the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation in eastern Washington. This first-of-its kind injection is part of research meant to determine if basalt formations could provide a long-term solution for storing CO2, a potent greenhouse gas.

  13. Large releases from CO2 storage reservoirs: analogs, scenarios,and modeling needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Rutqvist,Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Karimjee, Anhar

    2005-09-01

    While the purpose of geologic storage in deep salineformations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential existsfor CO2 to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward alongpermeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. In this paper, weevaluate the potential for such CO2 discharges based on the analysis ofnatural analogs, where large releases of gas have been observed. We areparticularly interested in circumstances that could generate sudden,possibly self-enhancing release events. The probability for such eventsmay be low, but the circumstances under which they occur and thepotential consequences need to be evaluated in order to designappropriate site-selection and risk-management strategies. Numericalmodeling of hypothetical test cases is suggested to determine criticalconditions for large CO2 releases, to evaluate whether such conditionsmaybe possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, toevaluate the potential impacts of such events as well as designappropriate mitigation strategies.

  14. DOE Targets Rural Indiana Geologic Formation for CO2 Storage Field Test

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has begun injecting 8,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to evaluate the carbon storage potential and test the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of the Mississippian-aged Clore Formation in Posey County, Ind.

  15. Developing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Framework for Geological Storage CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Ian

    2014-08-31

    The operational risks for CCS projects include: risks of capturing, compressing, transporting and injecting CO₂; risks of well blowouts; risk that CO₂ will leak into shallow aquifers and contaminate potable water; and risk that sequestered CO₂ will leak into the atmosphere. This report examines these risks by using information on the risks associated with analogue activities such as CO2 based enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. We have developed a new analysis of pipeline risk based on Bayesian statistical analysis. Bayesian theory probabilities may describe states of partial knowledge, even perhaps those related to non-repeatable events. The Bayesian approach enables both utilizing existing data and at the same time having the capability to adsorb new information thus to lower uncertainty in our understanding of complex systems. Incident rates for both natural gas and CO2 pipelines have been widely used in papers and reports on risk of CO2 pipelines as proxies for the individual risk created by such pipelines. Published risk studies of CO2 pipelines suggest that the individual risk associated with CO2 pipelines is between 10-3 and 10-4, which reflects risk levels approaching those of mountain climbing, which many would find unacceptably high. This report concludes, based on a careful analysis of natural gas pipeline failures, suggests that the individual risk of CO2 pipelines is likely in the range of 10-6 to 10-7, a risk range considered in the acceptable to negligible range in most countries. If, as is commonly thought, pipelines represent the highest risk component of CCS outside of the capture plant, then this conclusion suggests that most (if not all) previous quantitative- risk assessments of components of CCS may be orders of magnitude to high. The potential lethality of unexpected CO2 releases from pipelines or wells are arguably the highest risk aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), carbon capture, and storage (CCS). Assertions in the CCS literature, that CO2 levels of 10% for ten minutes, or 20 to 30% for a few minutes are lethal to humans, are not supported by the available evidence. The results of published experiments with animals exposed to CO2, from mice to monkeys, at both normal and depleted oxygen levels, suggest that lethal levels of CO2 toxicity are in the range 50 to 60%. These experiments demonstrate that CO2 does not kill by asphyxia, but rather is toxic at high concentrations. It is concluded that quantitative risk assessments of CCS have overestimated the risk of fatalities by using values of lethality a factor two to six lower than the values estimated in this paper. In many dispersion models of CO2 releases from pipelines, no fatalities would be predicted if appropriate levels of lethality for CO2 had been used in the analysis.

  16. Initial results from seismic monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    White, D. J.; Roach, L. A.N.; Roberts, B.; Daley, T. M.

    2014-12-31

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is one of the first integrated commercial-scale CO2 storage projects in the world that is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. Starting in 2014, CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be transported via pipeline to the storage site and to nearby oil fields for enhanced oil recovery. At the Aquistore site, the CO2 will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3200 m depth using the deepest well in Saskatchewan. The suitability of the geological formations that will host the injected CO2 hasmore » been predetermined through 3D characterization using high-resolution 3D seismic images and deep well information. These data show that 1) there are no significant faults in the immediate area of the storage site, 2) the regional sealing formation is continuous in the area, and 3) the reservoir is not adversely affected by knolls on the surface of the underlying Precambrian basement. Furthermore, the Aquistore site is located within an intracratonic region characterized by extremely low levels of seismicity. This is in spite of oil-field related water injection in the nearby Weyburn-Midale field where a total of 656 million m3 of water have been injected since the 1960`s with no demonstrable related induced seismicity. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a permanent areal seismic monitoring array was deployed in 2012, comprising 630 vertical-component geophones installed at 20 m depth on a 2.5x2.5 km regular grid. This permanent array is designed to provide improved 3D time-lapse seismic imaging for monitoring subsurface CO2. Prior to the onset of CO2 injection, calibration 3D surveys were acquired in May and November of 2013. Comparison of the data from these surveys relative to the baseline 3D survey data from 2012 shows excellent repeatability (NRMS less than 10%) which will provide enhanced monitoring sensitivity to smaller amounts of CO2. The permanent array also provides continuous passive monitoring for injection-related microseismicity. Passive monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 in order to establish levels of background seismicity before CO2 injection starts in 2014. Microseismic monitoring was augmented in 2013 by the installation of 3 broadband seismograph stations surrounding the Aquistore site. These surface installations should provide a detection capability of seismic events with magnitudes as low as ~0. Downhole seismic methods are also being utilized for CO2 monitoring at the Aquistore site. Baseline crosswell tomographic images depict details (meters-scale) of the reservoir in the 150-m interval between the observation and injection wells. This level of resolution is designed to track the CO2 migration between the wells during the initial injection period. A baseline 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired in the fall of 2013 to provide seismic images with resolution on a scale between that provided by the surface seismic array and the downhole tomography. The 3D VSP was recorded simultaneously using both a conventional array of downhole geophones (60-levels) and an optical fibre system. The latter utilized an optical fiber cable deployed on the outside of the monitor well casing and cemented in place. A direct comparison of these two methodologies will determine the suitability of using the fiber cable for ongoing time-lapse VSP monitoring.« less

  17. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  18. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  19. Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Facility Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Facility ...

  20. Basin-Scale Hydrologic Impacts of CO2 Storage: Regulatory and Capacity Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Zhou, Q.

    2009-04-02

    Industrial-scale injection of CO{sub 2} into saline sedimentary basins will cause large-scale fluid pressurization and migration of native brines, which may affect valuable groundwater resources overlying the deep sequestration reservoirs. In this paper, we discuss how such basin-scale hydrologic impacts can (1) affect regulation of CO{sub 2} storage projects and (2) may reduce current storage capacity estimates. Our assessment arises from a hypothetical future carbon sequestration scenario in the Illinois Basin, which involves twenty individual CO{sub 2} storage projects in a core injection area suitable for long-term storage. Each project is assumed to inject five million tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year for 50 years. A regional-scale three-dimensional simulation model was developed for the Illinois Basin that captures both the local-scale CO{sub 2}-brine flow processes and the large-scale groundwater flow patterns in response to CO{sub 2} storage. The far-field pressure buildup predicted for this selected sequestration scenario suggests that (1) the area that needs to be characterized in a permitting process may comprise a very large region within the basin if reservoir pressurization is considered, and (2) permits cannot be granted on a single-site basis alone because the near- and far-field hydrologic response may be affected by interference between individual sites. Our results also support recent studies in that environmental concerns related to near-field and far-field pressure buildup may be a limiting factor on CO{sub 2} storage capacity. In other words, estimates of storage capacity, if solely based on the effective pore volume available for safe trapping of CO{sub 2}, may have to be revised based on assessments of pressure perturbations and their potential impact on caprock integrity and groundwater resources, respectively. We finally discuss some of the challenges in making reliable predictions of large-scale hydrologic impacts related to CO{sub 2} sequestration projects.

  1. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Wang, Guohui; Sullivan, E. C.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Harvey, Omar R.; Bowden, Mark

    2013-04-15

    Experimental research work has been conducted and is undergoing at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to address a variety of scientific issues related with the potential leaks of the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from deep storage reservoirs. The main objectives of this work are as follows: • Develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and redox reactions) in the aquifer sediments. • Identify prevailing environmental conditions that would dictate one geochemical outcome over another. • Gather useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geological carbon sequestration. In this report, we present results from experiments conducted at PNNL to address research issues related to the main objectives of this effort. A series of batch and column experiments and solid phase characterization studies (quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions with a concentrated acid) were conducted with representative rocks and sediments from an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer, i.e., Edwards aquifer in Texas, and a confined aquifer, i.e., the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream simulating CO2 gas leaking scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in liquid and effluent samples collected at pre-determined experimental times. Additional research to be conducted during the current fiscal year will further validate these results and will address other important remaining issues. Results from these experimental efforts will provide valuable insights for the development of site-specific, generation III reduced order models. In addition, results will initially serve as input parameters during model calibration runs and, ultimately, will be used to test model predictive capability and competency. The results from these investigations will provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological, deep subsurface CO2 storage and sequestration.

  2. Coupled Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 and Contaminants from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs on Groundwater Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-07-07

    The leakage of CO2 and the concomitant saline solutions from deep storage reservoirs to overlying groundwater aquifers is considered one of the major potential risks associated with geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS). Batch and column experiments were conducted to determine the fate of trace metals in groundwater in the scenarios of CO2 and metal contaminated brine leakage. The sediments used in this work were collected from an unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifer in Kansas, and contained 0-4 wt% carbonates. Cd and As were spiked into the reaction system to represent potential contaminants from the reservoir brine that could intrude into groundwater aquifers with leaking CO2 at initial concentrations of 114 and 40 ppb, respectively. Through this research we demonstrated that Cd and As were adsorbed on the sediments, in spite of the lowered pH due to CO2 dissolution in the groundwater. Cd concentrations were well below its MCL in both batch and column studies, even for sediment samples without detectable carbonate to buffer the pH. Arsenic concentrations in the effluent were also significantly lower than influent concentration, suggesting that the sediments tested have the capacity to mitigate the coupled adverse effects of CO2 leakage and brine intrusion. However, the mitigation capacity of sediment is a function of its geochemical properties [e.g., the calcite content; the presence of adsorbed As(III); and the presence of P in the natural sediment]. The competitive adsorption between phosphate and arsenate may result in higher concentrations of As in the aqueous phase.

  3. DOE Completes Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Awards | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Awards DOE Completes Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Awards November 17, 2008 - 4:58pm Addthis Regional Partner to Demonstrate Safe and Permanent Storage of 2 Million Tons of CO2 at Wyoming Site WASHINGTON, DC - Completing a series of awards through its Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded $66.9 million to the Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for the

  4. Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.

    2007-02-07

    In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.

  5. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Active Management of Integrated GeothermalCO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations: An Approach to Improve Energy Recovery and Mitigate Risk : FY1 Final Report The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  6. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to an Unconfined Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guohui; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Harvey, Omar; Sullivan, E. C.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-07-15

    A series of batch and column experiments combined with solid phase characterization studies (i.e., quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions) were conducted to address a variety of scientific issues and evaluate the impacts of the potential leakage of carbon dioxide (CO2) from deep subsurface storage reservoirs. The main objective was to gain an understanding of how CO2 gas influences: 1) the aqueous phase pH; and 2) mobilization of major, minor, and trace elements from minerals present in an aquifer overlying potential CO2 sequestration subsurface repositories. Rocks and slightly weathered rocks representative of an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer within the continental US, i.e., the Edwards aquifer in Texas, were used in these studies. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream or were leached with a CO2-saturated influent solution to simulate different CO2 gas leakage scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in the liquid samples collected at pre-determined experimental times (batch experiments) or continuously (column experiments). The results from the strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the Edward aquifer samples contain As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which may potentially be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. The results from the batch and column experiments confirmed the release of major chemical elements into the contacting aqueous phase (such as Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Si, Na, and K); the mobilization and possible rapid immobilization of minor elements (such as Fe, Al, and Mn), which are able to form highly reactive secondary phases; and sporadic mobilization of only low concentrations of trace elements (such as As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mo, etc.). The results from this experimental research effort will help in developing a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption) in the aquifer sediments and will support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geologic carbon sequestration.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics & Large-Scale Uncertainty Quantification for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Energy Fluid Dynamics & Large-Scale Uncertainty Quantification for Wind Energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery

  8. Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: FY1 Final Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  9. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  10. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  11. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  12. Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: FY1 Final Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  13. Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Chen, Zizhong; Kazemi, Hossein; Yin, Xiaolong; Pruess, Karsten; Oldenburg, Curt; Winterfeld, Philip; Zhang, Ronglei

    2014-09-30

    This report is the final scientific one for the award DE- FE0000988 entitled “Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers.” The work has been divided into six tasks. In task, “Development of a Three-Phase Non-Isothermal CO2 Flow Module,” we developed a fluid property module for brine-CO2 mixtures designed to handle all possible phase combinations of aqueous phase, sub-critical liquid and gaseous CO2, supercritical CO2, and solid salt. The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of brine-CO2 mixtures (density, viscosity, and specific enthalpy of fluid phases; partitioning of mass components among the different phases) use the same correlations as an earlier fluid property module that does not distinguish between gaseous and liquid CO2-rich phases. We verified the fluid property module using two leakage scenarios, one that involves CO2 migration up a blind fault and subsequent accumulation in a secondary “parasitic” reservoir at shallower depth, and another investigating leakage of CO2 from a deep storage reservoir along a vertical fault zone. In task, “Development of a Rock Mechanical Module,” we developed a massively parallel reservoir simulator for modeling THM processes in porous media brine aquifers. We derived, from the fundamental equations describing deformation of porous elastic media, a momentum conservation equation relating mean stress, pressure, and temperature, and incorporated it alongside the mass and energy conservation equations from the TOUGH2 formulation, the starting point for the simulator. In addition, rock properties, namely permeability and porosity, are functions of effective stress and other variables that are obtained from the literature. We verified the simulator formulation and numerical implementation using analytical solutions and example problems from the literature. For the former, we matched a one-dimensional consolidation problem and a two-dimensional simulation of the Mandel-Cryer effect. For the latter, we obtained a good match of temperature and gas saturation profiles, and surface uplift, after injection of hot fluid into a model of a caldera structure. In task, “Incorporation of Geochemical Reactions of Selected Important Species,” we developed a novel mathematical model of THMC processes in porous and fractured saline aquifers, simulating geo-chemical reactions associated with CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers. Two computational frameworks, sequentially coupled and fully coupled, were used to simulate the reactions and transport. We verified capabilities of the THMC model to treat complex THMC processes during CO2 sequestration by analytical solutions and we constructed reactive transport models to analyze the THMC process quantitatively. Three of these are 1D reactive transport under chemical equilibrium, a batch reaction model with equilibrium chemical reactions, and a THMC model with CO2 dissolution. In task “Study of Instability in CO2 Dissolution-Diffusion-Convection Processes,” We reviewed literature related to the study of density driven convective flows and on the instability of CO2 dissolution-diffusion-convection processes. We ran simulations that model the density-driven flow instability that would occur during CO2 sequestration. CO2 diffused through the top of the system and dissolved in the aqueous phase there, increasing its density. Density fingers formed along the top boundary, and coalesced into a few prominent ones, causing convective flow that forced the fluid to the system bottom. These simulations were in two and three dimensions. We ran additional simulations of convective mixing with density contrast caused by variable dissolved CO2 concentration in saline water, modeled after laboratory experiments in which supercritical CO2 was circulated in the headspace above a brine saturated packed sand in a pressure vessel. As CO2 dissolved into the upper part of the saturated sand, liquid phase density increases causing instability and setting off convective mixing. We obtained good agreement with the laboratory experiments, which were characterized by finger development and associated mixing of dissolved CO2 into the system. We then varied a wide range of parameters and conceptual models in order to analyze the possibility of convective mixing under different conditions, such as various boundary conditions, and chemical reaction conditions. The CO2 fingers from different simulations showed great differences as time progressed, caused by permeability heterogeneity. The early time diffusive phenomenon was captured by fine grid resolution, and the permeability heterogeneity affected the pattern of the CO2 fingers. In addition, the fingers from three-dimensional simulations tended to be larger and flatter than the two-dimensional ones. In task “Implementation of Efficient Parallel Computing Technologies,” we made enhancements and modifications to our code in order to substantially increase the grid size that could be run. We installed and ran it on various platforms, including a multi-core PC and a cluster, and verified the numerical implementation and parallel code using an example problem from the literature. This problem, with a grid size of sixty million, utilized the cluster’s entire memory and all of its processors. In task “Implementation of General Fracture Conceptual Models,” we used the MINC approach, a generalization of the double-porosity concept, to model flow through porous and fractured media. In this approach, flow within the matrix is described by subdividing the matrix into nested volumes, with flow occurring between adjacent nested matrix volumes as well as between the fractures and the outer matrix volume. We generalized Hooke’s law to a thermo-multi- poroelastic medium, and derived from the fundamental equations describing deformation of porous and fractured elastic media a momentum conservation equation for thermo-multi- poroelastic media. This equation is a generalization to multi-poroelastic media of the one derived in Task 3.0 for single porosity media. We describe two simulations to provide model verification and application examples. The first, one-dimensional consolidation of a double-porosity medium, is compared to an analytical solution. The second is a match of published results from the literature, a simulation of CO2 injection into hypothetical aquifer-caprock systems.

  14. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-05-01

    Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

  15. Characterization of Pliocene and Miocene Formations in the Wilmington Graben, Offshore Los Angeles, for Large-Scale Geologic Storage of CO₂

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Michael

    2014-12-08

    Geomechanics Technologies has completed a detailed characterization study of the Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California area for large-scale CO₂ storage. This effort has included: an evaluation of existing wells in both State and Federal waters, field acquisition of about 175 km (109 mi) of new seismic data, new well drilling, development of integrated 3D geologic, geomechanics, and fluid flow models for the area. The geologic analysis indicates that more than 796 MMt of storage capacity is available within the Pliocene and Miocene formations in the Graben for midrange geologic estimates (P50). Geomechanical analyses indicate that injection can be conducted without significant risk for surface deformation, induced stresses or fault activation. Numerical analysis of fluid migration indicates that injection into the Pliocene Formation at depths of 1525 m (5000 ft) would lead to undesirable vertical migration of the CO₂ plume. Recent well drilling however, indicates that deeper sand is present at depths exceeding 2135 m (7000 ft), which could be viable for large volume storage. For vertical containment, injection would need to be limited to about 250,000 metric tons per year per well, would need to be placed at depths greater than 7000ft, and would need to be placed in new wells located at least 1 mile from any existing offset wells. As a practical matter, this would likely limit storage operations in the Wilmington Graben to about 1 million tons per year or less. A quantitative risk analysis for the Wilmington Graben indicate that such large scale CO₂ storage in the area would represent higher risk than other similar size projects in the US and overseas.

  16. CO2 Injection Begins in Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium, one of seven regional partnerships created by the U.S. Department of Energy to advance carbon storage technologies nationwide, has begun injecting carbon dioxide for their large-scale CO2 injection test in Decatur, Illinois.

  17. Energy Department Awards $66.7 Million for Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project | Department of Energy 66.7 Million for Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Energy Department Awards $66.7 Million for Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project December 18, 2007 - 4:58pm Addthis Regional Partner to Demonstrate Safe and Permanent Storage of One Million Tons of CO2 at Illinois Site WASHINGTON, DC - Following closely on the heels of three recent awards through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program, DOE today awarded

  18. Running Large Scale Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Running Large Scale Jobs Running Large Scale Jobs Users face various challenges with running and scaling large scale jobs on peta-scale production systems. For example, certain applications may not have enough memory per core, the default environment variables may need to be adjusted, or I/O dominates run time. This page lists some available programming and run time tuning options and tips users can try on their large scale applications on Hopper for better performance. Try different compilers

  19. Organo-sulfur molecules enable iron-based battery electrodes to meet the challenges of large-scale electrical energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, B; Malkhandi, S; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2014-07-03

    Rechargeable iron-air and nickel-iron batteries are attractive as sustainable and inexpensive solutions for large-scale electrical energy storage because of the global abundance and eco-friendliness of iron, and the robustness of iron-based batteries to extended cycling. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of iron-based batteries has been limited by their low charging efficiency. This limitation arises from the iron electrodes evolving hydrogen extensively during charging. The total suppression of hydrogen evolution has been a significant challenge. We have found that organo-sulfur compounds with various structural motifs (linear and cyclic thiols, dithiols, thioethers and aromatic thiols) when added in milli-molar concentration to the aqueous alkaline electrolyte, reduce the hydrogen evolution rate by 90%. These organo-sulfur compounds form strongly adsorbed layers on the iron electrode and block the electrochemical process of hydrogen evolution. The charge-transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance of the iron/electrolyte interface confirm that the extent of suppression of hydrogen evolution depends on the degree of surface coverage and the molecular structure of the organo-sulfur compound. An unanticipated electrochemical effect of the adsorption of organo-sulfur molecules is "de-passivation" that allows the iron electrode to be discharged at high current values. The strongly adsorbed organo-sulfur compounds were also found to resist electro-oxidation even at the positive electrode potentials at which oxygen evolution can occur. Through testing on practical rechargeable battery electrodes we have verified the substantial improvements to the efficiency during charging and the increased capability to discharge at high rates. We expect these performance advances to enable the design of efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly iron-based batteries for large-scale electrical energy storage.

  20. Running Large Scale Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    try on their large scale applications on Hopper for better performance. Try different compilers and compiler options The available compilers on Hopper are PGI, Cray, Intel, GNU,...

  1. Investigation of CO2 plume behavior for a large-scale pilot test of geologic carbon storage in a saline formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, C.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrodynamic behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on trapping mechanisms that lead to CO{sub 2} plume stabilization. A numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture is developed to simulate a planned pilot test, in which 1,000,000 metric tons of CO{sub 2} is injected over a four-year period, and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume for hundreds of years. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of the partitioning of CO{sub 2} between dissolved, immobile free-phase, and mobile free-phase forms. Model results indicate that the injected CO{sub 2} plume is effectively immobilized at 25 years. At that time, 38% of the CO{sub 2} is in dissolved form, 59% is immobile free phase, and 3% is mobile free phase. The plume footprint is roughly elliptical, and extends much farther up-dip of the injection well than down-dip. The pressure increase extends far beyond the plume footprint, but the pressure response decreases rapidly with distance from the injection well, and decays rapidly in time once injection ceases. Sensitivity studies that were carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual CO{sub 2} saturation indicate that small changes in properties can have a large impact on plume evolution, causing significant trade-offs between different trapping mechanisms.

  2. A framework for environmental assessment of CO2 capture and storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathre, R; Chester, M; Cain, J; Masanet, E

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly seen as a way for society to enjoy the benefits of fossil fuel energy sources while avoiding the climate disruption associated with fossil CO2 emissions. A decision to deploy CCS technology at scale should be based on robust information on its overall costs and benefits. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a framework for holistic assessment of the energy and environmental footprint of a system, and can provide crucial information to policy-makers, scientists, and engineers as they develop and deploy CCS systems. We identify seven key issues that should be considered to ensure that conclusions and recommendations from CCS LCA are robust: energy penalty, functional units, scale-up challenges, non-climate environmental impacts, uncertainty management, policy-making needs, and market effects. Several recent life-cycle studies have focused on detailed assessments of individual CCS technologies and applications. While such studies provide important data and information on technology performance, such case-specific data are inadequate to fully inform the decision making process. LCA should aim to describe the system-wide environmental implications of CCS deployment at scale, rather than a narrow analysis of technological performance of individual power plants. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy Storage Projects Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy Storage Projects Map of the United States ...

  4. Estimating the supply and demand for deep geologic CO2 storage capacity over the course of the 21st Century: A meta-analysis of the literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.

    2013-08-05

    Whether there is sufficient geologic CO2 storage capacity to allow CCS to play a significant role in mitigating climate change has been the subject of debate since the 1990s. This paper presents a meta- analysis of a large body of recently published literature to derive updated estimates of the global deep geologic storage resource as well as the potential demand for this geologic CO2 storage resource over the course of this century. This analysis reveals that, for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation scenarios that have end-of-century atmospheric CO2 concentrations of between 350 ppmv and 725 ppmv, the average demand for deep geologic CO2 storage over the course of this century is between 410 GtCO2 and 1,670 GtCO2. The literature summarized here suggests that -- depending on the stringency of criteria applied to calculate storage capacity global geologic CO2 storage capacity could be: 35,300 GtCO2 of theoretical capacity; 13,500 GtCO2 of effective capacity; 3,900 GtCO2, of practical capacity; and 290 GtCO2 of matched capacity for the few regions where this narrow definition of capacity has been calculated. The cumulative demand for geologic CO2 storage is likely quite small compared to global estimates of the deep geologic CO2 storage capacity, and therefore, a lack of deep geologic CO2 storage capacity is unlikely to be an impediment for the commercial adoption of CCS technologies in this century.

  5. Effects of Increased Upward Flux of Saline Water Caused by CO2 Storage or Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, Lawrence; Xie, Shuang; Falta, Ronald W.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR

    2015-08-01

    Injection of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is being considered to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this process is expected to increase the pressure in these deep aquifers. One potential consequence of pressurization is an increase in the upward flux of saline water. Saline groundwater occurs naturally at shallow depths in many sedimentary basins, so an upward flux of solutes could degrade the quality of freshwater aquifers and threaten aquatic ecosystems. One problem could occur where saline water flowed upward along preferential paths, like faults or improperly abandoned wells. Diffuse upward flow through the natural stratigraphy could also occur in response to basin pressurization. This process would be slower, but diffuse upward flow could affect larger areas than flow through preferential paths, and this motivated us to evaluate this process. We analyzed idealized 2D and 3D geometries representing the essential details of a shallow, freshwater aquifer underlain by saline ground water in a sedimentary basin. The analysis was conducted in two stages, one that simulated the development of a freshwater aquifer by flushing out saline water, and another that simulated the effect of a pulse-like increase in the upward flux from the basin. The results showed that increasing the upward flux from a basin increased the salt concentration and mass loading of salt to streams, and decrease the depth to the fresh/salt transition. The magnitude of these effects varied widely, however, from a small, slow process that would be challenging to detect, to a large, rapid response that could be an environmental catastrophe. The magnitude of the increased flux, and the initial depth to the fresh/salt transition in groundwater controlled the severity of the response. We identified risk categories for salt concentration, mass loading, and freshwater aquifer thickness, and we used these categories to characterize the severity of the response. This showed that risks would likely be minor if the upward flux was smaller than a few tenths of the magnitude of recharge, according to the 2D analyses. The 3D analyses also show that upward flux could occur without a significant increase in the risk categories. The major contribution of this work is that it shows how a large increase in diffuse upward flux from a basin could cause significant problems, but a small increase in upward flux may occur without significantly affecting risks to the shallow freshwater flow system. This heightens the importance of understanding interactions between shallow and deep hydrologic systems when characterizing CO2 storage projects.

  6. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-4-2014_CO2 Storage and Enhanced Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... a) lateral gas production profile, and b) formation pressure ... strategies for industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sources that are smaller than base-load power plants and may ...

  7. Estimating nocturnal ecosystem respiration from the vertical turbulent flux and change in storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Lianhong; Van Gorsel, Eva; Leuning, Ray; Delpierre, Nicolas; Black, Andy; Chen, Baozhang; Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steve; Aubinet, M.

    2009-11-01

    Micrometeorological measurements of nighttime ecosystem respiration can be systematically biased when stable atmospheric conditions lead to drainage flows associated with decoupling of air flow above and within plant canopies. The associated horizontal and vertical advective fluxes cannot be measured using instrumentation on the single towers typically used at micrometeorological sites. A common approach to minimize bias is to use a threshold in friction velocity, u*, to exclude periods when advection is assumed to be important, but this is problematic in situations when in-canopy flows are decoupled from the flow above. Using data from 25 flux stations in a wide variety of forest ecosystems globally, we examine the generality of a novel approach to estimating nocturnal respiration developed by van Gorsel et al. (van Gorsel, E., Leuning, R., Cleugh, H.A., Keith, H., Suni, T., 2007. Nocturnal carbon efflux: reconciliation of eddy covariance and chamber measurements using an alternative to the u*-threshold filtering technique. Tellus 59B, 397 403, Tellus, 59B, 307-403). The approach is based on the assumption that advection is small relative to the vertical turbulent flux (FC) and change in storage (FS) of CO2 in the few hours after sundown. The sum of FC and FS reach a maximum during this period which is used to derive a temperature response function for ecosystem respiration. Measured hourly soil temperatures are then used with this function to estimate respiration RRmax. The new approach yielded excellent agreement with (1) independent measurements using respiration chambers, (2) with estimates using ecosystem light-response curves of Fc + Fs extrapolated to zero light, RLRC, and (3) with a detailed process-based forest ecosystem model, Rcast. At most sites respiration rates estimated using the u*-filter, Rust, were smaller than RRmax and RLRC. Agreement of our approach with independent measurements indicates that RRmax provides an excellent estimate of nighttime ecosystem respiration

  8. Carbon Storage Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Illinois | Department of Energy Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois November 19, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A project important to demonstrating the commercial viability of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology has completed the first year of injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) from an industrial plant at a large-scale test site in

  9. DOE Research Projects to Examine Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy today announced 11 projects valued at $75.5 million aimed at increasing scientific understanding about the potential of promising geologic formations to safely and permanently store carbon dioxide (CO2).

  10. Synthetic Catalysts for CO2 Storage: Catalytic Improvement of Solvent Capture Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-08-15

    IMPACCT Project: LLNL is designing a process to pull CO2 out of the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants so it can be transported, stored, or utilized elsewhere. Human lungs rely on an enzyme known as carbonic anhydrase to help separate CO2 from our blood and tissue as part of the normal breathing process. LLNL is designing a synthetic catalyst with the same function as this enzyme. The catalyst can be used to quickly capture CO2 from coal exhaust, just as the natural enzyme does in our lungs. LLNL is also developing a method of encapsulating chemical solvents in permeable microspheres that will greatly increase the speed of binding of CO2. The goal of the project is an industry-ready chemical vehicle that can withstand the harsh environments found in exhaust gas and enable new, simple process designs requiring less capital investment.

  11. New Strategies for Finding Abandoned Wells at Proposed Geologic Storage Sites for CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammack, R.W.; Veloski, G.A.

    2007-09-01

    Prior to the injection of CO2 into geological formations, either for enhanced oil recovery or for CO2 sequestration, it is necessary to locate wells that perforate the target formation and are within the radius of influence for planned injection wells. Locating and plugging wells is necessary because improperly plugged well bores provide the most rapid route for CO2 escape to the surface. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of helicopter and ground-based well detection strategies at a 100+ year old oilfield in Wyoming where a CO2 flood is planned. This project was jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory and Fugro Airborne Surveys.

  12. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-4-2014_CO2 Storage and Enhanced Gas Recovery_20140924.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation of CO 2 Storage and Enhanced Gas Recovery in Depleted Shale Gas Formations Using a Dual- Porosity/Dual-Permeability, Multiphase Reservoir Simulator 25 September 2014 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-4-2014 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or

  13. Underground CO2 Storage, Natural Gas Recovery Targeted by Virginia Tech/NETL Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) have teamed with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) on a multi-part project to investigate the feasibility of injecting captured carbon dioxide (CO2) into organic-rich rocks, deep underground, to permanently store the greenhouse gas while simultaneously recovering natural gas.

  14. Tagging CO2 to Enable Quantitative Inventories of Geological Carbon Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackner, Klaus; Matter, Juerg; Park, Ah-Hyung; Stute, Martin; Carson, Cantwell; Ji, Yinghuang

    2014-06-30

    In the wake of concerns about the long term integrity and containment of sub-surface CO2 sequestration reservoirs, many efforts have been made to improve the monitoring, verification, and accounting methods for geo-sequestered CO2. Our project aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a system designed to tag CO2 with carbon isotope 14C immediately prior to sequestration to a level that is normal on the surface (one part per trillion). Because carbon found at depth is naturally free of 14C, this tag would easily differentiate pre-existing carbon from anthropogenic injected carbon and provide an excellent handle for monitoring its whereabouts in the subsurface. It also creates an excellent handle for adding up anthropogenic carbon inventories. Future inventories in effect count 14C atoms. Accordingly, we have developed a 14C tagging system suitable for use at the part-per-trillion level. This system consists of a gas-exchange apparatus to make disposable cartridges ready for controlled injection into a fast flowing stream of pressurized CO2. We built a high-pressure injection and tagging system, and a 14C detection system. The disposable cartridge and injection system have been successfully demonstrated in the lab with a high-pressure flow reactor, as well as in the field at the CarbFix CO2 sequestration site in Iceland. The laser-based 14C detection system originally conceived has been shown to possess inadequate sensitivity for ambient levels. Alternative methods for detecting 14C, such as saturated cavity absorption ringdown spectroscopy and scintillation counting, may still be suitable. KEYWORDS

  15. Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capture and Storage Facility | Department of Energy Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Facility Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Facility August 24, 2011 - 6:23pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy issued the following statement in support of today's groundbreaking for construction of the nation's first large-scale industrial carbon capture and storage (ICCS) facility in Decatur,

  16. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture environmental pollutants in the gaseous state and co-inject them with the CO2, in order to mitigate problems associated with solid waste disposal in surface impoundments. Under such conditions, the injected pollutant concentrations could be roughly equivalent to their concentrations in the coal feed. The fate of the injected contaminants can only be determined through further testing and geochemical modeling. However, the concentrations of inadvertent contaminants in the injected CO2 would probably be comparable to their ambient concentrations in confining shales of the injection zone. In general, the aqueous concentrations of hazardous constituents in distal parts of the injection zone, regardless of source, are likely to be limited by equilibrium with respect to coexisting solid phases under the acid conditions induced by the dissolved high pressure CO2, rather than by the initial concentrations of injected contaminants. Therefore, even if a deliberate policy of contaminant recovery and injection were to be pursued, water quality in USDWs would more likely depend on thermodynamic controls governing aqueous contaminant concentrations in the presence of high pressure CO2 rather than in the injected CO2. The conclusions reached in this report are preliminary, and should be confirmed through more comprehensive data evaluation and supporting geochemical modeling.

  17. Using Pressure and Volumetric Approaches to Estimate CO2 Storage Capacity in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thibeau, Sylvain; Bachu, Stefan; Birkholzer, Jens; Holloway, Sam; Neele, Filip; Zhou, Quanlin

    2014-12-31

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric open aquifer and closed aquifer approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where CO2 storage capacity is evaluated both volumetrically (with open and/or closed approaches) and through flow modeling. These examples show that the open aquifer CO2 storage capacity estimation can strongly exceed the cumulative CO2 injection from the flow model, whereas the closed aquifer estimates are a closer approximation to the flow-model derived capacity. An analogy to oil recovery mechanisms is presented, where the primary oil recovery mechanism is compared to CO2 aquifer storage without producing formation water; and the secondary oil recovery mechanism (water flooding) is compared to CO2 aquifer storage performed simultaneously with extraction of water for pressure maintenance. This analogy supports the finding that the closed aquifer approach produces a better estimate of CO2 storage without water extraction, and highlights the need for any CO2 storage estimate to specify whether it is intended to represent CO2 storage capacity with or without water extraction.

  18. Feasibility of Large-Scale Ocean CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Brewer

    2008-08-31

    Scientific knowledge of natural clathrate hydrates has grown enormously over the past decade, with spectacular new findings of large exposures of complex hydrates on the sea floor, the development of new tools for examining the solid phase in situ, significant progress in modeling natural hydrate systems, and the discovery of exotic hydrates associated with sea floor venting of liquid CO{sub 2}. Major unresolved questions remain about the role of hydrates in response to climate change today, and correlations between the hydrate reservoir of Earth and the stable isotopic evidence of massive hydrate dissociation in the geologic past. The examination of hydrates as a possible energy resource is proceeding apace for the subpermafrost accumulations in the Arctic, but serious questions remain about the viability of marine hydrates as an economic resource. New and energetic explorations by nations such as India and China are quickly uncovering large hydrate findings on their continental shelves. In this report we detail research carried out in the period October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2008. The primary body of work is contained in a formal publication attached as Appendix 1 to this report. In brief we have surveyed the recent literature with respect to the natural occurrence of clathrate hydrates (with a special emphasis on methane hydrates), the tools used to investigate them and their potential as a new source of natural gas for energy production.

  19. A quantitative comparison of the cost of employing EOR-coupled CSS supplemented with secondary DSF storage for two large CO2 point sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.

    2011-04-18

    This paper explores the impact of the temporally dynamic demand for CO2 for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery with CO2 storage. Previous evaluations of economy-wide CO2 capture and geologic storage (CCS) deployment have typically applied a simplifying assumption that 100% of the potential storage capacity for a given formation is available on the first day of the analysis, and that the injection rate impacts only the number of wells required to inject a given volume of fluid per year, making it a cost driver rather than a technical one. However, as discussed by Dahowski and Bachu [1], storing CO2 in a field undergoing CO2 flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is subject to a set of constraints to which storage in DSFs is not, and these constraints combined with variable demand for CO2 may strongly influence the ability of an EOR field to serve as a baseload storage formation for commercial scale CCS projects undertaken as a means of addressing climate change mitigation targets. This analysis assumes that CCS is being undertaken in order to reduce CO2 emissions from the industrial sources evaluated and that there is enough of a disincentive associated with venting CO2 to the atmosphere that any CO2 not used within the EOR field will be stored in a suitable nearby deep saline formation (DSF). The authors have applied a CO2 demand profile to two cases chosen to illustrate the differences in cost impacts of employing EOR-based CCS as a part of a given source’s CCS portfolio. The first scenario is a less-than-ideal case in which a single EOR field is used for storage and all CO2 not demanded by the EOR project is stored in a DSF; the second scenario is designed to optimize costs by minimizing storage in the DSF and maximizing lower-cost EOR-based storage. Both scenarios are evaluated for two facilities emitting 3 and 6 MtCO2/y, corresponding to a natural gas processing facility and an IGCC electric power plant, respectively. Annual and lifetime average CO2 transport and storage costs are presented, and the impact of added capture and compression costs on overall project economics is examined.

  20. New DOE-Sponsored Study Helps Advance Scientific Understanding of Potential CO2 Storage Impacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In another step forward toward improved scientific understanding of potential geologic carbon dioxide storage impacts, a new U.S. Department of Energy sponsored study has confirmed earlier research showing that proper site selection and monitoring is essential for helping anticipate and mitigate possible risks.

  1. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  2. Estimating Plume Volume for Geologic Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, Christine

    2008-07-11

    Typically, when a new subsurface flow and transport problem is first being considered, very simple models with a minimal number of parameters are used to get a rough idea of how the system will evolve. For a hydrogeologist considering the spreading of a contaminant plume in an aquifer, the aquifer thickness, porosity, and permeability might be enough to get started. If the plume is buoyant, aquifer dip comes into play. If regional groundwater flow is significant or there are nearby wells pumping, these features need to be included. Generally, the required parameters tend to be known from pre-existing studies, are parameters that people working in the field are familiar with, and represent features that are easy to explain to potential funding agencies, regulators, stakeholders, and the public. The situation for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline aquifers is quite different. It is certainly desirable to do preliminary modeling in advance of any field work since geologic storage of CO{sub 2} is a novel concept that few people have much experience with or intuition about. But the parameters that control CO{sub 2} plume behavior are a little more daunting to assemble and explain than those for a groundwater flow problem. Even the most basic question of how much volume a given mass of injected CO{sub 2} will occupy in the subsurface is non-trivial. However, with a number of simplifying assumptions, some preliminary estimates can be made, as described below. To make efficient use of the subsurface storage volume available, CO{sub 2} density should be large, which means choosing a storage formation at depths below about 800 m, where pressure and temperature conditions are above the critical point of CO{sub 2} (P = 73.8 bars, T = 31 C). Then CO{sub 2} will exist primarily as a free-phase supercritical fluid, while some CO{sub 2} will dissolve into the aqueous phase.

  3. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plan, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-01-07

    This report includes an evaluation of deep rock formations with the objective of providing practical maps, data, and some of the issues considered for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage projects in the Ohio River Valley. Injection and storage of CO{sub 2} into deep rock formations represents a feasible option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal-burning power plants concentrated along the Ohio River Valley area. This study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office, Schlumberger, and Battelle along with its Pacific Northwest Division. An extensive program of drilling, sampling, and testing of a deep well combined with a seismic survey was used to characterize the local and regional geologic features at AEP's 1300-megawatt (MW) Mountaineer Power Plant. Site characterization information has been used as part of a systematic design feasibility assessment for a first-of-a-kind integrated capture and storage facility at an existing coal-fired power plant in the Ohio River Valley region--an area with a large concentration of power plants and other emission sources. Subsurface characterization data have been used for reservoir simulations and to support the review of the issues relating to injection, monitoring, strategy, risk assessment, and regulatory permitting. The high-sulfur coal samples from the region have been tested in a capture test facility to evaluate and optimize basic design for a small-scale capture system and eventually to prepare a detailed design for a capture, local transport, and injection facility. The Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project was conducted in phases with the ultimate objectives of demonstrating both the technical aspects of CO{sub 2} storage and the testing, logistical, regulatory, and outreach issues related to conducting such a project at a large point source under realistic constraints. The site characterization phase was completed, laying the groundwork for moving the project towards a potential injection phase. Feasibility and design assessment activities included an assessment of the CO{sub 2} source options (a slip-stream capture system or transported CO{sub 2}); development of the injection and monitoring system design; preparation of regulatory permits; and continued stakeholder outreach.

  4. Mathematical models as tools for probing long-term safety of CO2 storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin

    2009-02-01

    Subsurface reservoirs being considered for storing CO{sub 2} include saline aquifers, oil and gas reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams (Baines and Worden, 2004; IPCC, 2005). By far the greatest storage capacity is in saline aquifers (Dooley et al., 2004), and our discussion will focus primarily on CO{sub 2} storage in saline formations. Most issues for safety and security of CO{sub 2} storage arise from the fact that, at typical temperature and pressure conditions encountered in terrestrial crust, CO{sub 2} is less dense than aqueous fluids. Accordingly, CO{sub 2} will experience an upward buoyancy force in most subsurface environments, and will tend to migrate upwards whenever (sub-)vertical permeable pathways are available, such as fracture zones, faults, or improperly abandoned wells (Bachu, 2008; Pruess, 2008a, b; Tsang et al., 2008). CO{sub 2} injection will increase fluid pressures in the target formation, thereby altering effective stress distributions, and potentially triggering movement along fractures and faults that could increase their permeability and reduce the effectiveness of a caprock in containing CO{sub 2} (Rutqvist et al., 2008; Chiaramonte et al., 2008). Induced seismicity as a consequence of fluid injection is also a concern (Healy et al., 1968; Raleigh et al., 1976; Majer et al., 2007). Dissolution of CO{sub 2} in the aqueous phase generates carbonic acid, which may induce chemical corrosion (dissolution) of minerals with associated increase in formation porosity and permeability, and may also mediate sequestration of CO{sub 2} as solid carbonate (Gaus et al., 2008). Chemical dissolution of caprock minerals could promote leakage of CO{sub 2} from a storage reservoir (Gherardi et al., 2007). Chemical dissolution and geomechanical effects could reinforce one another in compromising CO{sub 2} containment. Additional issues arise from the potential of CO{sub 2} to mobilize hazardous chemical species (Kharaka et al., 2006), and from migration of the large amounts of brine that would be mobilized by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} injection (Nicot et al., 2008; Birkholzer et al., 2008a, b).

  5. Evaluating Potential for Large Releases from CO2 StorageReservoirs: Analogs, Scenarios, and Modeling Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Tsang,Chin-Fu; Karimjee, Anhar

    2005-09-19

    While the purpose of geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO{sub 2} to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. Such discharge is not necessarily a serious concern, as CO{sub 2} is a naturally abundant and relatively benign gas in low concentrations. However, there is a potential risk to health, safety and environment (HSE) in the event that large localized fluxes of CO{sub 2} were to occur at the land surface, especially where CO{sub 2} could accumulate. In this paper, we develop possible scenarios for large CO{sub 2} fluxes based on the analysis of natural analogues, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in scenarios which could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing, or even eruptive release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they might occur and potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site selection and risk management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is needed to determine critical conditions for such events, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential HSE impacts of such events and design appropriate mitigation strategies.

  6. Modeling basin- and plume-scale processes of CO2 storage for full-scale deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Mehnert, E.; Lin, Y.-F.; Zhang, K.

    2009-08-15

    Integrated modeling of basin- and plume-scale processes induced by full-scale deployment of CO{sub 2} storage was applied to the Mt. Simon Aquifer in the Illinois Basin. A three-dimensional mesh was generated with local refinement around 20 injection sites, with approximately 30 km spacing. A total annual injection rate of 100 Mt CO{sub 2} over 50 years was used. The CO{sub 2}-brine flow at the plume scale and the single-phase flow at the basin scale were simulated. Simulation results show the overall shape of a CO{sub 2} plume consisting of a typical gravity-override subplume in the bottom injection zone of high injectivity and a pyramid-shaped subplume in the overlying multilayered Mt. Simon, indicating the important role of a secondary seal with relatively low-permeability and high-entry capillary pressure. The secondary-seal effect is manifested by retarded upward CO{sub 2} migration as a result of multiple secondary seals, coupled with lateral preferential CO{sub 2} viscous fingering through high-permeability layers. The plume width varies from 9.0 to 13.5 km at 200 years, indicating the slow CO{sub 2} migration and no plume interference between storage sites. On the basin scale, pressure perturbations propagate quickly away from injection centers, interfere after less than 1 year, and eventually reach basin margins. The simulated pressure buildup of 35 bar in the injection area is not expected to affect caprock geomechanical integrity. Moderate pressure buildup is observed in Mt. Simon in northern Illinois. However, its impact on groundwater resources is less than the hydraulic drawdown induced by long-term extensive pumping from overlying freshwater aquifers.

  7. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2006-05-18

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, The Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the January-March 2006 period of the project. As discussed in the following report, the main accomplishments were analysis of Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' reservoir test results from the AEP No.1 well and design and feasibility support tasks. Reservoir test results indicate injection potential in the Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' may be significantly higher than anticipated for the Mountaineer site. Work continued on development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, permitting, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. In addition, organizational and scheduling issues were addressed to move the project toward an integrated carbon capture and storage system at the Mountaineer site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase project is proceeding according to plans.

  8. Leakage Risk Assessment for a Potential CO2 Storage Project in Saskatchewan, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Mazzoldi, A.; Gupta, A.K.; Nicot, J.-P.; Bryant, S.L.

    2011-05-01

    A CO{sub 2} sequestration project is being considered to (1) capture CO{sub 2} emissions from the Consumers Cooperative Refineries Limited at Regina, Saskatchewan and (2) geologically sequester the captured CO{sub 2} locally in a deep saline aquifer. This project is a collaboration of several industrial and governmental organizations, including the Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC), Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC), SaskEnvironment Go Green Fund, SaskPower, CCRL, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Enbridge. The project objective is to sequester 600 tonnes CO{sub 2}/day. Injection is planned to start in 2012 or 2013 for a period of 25 years for a total storage of approximately 5.5 million tonnes CO{sub 2}. This report presents an assessment of the leakage risk of the proposed project using a methodology known as the Certification Framework (CF). The CF is used for evaluating CO{sub 2} leakage risk associated with geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), as well as brine leakage risk owing to displacement and pressurization of brine by the injected CO{sub 2}. We follow the CF methodology by defining the entities (so-called Compartments) that could be impacted by CO{sub 2} leakage, the CO{sub 2} storage region, the potential for leakage along well and fault pathways, and the consequences of such leakage. An understanding of the likelihood and consequences of leakage forms the basis for understanding CO{sub 2} leakage risk, and forms the basis for recommendations of additional data collection and analysis to increase confidence in the risk assessment.

  9. Using the Choquet integral for screening geological CO2 storage sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.

    2011-03-01

    For geological CO{sub 2} storage site selection, it is desirable to reduce the number of candidate sites through a screening process before detailed site characterization is performed. Screening generally involves defining a number of criteria which then need to be evaluated for each site. The importance of each criterion to the final evaluation will generally be different. Weights reflecting the relative importance of these criteria can be provided by experts. To evaluate a site, each criterion must be evaluated and scored, and then aggregated, taking into account the importance of the criteria. We propose the use of the Choquet integral for aggregating the scores. The Choquet integral considers the interactions among criteria, i.e. whether they are independent, complementary to each other, or partially repetitive. We also evaluate the Shapley index, which demonstrates how the importance of a given piece of information may change if it is considered by itself or together with other available information. An illustrative example demonstrates how the Choquet integral properly accounts for the presence of redundancy in two site-evaluation criteria, making the screening process more defensible than the standard weighted-average approach.

  10. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2006-01-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, The Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the October through December 2005 period of the project. As discussed in the following report, the main field activity was reservoir testing in the Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' in the AEP No.1 well. In addition reservoir simulations were completed to assess feasibility of CO{sub 2} injection for the Mountaineer site. These reservoir testing and computer simulation results suggest that injection potential may be substantially more than anticipated for the Mountaineer site. Work also continued on development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, permitting, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase project is proceeding according to plans.

  11. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2005-11-04

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, The Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, and Schlumberger. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the July through September 2005 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the field activities focused on preparations for reservoir testing in the Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' in the AEP No.1 well. In addition work continued on development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, reservoir simulations, work on a Class V Underground Injection Control permit, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase project is proceeding according to plans.

  12. sRecovery Act: Geologic Characterization of the South Georgia Rift Basin for Source Proximal CO2 Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, Michael

    2014-09-30

    This study focuses on evaluating the feasibility and suitability of using the Jurassic/Triassic (J/TR) sediments of the South Georgia Rift basin (SGR) for CO2 storage in southern South Carolina and southern Georgia The SGR basin in South Carolina (SC), prior to this project, was one of the least understood rift basin along the east coast of the U.S. In the SC part of the basin there was only one well (Norris Lightsey #1) the penetrated into J/TR. Because of the scarcity of data, a scaled approach used to evaluate the feasibility of storing CO2 in the SGR basin. In the SGR basin, 240 km (~149 mi) of 2-D seismic and 2.6 km2 3-D (1 mi2) seismic data was collected, process, and interpreted in SC. In southern Georgia 81.3 km (~50.5 mi) consisting of two 2-D seismic lines were acquired, process, and interpreted. Seismic analysis revealed that the SGR basin in SC has had a very complex structural history resulting the J/TR section being highly faulted. The seismic data is southern Georgia suggest SGR basin has not gone through a complex structural history as the study area in SC. The project drilled one characterization borehole (Rizer # 1) in SC. The Rizer #1 was drilled but due to geologic problems, the project team was only able to drill to 1890 meters (6200 feet) instead of the proposed final depth 2744 meters (9002 feet). The drilling goals outlined in the original scope of work were not met. The project was only able to obtain 18 meters (59 feet) of conventional core and 106 rotary sidewall cores. All the conventional core and sidewall cores were in sandstone. We were unable to core any potential igneous caprock. Petrographic analysis of the conventional core and sidewall cores determined that the average porosity of the sedimentary material was 3.4% and the average permeability was 0.065 millidarcy. Compaction and diagenetic studies of the samples determined there would not be any porosity or permeability at depth in SC. In Georgia there appears to be porosity in the J/TR section based on neutron log porosity values. The only zones in Rizer #1 that appear to be porous were fractured diabase units where saline formation water was flowing into the borehole. Two geocellular models were created for the SC and GA study area. Flow simulation modeling was performed on the SC data set. The injection simulation used the newly acquired basin data as well as the Petrel 3-D geologic model that included geologic structure. Due to the new basin findings as a result of the newly acquired data, during phase two of the modeling the diabase unit was used as reservoir and the sandstone units were used as caprock. Conclusion are: 1) the SGR basin is composed of numerous sub-basins, 2) this study only looked at portions of two sub-basins, 3) in SC, 30 million tonnes of CO2 can be injected into the diabase units if the fracture network is continuous through the units, 4) due to the severity of the faulting there is no way of assuring the injected CO2 will not migrate upward into the overlying Coastal Plain aquifers, 5) in Georgia there appears to porous zones in the J/TR sandstones, 6) as in SC there is faulting in the sub-basin and the seismic suggest the faulting extends upward into the Coastal Plain making that area not suitable for CO2 sequestration, 7) the complex faulting observed at both study areas appear to be associated with transfer fault zones (Heffner 2013), if sub-basins in the Georgia portion of the SGR basin can be located that are far away from the transfer fault zones there is a strong possibility of sequestering CO2 in these areas, and 9) the SGR basin covers area in three states and this project only studied two small areas so there is enormous potential for CO2 sequestration in other portions the basin and further research needs to be done to find these areas.

  13. Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    2011-05-15

    Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.

  14. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water standards might be exceeded was evaluated. A variety of scenarios and aquifer conditions was considered in a sensitivity evaluation. The scenarios and conditions simulated in Section 4, in particular those describing the geochemistry and mineralogy of potable aquifers, were selected based on the comprehensive geochemical model developed in Section 3.

  15. Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R

    2012-02-02

    We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits of the approach proposed by Buscheck et al. (2011b), which uses brine as the working fluid, with those of the approach first suggested by Brown (2000) and analyzed by Pruess (2006), using CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, and then extended to saline-formation CCS by Randolph and Saar (2011a). During stage one of our hybrid approach, formation brine, which is extracted to provide pressure relief for CO{sub 2} injection, is the working fluid for energy recovery. Produced brine is applied to a consumptive beneficial use: feedstock for fresh water production through desalination, saline cooling water, or make-up water to be injected into a neighboring reservoir operation, such as in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where there is often a shortage of a working fluid. For stage one, it is important to find economically feasible disposition options to reduce the volume of brine requiring reinjection in the integrated geothermal-CCS reservoir (Buscheck et al. 2012a). During stage two, which begins as CO{sub 2} reaches the production wells; coproduced brine and CO{sub 2} are the working fluids. We present preliminary reservoir engineering analyses of this approach, using a simple conceptual model of a homogeneous, permeable CO{sub 2} storage formation/geothermal reservoir, bounded by relatively impermeable sealing units. We assess both the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity and geothermal energy production potential as a function of well spacing between CO{sub 2} injectors and brine/CO{sub 2} producers for various well patterns and for a range of subsurface conditions.

  16. Final Report on "Rising CO2 and Long-term Carbon Storage in Terrestrial Ecosystems: An Empirical Carbon Budget Validation"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Patrick Megonigal; Bert G. Drake

    2010-08-27

    The primary goal of this report is to report the results of Grant DE-FG02-97ER62458, which began in 1997 as Grant DOE-98-59-MP-4 funded through the TECO program. However, this project has a longer history because DOE also funded this study from its inception in 1985 through 1997. The original grant was focused on plant responses to elevated CO2 in an intact ecosystem, while the latter grant was focused on belowground responses. Here we summarize the major findings across the 25 years this study has operated, and note that the experiment will continue to run through 2020 with NSF support. The major conclusions of the study to date are: (1 Elevated CO2 stimulated plant productivity in the C3 plant community by ~30% during the 25 year study. The magnitude of the increase in productivity varied interannually and was sometime absent altogether. There is some evidence of down-regulation at the ecosystem level across the 25 year record that may be due to interactions with other factors such as sea-level rise or long-term changes in N supply; (2) Elevated CO2 stimulated C4 productivity by <10%, perhaps due to more efficient water use, but C3 plants at elevated CO2 did not displace C4 plants as predicted; (3) Increased primary production caused a general stimulation of microbial processes, but there were both increases and decreases in activity depending on the specific organisms considered. An increase in methanogenesis and methane emissions implies elevated CO2 may amplify radiative forcing in the case of wetland ecosystems; (4) Elevated CO2 stimulated soil carbon sequestration in the form of an increase in elevation. The increase in elevation is 50-100% of the increase in net ecosystem production caused by elevated CO2 (still under analysis). The increase in soil elevation suggests the elevated CO2 may have a positive outcome for the ability of coastal wetlands to persist despite accelerated sea level rise; (5) Crossing elevated CO2 with elevated N causes the elevated CO2 effect to diminish, with consequences for change in soil elevation.

  17. CO2 Utilization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 Utilization CO2 Utilization Carbon dioxide (CO2) use and reuse efforts focus on the conversion of CO2 to useable products and fuels that will reduce CO2 emissions in areas where geologic storage may not be an optimal solution. These include: Enhanced Oil/Gas Recovery - Injecting CO2 into depleting oil or gas bearing fields to maximize the amount of CO2 that could be stored as well as maximize hydrocarbon production. View the latest projects selected in FY 2014. CO2 as Feedstock - Use CO2 as

  18. Industrial CO2 Removal: CO2 Capture from Ambient Air and Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-06-08

    This abstract and its accompanying presentation will provide an overview of two distinct industrial processes for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as a means of addressing anthropogenic climate change. The first of these is carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) coupled with large scale biomass production (hereafter referred to as bioCCS). The second is CO2 capture from ambient air via industrial systems (hereafter referred to as direct air capture (DAC)). In both systems, the captured CO2 would be injected into deep geologic formations so as to isolate it from the atmosphere. The technical literature is clear that both of these technologies are technically feasible as of today (IPCC, 2005; Keith, 2009; Lackner, 2009; Luckow et al., 2010; Ranjan and Herzog, 2011). What is uncertain is the relative cost of these industrial ambient-air CO2 removal systems when compared to other emissions mitigation measures, the ultimate timing and scale of their deployment, and the resolution of potential site specific constraints that would impact their ultimate commercial deployment.

  19. DOE Regional Partnership Successfully Demonstrates Terrestrial CO2 Storage Practices in Great Plains Region of U.S. and Canada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A field test demonstrating the best approaches for terrestrial carbon dioxide storage in the heartland of North America has been successfully completed by one of the U.S. Department of Energy's seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships.

  20. A method for quick assessment of CO2 storage capacity in closedand semi-closed saline formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Tsang, C.F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-02-10

    Saline aquifers of high permeability bounded by overlying/underlying seals may be surrounded laterally by low-permeability zones, possibly caused by natural heterogeneity and/or faulting. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection into and storage in such 'closed' systems with impervious seals, or 'semi-closed' systems with nonideal (low-permeability) seals, is different from that in 'open' systems, from which the displaced brine can easily escape laterally. In closed or semi-closed systems, the pressure buildup caused by continuous industrial-scale CO{sub 2} injection may have a limiting effect on CO{sub 2} storage capacity, because geomechanical damage caused by overpressure needs to be avoided. In this research, a simple analytical method was developed for the quick assessment of the CO{sub 2} storage capacity in such closed and semi-closed systems. This quick-assessment method is based on the fact that native brine (of an equivalent volume) displaced by the cumulative injected CO{sub 2} occupies additional pore volume within the storage formation and the seals, provided by pore and brine compressibility in response to pressure buildup. With nonideal seals, brine may also leak through the seals into overlying/underlying formations. The quick-assessment method calculates these brine displacement contributions in response to an estimated average pressure buildup in the storage reservoir. The CO{sub 2} storage capacity and the transient domain-averaged pressure buildup estimated through the quick-assessment method were compared with the 'true' values obtained using detailed numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} and brine transport in a two-dimensional radial system. The good agreement indicates that the proposed method can produce reasonable approximations for storage-formation-seal systems of various geometric and hydrogeological properties.

  1. DOE Awards Cooperative Agreement for Innovative Electric Generation Facility with Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture and Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has awarded a cooperative agreement to Summit Texas Clean Energy LLC for the Texas Clean Energy Project to design, build, and demonstrate an integrated gasification combined cycle electric generating facility, complete with co-production of high-value products and carbon capture and storage.

  2. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration at Rock Spring Uplift, Wyoming: Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Storage Capacity, Injectivity and Leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Hailin; Dai, Zhenxue; Jiao, Zunsheng; Stauffer, Philip H.; Surdam, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Many geological, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological factors control CO{sub 2} storage in subsurface. Among them heterogeneity in saline aquifer can seriously influence design of injection wells, CO{sub 2} injection rate, CO{sub 2} plume migration, storage capacity, and potential leakage and risk assessment. This study applies indicator geostatistics, transition probability and Markov chain model at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming generating facies-based heterogeneous fields for porosity and permeability in target saline aquifer (Pennsylvanian Weber sandstone) and surrounding rocks (Phosphoria, Madison and cap-rock Chugwater). A multiphase flow simulator FEHM is then used to model injection of CO{sub 2} into the target saline aquifer involving field-scale heterogeneity. The results reveal that (1) CO{sub 2} injection rates in different injection wells significantly change with local permeability distributions; (2) brine production rates in different pumping wells are also significantly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity in permeability; (3) liquid pressure evolution during and after CO{sub 2} injection in saline aquifer varies greatly for different realizations of random permeability fields, and this has potential important effects on hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock, reactivation of pre-existing faults and the integrity of the cap-rock; (4) CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimate for Rock Springs Uplift is 6614 {+-} 256 Mt at 95% confidence interval, which is about 36% of previous estimate based on homogeneous and isotropic storage formation; (5) density profiles show that the density of injected CO{sub 2} below 3 km is close to that of the ambient brine with given geothermal gradient and brine concentration, which indicates CO{sub 2} plume can sink to the deep before reaching thermal equilibrium with brine. Finally, we present uncertainty analysis of CO{sub 2} leakage into overlying formations due to heterogeneity in both the target saline aquifer and surrounding formations. This uncertainty in leakage will be used to feed into risk assessment modeling.

  3. Large-Scale Information Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Nicol; H. R. Ammerlahn; M. E. Goldsby; M. M. Johnson; D. E. Rhodes; A. S. Yoshimura

    2000-12-01

    Large enterprises are ever more dependent on their Large-Scale Information Systems (LSLS), computer systems that are distinguished architecturally by distributed components--data sources, networks, computing engines, simulations, human-in-the-loop control and remote access stations. These systems provide such capabilities as workflow, data fusion and distributed database access. The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) contains many examples of LSIS components, a fact that motivates this research. However, most LSIS in use grew up from collections of separate subsystems that were not designed to be components of an integrated system. For this reason, they are often difficult to analyze and control. The problem is made more difficult by the size of a typical system, its diversity of information sources, and the institutional complexities associated with its geographic distribution across the enterprise. Moreover, there is no integrated approach for analyzing or managing such systems. Indeed, integrated development of LSIS is an active area of academic research. This work developed such an approach by simulating the various components of the LSIS and allowing the simulated components to interact with real LSIS subsystems. This research demonstrated two benefits. First, applying it to a particular LSIS provided a thorough understanding of the interfaces between the system's components. Second, it demonstrated how more rapid and detailed answers could be obtained to questions significant to the enterprise by interacting with the relevant LSIS subsystems through simulated components designed with those questions in mind. In a final, added phase of the project, investigations were made on extending this research to wireless communication networks in support of telemetry applications.

  4. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar introduces the “Large Scale Renewable Energy Guide." The webinar will provide an overview of this important FEMP guide, which describes FEMP's approach to large-scale renewable energy projects and provides guidance to Federal agencies and the private sector on how to develop a common process for large-scale renewable projects.

  5. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plant, West Virginia Numerical Simulation and Risk Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2008-03-31

    A series of numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection were conducted as part of a program to assess the potential for geologic sequestration in deep geologic reservoirs (the Rose Run and Copper Ridge formations), at the American Electric Power (AEP) Mountaineer Power Plant outside of New Haven, West Virginia. The simulations were executed using the H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl operational mode of the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006). The objective of the Rose Run formation modeling was to predict CO{sub 2} injection rates using data from the core analysis conducted on the samples. A systematic screening procedure was applied to the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage site utilizing the Features, Elements, and Processes (FEP) database for geological storage of CO{sub 2} (Savage et al., 2004). The objective of the screening was to identify potential risk categories for the long-term geological storage of CO{sub 2} at the Mountaineer Power Plant in New Haven, West Virginia. Over 130 FEPs in seven main classes were assessed for the project based on site characterization information gathered in a geological background study, testing in a deep well drilled on the site, and general site conditions. In evaluating the database, it was apparent that many of the items were not applicable to the Mountaineer site based its geologic framework and environmental setting. Nine FEPs were identified for further consideration for the site. These FEPs generally fell into categories related to variations in subsurface geology, well completion materials, and the behavior of CO{sub 2} in the subsurface. Results from the screening were used to provide guidance on injection system design, developing a monitoring program, performing reservoir simulations, and other risk assessment efforts. Initial work indicates that the significant FEPs may be accounted for by focusing the storage program on these potential issues. The screening method was also useful in identifying unnecessary items that were not significant given the site-specific geology and proposed scale of the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project. Overall, the FEP database approach provides a comprehensive methodology for assessing potential risk for a practical CO{sub 2} storage application. An integrated numerical fate and transport model was developed to enable risk and consequence assessment at field scale. Results show that such an integrated modeling effort would be helpful in meeting the project objectives (such as site characterization, engineering, permitting, monitoring and closure) during different stages. A reservoir-scale numerical model was extended further to develop an integrated assessment framework which can address the risk and consequence assessment, monitoring network design and permitting guidance needs. The method was used to simulate sequestration of CO{sub 2} in moderate quantities at the Mountaineer Power Plant. Results indicate that at the relatively low injection volumes planned for pilot scale demonstration at this site, the risks involved are minor to negligible, owing to a thick, low permeability caprock and overburden zones. Such integrated modeling approaches coupled with risk and consequence assessment modeling are valuable to project implementation, permitting, monitoring as well as site closure.

  6. Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: A Discussion ofNatural Analogs, FEPS, and Modeling Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, J.; Pruess, K.; Lewicki, J.L.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang,C-F.; Karimjee, A.

    2005-11-01

    While the purpose of geologic storage in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO{sub 2} to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for such CO{sub 2} discharges based on the analysis of natural analogs, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in circumstances that could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they occur and the potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site-selection and risk-management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is suggested to determine critical conditions for large CO{sub 2} releases, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential impacts of such events as well as design appropriate mitigation strategies.

  7. Monitoring CO2 Storage at Cranfield, Mississippi with Time-Lapse Offset VSP – Using Integration and Modeling to Reduce Uncertainty

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daley, Thomas M.; Hendrickson, Joel; Queen, John H.

    2014-12-31

    A time-lapse Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (OVSP) data set was acquired as part of a subsurface monitoring program for geologic sequestration of CO2. The storage site at Cranfield, near Natchez, Mississippi, is part of a detailed area study (DAS) site for geologic carbon sequestration operated by the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The DAS site includes three boreholes, an injection well and two monitoring wells. The project team selected the DAS site to examine CO2 sequestration multiphase fluid flow and pressure at the interwell scale in a brine reservoir. The time-lapse (TL) OVSP was partmore » of an integrated monitoring program that included well logs, crosswell seismic, electrical resistance tomography and 4D surface seismic. The goals of the OVSP were to detect the CO2 induced change in seismic response, give information about the spatial distribution of CO2 near the injection well and to help tie the high-resolution borehole monitoring to the 4D surface data. The VSP data were acquired in well CFU 31-F1, which is the ~3200 m deep CO2 injection well at the DAS site. A preinjection survey was recorded in late 2009 with injection beginning in December 2009, and a post injection survey was conducted in Nov 2010 following injection of about 250 kT of CO2. The sensor array for both surveys was a 50-level, 3-component, Sercel MaxiWave system with 15 m (49 ft) spacing between levels. The source for both surveys was an accelerated weight drop, with different source trucks used for the two surveys. Consistent time-lapse processing was applied to both data sets. Time-lapse processing generated difference corridor stacks to investigate CO2 induced reflection amplitude changes from each source point. Corridor stacks were used for amplitude analysis to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each shot point. Spatial variation in reflectivity (used to ‘map’ the plume) was similar in magnitude to the corridor stacks but, due to relatively lower S/N, the results were less consistent and more sensitive to processing and therefore are not presented. We examined the overall time-lapse repeatability of the OVSP data using three methods, the NRMS and Predictability (Pred) measures of Kragh and Christie (2002) and the signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) method of Cantillo (2011). Because time-lapse noise was comparable to the observed change, multiple methods were used to analyze data reliability. The reflections from the top and base reservoir were identified on the corridor stacks by correlation with a synthetic response generated from the well logs. A consistent change in the corridor stack amplitudes from pre- to post-CO2 injection was found for both the top and base reservoir reflections on all ten shot locations analyzed. In addition to the well-log synthetic response, a finite-difference elastic wave propagation model was built based on rock/fluid properties obtained from well logs, with CO2 induced changes guided by time-lapse crosswell seismic tomography (Ajo-Franklin, et al., 2013) acquired at the DAS site. Time-lapse seismic tomography indicated that two reservoir zones were affected by the flood. The modeling established that interpretation of the VSP trough and peak event amplitudes as reflectivity from the top and bottom of reservoir is appropriate even with possible tuning effects. Importantly, this top/base change gives confidence in an interpretation that these changes arise from within the reservoir, not from bounding lithology. The modeled time-lapse change and the observed field data change from 10 shotpoints are in agreement for both magnitude and polarity of amplitude change for top and base of reservoir. Therefore, we conclude the stored CO2 has been successfully detected and, furthermore, the observed seismic reflection change can be applied to Cranfield’s 4D surface seismic for spatially delineating the CO2/brine interface.« less

  8. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1,100 ft above the basal sandstone and is 100-200 ft thick. The storage capacity estimates for a 20-mile radius from the injection well ranged from 39-78 million tons (Mt) for each formation. Several other oil and gas plays have hydraulic properties conducive for injection, but the formations are generally only 5-50 ft thick in the study area. Overlying the injection reservoirs are thick sequences of dense, impermeable dolomite, limestone, and shale. These layers provide containment above the potential injection reservoirs. In general, it appears that the containment layers are much thicker and extensive than the injection intervals. Other physical parameters for the study area appear to be typical for the region. Anticipated pressures at maximum depths are approximately 4,100 psi based on a 0.45 psi/ft pressure gradient. Temperatures are likely to be 150 F. Groundwater flow is slow and complex in deep formations. Regional flow directions appear to be toward the west-northwest at less than 1 ft per year within the basal sandstone. Vertical gradients are downward in the study area. A review of brine geochemistry indicates that formation fluids have high salinity and dissolved solids. Total dissolved solids ranges from 200,000-325,000 mg/L in the deep reservoirs. Brine chemistry is similar throughout the different formations, suggesting extensive mixing in a mature basin. Unconsolidated sediments in the Ohio River Valley are the primary source of drinking water in the study area.

  9. Leakage risk assessment of the In Salah CO2 storage project: Applying the Certification Framework in a dynamic context.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Jordan, P.D.; Nicot, J.-P.; Mazzoldi, A.; Gupta, A.K.; Bryant, S.L.

    2010-08-01

    The Certification Framework (CF) is a simple risk assessment approach for evaluating CO{sub 2} and brine leakage risk at geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. In the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project assessed here, five wells at Krechba produce natural gas from the Carboniferous C10.2 reservoir with 1.7-2% CO{sub 2} that is delivered to the Krechba gas processing plant, which also receives high-CO{sub 2} natural gas ({approx}10% by mole fraction) from additional deeper gas reservoirs and fields to the south. The gas processing plant strips CO{sub 2} from the natural gas that is then injected through three long horizontal wells into the water leg of the Carboniferous gas reservoir at a depth of approximately 1,800 m. This injection process has been going on successfully since 2004. The stored CO{sub 2} has been monitored over the last five years by a Joint Industry Project (JIP) - a collaboration of BP, Sonatrach, and Statoil with co-funding from US DOE and EU DG Research. Over the years the JIP has carried out extensive analyses of the Krechba system including two risk assessment efforts, one before injection started, and one carried out by URS Corporation in September 2008. The long history of injection at Krechba, and the accompanying characterization, modeling, and performance data provide a unique opportunity to test and evaluate risk assessment approaches. We apply the CF to the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project at two different stages in the state of knowledge of the project: (1) at the pre-injection stage, using data available just prior to injection around mid-2004; and (2) after four years of injection (September 2008) to be comparable to the other risk assessments. The main risk drivers for the project are CO{sub 2} leakage into potable groundwater and into the natural gas cap. Both well leakage and fault/fracture leakage are likely under some conditions, but overall the risk is low due to ongoing mitigation and monitoring activities. Results of the application of the CF during these different state-of-knowledge periods show that the assessment of likelihood of various leakage scenarios increased as more information became available, while assessment of impact stayed the same. Ongoing mitigation, modeling, and monitoring of the injection process is recommended.

  10. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  11. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a piggyback approach that can provide substantial cost savings and help fill data gaps in areas that may not otherwise get characterized. This leveraging with oil/gas drilling also mitigates some of the risk involved in standalone wells. This collaborative approach has been used for characterizing in a number of locations in the midwestern USA between 2005 and 2009 with funding from U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE award: DE-FC26-05NT42434) and in-kind contributions from a number of oil and gas operators. The results are presented in this final technical report. In addition to data collected under current award, selected data from related projects such as the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage project at and near the Mountaineer Plant, and the drilling of the Ohio Stratigraphic well in Eastern Ohio are discussed and used in the report. Data from this effort are also being incorporated into the MRCSP geologic mapping. The project activities were organized into tracking and evaluation of characterization opportunities; participation in the incremental drilling, basic and advanced logging in selected wells; and data analysis and reporting. Although a large number of opportunities were identified and evaluated, only a small subset was carried into the field stage. Typical selection factors included reaching an acceptable agreement with the operator, drilling and logging risks, and extent of pre-existing data near the candidate wells. The region of study is primarily along the Ohio River Valley corridor in the Appalachian Basin, which underlies large concentrations of CO{sub 2} emission sources. In addition, some wells in the Michigan basin are included. Assessment of the geologic and petrophysical properties of zones of interest has been conducted. Although a large number of formations have been evaluated across the geologic column, the primary focus has been on evaluating the Cambrian sandstones (Mt. Simon, Rose Run, Kerbel) and carbonates layers (Knox Dolomite) as well as on the Silurian-Devonian carbonates (Bass Island, Salina) and sandstones (Clinton, Oriskany, Berea). Factors controlling the development of porosity and permeability, such as the depositional setting have been explored. In northern Michigan the Bass Islands Dolomite appears to have favorable reservoir development. In west central Michigan the St. Peter sandstone exhibits excellent porosity in the Hart and Feuring well and looks promising. In Southeastern Kentucky in the Appalachian Basin, the Batten and Baird well provided valuable data on sequestration potential in organic shales through adsorption. In central and eastern Ohio and western West Virginia, the majority of the wells provided an insight to the complex geologic framework of the relatively little known Precambrian through Silurian potential injection targets. Although valuable data was acquired and a number of critical data gaps were filled through this effort, there are still many challenges ahead and questions that need answered. The lateral extent to which favorable potential injection conditions exist in most reservoirs is still generally uncertain. The prolongation of the characterization of regional geologic framework through partnership would continue to build confidence and greatly benefit the overall CO{sub 2} sequestration effort.

  12. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  13. CO2 Sequestration short course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaolo, Donald J.; Cole, David R; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Bourg, Ian C

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  14. Presentation on the Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation on the Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Presentation on the Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Presentation covers the Large-Scale RE Guide: Developing Renewable ...

  15. Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored CO2 in Organic Rocks Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, Vivak

    2014-06-30

    The USA is embarking upon tackling the serious environmental challenges posed to the world by greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). The dimension of the problem is daunting. In fact, according to the Energy Information Agency, nearly 6 billion metric tons of CO2 were produced in the USA in 2007 with coal-burning power plants contributing about 2 billion metric tons. To mitigate the concerns associated with CO2 emission, geological sequestration holds promise. Among the potential geological storage sites, unmineable coal seams and shale formations in particular show promise because of the probability of methane recovery while sequestering the CO2. However. the success of large-scale sequestration of CO2 in coal and shale would hinge on a thorough understanding of CO2's interactions with host reservoirs. An important parameter for successful storage of CO2 reservoirs would be whether the pressurized CO2 would remain invariant in coal and shale formations under reasonable internal and/or external perturbations. Recent research has brought to the fore the potential of induced seismicity, which may result in caprock compromise. Therefore, to evaluate the potential risks involved in sequestering CO2 in Illinois bituminous coal seams and shale, we studied: (i) the mechanical behavior of Murphysboro (Illinois) and Houchin Creek (Illinois) coals, (ii) thermodynamic behavior of Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ≤ T ≤ 300oC, (iii) how high pressure CO2 (up to 20.7 MPa) modifies the viscosity of the host, (iv) the rate of emission of CO2 from Illinois bituminous coal and shale cores if the cores, which were pressurized with high pressure (≤ 20.7 MPa) CO2, were exposed to an atmospheric pressure, simulating the development of leakage pathways, (v) whether there are any fractions of CO2 stored in these hosts which are resistance to emission by simply exposing the cores to atmospheric pressure, and (vi) how compressive shockwaves applied to the coal and shale cores, which were pressurized with high pressure CO2, determine the fate of sequestered CO2 in these cores. Our results suggested that Illinois bituminous coal in its unperturbed state, i.e., when not pressurized with CO2, showed large variations in the mechanical properties. Modulus varied from 0.7 GPa to 3.4 GPa even though samples were extracted from a single large chunk of coal. We did not observe any glass transition for Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ≤ T ≤ 300oC, however, when the coal was pressurized with CO2 at ambient ≤ P ≤ 20.7 MPa, the viscosity of the coal decreased and inversely scaled with the CO2 pressure. The decrease in viscosity as a function of pressure could pose CO2 injection problems for coal as lower viscosity would allow the solid coal to flow to plug the fractures, fissures, and cleats. Our experiments also showed a very small fraction of CO2 was absorbed in coal; and when CO2 pressurized coals were exposed to atmospheric conditions, the loss of CO2 from coals was massive. Half of the sequestered gas from the coal cores was lost in less than 20 minutes. Our shockwave experiments on Illinois bituminous coal, New Albany shale (Illinois), Devonian shale (Ohio), and Utica shale (Ohio) presented clear evidence that the significant emission of the sequestered CO2 from these formations cannot be discounted during seismic activity, especially if caprock is compromised. It is argued that additional shockwave studies, both compressive and transverse, would be required for successfully mapping the risks associated with sequestering high pressure CO2 in coal and shale formations.

  16. Large-scale Screening of Zeolite Structures for CO2 Membrane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We show how advanced molecular simulations can be integrated with the design of a simple separation process to arrive at a metric to rank performance of over 87,000 different ...

  17. Metal Organic Framework Research: High Throughput Discovery of Robust Metal Organic Framework for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-08-01

    IMPACCT Project: LBNL is developing a method for identifying the best metal organic frameworks for use in capturing CO2 from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Metal organic frameworks are porous, crystalline compounds that, based on their chemical structure, vary considerably in terms of their capacity to grab hold of passing CO2 molecules and their ability to withstand the harsh conditions found in the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. Owing primarily to their high tunability, metal organic frameworks can have an incredibly wide range of different chemical and physical properties, so identifying the best to use for CO2 capture and storage can be a difficult task. LBNL uses high-throughput instrumentation to analyze nearly 100 materials at a time, screening them for the characteristics that optimize their ability to selectively adsorb CO2 from coal exhaust. Their work will identify the most promising frameworks and accelerate their large-scale commercial development to benefit further research into reducing the cost of CO2 capture and storage.

  18. CO2 Compression | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    psi to be transported via pipeline and then injected into an underground storage site. ... NETL-funded CO2 compression projects are shown in the table below. Carbon Capture Project ...

  19. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Presentation covers the Large-scale RE Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger than 10 MWs at...

  20. "Applications and future trends in polymer materials for green energy systems: from energy generation and storage, to CO2 capture and transportaion"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Zafiris

    2010-08-24

    Presentation describes United Technologies Research Center's recent work in green energy systems, including APRA-E project content to create a synthetic analogue of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme and incorporate it into a membrane for CO2 separation from the flue gas of a coal power plant.

  1. ACCOLADES: A Scalable Workflow Framework for Large-Scale Simulation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ACCOLADES: A Scalable Workflow Framework for Large-Scale Simulation and Analyses of Automotive Engines Title ACCOLADES: A Scalable Workflow Framework for Large-Scale Simulation and...

  2. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy ...

  3. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives PDF icon nanoparticulate-basedlubricati...

  4. Large-Scale Residential Energy Efficiency Programs Based on CFLs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Large-Scale Residential Energy Efficiency Programs Based on CFLs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Large-Scale Residential Energy Efficiency Programs Based...

  5. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining ... Title: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface ...

  6. The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures...

  7. DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications Large scale Python and other dynamic applications may spend huge time at startup. The DLFM library,...

  8. DOE Regional Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) into coal seams in the Central Appalachian Basin to determine the feasibility of CO2 storage in unmineable coal seams and the potential for enhanced ...

  9. CO2ReMoVe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of industrial, research and service organizations with experience in CO2 geological storage. References: CO2ReMoVe1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  10. 43029CO2Prod | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The CO2 storage capacity of depleted oil reservoirs and saline formations in Citronelle ... CO2 from coal-fired generation at a nearby 1500 MW (electric) power plant for 40 years. ...

  11. Targeted Pressure Management During CO2 Sequestration: Optimization of Well Placement and Brine Extraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-12-31

    Large-scale pressure increases resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in the subsurface can potentially impact caprock integrity, induce reactivation of critically stressed faults, and drive CO2 or brine through conductive features into shallow groundwater. Pressure management involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations can be used to minimize pressure increases while maximizing CO2 storage. However, brine extraction requires pumping, transportation, possibly treatment, and disposal of substantial volumes of extracted brackish or saline water, all of which can be technically challenging and expensive. This paper describes a constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm for optimal well placement and injection/ extractionmore » control with the goal of minimizing brine extraction while achieving predefined pressure contraints. The CDE methodology was tested for a simple optimization problem whose solution can be partially obtained with a gradient-based optimization methodology. The CDE successfully estimated the true global optimum for both extraction well location and extraction rate, needed for the test problem. A more complex example application of the developed strategy was also presented for a hypothetical CO2 storage scenario in a heterogeneous reservoir consisting of a critically stressed fault nearby an injection zone. Through the CDE optimization algorithm coupled to a numerical vertically-averaged reservoir model, we successfully estimated optimal rates and locations for CO2 injection and brine extraction wells while simultaneously satisfying multiple pressure buildup constraints to avoid fault activation and caprock fracturing. The study shows that the CDE methodology is a very promising tool to solve also other optimization problems related to GCS, such as reducing ‘Area of Review’, monitoring design, reducing risk of leakage and increasing storage capacity and trapping.« less

  12. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  13. Monitoring CO 2 sequestration into deep saline aquifer and associated salt intrusion using coupled multiphase flow modeling and time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuan Lu; CHI Zhang; Hai Hanag; Timothy C. Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Successful geological storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) require efficient monitoring of the migration of CO2 plume during and after large-scale injection in order to verify the containment of the injected CO2 within the target formation and to evaluate potential leakage risk. Field studies have shown that surface and cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be a useful tool in imaging and characterizing solute transport in heterogeneous subsurface. In this synthetic study, we have coupled a 3-D multiphase flow model with a parallel 3-D time-lapse ERT inversion code to explore the feasibility of using time-lapse ERT for simultaneously monitoring the migration of CO2 plume in deep saline formation and potential brine intrusion into shallow fresh water aquifer. Direct comparisons of the inverted CO2 plumes resulting from ERT with multiphase flow simulation results indicate the ERT could be used to delineate the migration of CO2 plume. Detailed comparisons on the locations, sizes and shapes of CO2 plume and intruded brine plumes suggest that ERT inversion tends to underestimate the area review of the CO2 plume, but overestimate the thickness and total volume of the CO2 plume. The total volume of intruded brine plumes is overestimated as well. However, all discrepancies remain within reasonable ranges. Our study suggests that time-lapse ERT is a useful monitoring tool in characterizing the movement of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifer and detecting potential brine intrusion under large-scale field injection conditions.

  14. Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  15. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the requirements input from the workshop attendees. Workshop attendees should review the case study update document and other background materials on the Reference Materials page....

  16. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    must respond to their e-mail invitation. The Group Registration Deadline for the hotel is May 4, 2011. An official letter of invitation is available (PDF). Workshop Agenda...

  17. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SciencesAn BES ASCR NERSC WorkshopFebruary 9-10, 2010... Read More Workshop Logistics Workshop location, directions, and registration information are included here......

  18. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research: Target 2017 ASCRLogo.png This is an invitation-only review organized by the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced ...

  19. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This is an invitation-only review organized by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and the ...

  20. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * Thermal, mechanical, and electromagnetic; "virtual prototyping" * Supporting ... variety of approaches resulting to wide spectrum of computational requirements * Beam ...

  1. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13, 2009. Hilton Washington DCRockville Executive Meeting Center 1750 Rockville Pike Rockville, MD 20852 Registration The workshop is by invitation only. There is no...

  2. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11-12, 2012 Hilton Rockville Hotel and Executive Meeting Center 1750 Rockville Pike Rockville, MD, 20852-1699 TEL: 1-301-468-1100 Sponsored by: U.S. Department of Energy...

  3. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012 Hilton Washington DCRockville Hotel &Executive Meeting Center 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD,20852-1699 Final Report PDF Hotel Information Info on how to reserve a...

  4. Supporting large-scale computational science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musick, R., LLNL

    1998-02-19

    Business needs have driven the development of commercial database systems since their inception. As a result, there has been a strong focus on supporting many users, minimizing the potential corruption or loss of data, and maximizing performance metrics like transactions per second, or TPC-C and TPC-D results. It turns out that these optimizations have little to do with the needs of the scientific community, and in particular have little impact on improving the management and use of large-scale high-dimensional data. At the same time, there is an unanswered need in the scientific community for many of the benefits offered by a robust DBMS. For example, tying an ad-hoc query language such as SQL together with a visualization toolkit would be a powerful enhancement to current capabilities. Unfortunately, there has been little emphasis or discussion in the VLDB community on this mismatch over the last decade. The goal of the paper is to identify the specific issues that need to be resolved before large-scale scientific applications can make use of DBMS products. This topic is addressed in the context of an evaluation of commercial DBMS technology applied to the exploration of data generated by the Department of Energy`s Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The paper describes the data being generated for ASCI as well as current capabilities for interacting with and exploring this data. The attraction of applying standard DBMS technology to this domain is discussed, as well as the technical and business issues that currently make this an infeasible solution.

  5. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage Citation ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  6. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-04-20

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated carbon dioxide (CO2) pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale within the United States. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies (so called WRE450 and WRE550 stabilization scenarios) and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The analysis reveals that between 11,000 and 23,000 additional miles of dedicated CO2 pipeline might be needed in the U.S. before 2050 across these two cases. While that is a significant increase over the 3,900 miles that comprise the existing national CO2 pipeline infrastructure, it is critically important to realize that the demand for additional CO2 pipeline capacity will unfold relatively slowly and in a geographically dispersed manner as new dedicated CCS-enabled power plants and industrial facilities are brought online. During the period 2010-2030, the growth in the CO2 pipeline system is on the order of a few hundred to less than a thousand miles per year. In comparison during the period 1950-2000, the U.S. natural gas pipeline distribution system grew at rates that far exceed these projections in growth in a future dedicated CO2 pipeline system. This analysis indicates that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a major obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies in the U.S. Nevertheless, there will undoubtedly be some associated regulatory and siting issues to work through but these issues should not be unmanageable based on the size of infrastructure requirements alone.

  7. Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas You ...

  8. The lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juanes, Ruben

    2013-12-30

    In carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected underground into reservoirs like deep saline aquifers for long-term storage. While CCS may be critical for the continued use of fossil fuels in a carbon-constrained world, the deployment of CCS has been hindered by uncertainty in geologic storage capacities and sustainable injection rates, which has contributed to the absence of concerted government policy. Here, we clarify the potential of CCS to mitigate emissions in the United States by developing a storage-capacity supply curve that, unlike current large-scale capacity estimates, is derived from the fluid mechanics of CO2 injection and trapping and incorporates injection-rate constraints. We show that storage supply is a dynamic quantity that grows with the duration of CCS, and we interpret the lifetime of CCS as the time for which the storage supply curve exceeds the storage demand curve from CO2 production. We show that in the United States, if CO2 production from power generation continues to rise at recent rates, then CCS can store enough CO2 to stabilize emissions at current levels for at least 100 years. This result suggests that the large-scale implementation of CCS is a geologically viable climate-change mitigation option in the United States over the next century.

  9. SimFS: A Large Scale Parallel File System Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-08-30

    The software provides both framework and tools to simulate a large-scale parallel file system such as Lustre.

  10. DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications Large scale Python and other dynamic applications may spend huge time at startup. The DLFM library, developed by Mike Davis at Cray, Inc., is a set of functions that can be incorporated into a dynamically-linked application to provide improved performance during the loading of dynamic libraries when running the application at large scale on Edison. To access this library, do module

  11. Sensitivity technologies for large scale simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Smith, Thomas Michael; Heinkenschloss, Matthias; Wilcox, Lucas C.; Hill, Judith C.; Ghattas, Omar; Berggren, Martin Olof; Akcelik, Volkan; Ober, Curtis Curry; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Keiter, Eric Richard

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is critically important to numerous analysis algorithms, including large scale optimization, uncertainty quantification,reduced order modeling, and error estimation. Our research focused on developing tools, algorithms and standard interfaces to facilitate the implementation of sensitivity type analysis into existing code and equally important, the work was focused on ways to increase the visibility of sensitivity analysis. We attempt to accomplish the first objective through the development of hybrid automatic differentiation tools, standard linear algebra interfaces for numerical algorithms, time domain decomposition algorithms and two level Newton methods. We attempt to accomplish the second goal by presenting the results of several case studies in which direct sensitivities and adjoint methods have been effectively applied, in addition to an investigation of h-p adaptivity using adjoint based a posteriori error estimation. A mathematical overview is provided of direct sensitivities and adjoint methods for both steady state and transient simulations. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the utility of these methods. A direct sensitivity method is implemented to solve a source inversion problem for steady state internal flows subject to convection diffusion. Real time performance is achieved using novel decomposition into offline and online calculations. Adjoint methods are used to reconstruct initial conditions of a contamination event in an external flow. We demonstrate an adjoint based transient solution. In addition, we investigated time domain decomposition algorithms in an attempt to improve the efficiency of transient simulations. Because derivative calculations are at the root of sensitivity calculations, we have developed hybrid automatic differentiation methods and implemented this approach for shape optimization for gas dynamics using the Euler equations. The hybrid automatic differentiation method was applied to a first order approximation of the Euler equations and used as a preconditioner. In comparison to other methods, the AD preconditioner showed better convergence behavior. Our ultimate target is to perform shape optimization and hp adaptivity using adjoint formulations in the Premo compressible fluid flow simulator. A mathematical formulation for mixed-level simulation algorithms has been developed where different physics interact at potentially different spatial resolutions in a single domain. To minimize the implementation effort, explicit solution methods can be considered, however, implicit methods are preferred if computational efficiency is of high priority. We present the use of a partial elimination nonlinear solver technique to solve these mixed level problems and show how these formulation are closely coupled to intrusive optimization approaches and sensitivity analyses. Production codes are typically not designed for sensitivity analysis or large scale optimization. The implementation of our optimization libraries into multiple production simulation codes in which each code has their own linear algebra interface becomes an intractable problem. In an attempt to streamline this task, we have developed a standard interface between the numerical algorithm (such as optimization) and the underlying linear algebra. These interfaces (TSFCore and TSFCoreNonlin) have been adopted by the Trilinos framework and the goal is to promote the use of these interfaces especially with new developments. Finally, an adjoint based a posteriori error estimator has been developed for discontinuous Galerkin discretization of Poisson's equation. The goal is to investigate other ways to leverage the adjoint calculations and we show how the convergence of the forward problem can be improved by adapting the grid using adjoint-based error estimates. Error estimation is usually conducted with continuous adjoints but if discrete adjoints are available it may be possible to reuse the discrete version for error estimation. We investigate the advantages and disadvantages of continuous and discre

  12. DOE-Sponsored Mississippi Project Hits 1-Million-Ton Milestone for Injected CO2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A large-scale carbon dioxide storage project in Mississippi has become the fifth worldwide to reach the important milestone of more than 1 million tons injected.

  13. Ferroelectric opening switches for large-scale pulsed power drivers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Glover, Steven Frank

    2009-11-01

    Fast electrical energy storage or Voltage-Driven Technology (VDT) has dominated fast, high-voltage pulsed power systems for the past six decades. Fast magnetic energy storage or Current-Driven Technology (CDT) is characterized by 10,000 X higher energy density than VDT and has a great number of other substantial advantages, but it has all but been neglected for all of these decades. The uniform explanation for neglect of CDT technology is invariably that the industry has never been able to make an effective opening switch, which is essential for the use of CDT. Most approaches to opening switches have involved plasma of one sort or another. On a large scale, gaseous plasmas have been used as a conductor to bridge the switch electrodes that provides an opening function when the current wave front propagates through to the output end of the plasma and fully magnetizes the plasma - this is called a Plasma Opening Switch (POS). Opening can be triggered in a POS using a magnetic field to push the plasma out of the A-K gap - this is called a Magnetically Controlled Plasma Opening Switch (MCPOS). On a small scale, depletion of electron plasmas in semiconductor devices is used to affect opening switch behavior, but these devices are relatively low voltage and low current compared to the hundreds of kilo-volts and tens of kilo-amperes of interest to pulsed power. This work is an investigation into an entirely new approach to opening switch technology that utilizes new materials in new ways. The new materials are Ferroelectrics and using them as an opening switch is a stark contrast to their traditional applications in optics and transducer applications. Emphasis is on use of high performance ferroelectrics with the objective of developing an opening switch that would be suitable for large scale pulsed power applications. Over the course of exploring this new ground, we have discovered new behaviors and properties of these materials that were here to fore unknown. Some of these unexpected discoveries have lead to new research directions to address challenges.

  14. Large-Scale Industrial CCS Projects Selected for Continued Testing |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Large-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects Large-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects Renewable energy projects larger than 10 megawatts (MW), also known as utility-scale projects, are complex and typically require private-sector financing. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) developed a guide to help federal agencies, and the developers and financiers that work with them, to successfully install these projects at federal facilities. FEMP's Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide,

  15. Large-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects Large-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects Renewable energy projects larger than 10 megawatts (MW), also known as utility-scale projects, are complex and typically require private-sector financing. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) developed a guide to help federal agencies, and the developers and financiers that work with them, to successfully install these projects at federal facilities. FEMP's Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide,

  16. Effects of Volcanism, Crustal Thickness, and Large Scale Faulting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effects of Volcanism, Crustal Thickness, and Large Scale Faulting on the Development and Evolution of Geothermal Systems: Collaborative Project in Chile Effects of Volcanism, ...

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics & Large-Scale Uncertainty Quantification...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Computational Fluid Dynamics & Large-Scale Uncertainty Quantification for Wind Energy A team of Sandia experts in aerospace engineering, scientific computing, and mathematics ...

  18. Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large ...

  19. Strategies to Finance Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Finance Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Projects: An Economic Development and Infrastructure Approach Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  20. Large-Scale Hydropower Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Hydropower » Large-Scale Hydropower Basics Large-Scale Hydropower Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:11pm Addthis Large-scale hydropower plants are generally developed to produce electricity for government or electric utility projects. These plants are more than 30 megawatts (MW) in size, and there is more than 80,000 MW of installed generation capacity in the United States today. Most large-scale hydropower projects use a dam and a reservoir to retain water from a river. When the

  1. Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study This presentation summarizes the information given by Semprius during the Photovoltaic Validation and ...

  2. Optimizing Cluster Heads for Energy Efficiency in Large-Scale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimizing Cluster Heads for Energy Efficiency in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Gu, Yi; Wu, Qishi; Rao, Nageswara S. V. Hindawi Publishing Corporation None...

  3. FEMP Helps Federal Facilities Develop Large-Scale Renewable Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    jobs, and advancing national goals for energy security. The guide describes the fundamentals of deploying financially attractive, large-scale renewable energy projects and...

  4. A Model for Turbulent Combustion Simulation of Large Scale Hydrogen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Model for Turbulent Combustion Simulation of Large Scale Hydrogen Explosions Event Sponsor: Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Seminar Start Date: Oct 6 2015 - 10:00am...

  5. Optimizing Cluster Heads for Energy Efficiency in Large-Scale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clustering is generally considered as an efficient and scalable way to facilitate the management and operation of such large-scale networks and minimize the total energy...

  6. Large-Scale Data Challenges in Future Power Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Jian; Sharma, Poorva; Gorton, Ian; Akyol, Bora A.

    2013-03-25

    This paper describes technical challenges in supporting large-scale real-time data analysis for future power grid systems and discusses various design options to address these challenges. Even though the existing U.S. power grid has served the nation remarkably well over the last 120 years, big changes are in the horizon. The widespread deployment of renewable generation, smart grid controls, energy storage, plug-in hybrids, and new conducting materials will require fundamental changes in the operational concepts and principal components. The whole system becomes highly dynamic and needs constant adjustments based on real time data. Even though millions of sensors such as phase measurement units (PMUs) and smart meters are being widely deployed, a data layer that can support this amount of data in real time is needed. Unlike the data fabric in cloud services, the data layer for smart grids must address some unique challenges. This layer must be scalable to support millions of sensors and a large number of diverse applications and still provide real time guarantees. Moreover, the system needs to be highly reliable and highly secure because the power grid is a critical piece of infrastructure. No existing systems can satisfy all the requirements at the same time. We examine various design options. In particular, we explore the special characteristics of power grid data to meet both scalability and quality of service requirements. Our initial prototype can improve performance by orders of magnitude over existing general-purpose systems. The prototype was demonstrated with several use cases from PNNL’s FPGI and was shown to be able to integrate huge amount of data from a large number of sensors and a diverse set of applications.

  7. Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership PCOR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grand Forks, North Dakota Zip: 58202-9018 Product: North Dakota-based consortium researching CO2 storage options. PCOR is busy with the ECBM in the Unminable Lignite Research...

  8. Towards a Large-Scale Recording System: Demonstration of Polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Polymer-Based Penetrating Array for Chronic Neural Recording Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards a Large-Scale Recording System: Demonstration of Polymer-Based ...

  9. Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the BlueGeneL Platform using the Qbox Code Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations on the BlueGeneL Platform using ...

  10. Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    large-scale dynamics parameterization, in which we compare the result of a cloud-resolving simulation coupled to WTG ... Journal Name: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems ...

  11. How Three Retail Buyers Source Large-Scale Solar Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-scale, non-utility solar power purchase agreements (PPAs) are still a rarity despite the growing popularity of PPAs across the country. In this webinar, participants will learn more about how...

  12. ARM - Evaluation Product - Vertical Air Motion during Large-Scale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsVertical Air Motion during Large-Scale Stratiform Rain ARM Data Discovery Browse ... Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Vertical Air ...

  13. MEASURING LENSING MAGNIFICATION OF QUASARS BY LARGE SCALE STRUCTURE USING

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VARIABILITY-LUMINOSITY RELATION (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect MEASURING LENSING MAGNIFICATION OF QUASARS BY LARGE SCALE STRUCTURE USING THE VARIABILITY-LUMINOSITY RELATION Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MEASURING LENSING MAGNIFICATION OF QUASARS BY LARGE SCALE STRUCTURE USING THE VARIABILITY-LUMINOSITY RELATION We introduce a technique to measure gravitational lensing magnification using the variability of type I quasars. Quasars' variability amplitudes and luminosities

  14. The Cielo Petascale Capability Supercomputer: Providing Large-Scale

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Computing for Stockpile Stewardship (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: The Cielo Petascale Capability Supercomputer: Providing Large-Scale Computing for Stockpile Stewardship Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Cielo Petascale Capability Supercomputer: Providing Large-Scale Computing for Stockpile Stewardship × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information

  15. DOE Awards First Three Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Projects |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy First Three Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Projects DOE Awards First Three Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Projects October 9, 2007 - 3:14pm Addthis U.S. Projects Total $318 Million and Further President Bush's Initiatives to Advance Clean Energy Technologies to Confront Climate Change WASHINGTON, DC - In a major step forward for demonstrating the promise of clean energy technology, U.S Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell today announced that the Department of Energy

  16. Energy Department Announces Participation in Clean Line's Large-Scale

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Transmission Project | Department of Energy Participation in Clean Line's Large-Scale Energy Transmission Project Energy Department Announces Participation in Clean Line's Large-Scale Energy Transmission Project March 25, 2016 - 12:59pm Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov WASHINGTON - Building on the Department of Energy's (DOE) ongoing efforts to modernize the grid and accelerate the deployment of renewable energy, today U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz

  17. Revised Environmental Assessment Large-Scale, Open-Air Explosive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Assessment Large-Scale, Open-Air Explosive Detonation, DIVINE STRAKE, at the Nevada Test Site May 2006 Prepared by Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Assessment May 2006 Large-Scale, Open-Air Explosive Detonation, DIVINE STRAKE, at the Nevada Test Site TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION.....................................................1-1 1.1 Introduction and

  18. North American extreme temperature events and related large scale

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends Citation Details In-Document Search Title: North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends This paper reviews

  19. Cosmological Simulations for Large-Scale Sky Surveys | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility Cosmological Simulations for Large-Scale Sky Surveys PI Name: Salman Habib PI Email: habib@anl.gov Institution: Argonne National Laboratory Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 80 Million Year: 2016 Research Domain: Physics The focus of cosmology today is on its two mysterious pillars, dark matter and dark energy. Large-scale sky surveys are the current drivers of precision cosmology and have been instrumental in making fundamental discoveries in these

  20. The Cielo Petascale Capability Supercomputer: Providing Large-Scale

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Computing for Stockpile Stewardship (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: The Cielo Petascale Capability Supercomputer: Providing Large-Scale Computing for Stockpile Stewardship Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Cielo Petascale Capability Supercomputer: Providing Large-Scale Computing for Stockpile Stewardship Authors: Vigil, Benny Manuel [1] ; Doerfler, Douglas W. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-03-11 OSTI Identifier:

  1. Understanding large scale HPC systems through scalable monitoring and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    analysis. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Understanding large scale HPC systems through scalable monitoring and analysis. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Understanding large scale HPC systems through scalable monitoring and analysis. As HPC systems grow in size and complexity, diagnosing problems and understanding system behavior, including failure modes, becomes increasingly difficult and time consuming. At Sandia National Laboratories we have developed a tool, OVIS, to facilitate

  2. Microsoft Word - NRAP-TRS-III-004-2013_DevelopSurrogateModelsCO2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... S. Injection and storage of CO 2 in deep saline aquifers: analytical solution for CO 2 ... Jared Ciferno Director Office of Coal and Power R&D National Energy Technology Laboratory ...

  3. EINSTEIN'S SIGNATURE IN COSMOLOGICAL LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruni, Marco; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Wands, David

    2014-10-10

    We show how the nonlinearity of general relativity generates a characteristic nonGaussian signal in cosmological large-scale structure that we calculate at all perturbative orders in a large-scale limit. Newtonian gravity and general relativity provide complementary theoretical frameworks for modeling large-scale structure in ?CDM cosmology; a relativistic approach is essential to determine initial conditions, which can then be used in Newtonian simulations studying the nonlinear evolution of the matter density. Most inflationary models in the very early universe predict an almost Gaussian distribution for the primordial metric perturbation, ?. However, we argue that it is the Ricci curvature of comoving-orthogonal spatial hypersurfaces, R, that drives structure formation at large scales. We show how the nonlinear relation between the spatial curvature, R, and the metric perturbation, ?, translates into a specific nonGaussian contribution to the initial comoving matter density that we calculate for the simple case of an initially Gaussian ?. Our analysis shows the nonlinear signature of Einstein's gravity in large-scale structure.

  4. An Analysis Of The Impact Of Selected Carbon Capture And Storage Policy Scenarios On The US Fossil-Based Electric Power Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Mahasenan, N Maha

    2003-09-13

    CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is rapidly emerging as a potential key climate change mitigation option. However, as policymakers and industrial stakeholders begin the process of formulating new policy for implementing CCS technologies, participants require a tool to assess large-scale CCS deployment over a number of different possible future scenarios. This paper will analyze several scenarios using two state-of-the-art Battelle developed models, the MiniCAM and the CO2-GIS for examining CCS deployment. Outputs include the total amount of CO2 captured, total annual emissions, and fossil-based generating capacity.

  5. Lessons from Large-Scale Renewable Energy Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    In general, large-scale integration studies in Europe and the United States find that high penetrations of renewable generation are technically feasible with operational changes and increased access to transmission. This paper describes other key findings such as the need for fast markets, large balancing areas, system flexibility, and the use of advanced forecasting.

  6. Trinity CO2 LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CO2 LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trinity CO2 LLC Place: Texas Product: String representation "Trinity CO2 LLC ... smission lines." is too long. References: Trinity CO2...

  7. Watch Our CO2 Drop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Watch Our CO2 Drop Watch Our CO2 Drop

  8. ARM - Instrument - co2flx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsco2flx Documentation CO2FLX : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA....

  9. GAIA: A WINDOW TO LARGE-SCALE MOTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nusser, Adi; Branchini, Enzo; Davis, Marc E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it

    2012-08-10

    Using redshifts as a proxy for galaxy distances, estimates of the two-dimensional (2D) transverse peculiar velocities of distant galaxies could be obtained from future measurements of proper motions. We provide the mathematical framework for analyzing 2D transverse motions and show that they offer several advantages over traditional probes of large-scale motions. They are completely independent of any intrinsic relations between galaxy properties; hence, they are essentially free of selection biases. They are free from homogeneous and inhomogeneous Malmquist biases that typically plague distance indicator catalogs. They provide additional information to traditional probes that yield line-of-sight peculiar velocities only. Further, because of their 2D nature, fundamental questions regarding vorticity of large-scale flows can be addressed. Gaia, for example, is expected to provide proper motions of at least bright galaxies with high central surface brightness, making proper motions a likely contender for traditional probes based on current and future distance indicator measurements.

  10. LARGE-SCALE MOTIONS IN THE PERSEUS GALAXY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.; Urban, O.; Allen, S. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Sanders, J. S.; Mantz, A.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Takei, Y.

    2012-10-01

    By combining large-scale mosaics of ROSAT PSPC, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku X-ray observations, we present evidence for large-scale motions in the intracluster medium of the nearby, X-ray bright Perseus Cluster. These motions are suggested by several alternating and interleaved X-ray bright, low-temperature, low-entropy arcs located along the east-west axis, at radii ranging from {approx}10 kpc to over a Mpc. Thermodynamic features qualitatively similar to these have previously been observed in the centers of cool-core clusters, and were successfully modeled as a consequence of the gas sloshing/swirling motions induced by minor mergers. Our observations indicate that such sloshing/swirling can extend out to larger radii than previously thought, on scales approaching the virial radius.

  11. The workshop on iterative methods for large scale nonlinear problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, H.F.; Pernice, M.

    1995-12-01

    The aim of the workshop was to bring together researchers working on large scale applications with numerical specialists of various kinds. Applications that were addressed included reactive flows (combustion and other chemically reacting flows, tokamak modeling), porous media flows, cardiac modeling, chemical vapor deposition, image restoration, macromolecular modeling, and population dynamics. Numerical areas included Newton iterative (truncated Newton) methods, Krylov subspace methods, domain decomposition and other preconditioning methods, large scale optimization and optimal control, and parallel implementations and software. This report offers a brief summary of workshop activities and information about the participants. Interested readers are encouraged to look into an online proceedings available at http://www.usi.utah.edu/logan.proceedings. In this, the material offered here is augmented with hypertext abstracts that include links to locations such as speakers` home pages, PostScript copies of talks and papers, cross-references to related talks, and other information about topics addresses at the workshop.

  12. Electron drift in a large scale solid xenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, J.; Jaskierny, W. F.

    2015-08-21

    A study of charge drift in a large scale optically transparent solid xenon is reported. A pulsed high power xenon light source is used to liberate electrons from a photocathode. The drift speeds of the electrons are measured using a 8.7 cm long electrode in both the liquid and solid phase of xenon. In the liquid phase (163 K), the drift speed is 0.193 ± 0.003 cm/μs while the drift speed in the solid phase (157 K) is 0.397 ± 0.006 cm/μs at 900 V/cm over 8.0 cm of uniform electric fields. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a factor two faster electron drift speed in solid phase xenon compared to that in liquid in a large scale solid xenon.

  13. Electron drift in a large scale solid xenon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yoo, J.; Jaskierny, W. F.

    2015-08-21

    A study of charge drift in a large scale optically transparent solid xenon is reported. A pulsed high power xenon light source is used to liberate electrons from a photocathode. The drift speeds of the electrons are measured using a 8.7 cm long electrode in both the liquid and solid phase of xenon. In the liquid phase (163 K), the drift speed is 0.193 ± 0.003 cm/μs while the drift speed in the solid phase (157 K) is 0.397 ± 0.006 cm/μs at 900 V/cm over 8.0 cm of uniform electric fields. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a factor twomore » faster electron drift speed in solid phase xenon compared to that in liquid in a large scale solid xenon.« less

  14. Relic vector field and CMB large scale anomalies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xingang; Wang, Yi E-mail: yw366@cam.ac.uk

    2014-10-01

    We study the most general effects of relic vector fields on the inflationary background and density perturbations. Such effects are observable if the number of inflationary e-folds is close to the minimum requirement to solve the horizon problem. We show that this can potentially explain two CMB large scale anomalies: the quadrupole-octopole alignment and the quadrupole power suppression. We discuss its effect on the parity anomaly. We also provide analytical template for more detailed data comparison.

  15. Robust, Multifunctional Joint for Large Scale Power Production Stacks -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Robust, Multifunctional Joint for Large Scale Power Production Stacks Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology DIAGRAM OF BERKELEY LAB'S MULTIFUNCTIONAL JOINT DIAGRAM OF BERKELEY LAB'S MULTIFUNCTIONAL JOINT Technology Marketing SummaryBerkeley Lab scientists have developed a multifunctional joint for metal supported, tubular SOFCs that divides various joint functions so that materials and methods optimizing each function can be chosen

  16. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  17. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA The Future of Large Scale Visual Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CALIFORNIA The Future of Large Scale Visual Data Analysis Joint Facilities User Forum on Data Intensive Computing Oakland, CA E. Wes Bethel Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 16 June 2014 16 June 2014 The World that Was: Computational Architectures * Machine architectures - Single CPU, single core - Vector, then single-core MPPs - "Large" SMP platforms - Relatively well balanced: memory, FLOPS,I/O 16 June 2014 The World that Was: Software Architecture * Data Analysis and

  18. Re-evaluation of the 1995 Hanford Large Scale Drum Fire Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J M

    2007-05-02

    A large-scale drum performance test was conducted at the Hanford Site in June 1995, in which over one hundred (100) 55-gal drums in each of two storage configurations were subjected to severe fuel pool fires. The two storage configurations in the test were pallet storage and rack storage. The description and results of the large-scale drum test at the Hanford Site were reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246, ''Solid Waste Drum Array Fire Performance,'' Rev. 0, 1995. This was one of the main references used to develop the analytical methodology to predict drum failures in WHC-SD-SQA-ANAL-501, 'Fire Protection Guide for Waste Drum Storage Array,'' September 1996. Three drum failure modes were observed from the test reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246. They consisted of seal failure, lid warping, and catastrophic lid ejection. There was no discernible failure criterion that distinguished one failure mode from another. Hence, all three failure modes were treated equally for the purpose of determining the number of failed drums. General observations from the results of the test are as follows: {lg_bullet} Trash expulsion was negligible. {lg_bullet} Flame impingement was identified as the main cause for failure. {lg_bullet} The range of drum temperatures at failure was 600 C to 800 C. This is above the yield strength temperature for steel, approximately 540 C (1,000 F). {lg_bullet} The critical heat flux required for failure is above 45 kW/m{sup 2}. {lg_bullet} Fire propagation from one drum to the next was not observed. The statistical evaluation of the test results using, for example, the student's t-distribution, will demonstrate that the failure criteria for TRU waste drums currently employed at nuclear facilities are very conservative relative to the large-scale test results. Hence, the safety analysis utilizing the general criteria described in the five bullets above will lead to a technically robust and defensible product that bounds the potential consequences from postulated fires in TRU waste facilities, the means of storage in which are the Type A, 55-gal drums.

  19. Geospatial Optimization of Siting Large-Scale Solar Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, J.; Quinby, T.; Caulfield, E.; Gerritsen, M.; Diffendorfer, J.; Haines, S.

    2014-03-01

    Recent policy and economic conditions have encouraged a renewed interest in developing large-scale solar projects in the U.S. Southwest. However, siting large-scale solar projects is complex. In addition to the quality of the solar resource, solar developers must take into consideration many environmental, social, and economic factors when evaluating a potential site. This report describes a proof-of-concept, Web-based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tool that evaluates multiple user-defined criteria in an optimization algorithm to inform discussions and decisions regarding the locations of utility-scale solar projects. Existing siting recommendations for large-scale solar projects from governmental and non-governmental organizations are not consistent with each other, are often not transparent in methods, and do not take into consideration the differing priorities of stakeholders. The siting assistance GIS tool we have developed improves upon the existing siting guidelines by being user-driven, transparent, interactive, capable of incorporating multiple criteria, and flexible. This work provides the foundation for a dynamic siting assistance tool that can greatly facilitate siting decisions among multiple stakeholders.

  20. Methanogenic Conversion of CO2 Into CH4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, S.H., Ferry, J.G., Schoell, M.

    2012-05-06

    This SBIR project evaluated the potential to remediate geologic CO2 sequestration sites into useful methane gas fields by application of methanogenic bacteria. Such methanogens are present in a wide variety of natural environments, converting CO2 into CH4 under natural conditions. We conclude that the process is generally feasible to apply within many of the proposed CO2 storage reservoir settings. However, extensive further basic R&D still is needed to define the precise species, environments, nutrient growth accelerants, and economics of the methanogenic process. Consequently, the study team does not recommend Phase III commercial application of the technology at this early phase.

  1. CO2 Capture with Liquid-to-Solid Absorbents: CO2 Capture Process Using Phase-Changing Absorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    IMPACCT Project: GE and the University of Pittsburgh are developing a unique CO2 capture process in which a liquid absorbent, upon contact with CO2, changes into a solid phase. Once in solid form, the material can be separated and the CO2 can be released for storage by heating. Upon heating, the absorbent returns to its liquid form, where it can be reused to capture more CO2. The approach is more efficient than other solventbased processes because it avoids the heating of extraneous solvents such as water. This ultimately leads to a lower cost of CO2 capture and will lower the additional cost to produce electricity for coal-fired power plants that retrofit their facilities to include this technology.

  2. Robust large-scale parallel nonlinear solvers for simulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, Brett William; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2005-11-01

    This report documents research to develop robust and efficient solution techniques for solving large-scale systems of nonlinear equations. The most widely used method for solving systems of nonlinear equations is Newton's method. While much research has been devoted to augmenting Newton-based solvers (usually with globalization techniques), little has been devoted to exploring the application of different models. Our research has been directed at evaluating techniques using different models than Newton's method: a lower order model, Broyden's method, and a higher order model, the tensor method. We have developed large-scale versions of each of these models and have demonstrated their use in important applications at Sandia. Broyden's method replaces the Jacobian with an approximation, allowing codes that cannot evaluate a Jacobian or have an inaccurate Jacobian to converge to a solution. Limited-memory methods, which have been successful in optimization, allow us to extend this approach to large-scale problems. We compare the robustness and efficiency of Newton's method, modified Newton's method, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and our limited-memory Broyden method. Comparisons are carried out for large-scale applications of fluid flow simulations and electronic circuit simulations. Results show that, in cases where the Jacobian was inaccurate or could not be computed, Broyden's method converged in some cases where Newton's method failed to converge. We identify conditions where Broyden's method can be more efficient than Newton's method. We also present modifications to a large-scale tensor method, originally proposed by Bouaricha, for greater efficiency, better robustness, and wider applicability. Tensor methods are an alternative to Newton-based methods and are based on computing a step based on a local quadratic model rather than a linear model. The advantage of Bouaricha's method is that it can use any existing linear solver, which makes it simple to write and easily portable. However, the method usually takes twice as long to solve as Newton-GMRES on general problems because it solves two linear systems at each iteration. In this paper, we discuss modifications to Bouaricha's method for a practical implementation, including a special globalization technique and other modifications for greater efficiency. We present numerical results showing computational advantages over Newton-GMRES on some realistic problems. We further discuss a new approach for dealing with singular (or ill-conditioned) matrices. In particular, we modify an algorithm for identifying a turning point so that an increasingly ill-conditioned Jacobian does not prevent convergence.

  3. Synthetic fuel concept to steal CO2 from air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthetic fuel concept Synthetic fuel concept to steal CO2 from air Lab has developed a low-risk, transformational concept, called Green Freedom(tm), for large-scale production of carbon-neutral, sulfur-free fuels and organic chemicals from air and water. February 12, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources,

  4. Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.

    1994-05-01

    Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.

  5. Large-Scale Algal Cultivation, Harvesting and Downstream Processing Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ATP3 (Algae Testbed Public-Private Partnership) is hosting the Large-Scale Algal Cultivation, Harvesting and Downstream Processing Workshop on November 2–6, 2015, at the Arizona Center for Algae Technology and Innovation in Mesa, Arizona. Topics will include practical applications of growing and managing microalgal cultures at production scale (such as methods for handling cultures, screening strains for desirable characteristics, identifying and mitigating contaminants, scaling up cultures for outdoor growth, harvesting and processing technologies, and the analysis of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates). Related training will include hands-on laboratory and field opportunities.

  6. DOE Selects Eight Projects to Receive Funding for Reducing the Cost of CO2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capture and Compression | Department of Energy Eight Projects to Receive Funding for Reducing the Cost of CO2 Capture and Compression DOE Selects Eight Projects to Receive Funding for Reducing the Cost of CO2 Capture and Compression September 1, 2015 - 10:03am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has selected eight projects to receive funding to construct small- and large-scale pilots for reducing the cost of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture

  7. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S.

    2011-10-04

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  8. CO2 | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home CO2 CO2 'Underground battery' could store renewable energy, sequester CO2 This integrated system would store carbon dioxide in an...

  9. Pre-Approval Draft Environmental Assessment Large-Scale, Open...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Base (NAFB) has the scheduling responsibility for all ... volatile organics from fuel storage facilities (DOE, 1996). ... low humidity, large daily temperature ranges, and ...

  10. The effective field theory of cosmological large scale structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Hertzberg, Mark P.; Senatore, Leonardo

    2012-09-20

    Large scale structure surveys will likely become the next leading cosmological probe. In our universe, matter perturbations are large on short distances and small at long scales, i.e. strongly coupled in the UV and weakly coupled in the IR. To make precise analytical predictions on large scales, we develop an effective field theory formulated in terms of an IR effective fluid characterized by several parameters, such as speed of sound and viscosity. These parameters, determined by the UV physics described by the Boltzmann equation, are measured from N-body simulations. We find that the speed of sound of the effective fluid is c2s ? 106c2 and that the viscosity contributions are of the same order. The fluid describes all the relevant physics at long scales k and permits a manifestly convergent perturbative expansion in the size of the matter perturbations ?(k) for all the observables. As an example, we calculate the correction to the power spectrum at order ?(k)4. As a result, the predictions of the effective field theory are found to be in much better agreement with observation than standard cosmological perturbation theory, already reaching percent precision at this order up to a relatively short scale k ? 0.24h Mpc1.

  11. Detecting differential protein expression in large-scale population proteomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, Soyoung; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2014-06-17

    Mass spectrometry-based high-throughput quantitative proteomics shows great potential in clinical biomarker studies, identifying and quantifying thousands of proteins in biological samples. However, methods are needed to appropriately handle issues/challenges unique to mass spectrometry data in order to detect as many biomarker proteins as possible. One issue is that different mass spectrometry experiments generate quite different total numbers of quantified peptides, which can result in more missing peptide abundances in an experiment with a smaller total number of quantified peptides. Another issue is that the quantification of peptides is sometimes absent, especially for less abundant peptides and such missing values contain the information about the peptide abundance. Here, we propose a Significance Analysis for Large-scale Proteomics Studies (SALPS) that handles missing peptide intensity values caused by the two mechanisms mentioned above. Our model has a robust performance in both simulated data and proteomics data from a large clinical study. Because varying patients’ sample qualities and deviating instrument performances are not avoidable for clinical studies performed over the course of several years, we believe that our approach will be useful to analyze large-scale clinical proteomics data.

  12. Large-scale anisotropy in stably stratified rotating flows

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marino, R.; Mininni, P. D.; Rosenberg, D. L.; Pouquet, A.

    2014-08-28

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and/or stratification, both in the vertical direction. The runs are forced isotropically and randomly at small scales and have spatial resolutions of up tomore » $1024^3$ grid points and Reynolds numbers of $$\\approx 1000$$. We first show that solutions with negative energy flux and inverse cascades develop in rotating turbulence, whether or not stratification is present. However, the purely stratified case is characterized instead by an early-time, highly anisotropic transfer to large scales with almost zero net isotropic energy flux. This is consistent with previous studies that observed the development of vertically sheared horizontal winds, although only at substantially later times. However, and unlike previous works, when sufficient scale separation is allowed between the forcing scale and the domain size, the total energy displays a perpendicular (horizontal) spectrum with power law behavior compatible with $$\\sim k_\\perp^{-5/3}$$, including in the absence of rotation. In this latter purely stratified case, such a spectrum is the result of a direct cascade of the energy contained in the large-scale horizontal wind, as is evidenced by a strong positive flux of energy in the parallel direction at all scales including the largest resolved scales.« less

  13. Numerical Modeling of CO2 Sequestration in Geologic Formations -Recent Results and Open Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-03-08

    Rising atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and their role inglobal warming, have prompted efforts to reduce emissions of CO2 fromburning of fossil fuels. An attractive mitigation option underconsideration in many countries is the injection of CO2 from stationarysources, such as fossil-fueled power plants, into deep, stable geologicformations, where it would be stored and kept out of the atmosphere fortime periods of hundreds to thousands of years or more. Potentialgeologic storage reservoirs include depleted or depleting oil and gasreservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and saline formations. While oil andgas reservoirs may provide some attractive early targets for CO2 storage,estimates for geographic regions worldwide have suggested that onlysaline formations would provide sufficient storage capacity tosubstantially impact atmospheric releases. This paper will focus on CO2storage in saline formations.Injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer willgive rise to immiscible displacement of brine by the advancing CO2. Thelower viscosity of CO2 relative to aqueous fluids provides a potentialfor hydrodynamic instabilities during the displacement process. Attypical subsurface conditions of temperature and pressure, CO2 is lessdense than aqueous fluids and is subject to upward buoyancy force inenvironments where pressures are controlled by an ambient aqueous phase.Thus CO2 would tend to rise towards the top of a permeable formation andaccumulate beneath the caprock. Some CO2 will also dissolve in theaqueous phase, while the CO2-rich phase may dissolve some formationwaters, which would tend to dry out the vicinity of the injection wells.CO2 will make formation waters more acidic, and will induce chemicalrections that may precipitate and dissolve mineral phases (Xu et al.,2004). As a consequence of CO2 injection, significant pressurization offormation fluids would occur over large areas. These pressurizationeffects will change effective stresses, and may cause movement alongfaults with associated seismicity and increases in permeability thatcould lead to leakage from the storage reservoir (Rutqvist and Tsang,2005).

  14. Co2balance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    balance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Co2balance Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon offset provider based in Somerset, UK. References: Co2balance1 This...

  15. Factor CO2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Factor CO2 Jump to: navigation, search Name: Factor CO2 Place: Bilbao, Spain Zip: 48008 Product: Spain-based consultancy specializing in climate change projects. References: Factor...

  16. Nuclear-pumped lasers for large-scale applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.E.; Leonard, E.M.; Shea, R.F.; Berggren, R.R.

    1989-05-01

    Efficient initiation of large-volume chemical lasers may be achieved by neutron induced reactions which produce charged particles in the final state. When a burst mode nuclear reactor is used as the neutron source, both a sufficiently intense neutron flux and a sufficiently short initiation pulse may be possible. Proof-of-principle experiments are planned to demonstrate lasing in a direct nuclear-pumped large-volume system; to study the effects of various neutron absorbing materials on laser performance; to study the effects of long initiation pulse lengths; to demonstrate the performance of large-scale optics and the beam quality that may be obtained; and to assess the performance of alternative designs of burst systems that increase the neutron output and burst repetition rate. 21 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Nuclear-pumped lasers for large-scale applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.E.; Leonard, E.M.; Shea, R.E.; Berggren, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Efficient initiation of large-volume chemical lasers may be achieved by neutron induced reactions which produce charged particles in the final state. When a burst mode nuclear reactor is used as the neutron source, both a sufficiently intense neutron flux and a sufficient short initiation pulse may be possible. Proof-of-principle experiments are planned to demonstrate lasing in a direct nuclear-pumped large-volume system: to study the effects of various neutron absorbing materials on laser performance; to study the effects of long initiation pulse lengths; to determine the performance of large-scale optics and the beam quality that may bo obtained; and to assess the performance of alternative designs of burst systems that increase the neutron output and burst repetition rate. 21 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Planning under uncertainty solving large-scale stochastic linear programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Infanger, G. . Dept. of Operations Research Technische Univ., Vienna . Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft)

    1992-12-01

    For many practical problems, solutions obtained from deterministic models are unsatisfactory because they fail to hedge against certain contingencies that may occur in the future. Stochastic models address this shortcoming, but up to recently seemed to be intractable due to their size. Recent advances both in solution algorithms and in computer technology now allow us to solve important and general classes of practical stochastic problems. We show how large-scale stochastic linear programs can be efficiently solved by combining classical decomposition and Monte Carlo (importance) sampling techniques. We discuss the methodology for solving two-stage stochastic linear programs with recourse, present numerical results of large problems with numerous stochastic parameters, show how to efficiently implement the methodology on a parallel multi-computer and derive the theory for solving a general class of multi-stage problems with dependency of the stochastic parameters within a stage and between different stages.

  19. Performance Health Monitoring of Large-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajamony, Ram

    2014-11-20

    This report details the progress made on the ASCR funded project Performance Health Monitoring for Large Scale Systems. A large-­‐scale application may not achieve its full performance potential due to degraded performance of even a single subsystem. Detecting performance faults, isolating them, and taking remedial action is critical for the scale of systems on the horizon. PHM aims to develop techniques and tools that can be used to identify and mitigate such performance problems. We accomplish this through two main aspects. The PHM framework encompasses diagnostics, system monitoring, fault isolation, and performance evaluation capabilities that indicates when a performance fault has been detected, either due to an anomaly present in the system itself or due to contention for shared resources between concurrently executing jobs. Software components called the PHM Control system then build upon the capabilities provided by the PHM framework to mitigate degradation caused by performance problems.

  20. Large scale, urban decontamination; developments, historical examples and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, R.L.

    2007-07-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actions have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the prospect for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or 'dirty bomb') residues. In response, the United States Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. The efficiency of RDD cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the 'old reliable' methodologies. While an RDD is primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. There are a number of significant lessons that can be gained from a look at previous large scale cleanup projects. Too often we are quick to apply a costly 'package and dispose' method when sound technological cleaning approaches are available. Understanding historical perspectives, advanced planning and constant technology improvement are essential to successful decontamination. (authors)

  1. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onunkwo, Uzoma; Benz, Zachary

    2015-11-01

    The worldwide proliferation of wireless connected devices continues to accelerate. There are 10s of billions of wireless links across the planet with an additional explosion of new wireless usage anticipated as the Internet of Things develops. Wireless technologies do not only provide convenience for mobile applications, but are also extremely cost-effective to deploy. Thus, this trend towards wireless connectivity will only continue and Sandia must develop the necessary simulation technology to proactively analyze the associated emerging vulnerabilities. Wireless networks are marked by mobility and proximity-based connectivity. The de facto standard for exploratory studies of wireless networks is discrete event simulations (DES). However, the simulation of large-scale wireless networks is extremely difficult due to prohibitively large turnaround time. A path forward is to expedite simulations with parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) techniques. The mobility and distance-based connectivity associated with wireless simulations, however, typically doom PDES and fail to scale (e.g., OPNET and ns-3 simulators). We propose a PDES-based tool aimed at reducing the communication overhead between processors. The proposed solution will use light-weight processes to dynamically distribute computation workload while mitigating communication overhead associated with synchronizations. This work is vital to the analytics and validation capabilities of simulation and emulation at Sandia. We have years of experience in Sandia’s simulation and emulation projects (e.g., MINIMEGA and FIREWHEEL). Sandia’s current highly-regarded capabilities in large-scale emulations have focused on wired networks, where two assumptions prevent scalable wireless studies: (a) the connections between objects are mostly static and (b) the nodes have fixed locations.

  2. Department of Energy Announces 15 Projects Aimed at Secure CO2 Underground

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage | Department of Energy 15 Projects Aimed at Secure CO2 Underground Storage Department of Energy Announces 15 Projects Aimed at Secure CO2 Underground Storage August 11, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today the selection of 15 projects to develop technologies aimed at safely and economically storing carbon dioxide in geologic formations. Funded with $21.3 million over three years, today's selections will complement existing DOE

  3. A review of large-scale LNG spills : experiment and modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2005-04-01

    The prediction of the possible hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by ship has motivated a substantial number of experimental and analytical studies. This paper reviews the experimental and analytical work performed to date on large-scale spills of LNG. Specifically, experiments on the dispersion of LNG, as well as experiments of LNG fires from spills on water and land are reviewed. Explosion, pool boiling, and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosion studies are described and discussed, as well as models used to predict dispersion and thermal hazard distances. Although there have been significant advances in understanding the behavior of LNG spills, technical knowledge gaps to improve hazard prediction are identified. Some of these gaps can be addressed with current modeling and testing capabilities. A discussion of the state of knowledge and recommendations to further improve the understanding of the behavior of LNG spills on water is provided.

  4. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

  5. Large scale electromechanical transistor with application in mass sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2014-12-07

    Nanomechanical transistor (NMT) has evolved from the single electron transistor, a device that operates by shuttling electrons with a self-excited central conductor. The unfavoured aspects of the NMT are the complexity of the fabrication process and its signal processing unit, which could potentially be overcome by designing much larger devices. This paper reports a new design of large scale electromechanical transistor (LSEMT), still taking advantage of the principle of shuttling electrons. However, because of the large size, nonlinear electrostatic forces induced by the transistor itself are not sufficient to drive the mechanical member into vibrationan external force has to be used. In this paper, a LSEMT device is modelled, and its new application in mass sensing is postulated using two coupled mechanical cantilevers, with one of them being embedded in the transistor. The sensor is capable of detecting added mass using the eigenstate shifts method by reading the change of electrical current from the transistor, which has much higher sensitivity than conventional eigenfrequency shift approach used in classical cantilever based mass sensors. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the mass sensor.

  6. ANALYSIS OF TURBULENT MIXING JETS IN LARGE SCALE TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; Robert Leishear, R; David Stefanko, D

    2007-03-28

    Flow evolution models were developed to evaluate the performance of the new advanced design mixer pump for sludge mixing and removal operations with high-velocity liquid jets in one of the large-scale Savannah River Site waste tanks, Tank 18. This paper describes the computational model, the flow measurements used to provide validation data in the region far from the jet nozzle, the extension of the computational results to real tank conditions through the use of existing sludge suspension data, and finally, the sludge removal results from actual Tank 18 operations. A computational fluid dynamics approach was used to simulate the sludge removal operations. The models employed a three-dimensional representation of the tank with a two-equation turbulence model. Both the computational approach and the models were validated with onsite test data reported here and literature data. The model was then extended to actual conditions in Tank 18 through a velocity criterion to predict the ability of the new pump design to suspend settled sludge. A qualitative comparison with sludge removal operations in Tank 18 showed a reasonably good comparison with final results subject to significant uncertainties in actual sludge properties.

  7. Large Scale Obscuration and Related Climate Effects Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zak, B.D.; Russell, N.A.; Church, H.W.; Einfeld, W.; Yoon, D.; Behl, Y.K.

    1994-05-01

    A Workshop on Large Scale Obsurcation and Related Climate Effects was held 29--31 January, 1992, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The objectives of the workshop were: to determine through the use of expert judgement the current state of understanding of regional and global obscuration and related climate effects associated with nuclear weapons detonations; to estimate how large the uncertainties are in the parameters associated with these phenomena (given specific scenarios); to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on obscuration predictions; and to develop an approach for the prioritization of further work on newly-available data sets to reduce the uncertainties. The workshop consisted of formal presentations by the 35 participants, and subsequent topical working sessions on: the source term; aerosol optical properties; atmospheric processes; and electro-optical systems performance and climatic impacts. Summaries of the conclusions reached in the working sessions are presented in the body of the report. Copies of the transparencies shown as part of each formal presentation are contained in the appendices (microfiche).

  8. LARGE SCALE METHOD FOR THE PRODUCTION AND PURIFICATION OF CURIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Higgins, G.H.; Crane, W.W.T.

    1959-05-19

    A large-scale process for production and purification of Cm/sup 242/ is described. Aluminum slugs containing Am are irradiated and declad in a NaOH-- NaHO/sub 3/ solution at 85 to 100 deg C. The resulting slurry filtered and washed with NaOH, NH/sub 4/OH, and H/sub 2/O. Recovery of Cm from filtrate and washings is effected by an Fe(OH)/sub 3/ precipitation. The precipitates are then combined and dissolved ln HCl and refractory oxides centrifuged out. These oxides are then fused with Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and dissolved in HCl. The solution is evaporated and LiCl solution added. The Cm, rare earths, and anionic impurities are adsorbed on a strong-base anfon exchange resin. Impurities are eluted with LiCl--HCl solution, rare earths and Cm are eluted by HCl. Other ion exchange steps further purify the Cm. The Cm is then precipitated as fluoride and used in this form or further purified and processed. (T.R.H.)

  9. Large-scale BAO signatures of the smallest galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalal, Neal; Pen, Ue-Li; Seljak, Uros E-mail: pen@cita.utoronto.ca

    2010-11-01

    Recent work has shown that at high redshift, the relative velocity between dark matter and baryonic gas is typically supersonic. This relative velocity suppresses the formation of the earliest baryonic structures like minihalos, and the suppression is modulated on large scales. This effect imprints a characteristic shape in the clustering power spectrum of the earliest structures, with significant power on ∼ 100 Mpc scales featuring highly pronounced baryon acoustic oscillations. The amplitude of these oscillations is orders of magnitude larger at z ∼ 20 than previously expected. This characteristic signature can allow us to distinguish the effects of minihalos on intergalactic gas at times preceding and during reionization. We illustrate this effect with the example of 21 cm emission and absorption from redshifts during and before reionization. This effect can potentially allow us to probe physics on kpc scales using observations on 100 Mpc scales. We present sensitivity forecasts for FAST and Arecibo. Depending on parameters, this enhanced structure may be detectable by Arecibo at z ∼ 15−20, and with appropriate instrumentation FAST could measure the BAO power spectrum with high precision. In principle, this effect could also pose a serious challenge for efforts to constrain dark energy using observations of the BAO feature at low redshift.

  10. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Storage Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key component of the U.S. carbon management portfolio. Numerous studies have shown that CCS can account for up to 55 percent of the emissions reductions needed to stabilize and ultimately reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2. NETL's Carbon Storage Program is readying CCS technologies for widespread commercial deployment by 2020. The program's goals are: By 2015, develop technologies

  11. Parallel I/O Software Infrastructure for Large-Scale Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Parallel IO Software Infrastructure for Large-Scale Systems Parallel IO Software Infrastructure for Large-Scale Systems Choudhary.png An illustration of how MPI---IO file domain...

  12. Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear explosions. ... Title: Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear ...

  13. The IR-resummed Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IR-resummed Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The IR-resummed Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures We present a ...

  14. advanced hydrogen storage materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  15. electric energy storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  16. compressed-gas storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage ...

  17. energy storage development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  18. energy storage deployment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  19. EERE Success Story-FEMP Helps Federal Facilities Develop Large-Scale

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Projects | Department of Energy Helps Federal Facilities Develop Large-Scale Renewable Energy Projects EERE Success Story-FEMP Helps Federal Facilities Develop Large-Scale Renewable Energy Projects August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE's Federal Energy Management Program issued a new resource that provides best practices and helpful guidance for federal agencies developing large-scale renewable energy projects. The resource, Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing

  20. Large-Scale Sequencing: The Future of Genomic Sciences Colloquium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret Riley; Merry Buckley

    2009-01-01

    Genetic sequencing and the various molecular techniques it has enabled have revolutionized the field of microbiology. Examining and comparing the genetic sequences borne by microbes - including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and microbial eukaryotes - provides researchers insights into the processes microbes carry out, their pathogenic traits, and new ways to use microorganisms in medicine and manufacturing. Until recently, sequencing entire microbial genomes has been laborious and expensive, and the decision to sequence the genome of an organism was made on a case-by-case basis by individual researchers and funding agencies. Now, thanks to new technologies, the cost and effort of sequencing is within reach for even the smallest facilities, and the ability to sequence the genomes of a significant fraction of microbial life may be possible. The availability of numerous microbial genomes will enable unprecedented insights into microbial evolution, function, and physiology. However, the current ad hoc approach to gathering sequence data has resulted in an unbalanced and highly biased sampling of microbial diversity. A well-coordinated, large-scale effort to target the breadth and depth of microbial diversity would result in the greatest impact. The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to discuss the scientific benefits of engaging in a large-scale, taxonomically-based sequencing project. A group of individuals with expertise in microbiology, genomics, informatics, ecology, and evolution deliberated on the issues inherent in such an effort and generated a set of specific recommendations for how best to proceed. The vast majority of microbes are presently uncultured and, thus, pose significant challenges to such a taxonomically-based approach to sampling genome diversity. However, we have yet to even scratch the surface of the genomic diversity among cultured microbes. A coordinated sequencing effort of cultured organisms is an appropriate place to begin, since not only are their genomes available, but they are also accompanied by data on environment and physiology that can be used to understand the resulting data. As single cell isolation methods improve, there should be a shift toward incorporating uncultured organisms and communities into this effort. Efforts to sequence cultivated isolates should target characterized isolates from culture collections for which biochemical data are available, as well as other cultures of lasting value from personal collections. The genomes of type strains should be among the first targets for sequencing, but creative culture methods, novel cell isolation, and sorting methods would all be helpful in obtaining organisms we have not yet been able to cultivate for sequencing. The data that should be provided for strains targeted for sequencing will depend on the phylogenetic context of the organism and the amount of information available about its nearest relatives. Annotation is an important part of transforming genome sequences into useful resources, but it represents the most significant bottleneck to the field of comparative genomics right now and must be addressed. Furthermore, there is a need for more consistency in both annotation and achieving annotation data. As new annotation tools become available over time, re-annotation of genomes should be implemented, taking advantage of advancements in annotation techniques in order to capitalize on the genome sequences and increase both the societal and scientific benefit of genomics work. Given the proper resources, the knowledge and ability exist to be able to select model systems, some simple, some less so, and dissect them so that we may understand the processes and interactions at work in them. Colloquium participants suggest a five-pronged, coordinated initiative to exhaustively describe six different microbial ecosystems, designed to describe all the gene diversity, across genomes. In this effort, sequencing should be complemented by other experimental data, particularly transcriptomics and metabolomics data, all of which

  1. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

  2. Ground movements associated with large-scale underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Layne, A.W.

    1989-09-01

    The primary objective of this work was to predict the surface and underground movement associated with large-scale multiwell burn sites in the Illinois Basin and Appalachian Basin by using the subsidence/thermomechanical model UCG/HEAT. This code is based on the finite element method. In particular, it can be used to compute (1) the temperature field around an underground cavity when the temperature variation of the cavity boundary is known, and (2) displacements and stresses associated with body forces (gravitational forces) and a temperature field. It is hypothesized that large Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) cavities generated during the line-drive process will be similar to those generated by longwall mining. If that is the case, then as a UCG process continues, the roof of the cavity becomes unstable and collapses. In the UCG/HEAT computer code, roof collapse is modeled using a simplified failure criterion (Lee 1985). It is anticipated that roof collapse would occur behind the burn front; therefore, forward combustion can be continued. As the gasification front propagates, the length of the cavity would become much larger than its width. Because of this large length-to-width ratio in the cavity, ground response behavior could be analyzed by considering a plane-strain idealization. In a plane-strain idealization of the UCG cavity, a cross-section perpendicular to the axis of propagation could be considered, and a thermomechanical analysis performed using a modified version of the two-dimensional finite element code UCG/HEAT. 15 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Energy Department Awards $66.7 Million for Large-Scale Carbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to permanently store CO2. ADM's ethanol plant in Decatur, IL, will serve as the source of CO2 for the project. ADM will cost share the expense of the CO2, which will come...

  4. In-Situ MVA of CO2 Sequestration Using Smart Field Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In-Situ MVA of CO 2 Sequestration Using Smart Field Technology Background Through its core research and development program administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) emphasizes monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA), as well as computer simulation and risk assessment, of possible carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) leakage at CO 2 geologic storage sites. MVA efforts focus on the development and deployment of technologies that can provide an

  5. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle ... GE Appliances CRADA partner Project Goal: Develop CO 2 heat pump water heater that meets ...

  6. co2-transport | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transport Cost Model FENETL CO2 Transport Cost Model About the model: This model was developed to estimate the cost of transporting a user-specified mass rate of CO2 by pipeline...

  7. Cosmological implications of the CMB large-scale structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melia, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and Planck may have uncovered several anomalies in the full cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky that could indicate possible new physics driving the growth of density fluctuations in the early universe. These include an unusually low power at the largest scales and an apparent alignment of the quadrupole and octopole moments. In a ?CDM model where the CMB is described by a Gaussian Random Field, the quadrupole and octopole moments should be statistically independent. The emergence of these low probability features may simply be due to posterior selections from many such possible effects, whose occurrence would therefore not be as unlikely as one might naively infer. If this is not the case, however, and if these features are not due to effects such as foreground contamination, their combined statistical significance would be equal to the product of their individual significances. In the absence of such extraneous factors, and ignoring the biasing due to posterior selection, the missing large-angle correlations would have a probability as low as ?0.1% and the low-l multipole alignment would be unlikely at the ?4.9% level; under the least favorable conditions, their simultaneous observation in the context of the standard model could then be likely at only the ?0.005% level. In this paper, we explore the possibility that these features are indeed anomalous, and show that the corresponding probability of CMB multipole alignment in the R{sub h}=ct universe would then be ?710%, depending on the number of large-scale SachsWolfe induced fluctuations. Since the low power at the largest spatial scales is reproduced in this cosmology without the need to invoke cosmic variance, the overall likelihood of observing both of these features in the CMB is ?7%, much more likely than in ?CDM, if the anomalies are real. The key physical ingredient responsible for this difference is the existence in the former of a maximum fluctuation size at the time of recombination, which is absent in the latter because of inflation.

  8. Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Higher Levels of CO2 May Diminish...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Decision Making Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Higher Levels of CO2 May Diminish Decision Making Performance You are ...

  9. Design advanced for large-scale, economic, floating LNG plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naklie, M.M.

    1997-06-30

    A floating LNG plant design has been developed which is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. This technology will allow monetization of small marginal fields and improve the economics of large fields. Mobil`s world-scale plant design has a capacity of 6 million tons/year of LNG and up to 55,000 b/d condensate produced from 1 bcfd of feed gas. The plant would be located on a large, secure, concrete barge with a central moonpool. LNG storage is provided for 250,000 cu m and condensate storage for 650,000 bbl. And both products are off-loaded from the barge. Model tests have verified the stability of the barge structure: barge motions are low enough to permit the plant to continue operation in a 100-year storm in the Pacific Rim. Moreover, the barge is spread-moored, eliminating the need for a turret and swivel. Because the design is generic, the plant can process a wide variety of feed gases and operate in different environments, should the plant be relocated. This capability potentially gives the plant investment a much longer project life because its use is not limited to the life of only one producing area.

  10. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  11. PROPERTIES IMPORTANT TO MIXING FOR WTP LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Martino, C.; Poirier, M.

    2012-04-26

    Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc. to address uncertainties in the full scale mixing performance of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. External review boards have raised questions regarding the overall representativeness of simulants used in previous mixing tests. Accordingly, WTP requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in LSIT. Among the first tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that matter to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) mixing of WTP tanks. This report satisfies Commitment 5.2.3.1 of the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2010-2: physical properties important to mixing and scaling. In support of waste simulant development, the following two objectives are the focus of this report: (1) Assess physical and chemical properties important to the testing and development of mixing scaling relationships; (2) Identify the governing properties and associated ranges for LSIT to achieve the Newtonian and non-Newtonian test objectives. This includes the properties to support testing of sampling and heel management systems. The test objectives for LSIT relate to transfer and pump out of solid particles, prototypic integrated operations, sparger operation, PJM controllability, vessel level/density measurement accuracy, sampling, heel management, PJM restart, design and safety margin, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Verification and Validation (V and V) and comparison, performance testing and scaling, and high temperature operation. The slurry properties that are most important to Performance Testing and Scaling depend on the test objective and rheological classification of the slurry (i.e., Newtonian or non-Newtonian). The most important properties for testing with Newtonian slurries are the Archimedes number distribution and the particle concentration. For some test objectives, the shear strength is important. In the testing to collect data for CFD V and V and CFD comparison, the liquid density and liquid viscosity are important. In the high temperature testing, the liquid density and liquid viscosity are important. The Archimedes number distribution combines effects of particle size distribution, solid-liquid density difference, and kinematic viscosity. The most important properties for testing with non-Newtonian slurries are the slurry yield stress, the slurry consistency, and the shear strength. The solid-liquid density difference and the particle size are also important. It is also important to match multiple properties within the same simulant to achieve behavior representative of the waste. Other properties such as particle shape, concentration, surface charge, and size distribution breadth, as well as slurry cohesiveness and adhesiveness, liquid pH and ionic strength also influence the simulant properties either directly or through other physical properties such as yield stress.

  12. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  13. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  14. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2014-04-23

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid.

  15. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2014-06-12

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid.

  16. Molten-Salt Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-12-01

    This chapter discusses two types of molten salt batteries. Both of them are based on a beta-alumina solid electrolyte and molten sodium anode, i.e., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. The chapter first reviews the basic electrochemistries and materials for various battery components. It then describes the performance of state-of-the-art batteries and future direction in material development for these batteries.

  17. Two-phase convective CO2 dissolution in saline aquifers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martinez, Mario J.; Hesse, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Geologic carbon storage in deep saline aquifers is a promising technology for reducing anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere. Dissolution of injected CO2 into resident brines is one of the primary trapping mechanisms generally considered necessary to provide long-term storage security. Given that diffusion of CO2 in brine is woefully slow, convective dissolution, driven by a small increase in brine density with CO2 saturation, is considered to be the primary mechanism of dissolution trapping. Previous studies of convective dissolution have typically only considered the convective process in the single-phase region below the capillary transition zone and have either ignored the overlyingmore » two-phase region where dissolution actually takes place or replaced it with a virtual region with reduced or enhanced constant permeability. Our objective is to improve estimates of the long-term dissolution flux of CO2 into brine by including the capillary transition zone in two-phase model simulations. In the fully two-phase model, there is a capillary transition zone above the brine-saturated region over which the brine saturation decreases with increasing elevation. Our two-phase simulations show that the dissolution flux obtained by assuming a brine-saturated, single-phase porous region with a closed upper boundary is recovered in the limit of vanishing entry pressure and capillary transition zone. For typical finite entry pressures and capillary transition zone, however, convection currents penetrate into the two-phase region. As a result, this removes the mass transfer limitation of the diffusive boundary layer and enhances the convective dissolution flux of CO2 more than 3 times above the rate assuming single-phase conditions.« less

  18. Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    single-column modeling (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations for single-column modeling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations for single-column modeling Large-scale dynamics parameterizations are tested numerically in cloud-resolving simulations, including a new version of the weak-pressure-gradient approximation (WPG) introduced by Edman and Romps (2014), the

  19. DOE's Office of Science Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale Scientific

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Computing | Department of Energy Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale Scientific Computing DOE's Office of Science Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale Scientific Computing May 16, 2005 - 12:47pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. -- Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced today that DOE's Office of Science is seeking proposals to support innovative, large-scale computational science projects to enable high-impact advances through the use of advanced computers not commonly available in

  20. Final Report: Migration Mechanisms for Large-scale Parallel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Nieh

    2009-10-30

    Process migration is the ability to transfer a process from one machine to another. It is a useful facility in distributed computing environments, especially as computing devices become more pervasive and Internet access becomes more ubiquitous. The potential benefits of process migration, among others, are fault resilience by migrating processes off of faulty hosts, data access locality by migrating processes closer to the data, better system response time by migrating processes closer to users, dynamic load balancing by migrating processes to less loaded hosts, and improved service availability and administration by migrating processes before host maintenance so that applications can continue to run with minimal downtime. Although process migration provides substantial potential benefits and many approaches have been considered, achieving transparent process migration functionality has been difficult in practice. To address this problem, our work has designed, implemented, and evaluated new and powerful transparent process checkpoint-restart and migration mechanisms for desktop, server, and parallel applications that operate across heterogeneous cluster and mobile computing environments. A key aspect of this work has been to introduce lightweight operating system virtualization to provide processes with private, virtual namespaces that decouple and isolate processes from dependencies on the host operating system instance. This decoupling enables processes to be transparently checkpointed and migrated without modifying, recompiling, or relinking applications or the operating system. Building on this lightweight operating system virtualization approach, we have developed novel technologies that enable (1) coordinated, consistent checkpoint-restart and migration of multiple processes, (2) fast checkpointing of process and file system state to enable restart of multiple parallel execution environments and time travel, (3) process migration across heterogeneous software environments, (4) network checkpoint-restart and migration of distributed and parallel applications, (5) a utility computing infrastructure for mobile desktop cloud computing based on process checkpoint-restart and migration functionality, (6) a process migration security architecture for protecting applications and infrastructure from denial-of-service attacks, and (7) a checkpoint-restart mobile computing system using portable storage devices.

  1. HyLights -- Tools to Prepare the Large-Scale European Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects on Hydrogen for Transport HyLights -- Tools to Prepare the Large-Scale European Demonstration Projects on Hydrogen for Transport Presented at Refueling ...

  2. Large-Scale Production of Marine Microalgae for Fuel and Feeds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Large-Scale Production of Marine Microalgae for Fuel and Feeds March 24, 2015 Algae Platform Review Mark Huntley ...

  3. Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    II: Scale-awareness and application to single-column model experiments Title: Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties. Part II: ...

  4. Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    I: Methodology and evaluation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties. Part I: Methodology ...

  5. Large-scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States. Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musial, Walter; Ram, Bonnie

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the benefits of and barriers to large-scale deployment of offshore wind energy systems in U.S. waters.

  6. Asynchronous Two-Level Checkpointing Scheme for Large-Scale Adjoints...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchLANSeventslistn Adjoints are an important computational tool for large-scale sensitivity evaluation, uncertainty quantification, and derivative-based...

  7. Phase-Changing Ionic Liquids: CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids Involving Phase Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Notre Dame is developing a new CO2 capture process that uses special ionic liquids (ILs) to remove CO2 from the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. ILs are salts that are normally liquid at room temperature, but Notre Dame has discovered a new class of ILs that are solid at room temperature and change to liquid when they bind to CO2. Upon heating, the CO2 is released for storage, and the ILs re-solidify and donate some of the heat generated in the process to facilitate further CO2 release. These new ILs can reduce the energy required to capture CO2 from the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant when compared to state-ofthe- art technology.

  8. R&D100: CO2 Memzyme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempe, Susan; Brinker, Jeff; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Vanegas, Juan

    2015-11-19

    By combining a water droplet loaded with CO2 enzymes in an ultrathin nanopore on a flexible substrate, researchers at Sandia National Laboratories realized the first technology that meets and exceeds DOE targets for cost-effective CO2 capture. When compared with the nearest membrane competitor, this technology delivers a three times permeation rate, twenty times higher selectivity, and ten time lower fabrication cost. The CO2 Memzyme has the potential to remove 90% of CO2 emissions and is forecasted to save the U.S. coal industry $90 billion a year compared to conventional technology.

  9. CO2 Tech | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    produces and installs equipment for controlling and measuring atmospheric emissions and greenhouse gases for a wide variety of industries. References: CO2 Tech1 This article is...

  10. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle ... Purpose and Objectives Problem Statement: - Heat pump water heaters can save significant ...

  11. CO2 Conference Presentation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO2 Conference Presentation More Documents & Publications POWER-GEN Conference Presentation U.S. Energy Association Presentation EEI Environment Meetings Presentation...

  12. CO2 Europipe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.co2europipe.eu Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentco2-europipe Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations,Financial Incentives" is not in...

  13. Development of explosive event scale model testing capability at Sandia`s large scale centrifuge facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Davie, N.T.; Calderone, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Geotechnical structures such as underground bunkers, tunnels, and building foundations are subjected to stress fields produced by the gravity load on the structure and/or any overlying strata. These stress fields may be reproduced on a scaled model of the structure by proportionally increasing the gravity field through the use of a centrifuge. This technology can then be used to assess the vulnerability of various geotechnical structures to explosive loading. Applications of this technology include assessing the effectiveness of earth penetrating weapons, evaluating the vulnerability of various structures, counter-terrorism, and model validation. This document describes the development of expertise in scale model explosive testing on geotechnical structures using Sandia`s large scale centrifuge facility. This study focused on buried structures such as hardened storage bunkers or tunnels. Data from this study was used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of existing hydrocodes and structural dynamics codes developed at Sandia National Laboratories (such as Pronto/SPH, Pronto/CTH, and ALEGRA). 7 refs., 50 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Building a Large Scale Climate Data System in Support of HPC Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feiyi; Harney, John F; Shipman, Galen M

    2011-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESG) is a large scale, multi-institutional, interdisciplinary project that aims to provide climate scientists and impact policy makers worldwide a web-based and client-based platform to publish, disseminate, compare and analyze ever increasing climate related data. This paper describes our practical experiences on the design, development and operation of such a system. In particular, we focus on the support of the data lifecycle from a high performance computing (HPC) perspective that is critical to the end-to-end scientific discovery process. We discuss three subjects that interconnect the consumer and producer of scientific datasets: (1) the motivations, complexities and solutions of deep storage access and sharing in a tightly controlled environment; (2) the importance of scalable and flexible data publication/population; and (3) high performance indexing and search of data with geospatial properties. These perceived corner issues collectively contributed to the overall user experience and proved to be as important as any other architectural design considerations. Although the requirements and challenges are rooted and discussed from a climate science domain context, we believe the architectural problems, ideas and solutions discussed in this paper are generally useful and applicable in a larger scope.

  15. TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC MODELING & INVERSION OF CO2 SATURATION FOR SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Meadows

    2006-03-31

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into subsurface aquifers for geologic storage/sequestration, and into subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery, has become an important topic to the nation because of growing concerns related to global warming and energy security. In this project we developed new ways to predict and quantify the effects of CO2 on seismic data recorded over porous reservoir/aquifer rock systems. This effort involved the research and development of new technology to: (1) Quantitatively model the rock physics effects of CO2 injection in porous saline and oil/brine reservoirs (both miscible and immiscible). (2) Quantitatively model the seismic response to CO2 injection (both miscible and immiscible) from well logs (1D). (3) Perform quantitative inversions of time-lapse 4D seismic data to estimate injected CO2 distributions within subsurface reservoirs and aquifers. This work has resulted in an improved ability to remotely monitor the injected CO2 for safe storage and enhanced hydrocarbon recovery, predict the effects of CO2 on time-lapse seismic data, and estimate injected CO2 saturation distributions in subsurface aquifers/reservoirs. We applied our inversion methodology to a 3D time-lapse seismic dataset from the Sleipner CO2 sequestration project, Norwegian North Sea. We measured changes in the seismic amplitude and traveltime at the top of the Sleipner sandstone reservoir and used these time-lapse seismic attributes in the inversion. Maps of CO2 thickness and its standard deviation were generated for the topmost layer. From this information, we estimated that 7.4% of the total CO2 injected over a five-year period had reached the top of the reservoir. This inversion approach could also be applied to the remaining levels within the anomalous zone to obtain an estimate of the total CO2 injected.

  16. An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2-EOR

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sites (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2-EOR Sites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2-EOR Sites An integrated framework for CO2 accounting and risk analysis of CO2-EOR Authors: Dai, Zhenxue [1] ; Viswanathan, Hari S. [1] ; Middleton, Richard Stephen [1] ; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna Eileen [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Lab.

  17. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    leakage into aquifers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers In this study, we apply an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to CO2 sequestration problems. In one scenario, we look at the risk of wellbore leakage of CO2 into a shallow unconfined aquifer in an urban area; in

  18. Capturing CO2 via reactions in nanopores.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Kevin; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Tang, Z; Dong, J. H.

    2008-10-01

    This one-year exploratory LDRD aims to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanism of CO2 scrubbing platforms that will reduce green house gas emission and mitigate the effect of climate change. The project builds on the team member's expertise developed in previous LDRD projects to study the capture or preferential retention of CO2 in nanoporous membranes and on metal oxide surfaces. We apply Density Functional Theory and ab initio molecular dynamics techniques to model the binding of CO2 on MgO and CaO (100) surfaces and inside water-filled, amine group functionalized silica nanopores. The results elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 trapping and clarify some confusion in the literature. Our work identifies key future calculations that will have the greatest impact on CO2 capture technologies, and provides guidance to science-based design of platforms that can separate the green house gas CO2 from power plant exhaust or even from the atmosphere. Experimentally, we modify commercial MFI zeolite membranes and find that they preferentially transmit H2 over CO2 by a factor of 34. Since zeolite has potential catalytic capability to crack hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2, this finding paves the way for zeolite membranes that can convert biofuel into H2 and separate the products all in one step.

  19. Natural CO2 accumulations in the western Williston Basin: A mineralogical analog for CO2 injection at the Weyburn site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ryerson, F. J.; Lake, John; Whittaker, Steven; Johnson, James W.

    2013-01-17

    The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO2, and may have done so for as long as 50 million years. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO2 injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That long-term isolation of natural CO2 can be accomplished within carbonate strata has motivated themore » investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analog for storage of anthropogenic CO2 in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Here we compare lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions from both locales. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite, quartz and celestine (strontium sulfate) are also observed. Dawsonite, a potential CO2-trapping mineral, is not observed within the CO2-bearing horizons of the Duperow Formation, however. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is similar to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance (<3%) within the analyzed Duperow samples, with quartz and K-feldspar the only silicates observed petrographically or in X-ray diffraction patterns. The Midale Beds contain significantly higher silica/silicate concentrations (Durocher et al., 2003), but the paucity of mono- and divalent cations that can be derived from dissolution of these silicate minerals likely precludes significant carbonate mineral formation. Therefore physical and solution trapping are likely to be the primary CO2 trapping mechanisms at both sites.« less

  20. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype Credit: Oak ...

  1. Energy Storage Components and Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  2. CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Applied Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  3. Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sioux Students Kindle Solar Knowledge Sioux Students Kindle Solar Knowledge July 24, 2013 - 11:30am Addthis Students and instructors at Oglala Lakota College designed, connected and built a mobile solar energy system over the course of two days. | Photo courtesy of Oglala Lakota College. Students and instructors at Oglala Lakota College designed, connected and built a mobile solar energy system over the course of two days. | Photo courtesy of Oglala Lakota College. Minh Le Minh Le Deputy

  4. Secretary Moniz Announces New CO2 Storage Network at Multinational...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    meeting of the CSLF, during which Romania and Serbia were welcomed as the newest ... the organization. With the addition of Romania and Serbia, the CSLF is currently ...

  5. High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNLs sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

  6. Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations on the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    BlueGene/L Platform using the Qbox Code (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations on the BlueGene/L Platform using the Qbox Code Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations on the BlueGene/L Platform using the Qbox Code We demonstrate that the Qbox code supports unprecedented large-scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) applications on the BlueGene/L

  7. A Review of the CO2 Pipeline Infrastructure in the U.S.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper provides summary descriptions of the U.S. carbon dioxide (CO2) pipeline system and future scenarios for expansion. Spanning across more than a dozen U.S. states and into Canada, a safe and regionally extensive network of pipelines has been constructed over the past four decades. These pipelines represent an essential building block for linking the capture of CO2 from electric power plants and other industrial sources with its productive use in oilfields and its safe storage in saline formations. The vast majority of the CO2 pipeline system is dedicated to CO2- Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), connecting natural and industrial sources of CO2 with EOR projects in oil fields. Roughly 80 percent of CO2 traveling through U.S. pipelines is from natural (geologic) sources; however, if currently planned industrial CO2 capture facilities and new pipelines are built, by 2020 the portion of CO2 from industrial sources could nearly match the portion from natural sources. A national carbon policy could significantly increase the scale of CO2 infrastructure by creating incentives for electric power plants and other industrial facilities to reduce CO2 emissions through carbon capture technologies and improving the economics for oil production through EOR. Low-carbon cases modeled for this report project that construction through 2030 could more than triple the size of current U.S. CO2 pipeline infrastructure. The development of an expanded national CO2 pipeline network capable of meeting U.S. GHG emission goals may require regulatory changes, incentives and a more concerted federal policy, involving closer cooperation among federal, state, and local governments.

  8. FT-IR Study of CO2 Interaction with Na-rich Montmorillonite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krukowski, Elizabeth G; Goodman, Angela; Rother, Gernot; Ilton, Eugene; Guthrie, George; Bodnar, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in saline reservoirs in sedimentary formations has the potential to reduce the impact of fossil fuel combustion on climate change by reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and storing the CO2 in geologic formations in perpetuity. At pressure and temperature (PT) conditions relevant to CCUS, CO2 is less dense than the pre-existing brine in the formation, and the more buoyant CO2 will migrate to the top of the formation where it will be in contact with cap rock. Interactions between clay-rich shale cap rocks and CO2 are poorly understood at PT conditions appropriate formore » CCUS in saline formations. In this study, the interaction of CO2 with clay minerals in the cap rock overlying a saline formation has been examined using Na+ exchanged montmorillonite (Mt) (Na+-STx-1) (Na+ Mt) as an analog for clay-rich shale. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to discern mechanistic information for CO2 interaction with hydrated (both one- and two-water layers) and relatively dehydrated (both dehydrated layers and one-water layers) Na+-STx-1 at 35 C and 50 C and CO2 pressure from 0 5.9 MPa. CO2-induced perturbations associated with the water layer and Na+-STx-1 vibrational modes such as AlAlOH and AlMgOH were examined. Data indicate that CO2 is preferentially incorporated into the interlayer space, with relatively dehydrated Na+-STx-1 capable of incorporating more CO2 compared to hydrated Na+-STx-1. Spectroscopic data provide no evidence of formation of carbonate minerals or the interaction of CO2 with sodium cations in the Na+-STx-1 structure.« less

  9. FT-IR Study of CO2 Interaction with Na-rich Montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krukowski, Elizabeth G; Goodman, Angela; Rother, Gernot; Ilton, Eugene; Guthrie, George; Bodnar, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in saline reservoirs in sedimentary formations has the potential to reduce the impact of fossil fuel combustion on climate change by reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and storing the CO2 in geologic formations in perpetuity. At pressure and temperature (PT) conditions relevant to CCUS, CO2 is less dense than the pre-existing brine in the formation, and the more buoyant CO2 will migrate to the top of the formation where it will be in contact with cap rock. Interactions between clay-rich shale cap rocks and CO2 are poorly understood at PT conditions appropriate for CCUS in saline formations. In this study, the interaction of CO2 with clay minerals in the cap rock overlying a saline formation has been examined using Na+ exchanged montmorillonite (Mt) (Na+-STx-1) (Na+ Mt) as an analog for clay-rich shale. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to discern mechanistic information for CO2 interaction with hydrated (both one- and two-water layers) and relatively dehydrated (both dehydrated layers and one-water layers) Na+-STx-1 at 35 C and 50 C and CO2 pressure from 0 5.9 MPa. CO2-induced perturbations associated with the water layer and Na+-STx-1 vibrational modes such as AlAlOH and AlMgOH were examined. Data indicate that CO2 is preferentially incorporated into the interlayer space, with relatively dehydrated Na+-STx-1 capable of incorporating more CO2 compared to hydrated Na+-STx-1. Spectroscopic data provide no evidence of formation of carbonate minerals or the interaction of CO2 with sodium cations in the Na+-STx-1 structure.

  10. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  11. ARM - Campaign Instrument - co2lidar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Carbon Dioxide Doppler Lidar (CO2LIDAR) Instrument Categories Cloud Properties Campaigns Remote Cloud...

  12. CO2 | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cities CO2 emissions OpenEI suburbs US New research from the University of California-Berkeley shows that those who live in cities in the United States have significantly smaller...

  13. CENIT CO2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and develop new solutions to reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion during electricity generation. References: CENIT-CO21 This article is a stub. You can help...

  14. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration The amount of carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless...

  15. Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    II: Scale-awareness and application to single-column model experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale ...

  16. FEMP Helps Federal Facilities Develop Large-Scale Renewable Energy Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP developed a guide to help federal agencies, as well as the developers and financiers that work with them, to successfully install large-scale renewable energy projects at federal facilities.

  17. A Semi-Analytical Solution for Large-Scale Injection-Induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Semi-Analytical Solution for Large-Scale Injection-Induced PressurePerturbation and Leakage in a Laterally Bounded Aquifer-AquitardSystem Citation Details ...

  18. Elucidating geochemical response of shallow heterogeneous aquifers to CO2 leakage using high-performance computing: Implications for monitoring of CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Siirila, Erica R.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2013-03-01

    Predicting and quantifying impacts of potential carbon dioxide (CO2) leakage into shallow aquifers that overlie geologic CO2 storage formations is an important part of developing reliable carbon storage techniques. Leakage of CO2 through fractures, faults or faulty wellbores can reduce groundwater pH, inducing geochemical reactions that release solutes into the groundwater and pose a risk of degrading groundwater quality. In order to help quantify this risk, predictions of metal concentrations are needed during geologic storage of CO2. Here, we present regional-scale reactive transport simulations, at relatively fine-scale, of CO2 leakage into shallow aquifers run on the PFLOTRAN platform using high-performance computing. Multiple realizations of heterogeneous permeability distributions were generated using standard geostatistical methods. Increased statistical anisotropy of the permeability field resulted in more lateral and vertical spreading of the plume of impacted water, leading to increased Pb2+ (lead) concentrations and lower pH at a well down gradient of the CO2 leak. Pb2+ concentrations were higher in simulations where calcite was the source of Pb2+ compared to galena. The low solubility of galena effectively buffered the Pb2+ concentrations as galena reached saturation under reducing conditions along the flow path. In all cases, Pb2+ concentrations remained below the maximum contaminant level set by the EPA. Results from this study, compared to natural variability observed in aquifers, suggest that bicarbonate (HCO3) concentrations may be a better geochemical indicator of a CO2 leak under the conditions simulated here.

  19. Transport Induced by Large Scale Convective Structures in a Dipole-Confined Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grierson, B. A.; Mauel, M. E.; Worstell, M. W.; Klassen, M.

    2010-11-12

    Convective structures characterized by ExB motion are observed in a dipole-confined plasma. Particle transport rates are calculated from density dynamics obtained from multipoint measurements and the reconstructed electrostatic potential. The calculated transport rates determined from the large-scale dynamics and local probe measurements agree in magnitude, show intermittency, and indicate that the particle transport is dominated by large-scale convective structures.

  20. Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Semprius Confidential 1 Overcoming the Barriers to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study From concept to large-scale production, one manufacturer tells the story and identifies the primary challenges and how a small amount of government support could be most helpful. ____________________________________________________ Scott Burroughs Semprius, Inc. August 31, 2011 Semprius Confidential 2 Semprius Overview / Background Company: * Leading developer of commercial & utility solar

  1. A First Step towards Large-Scale Plants to Plastics Engineering |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy A First Step towards Large-Scale Plants to Plastics Engineering A First Step towards Large-Scale Plants to Plastics Engineering November 9, 2010 - 1:56pm Addthis Brookhaven National Laboratory researches making plastics from plants. Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? By optimizing the accumulation of particular fatty acids, a Brookhaven team of scientists are developing a method suitable for

  2. Partition-of-unity finite-element method for large scale quantum molecular

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dynamics on massively parallel computational platforms (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Partition-of-unity finite-element method for large scale quantum molecular dynamics on massively parallel computational platforms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Partition-of-unity finite-element method for large scale quantum molecular dynamics on massively parallel computational platforms Over the course of the past two decades, quantum mechanical calculations have

  3. Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study This presentation summarizes the information given by Semprius during the Photovoltaic Validation and Bankability Workshop in San Jose, California, on August 31, 2011. PDF icon semprius_burroughs_pv_validation_2011_aug.pdf More Documents & Publications Federal Energy Management Program Report Template Final Report - 1366

  4. Creating Large Scale Database Servers (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Creating Large Scale Database Servers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Creating Large Scale Database Servers The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is designed to perform a high precision investigation of the decays of the B-meson produced from electron-positron interactions. The experiment, started in May 1999, will generate approximately 300TB/year of data for 10 years. All of the data will reside in Objectivity databases accessible via the Advanced

  5. 'Sidecars' Pave the Way for Concurrent Analytics of Large-Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulations 'Sidecars' Pave the Way for Concurrent Analytics of Large-Scale Simulations 'Sidecars' Pave the Way for Concurrent Analytics of Large-Scale Simulations Halo Finder Enhancement Puts Supercomputer Users in the Driver's Seat November 2, 2015 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Nyxfilamentsandreeberhalos In this Reeber halo finder simulation, the blueish haze is a volume rendering of the density field that Nyx calculates every time step. The light blue and

  6. The one-loop matter bispectrum in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structures (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The one-loop matter bispectrum in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The one-loop matter bispectrum in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures Authors: Angulo, Raul E. ; Foreman, Simon ; Schmittfull, Marcel ; Senatore, Leonardo Publication Date: 2015-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1244649 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal

  7. Towards a Large-Scale Recording System: Demonstration of Polymer-Based

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Penetrating Array for Chronic Neural Recording (Conference) | SciTech Connect Towards a Large-Scale Recording System: Demonstration of Polymer-Based Penetrating Array for Chronic Neural Recording Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards a Large-Scale Recording System: Demonstration of Polymer-Based Penetrating Array for Chronic Neural Recording Authors: Tooker, A ; Liu, D ; Anderson, E B ; Felix, S ; Shah, K G ; Lee, K Y ; Chung, J E ; Pannu, S ; Frank, L ; Tolosa, V Publication

  8. FE Carbon Capture and Storage News

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DC 20585202-586-6660 en NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage Potential http:energy.govfearticlesnetl-s-2015-carbon-storage-atlas-shows-...

  9. Final Report on DOE Project entitled Dynamic Optimized Advanced Scheduling of Bandwidth Demands for Large-Scale Science Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramamurthy, Byravamurthy

    2014-05-05

    In this project, developed scheduling frameworks for dynamic bandwidth demands for large-scale science applications. In particular, we developed scheduling algorithms for dynamic bandwidth demands in this project. Apart from theoretical approaches such as Integer Linear Programming, Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithm heuristics, we have utilized practical data from ESnet OSCARS project (from our DOE lab partners) to conduct realistic simulations of our approaches. We have disseminated our work through conference paper presentations and journal papers and a book chapter. In this project we addressed the problem of scheduling of lightpaths over optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks. We published several conference papers and journal papers on this topic. We also addressed the problems of joint allocation of computing, storage and networking resources in Grid/Cloud networks and proposed energy-efficient mechanisms for operatin optical WDM networks.

  10. FE Carbon Capture and Storage News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    large-scale industrial carbon capture and storage demonstration project. The Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) marked the progress made on construction on the project's...

  11. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late in Phase 1 an opportunity arose to collaborate with another turbine-development team to construct a shared s-CO2 test facility. The synergy of the combined effort would result in greater facility capabilities than either separate project could produce and would allow for testing of both turbine designs within the combined budgets of the two projects. The project team requested a no-cost extension to Phase 1 to modify the subsequent work based on this collaborative approach. DOE authorized a brief extension, but ultimately opted not to pursue the collaborative facility and terminated the project.

  12. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities provides best practices and other helpful guidance for federal agencies developing large-scale renewable energy projects.

  13. 3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring; Joe Hartvigsen

    2007-06-01

    3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-Electrolysis Grant Hawkes1, James O’Brien1, Carl Stoots1, Stephen Herring1 Joe Hartvigsen2 1 Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, grant.hawkes@inl.gov 2 Ceramatec Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah INTRODUCTION A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been created to model high temperature co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in a planar solid oxide electrolyzer (SOE) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A research program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to simultaneously address the research and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of planar solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for syn-gas production from CO2 and steam. Various runs have been performed under different run conditions to help assess the performance of the SOE. This paper presents CFD results of this model compared with experimental results. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City, USA) has been researching for several years the use of solid-oxide fuel cell technology to electrolyze steam for large-scale nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Now, an experimental research project is underway at the INL to produce syngas by simultaneously electrolyzing at high-temperature steam and carbon dioxide (CO2) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A strong interest exists in the large-scale production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam to be reformed into a usable transportation fuel. If biomass is used as the carbon source, the overall process is climate neutral. Consequently, there is a high level of interest in production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam electrolysis. With the price of oil currently around $60 / barrel, synthetically-derived hydrocarbon fuels (synfuels) have become economical. Synfuels are typically produced from syngas – hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) -- using the Fischer-Tropsch process, discovered by Germany before World War II. High-temperature nuclear reactors have the potential for substantially increasing the efficiency of syn-gas production from CO2 and water, with no consumption of fossil fuels, and no production of greenhouse gases. Thermal CO2-splitting and water splitting for syn-gas production can be accomplished via high-temperature electrolysis, using high-temperature nuclear process heat and electricity. A high-temperature advanced nuclear reactor coupled with a high-efficiency high-temperature electrolyzer could achieve a competitive thermal-to-syn-gas conversion efficiency of 45 to 55%.

  14. 2015 CO2 Capture Technology Meeting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Capture Technology Meeting 2015 NETL CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY MEETING June 23-26, 2015 Meeting Summary Previous Proceedings 2014: NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting 2013: NETL ...

  15. EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2 EGS using CO2 as a working fluid will likely involve hydro-shearing ...

  16. An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2-EOR Sites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk ...

  17. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P.; Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2 concentration resulted in incremental loss in IAS performance and revealed progressive degrees of staining upon testing. Adsorption of SO2 by the IAS necessitates upstream removal of SO2 prior to CO2 capture.

  18. CO2-driven Enhanced Oil Recovery as a Stepping Stone to What?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2010-07-14

    This paper draws heavily on the authors’ previously published research to explore the extent to which near term carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) can be “a stepping stone to a long term sequestration program of a scale to be material in climate change risk mitigation.” The paper examines the historical evolution of CO2-EOR in the United States and concludes that estimates of the cost of CO2-EOR production or the extent of CO2 pipeline networks based upon this energy security-driven promotion of CO2-EOR do not provide a robust platform for spurring the commercial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS) as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The paper notes that the evolving regulatory framework for CCS makes a clear distinction between CO2-EOR and CCS and the authors examine arguments in the technical literature about the ability for CO2-EOR to generate offsetting revenue to accelerate the commercial deployment of CCS systems in the electric power and industrial sectors of the economy. The authors conclude that the past 35 years of CO2-EOR in the U.S. have been important for boosting domestic oil production and delivering proven system components for future CCS systems. However, though there is no reason to suggest that CO2-EOR will cease to deliver these benefits, there is also little to suggest that CO2-EOR is a necessary or significantly beneficial step towards the commercial deployment of CCS as a means of addressing climate change.

  19. Porous Hexacyanometalates for CO2 capture applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2013-07-30

    Prussian blue analogues of M3[Fe(CN)6]2 x H2O (where M=Fe, Mn and Ni) were synthesized, characterized and tested for their gas sorption capabilities. The sorption studies reveal that, these Prussian blue materials preferentially sorb CO2 over N2 and CH4 at low pressure (1bar).

  20. Copy of Using Emulation and Simulation to Understand the Large-Scale Behavior of the Internet.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chiang, Ken; Gentile, Ann C.; Lloyd, Levi; Minnich, Ronald G.; Vanderveen, Keith; Van Randwyk, Jamie A; Rudish, Don W.

    2008-10-01

    We report on the work done in the late-start LDRDUsing Emulation and Simulation toUnderstand the Large-Scale Behavior of the Internet. We describe the creation of a researchplatform that emulates many thousands of machines to be used for the study of large-scale inter-net behavior. We describe a proof-of-concept simple attack we performed in this environment.We describe the successful capture of a Storm bot and, from the study of the bot and furtherliterature search, establish large-scale aspects we seek to understand via emulation of Storm onour research platform in possible follow-on work. Finally, we discuss possible future work.3

  1. What Will the Neighbors Think? Building Large-Scale Science Projects Around the World

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jones, Craig; Mrotzek, Christian; Toge, Nobu; Sarno, Doug

    2010-01-08

    Public participation is an essential ingredient for turning the International Linear Collider into a reality. Wherever the proposed particle accelerator is sited in the world, its neighbors -- in any country -- will have something to say about hosting a 35-kilometer-long collider in their backyards. When it comes to building large-scale physics projects, almost every laboratory has a story to tell. Three case studies from Japan, Germany and the US will be presented to examine how community relations are handled in different parts of the world. How do particle physics laboratories interact with their local communities? How do neighbors react to building large-scale projects in each region? How can the lessons learned from past experiences help in building the next big project? These and other questions will be discussed to engage the audience in an active dialogue about how a large-scale project like the ILC can be a good neighbor.

  2. Co2 geological sequestration (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Co2 geological sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Co2 ... Publication Date: 2004-11-18 OSTI Identifier: 881725 Report Number(s): ...

  3. Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 ...

  4. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse...

  5. Grangemouth Advanced CO2 Capture Project GRACE | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grangemouth Advanced CO2 Capture Project GRACE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Grangemouth Advanced CO2 Capture Project (GRACE) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product:...

  6. CO2 Global Solutions International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Solutions International Jump to: navigation, search Name: CO2 Global Solutions International Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28001 Sector: Carbon Product: CO2 Global Solutions is...

  7. An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Environmental Sciences(54) Environmental Protection; CO2 Accounting, Risk Analysis, CO2 ...

  8. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE You are accessing a document ...

  9. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate You are accessing a document ...

  10. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate You are ...

  11. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) comparing water with CO2 as...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (EGS) comparing water with CO2 as heattransmission fluids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) comparing water with CO2 as ...

  12. EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EGS rock reactions ...

  13. Large scale magnetic fields and coherent structures in nonuniform unmagnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jucker, Martin; Andrushchenko, Zhanna N.; Pavlenko, Vladimir P.

    2006-07-15

    The properties of streamers and zonal magnetic structures in magnetic electron drift mode turbulence are investigated. The stability of such large scale structures is investigated in the kinetic and the hydrodynamic regime, for which an instability criterion similar to the Lighthill criterion for modulational instability is found. Furthermore, these large scale flows can undergo further nonlinear evolution after initial linear growth, which can lead to the formation of long-lived coherent structures consisting of self-bound wave packets between the surfaces of two different flow velocities with an expected modification of the anomalous electron transport properties.

  14. Large-Scale Deep Learning on the YFCC100M Dataset (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Conference: Large-Scale Deep Learning on the YFCC100M Dataset Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-Scale Deep Learning on the YFCC100M Dataset Authors: Ni, K ; Boakye, K ; Van Essen, B ; Pearce, R ; Borth, D ; Chen, B ; Wang, E Publication Date: 2014-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1177251 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-661841 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: Neural Information Processing Systems 2014,

  15. Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser-produced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plasmas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas Authors: Niemann, C ; Berger, R L ; Divol, L ; Kirkwood, R K ; Moody, J D ; Sorce, C M ; Glenzer, S H Publication Date: 2011-08-22 OSTI Identifier: 1113524 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-496073 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type:

  16. DOE Awards $126.6 Million for Two More Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects | Department of Energy 6.6 Million for Two More Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Projects DOE Awards $126.6 Million for Two More Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Projects May 6, 2008 - 11:30am Addthis Projects in California and Ohio Join Four Others in Effort to Drastically Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced awards of more than $126.6 million to the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) and

  17. Robust and scalable scheme to generate large-scale entanglement webs

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Robust and scalable scheme to generate large-scale entanglement webs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Robust and scalable scheme to generate large-scale entanglement webs We propose a robust and scalable scheme to generate an N-qubit W state among separated quantum nodes (cavity-QED systems) by using linear optics and postselections. The present scheme inherits the robustness of the Barrett-Kok scheme [S. D. Barrett and P. Kok, Phys. Rev. A 71,

  18. Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

  19. Energy Department Loan Guarantee Would Support Large-Scale Rooftop Solar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power for U.S. Military Housing | Department of Energy Loan Guarantee Would Support Large-Scale Rooftop Solar Power for U.S. Military Housing Energy Department Loan Guarantee Would Support Large-Scale Rooftop Solar Power for U.S. Military Housing September 7, 2011 - 2:10pm Addthis Washington D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the offer of a conditional commitment for a partial guarantee of a $344 million loan that will support the SolarStrong Project, which is expected

  20. Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly E. Law , Christoph K. Thomas

    2011-09-20

    This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

  1. Final Report for Phase I Northern California CO2 Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagoner, J

    2010-10-26

    On June 8, 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory released a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA 0000015) with the title, Recovery Act: Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO{sub 2} Use. C6 Resources (C6), an affiliate of Shell Oil Company, responded with a proposal for Technology Area 1: Large-scale industrial carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) projects from industrial sources. As DOE Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) Contractors, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LLNL) proposed to collaborate with C6 and perform technical tasks, which C6 included in the C6 proposal, titled the Northern California CO{sub 2} Reduction Project. The proposal was accepted for Phase I funding and C6 received DOE Award DEFE0002042. LLNL and LBNL each received Phase I funding of $200,000, directly from DOE. The essential task of Phase I was to prepare a proposal for Phase II, which would be a five-year, detailed technical proposal, budget, and schedule for a complete carbon capture, transportation, and geologic storage project, with the objective of starting the injection of 1 million tons per year of industrial CO2 by the end of FY2015. LLNL and LBNL developed technical proposals (and DOE Field Work Proposals [FWPs]) for many aspects of the geologic testing and CO{sub 2} monitoring that were included in the C6 Phase II proposal, which C6 submitted by the deadline of April 16, 2010. This document is the Final Report for LLNL's Phase I efforts and is presented in two parts. Part 1 is the complete text of the technical proposal provided to C6 by LLNL and LBNL for inclusion in the C6 Phase II proposal. Because of space limitations, however, C6 may not have included all of this information in their proposal. In addition to developing the proposal presented below, LLNL's Bill Foxall and Laura Chiarmonte, in collaboration with LBNL, undertook preliminary technical work evaluating the potential for induced seismicity in Solano County. Part 2 presents technical work preformed during Phase I in the development of a preliminary Certification Framework: Leakage Risk Assessment for CO{sub 2} Injection at the Montezuma Hills Site, Solano County, California, co-authored by LLNL and LBNL collaborators.

  2. Large-Scale Delamination of Multi-Layers Transition Metal Carbides and Carbonitrides MXenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelmalak, Michael Naguib; Unocic, Raymond R; Armstrong, Beth L; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report on a general approach to delaminate multi-layered MXenes using an organic base to induce swelling that in turn weakens the bonds between the MX layers. Simple agitation or mild sonication of the swollen MXene in water resulted in the large-scale delamination of the MXene layers. The delamination method is demonstrated for vanadium carbide, and titanium carbonitrides MXenes.

  3. Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations for single-column modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Edman, Jacob P.; Romps, David M.

    2015-03-18

    Large-scale dynamics parameterizations are tested numerically in cloud-resolving simulations, including a new version of the weak-pressure-gradient approximation (WPG) introduced by Edman and Romps (2014), the weak-temperature-gradient approximation (WTG), and a prior implementation of WPG. We perform a series of self-consistency tests with each large-scale dynamics parameterization, in which we compare the result of a cloud-resolving simulation coupled to WTG or WPG with an otherwise identical simulation with prescribed large-scale convergence. In self-consistency tests based on radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE; i.e., no large-scale convergence), we find that simulations either weakly coupled or strongly coupled to either WPG or WTG are self-consistent, butmore » WPG-coupled simulations exhibit a nonmonotonic behavior as the strength of the coupling to WPG is varied. We also perform self-consistency tests based on observed forcings from two observational campaigns: the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) and the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Summer 1995 IOP. In these tests, we show that the new version of WPG improves upon prior versions of WPG by eliminating a potentially troublesome gravity-wave resonance.« less

  4. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None listed

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  5. 10-MW Supercritical-CO2 Turbine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a 10-megawatt supercritical carbon dioxide turbine project, awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The research team, led by NREL, intends to showcase the turbomachinery for a new cycle—the supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycle. The cycle is being optimized and tested at conditions representing dry cooling in desert environments, thereby accurately simulating real-world concentrating solar power system operating conditions.

  6. Measuring and tuning energy efficiency on large scale high performance computing platforms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laros, James H., III

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the importance of power in the field of High Performance Computing, whether it be as an obstacle, expense or design consideration, has never been greater and more pervasive. While research has been conducted on many related aspects, there is a stark absence of work focused on large scale High Performance Computing. Part of the reason is the lack of measurement capability currently available on small or large platforms. Typically, research is conducted using coarse methods of measurement such as inserting a power meter between the power source and the platform, or fine grained measurements using custom instrumented boards (with obvious limitations in scale). To collect the measurements necessary to analyze real scientific computing applications at large scale, an in-situ measurement capability must exist on a large scale capability class platform. In response to this challenge, we exploit the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture to gain an understanding of power use and the effects of tuning. We apply these capabilities at the operating system level by deterministically halting cores when idle. At the application level, we gain an understanding of the power requirements of a range of important DOE/NNSA production scientific computing applications running at large scale (thousands of nodes), while simultaneously collecting current and voltage measurements on the hosting nodes. We examine the effects of both CPU and network bandwidth tuning and demonstrate energy savings opportunities of up to 39% with little or no impact on run-time performance. Capturing scale effects in our experimental results was key. Our results provide strong evidence that next generation large-scale platforms should not only approach CPU frequency scaling differently, but could also benefit from the capability to tune other platform components, such as the network, to achieve energy efficient performance.

  7. NM Renewable Energy Storage Task Force

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  8. solid-state hydrogen storage gaps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  9. Predicting Large CO2 Adsorption in Aluminosilicate Zeolites for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Predicting Large CO2 Adsorption in Aluminosilicate Zeolites for Postcombustion Carbon Dioxide Capture...

  10. Visualizing the Surface Infrastructure Used to Move 2 MtCO2/year from the Dakota Gasification Company to the Weyburn CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Project: Version of July 1, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.

    2009-07-09

    Google Earth Pro has been employed to create an interactive flyover of the worlds largest operational carbon dioxide capture and storage project. The visualization focuses on the transport and storage of 2 MtCO2/year which is captured from the Dakota Gasification Facility (Beula, North Dakota) and transported 205 miles and injected into the Weyburn oil field in Southeastern Saskatchewan.

  11. Molecular Simulation Studies of Separation of CO2/N2, CO2/CH4...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    do this, we first identified a suitable force field for describing CO2, N2, and CH4 adsorption in ZIFs. On the basis of the validated force field, adsorption selectivities of the...

  12. CO2-H2O Mixtures in the Geological Sequestration of CO2. II...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pruess et al., 2004; Garcia, 2003) deal with subsurface waters containing dissolved salts. ... of dissolved salts on CO 2 solubility is treated by using an activity (or salting-out) ...

  13. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  14. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  15. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  16. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  17. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Bacon, Diana H.; Engel, David W.; Lin, Guang; Fang, Yilin; Ren, Huiying; Fang, Zhufeng

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we apply an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to CO2 sequestration problems. In one scenario, we look at the risk of wellbore leakage of CO2 into a shallow unconfined aquifer in an urban area; in another scenario, we study the effects of reservoir heterogeneity on CO2 migration. We combine various sampling approaches (quasi-Monte Carlo, probabilistic collocation, and adaptive sampling) in order to reduce the number of forward calculations while trying to fully explore the input parameter space and quantify the input uncertainty. The CO2 migration is simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the water-salt-CO2 module). For computationally demanding simulations with 3D heterogeneity fields, we combined the framework with a scalable version module, eSTOMP, as the forward modeling simulator. We built response curves and response surfaces of model outputs with respect to input parameters, to look at the individual and combined effects, and identify and rank the significance of the input parameters.

  18. Evaluation of experimentally measured and model-calculated pH for rock-brine-CO2 systems under geologic CO2 sequestration conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, Christopher J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-11-14

    pH is an essential parameter for understanding the geochemical reactions that occur in rock-brine-CO2 systems when CO2 is injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Due to a lack of reliable experimental methods, most laboratory studies conducted under geological CO2 sequestration (GCS) conditions have relied on thermodynamic modeling to estimate pH. The accuracy of these model predictions is typically uncertain. In our previous work, we have developed a method for pH determination by in-situ spectrophotometry. In the present work, we expanded the applicable pH range for this method and measured the pH of several rock-brine-CO2 systems at GCS conditions for five rock samples collected from ongoing GCS demonstration projects. Experimental measurements were compared with pH values calculated using several geochemical modeling approaches. The effect of different thermodynamic databases on the accuracy of model prediction was evaluated. Results indicate that the accuracy of model calculations is rock-dependent. For rocks comprised of carbonate and sandstone, model results generally agreed well with experimentally measured pH; however, for basalt, significant differences were observed. These discrepancies may be due to the models’ failure to fully account for certain reaction occurring between the basalt minerals the CO2-saturated brine solutions.

  19. International Carbon Storage Body Praises Department of Energy Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Three U.S. Department of Energy projects have been identified by an international carbon storage organization as an important advancement toward commercialization and large-scale deployment of carbon capture, utilization, and storage technologies.

  20. Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - Day 2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - Day 2, Session 1 The U.S. DOE ... ESS 2012 Peer Review - Nitrogen-Oxygen Battery for Large Scale Energy Storage - Frank ...

  1. REDUCING UNCERTAINTIES IN MODEL PREDICTIONS VIA HISTORY MATCHING OF CO2 MIGRATION AND REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING OF CO2 FATE AT THE SLEIPNER PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Chen

    2015-03-31

    An important question for the Carbon Capture, Storage, and Utility program is “can we adequately predict the CO2 plume migration?” For tracking CO2 plume development, the Sleipner project in the Norwegian North Sea provides more time-lapse seismic monitoring data than any other sites, but significant uncertainties still exist for some of the reservoir parameters. In Part I, we assessed model uncertainties by applying two multi-phase compositional simulators to the Sleipner Benchmark model for the uppermost layer (Layer 9) of the Utsira Sand and calibrated our model against the time-lapsed seismic monitoring data for the site from 1999 to 2010. Approximate match with the observed plume was achieved by introducing lateral permeability anisotropy, adding CH4 into the CO2 stream, and adjusting the reservoir temperatures. Model-predicted gas saturation, CO2 accumulation thickness, and CO2 solubility in brine—none were used as calibration metrics—were all comparable with the interpretations of the seismic data in the literature. In Part II & III, we evaluated the uncertainties of predicted long-term CO2 fate up to 10,000 years, due to uncertain reaction kinetics. Under four scenarios of the kinetic rate laws, the temporal and spatial evolution of CO2 partitioning into the four trapping mechanisms (hydrodynamic/structural, solubility, residual/capillary, and mineral) was simulated with ToughReact, taking into account the CO2-brine-rock reactions and the multi-phase reactive flow and mass transport. Modeling results show that different rate laws for mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions resulted in different predicted amounts of trapped CO2 by carbonate minerals, with scenarios of the conventional linear rate law for feldspar dissolution having twice as much mineral trapping (21% of the injected CO2) as scenarios with a Burch-type or Alekseyev et al.–type rate law for feldspar dissolution (11%). So far, most reactive transport modeling (RTM) studies for CCUS have used the conventional rate law and therefore simulated the upper bound of mineral trapping. However, neglecting the regional flow after injection, as most previous RTM studies have done, artificially limits the extent of geochemical reactions as if it were in a batch system. By replenishing undersaturated groundwater from upstream, the Utsira Sand is reactive over a time scale of 10,000 years. The results from this project have been communicated via five peer-reviewed journal articles, four conference proceeding papers, and 19 invited and contributed presentations at conferences and seminars.

  2. Lifecycle Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Versus Other Technologies for Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Saur, G.; Penev, M.; Ramsden, T.

    2009-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis evaluating the economic viability of hydrogen for medium- to large-scale electrical energy storage applications compared with three other storage technologies: batteries, pumped hydro, and compressed air energy storage (CAES).

  3. Global Sampling for Integrating Physics-Specific Subsystems and Quantifying Uncertainties of CO2 Geological Sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Y.; Tong, C.; Trainor-Guitten, W. J.; Lu, C.; Mansoor, K.; Carroll, S. A.

    2012-12-20

    The risk of CO2 leakage from a deep storage reservoir into a shallow aquifer through a fault is assessed and studied using physics-specific computer models. The hypothetical CO2 geological sequestration system is composed of three subsystems: a deep storage reservoir, a fault in caprock, and a shallow aquifer, which are modeled respectively by considering sub-domain-specific physics. Supercritical CO2 is injected into the reservoir subsystem with uncertain permeabilities of reservoir, caprock, and aquifer, uncertain fault location, and injection rate (as a decision variable). The simulated pressure and CO2/brine saturation are connected to the fault-leakage model as a boundary condition. CO2 andmore » brine fluxes from the fault-leakage model at the fault outlet are then imposed in the aquifer model as a source term. Moreover, uncertainties are propagated from the deep reservoir model, to the fault-leakage model, and eventually to the geochemical model in the shallow aquifer, thus contributing to risk profiles. To quantify the uncertainties and assess leakage-relevant risk, we propose a global sampling-based method to allocate sub-dimensions of uncertain parameters to sub-models. The risk profiles are defined and related to CO2 plume development for pH value and total dissolved solids (TDS) below the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) for drinking water quality. A global sensitivity analysis is conducted to select the most sensitive parameters to the risk profiles. The resulting uncertainty of pH- and TDS-defined aquifer volume, which is impacted by CO2 and brine leakage, mainly results from the uncertainty of fault permeability. Subsequently, high-resolution, reduced-order models of risk profiles are developed as functions of all the decision variables and uncertain parameters in all three subsystems.« less

  4. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 Mg) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin, they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

  5. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  6. Simultaneous effect of modified gravity and primordial non-Gaussianity in large scale structure observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirzatuny, Nareg; Khosravi, Shahram; Baghram, Shant; Moshafi, Hossein E-mail: khosravi@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: hosseinmoshafi@iasbs.ac.ir

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the simultaneous effect of primordial non-Gaussianity and the modification of the gravity in f(R) framework on large scale structure observations. We show that non-Gaussianity and modified gravity introduce a scale dependent bias and growth rate functions. The deviation from ?CDM in the case of primordial non-Gaussian models is in large scales, while the growth rate deviates from ?CDM in small scales for modified gravity theories. We show that the redshift space distortion can be used to distinguish positive and negative f{sub NL} in standard background, while in f(R) theories they are not easily distinguishable. The galaxy power spectrum is generally enhanced in presence of non-Gaussianity and modified gravity. We also obtain the scale dependence of this enhancement. Finally we define galaxy growth rate and galaxy growth rate bias as new observational parameters to constrain cosmology.

  7. Optimization of large-scale heterogeneous system-of-systems models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parekh, Ojas; Watson, Jean-Paul; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Siirola, John; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Lee, Herbert K. H.; Hart, William Eugene; Gray, Genetha Anne; Woodruff, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Decision makers increasingly rely on large-scale computational models to simulate and analyze complex man-made systems. For example, computational models of national infrastructures are being used to inform government policy, assess economic and national security risks, evaluate infrastructure interdependencies, and plan for the growth and evolution of infrastructure capabilities. A major challenge for decision makers is the analysis of national-scale models that are composed of interacting systems: effective integration of system models is difficult, there are many parameters to analyze in these systems, and fundamental modeling uncertainties complicate analysis. This project is developing optimization methods to effectively represent and analyze large-scale heterogeneous system of systems (HSoS) models, which have emerged as a promising approach for describing such complex man-made systems. These optimization methods enable decision makers to predict future system behavior, manage system risk, assess tradeoffs between system criteria, and identify critical modeling uncertainties.

  8. A PRACTICAL ONTOLOGY FOR THE LARGE-SCALE MODELING OF SCHOLARLY ARTIFACTS AND THEIR USAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A.; BOLLEN, JOHAN; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT

    2007-01-30

    The large-scale analysis of scholarly artifact usage is constrained primarily by current practices in usage data archiving, privacy issues concerned with the dissemination of usage data, and the lack of a practical ontology for modeling the usage domain. As a remedy to the third constraint, this article presents a scholarly ontology that was engineered to represent those classes for which large-scale bibliographic and usage data exists, supports usage research, and whose instantiation is scalable to the order of 50 million articles along with their associated artifacts (e.g. authors and journals) and an accompanying 1 billion usage events. The real world instantiation of the presented abstract ontology is a semantic network model of the scholarly community which lends the scholarly process to statistical analysis and computational support. They present the ontology, discuss its instantiation, and provide some example inference rules for calculating various scholarly artifact metrics.

  9. ARM - Campaign Instrument - co2air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Airborne Carbon Dioxide Analyzer System (CO2AIR) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations, Atmospheric Carbon Campaigns ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2008.10.01 - 2011.12.31 Aircraft Carbon [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2006.07.01 - 2008.09.30 Cloud LAnd Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) [ Download

  10. ARM - Campaign Instrument - co2flx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flx Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2FLX) Instrument Categories Atmospheric Carbon Campaigns PGS Validatation [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2009.03.01 - 2010.02.28 PGS Validatation 2010 [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2010.03.01 - 2011.02.28 PGS Validation 2011-2013 [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2011.03.01 - 2013.02.28 Precision Gas

  11. PARTICLE ACCELERATION BY COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS CONTAINING LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC-FIELD VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, F.; Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J. E-mail: jokipii@lpl.arizona.ed

    2010-12-10

    Diffusive shock acceleration at collisionless shocks is thought to be the source of many of the energetic particles observed in space. Large-scale spatial variations of the magnetic field have been shown to be important in understanding observations. The effects are complex, so here we consider a simple, illustrative model. Here we solve numerically the Parker transport equation for a shock in the presence of large-scale sinusoidal magnetic-field variations. We demonstrate that the familiar planar-shock results can be significantly altered as a consequence of large-scale, meandering magnetic lines of force. Because the perpendicular diffusion coefficient {kappa}{sub perpendicular} is generally much smaller than the parallel diffusion coefficient {kappa}{sub ||}, the energetic charged particles are trapped and preferentially accelerated along the shock front in the regions where the connection points of magnetic field lines intersecting the shock surface converge, and thus create the 'hot spots' of the accelerated particles. For the regions where the connection points separate from each other, the acceleration to high energies will be suppressed. Further, the particles diffuse away from the 'hot spot' regions and modify the spectra of downstream particle distribution. These features are qualitatively similar to the recent Voyager observations in the Heliosheath. These results are potentially important for particle acceleration at shocks propagating in turbulent magnetized plasmas as well as those which contain large-scale nonplanar structures. Examples include anomalous cosmic rays accelerated by the solar wind termination shock, energetic particles observed in propagating heliospheric shocks, galactic cosmic rays accelerated by supernova blast waves, etc.

  12. Metal Catalyzed sp2 Bonded Carbon - Large-scale Graphene Synthesis and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beyond | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Metal Catalyzed sp2 Bonded Carbon - Large-scale Graphene Synthesis and Beyond December 1, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Peter Sutter Center for Functional Nanomaterials sutter abstract: Carbon honeycomb lattices have shown a number of remarkable properties. When wrapped up into fullerenes, for instance, superconductivity with high transition temperatures can be induced by alkali intercalation. Rolling carbon sheets up into 1-dimensional nanotubes generates the

  13. Final Report: Large-Scale Optimization for Bayesian Inference in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghattas, Omar

    2013-10-15

    The SAGUARO (Scalable Algorithms for Groundwater Uncertainty Analysis and Robust Optimiza- tion) Project focuses on the development of scalable numerical algorithms for large-scale Bayesian inversion in complex systems that capitalize on advances in large-scale simulation-based optimiza- tion and inversion methods. Our research is directed in three complementary areas: efficient approximations of the Hessian operator, reductions in complexity of forward simulations via stochastic spectral approximations and model reduction, and employing large-scale optimization concepts to accelerate sampling. Our efforts are integrated in the context of a challenging testbed problem that considers subsurface reacting flow and transport. The MIT component of the SAGUARO Project addresses the intractability of conventional sampling methods for large-scale statistical inverse problems by devising reduced-order models that are faithful to the full-order model over a wide range of parameter values; sampling then employs the reduced model rather than the full model, resulting in very large computational savings. Results indicate little effect on the computed posterior distribution. On the other hand, in the Texas-Georgia Tech component of the project, we retain the full-order model, but exploit inverse problem structure (adjoint-based gradients and partial Hessian information of the parameter-to- observation map) to implicitly extract lower dimensional information on the posterior distribution; this greatly speeds up sampling methods, so that fewer sampling points are needed. We can think of these two approaches as "reduce then sample" and "sample then reduce." In fact, these two approaches are complementary, and can be used in conjunction with each other. Moreover, they both exploit deterministic inverse problem structure, in the form of adjoint-based gradient and Hessian information of the underlying parameter-to-observation map, to achieve their speedups.

  14. DOE/NNSA Participates in Large-Scale CTBT On-Site Inspection Exercise in

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Jordan | National Nuclear Security Administration DOE/NNSA Participates in Large-Scale CTBT On-Site Inspection Exercise in Jordan Friday, November 28, 2014 - 9:05am Experts from U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories, including Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, are participating in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Integrated Field Exercise 2014 (IFE14), a

  15. Effects of Volcanism, Crustal Thickness, and Large Scale Faulting on the

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development and Evolution of Geothermal Systems: Collaborative Project in Chile | Department of Energy Effects of Volcanism, Crustal Thickness, and Large Scale Faulting on the Development and Evolution of Geothermal Systems: Collaborative Project in Chile presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon collaborative_project_chile_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review Blind Geothermal System

  16. Evaluating impacts of CO2 gas intrusion into a confined sandstone aquifer: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Guohui; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However, the results from the batch experiments showed that the High Plains sediments mobilized only low concentrations of trace elements (potential contaminants), which were detected occasionally in the aqueous phase during these experiments. Importantly, these occurrences were more frequent in the calcite-free sediment. Results from these investigations provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.

  17. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Gas Intrusion Into a Confined Sandstone aquifer: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Guohui; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However, the results from the batch experiments showed that the High Plains sediments mobilized only low concentrations of trace elements (potential contaminants), which were detected occasionally in the aqueous phase during these experiments. Importantly, these occurrences were more frequent in the calcite-free sediment. Results from these investigations provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.

  18. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Gas Intrusion Into a Confined Sandstone aquifer: Experimental Results

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Guohui; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnershipmore » Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However, the results from the batch experiments showed that the High Plains sediments mobilized only low concentrations of trace elements (potential contaminants), which were detected occasionally in the aqueous phase during these experiments. Importantly, these occurrences were more frequent in the calcite-free sediment. Results from these investigations provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.« less

  19. China-Carbon Capture and Storage Road Map | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    application can prevent up to 90% of CO2 emission from large emission sources like fossil fuel-based power plants. However, its development has been slow. To date, no large-scale...

  20. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks (Plus-Up)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onunkwo, Uzoma

    2015-11-01

    Sandia has built a strong reputation in scalable network simulation and emulation for cyber security studies to protect our nation’s critical information infrastructures. Georgia Tech has preeminent reputation in academia for excellence in scalable discrete event simulations, with strong emphasis on simulating cyber networks. Many of the experts in this field, such as Dr. Richard Fujimoto, Dr. George Riley, and Dr. Chris Carothers, have strong affiliations with Georgia Tech. The collaborative relationship that we intend to immediately pursue is in high fidelity simulations of practical large-scale wireless networks using ns-3 simulator via Dr. George Riley. This project will have mutual benefits in bolstering both institutions’ expertise and reputation in the field of scalable simulation for cyber-security studies. This project promises to address high fidelity simulations of large-scale wireless networks. This proposed collaboration is directly in line with Georgia Tech’s goals for developing and expanding the Communications Systems Center, the Georgia Tech Broadband Institute, and Georgia Tech Information Security Center along with its yearly Emerging Cyber Threats Report. At Sandia, this work benefits the defense systems and assessment area with promise for large-scale assessment of cyber security needs and vulnerabilities of our nation’s critical cyber infrastructures exposed to wireless communications.

  1. A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2014-06-28

    An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF{sub 4})

  2. Towards physics responsible for large-scale Lyman-α forest bias parameters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agnieszka M. Cieplak; Slosar, Anze

    2016-03-08

    Using a series of carefully constructed numerical experiments based on hydrodynamic cosmological SPH simulations, we attempt to build an intuition for the relevant physics behind the large scale density (bδ) and velocity gradient (bη) biases of the Lyman-α forest. Starting with the fluctuating Gunn-Peterson approximation applied to the smoothed total density field in real-space, and progressing through redshift-space with no thermal broadening, redshift-space with thermal broadening and hydrodynamically simulated baryon fields, we investigate how approximations found in the literature fare. We find that Seljak's 2012 analytical formulae for these bias parameters work surprisingly well in the limit of no thermalmore » broadening and linear redshift-space distortions. We also show that his bη formula is exact in the limit of no thermal broadening. Since introduction of thermal broadening significantly affects its value, we speculate that a combination of large-scale measurements of bη and the small scale flux PDF might be a sensitive probe of the thermal state of the IGM. Lastly, we find that large-scale biases derived from the smoothed total matter field are within 10–20% to those based on hydrodynamical quantities, in line with other measurements in the literature.« less

  3. Capture and Sequestration of CO2 at the Boise White Paper Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.P. McGrail; C.J. Freeman; G.H. Beeman; E.C. Sullivan; S.K. Wurstner; C.F. Brown; R.D. Garber; D. Tobin E.J. Steffensen; S. Reddy; J.P. Gilmartin

    2010-06-16

    This report documents the efforts taken to develop a preliminary design for the first commercial-scale CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) project associated with biomass power integrated into a pulp and paper operation. The Boise Wallula paper mill is located near the township of Wallula in Southeastern Washington State. Infrastructure at the paper mill will be upgraded such that current steam needs and a significant portion of the current mill electric power are supplied from a 100% biomass power source. A new biomass power system will be constructed with an integrated amine-based CO2 capture plant to capture approximately 550,000 tons of CO2 per year for geologic sequestration. A customized version of Fluor Corporations Econamine Plus carbon capture technology will be designed to accommodate the specific chemical composition of exhaust gases from the biomass boiler. Due to the use of biomass for fuel, employing CCS technology represents a unique opportunity to generate a net negative carbon emissions footprint, which on an equivalent emissions reduction basis is 1.8X greater than from equivalent fossil fuel sources (SPATH and MANN, 2004). Furthermore, the proposed project will offset a significant amount of current natural gas use at the mill, equating to an additional 200,000 tons of avoided CO2 emissions. Hence, the total net emissions avoided through this project equates to 1,100,000 tons of CO2 per year. Successful execution of this project will provide a clear path forward for similar kinds of emissions reduction that can be replicated at other energy-intensive industrial facilities where the geology is suitable for sequestration. This project also represents a first opportunity for commercial development of geologic storage of CO2 in deep flood basalt formations. The Boise paper mill site is host to a Phase II pilot study being carried out under DOEs Regional Carbon Partnership Program. Lessons learned from this pilot study and other separately funded projects studying CO2 sequestration in basalts will be heavily leveraged in developing a suitable site characterization program and system design for permanent sequestration of captured CO2. The areal extent, very large thickness, high permeability in portions of the flows, and presence of multiple very low permeability flow interior seals combine to produce a robust sequestration target. Moreover, basalt formations are quite reactive with water-rich supercritical CO2 and formation water that contains dissolved CO2 to generate carbonate minerals, providing for long-term assurance of permanent sequestration. Sub-basalt sediments also exist at the site providing alternative or supplemental storage capacity.

  4. Reaching New Limits with Solar Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the biggest challenges of large-scale deployment of solar energy is figuring out how to use it after the sun sets. SunShot Initiative awardees continuously work to explore new energy storage...

  5. Carbon Storage Monitoring, Verification and Accounting Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geologic storage of CO2 requires pre-operation, operation, closure, and post-closure monitoring activities at the storage site, as well as risk assessment and development of ...

  6. storage | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geologic Storage Technologies & Simulation & Risk Assessment The Carbon Storage Program's Geologic Storage and Simulation and Risk Assessment (GSRA) Technology Area supports research to develop technologies that can improve containment and injection operations, increase reservoir storage efficiency, and prevent and mitigate unwanted migration of CO2 in all types of storage formations. Research conducted in the near and long term will augment existing technologies to ensure permanent

  7. Pre-Combustion CO2 Control | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pre-Combustion CO2 Control Pre-combustion capture is applicable to IGCC power plants and refers to removal of the CO2 from the syngas prior to its combustion for power production. ...

  8. Shell Future Fuels and CO2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shell Future Fuels and CO2 Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shell Future Fuels and CO2 Place: Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: G1 9BG Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product:...

  9. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Wednesday, 03 December 2014 00:00 Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that...

  10. CantorCO2e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CantorCO2e Jump to: navigation, search Name: CantorCO2e Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: E14 5RD Product: London-headquartered emissions broker and fund manager...

  11. CO2 Capture Poject CCP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CO2 Capture Poject CCP Jump to: navigation, search Name: CO2 Capture Poject (CCP) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: CCP is a partnership of energy companies and...

  12. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or...

  13. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    up with a net reduction in the CO2 emitted. Thus, effective catalysts that can lower the energy requirements for CO2 chemical reactions are an important part of the equation....

  14. CO2 Capture Using Electrical Energy: Electrochemically Mediated Separation for Carbon Capture and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-16

    IMPACCT Project: MIT and Siemens Corporation are developing a process to separate CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants by using electrical energy to chemically activate and deactivate sorbents, or materials that absorb gases. The team found that certain sorbents bond to CO2 when they are activated by electrical energy and then transported through a specialized separator that deactivates the molecule and releases it for storage. This method directly uses the electricity from the power plant, which is a more efficient but more expensive form of energy than heat, though the ease and simplicity of integrating it into existing coal-fired power plants reduces the overall cost of the technology. This process could cost as low as $31 per ton of CO2 stored.

  15. Overview of Carbon Storage Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of Carbon Storage Research Overview of Carbon Storage Research The Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the safe and permanent storage and/or utilization of CO2 captured from point sources. The Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the safe and permanent storage and/or utilization of CO2 captured from point sources. Roughly one third of the United States' carbon emissions come from power plants and other large point sources, such as industrial facilities. The Carbon

  16. Reduced Regeneration Energy CO2 Adsorbent | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Reduced Regeneration Energy CO2 Adsorbent

  17. R & D Supercritiacl CO2/ Rock Chemicals Interactions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    R & D Supercritiacl CO2/ Rock Chemicals Interactions presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  18. Primordial non-Gaussianity in the bispectra of large-scale structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Tellarini, Matteo; Ross, Ashley J.; Wands, David E-mail: matteo.tellarini@port.ac.uk E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    The statistics of large-scale structure in the Universe can be used to probe non-Gaussianity of the primordial density field, complementary to existing constraints from the cosmic microwave background. In particular, the scale dependence of halo bias, which affects the halo distribution at large scales, represents a promising tool for analyzing primordial non-Gaussianity of local form. Future observations, for example, may be able to constrain the trispectrum parameter g{sub NL} that is difficult to study and constrain using the CMB alone. We investigate how galaxy and matter bispectra can distinguish between the two non-Gaussian parameters f{sub NL} and g{sub NL}, whose effects give nearly degenerate contributions to the power spectra. We use a generalization of the univariate bias approach, making the hypothesis that the number density of halos forming at a given position is a function of the local matter density contrast and of its local higher-order statistics. Using this approach, we calculate the halo-matter bispectra and analyze their properties. We determine a connection between the sign of the halo bispectrum on large scales and the parameter g{sub NL}. We also construct a combination of halo and matter bispectra that is sensitive to f{sub NL}, with little contamination from g{sub NL}. We study both the case of single and multiple sources to the primordial gravitational potential, discussing how to extend the concept of stochastic halo bias to the case of bispectra. We use a specific halo mass-function to calculate numerically the bispectra in appropriate squeezed limits, confirming our theoretical findings.

  19. Testing the big bang: Light elements, neutrinos, dark matter and large-scale structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1991-06-01

    In this series of lectures, several experimental and observational tests of the standard cosmological model are examined. In particular, detailed discussion is presented regarding nucleosynthesis, the light element abundances and neutrino counting; the dark matter problems; and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Comments will also be made on the possible implications of the recent solar neutrino experimental results for cosmology. An appendix briefly discusses the 17 keV thing'' and the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on it. 126 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. NREL Offers an Open-Source Solution for Large-Scale Energy Data Collection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Analysis - News Releases | NREL NREL Offers an Open-Source Solution for Large-Scale Energy Data Collection and Analysis June 18, 2013 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is launching an open-source system for storing, integrating, and aligning energy-related time-series data. NREL's Energy DataBus is used for tracking and analyzing energy use on its own campus. The system is applicable to other facilities-including anything from a single building to a

  1. Large-Scale Field Study of Landfill Covers at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-09-01

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for dry environments. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing demonstration.

  2. Networks of silicon nanowires: A large-scale atomistic electronic structure analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kele?, mit; Bulutay, Ceyhun; Liedke, Bartosz; Heinig, Karl-Heinz

    2013-11-11

    Networks of silicon nanowires possess intriguing electronic properties surpassing the predictions based on quantum confinement of individual nanowires. Employing large-scale atomistic pseudopotential computations, as yet unexplored branched nanostructures are investigated in the subsystem level as well as in full assembly. The end product is a simple but versatile expression for the bandgap and band edge alignments of multiply-crossing Si nanowires for various diameters, number of crossings, and wire orientations. Further progress along this line can potentially topple the bottom-up approach for Si nanowire networks to a top-down design by starting with functionality and leading to an enabling structure.

  3. Hollow fiber-supported designer ionic liquid sponges for post-combustion CO2 scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, JS; Hillesheim, PC; Huang, DK; Lively, RP; Oh, KH; Dai, S; Koros, WJ

    2012-11-30

    A proof of concept study for a new type of carbon capture system is considered for post-combustion CO2 capture based on porous hollow fiber sorbents with ionic liquids sorbed in the cell walls of the fiber. This study proves that delicate morphological features in the open-celled porous wall can be maintained during the infusion process. Mixtures of task specific ionic liquid (i.e. [BMIM][Tf2N]) and superbase (i.e. DBU) were loaded into polyamide-imide (PAI) fibers by a so-called two-step non-solvent infusion protocol. In the protocol, methanol carries ionic liquids into the pore cell walls of hollow fibers and then hexane carries superbase to create an efficient CO2 sorbent. Our ionic liquid/superbase impregnation technique overcomes a serious increase in mass transfer resistance upon reaction with CO2, thereby allowing its large scale utilization for post-combustion CO2 capture. The investigation on the effect of different pore former additives (different molecular weights of polyvinylpyrrolidone, lithium nitrate, and their mixtures) suggested that a large molecular weight of PVP (M-w; 1300k) including dope composition produces highly interconnected open cell pore structures of PAI hollow fibers. Lastly, a lumen side barrier layer was successfully formed on the bore side of neat PAI fibers by using a mixture of Neoprene (R) with crosslinking agents (TSR-633) via a post-treatment process. The lumen layer will enable heat removal from the fiber sorbents during their application in rapid thermal swing cycling processes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In-situ sampling of a large-scale particle simulation for interactive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: DOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 97 MATHEMATICAL METHODS AND COMPUTING; APPROXIMATIONS; SAMPLING; SIMULATION; STORAGE Word Cloud ...

  5. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.-W.; Chang, N.-B.; Chen, J.-C.; Tsai, S.-J.

    2010-07-15

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) - a production economics tool - to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world.

  6. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    2008-01-15

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  7. Nonlinear Seismic Correlation Analysis of the JNES/NUPEC Large-Scale Piping System Tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie,J.; DeGrassi, G.; Hofmayer, C.; Ali, S.

    2008-06-01

    The Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization/Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (JNES/NUPEC) large-scale piping test program has provided valuable new test data on high level seismic elasto-plastic behavior and failure modes for typical nuclear power plant piping systems. The component and piping system tests demonstrated the strain ratcheting behavior that is expected to occur when a pressurized pipe is subjected to cyclic seismic loading. Under a collaboration agreement between the US and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)/Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed a correlation analysis of the large-scale piping system tests using derailed state-of-the-art nonlinear finite element models. Techniques are introduced to develop material models that can closely match the test data. The shaking table motions are examined. The analytical results are assessed in terms of the overall system responses and the strain ratcheting behavior at an elbow. The paper concludes with the insights about the accuracy of the analytical methods for use in performance assessments of highly nonlinear piping systems under large seismic motions.

  8. On the possible origin of the large scale cosmic magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coroniti, F. V.

    2014-01-10

    The possibility that the large scale cosmic magnetic field is directly generated at microgauss, equipartition levels during the reionization epoch by collisionless shocks that are forced to satisfy a downstream shear flow boundary condition is investigated through the development of two modelsthe accretion of an ionized plasma onto a weakly ionized cool galactic disk and onto a cool filament of the cosmic web. The dynamical structure and the physical parameters of the models are synthesized from recent cosmological simulations of the early reionization era after the formation of the first stars. The collisionless shock stands upstream of the disk and filament, and its dissipation is determined by ion inertial length Weibel turbulence. The downstream shear boundary condition is determined by the rotational neutral gas flow in the disk and the inward accretion flow along the filament. The shocked plasma is accelerated to the downstream shear flow velocity by the Weibel turbulence, and the relative shearing motion between the electrons and ions produces a strong, ion inertial scale current sheet that generates an equipartition strength, large scale downstream magnetic field, ?10{sup 6} G for the disk and ?6 10{sup 8} G for the filament. By assumption, hydrodynamic turbulence transports the shear-shock generated magnetic flux throughout the disk and filament volume.

  9. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  10. Large-scale structure evolution in axisymmetric, compressible free-shear layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S.

    1997-05-01

    This paper is a description of work-in-progress. It describes Sandia`s program to study the basic fluid mechanics of large-scale mixing in unbounded, compressible, turbulent flows, specifically, the turbulent mixing of an axisymmetric compressible helium jet in a parallel, coflowing compressible air freestream. Both jet and freestream velocities are variable over a broad range, providing a wide range mixing layer Reynolds number. Although the convective Mach number, M{sub c}, range is currently limited by the present nozzle design to values of 0.6 and below, straightforward nozzle design changes would permit a wide range of convective Mach number, to well in excess of 1.0. The use of helium allows simulation of a hot jet due to the large density difference, and also aids in obtaining optical flow visualization via schlieren due to the large density gradient in the mixing layer. The work comprises a blend of analysis, experiment, and direct numerical simulation (DNS). There the authors discuss only the analytical and experimental efforts to observe and describe the evolution of the large-scale structures. The DNS work, used to compute local two-point velocity correlation data, will be discussed elsewhere.

  11. Characterization of the Wymark CO2 Reservoir: A Natural Analog to Long-Term CO2 Storage at Weyburn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryerson, F; Johnson, J

    2010-11-22

    Natural accumulations of CO{sub 2} occur in the Duperow and other Devonian strata on the western flank of the Williston Basin in lithologies very similar to those into which anthropogenic CO{sub 2} is being injected as part of an EOR program in the Weyburn-Midale pool. Previous workers have established the stratgraphic and petrographic similarities between the Duperow and Midale beds (Lake and Whittaker, 2004 and 2006). As the CO{sub 2} accumulations in the Devonian strata may be as old as 50 Ma, this similarity provides confidence in the efficacy of long-term geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the Midale-Weyburn pool. Here we attempt to extend this comparison with whole rock and mineral chemistry using the same sample suite used by Lake and Whittaker. We provide XRD, XRF, and electron microprobe analysis of major constituent minerals along with extensive backscattered electron and x-ray imaging to identify trace phases and silicate minerals. LPNORM analysis is used to quantify modal concentrations of minerals species. Samples from depth intervals where CO{sub 2} has been observed are compared to those where CO{sub 2} was absent, with no systematic differences in mineral composition observed. Gas accumulation can be correlated with sample porosity. In particular gas-bearing samples from the Eastend region are more porous than the overlying gas-free samples. Silicate minerals are rare in the Duperow carbonates, never exceeding 3 wt%. As such, mineral trapping is precluded in these lithologies. The geochemical data presented here will be used for comparison with a similar geochemical-mineralogical study of the Midale (Durocher et al., 2003) in a subsequent report.

  12. In Situ Study of CO2 and H2O Partitioning Between Na-Montmorillonite and Variably Wet Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loring, John S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Chen, Jeffrey; Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Benezeth, Pascale; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2014-06-03

    Shale formations play fundamental roles in large-scale geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) aimed primarily to mitigate climate change, and in smaller-scale GCS targeted mainly for CO2-enhanced gas recovery operations. In both technologies, CO2 is injected underground as a supercritical fluid (scCO2), where interactions with shale minerals could influence successful GCS implementation. Reactive components of shales include expandable clays, such as montmorillonites and mixed-layer illite/smectite clays. In this work, we used in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in situ infrared (IR) spectroscopy to investigate the swelling/shrinkage and water/CO2 sorption of a pure montmorillonite, Na-SWy-2, when the clay is exposed to variably hydrated scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Measured interlayer spacings and sorbed water concentrations at varying levels of scCO2 hydration are similar to previously reported values measured in air at ambient pressure over a range of relative humidities. IR spectra show evidence of both water and CO2 intercalation, and variations in peak shapes and positions suggest multiple sorbed types with distinct chemical environments. Based on the intensity of the asymmetric CO stretching band of the CO2 associated with the Na-SWy-2, we observed a significant increase in sorbed CO2 as the clay expands from a 0W to a 1W state, suggesting that water props open the interlayer so that CO2 can enter. However, as the clay transitions from a 1W to a 2W state, CO2 desorbs sharply. These observations were placed in the context of two conceptual models concerning hydration mechanisms for expandable clays and were also discussed in light of recent theoretical studies on CO2-H2O-clay interactions. The swelling/shrinkage of expandable clays could affect solid volume, porosity, and permeability of shales. Consequently, the results from this work could aid predictions of shale caprock integrity in large-scale GCS, as well as methane transmissivity in enhanced gas recovery operations.

  13. Supersonic Technology for CO2 Capture: A High Efficiency Inertial CO2 Extraction System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Researchers at ATK and ACENT Laboratories are developing a device that relies on aerospace wind-tunnel technologies to turn CO2 into a condensed solid for collection and capture. ATKs design incorporates a special nozzle that converges and diverges to expand flue gas, thereby cooling it off and turning the CO2 into solid particles which are removed from the system by a cyclonic separator. This technology is mechanically simple, contains no moving parts and generates no chemical waste, making it inexpensive to construct and operate, readily scalable, and easily integrated into existing facilities. The increase in the cost to coal-fired power plants associated with introduction of this system would be 50% less than current technologies.

  14. Geomechanical effects on CO{sub 2} leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinaldi, A.P.; Rutqvist, J.; Cappa, F.

    2013-09-01

    The importance of geomechanicsincluding the potential for faults to reactivate during large scale geologic carbon sequestration operationshas recently become more widely recognized. However, notwithstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO{sub 2} to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is actually more important from public safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this work extends the previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence on the potential for leakage of either brine or CO{sub 2} to reach the shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. We consider stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes during a reactivation, also causing seismicity. We analyze several scenarios related to the volume of CO{sub 2} injected (and hence as a function of the overpressure), involving both minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain-permeability coupling functions. We conclude that whereas it is very difficult to predict how much fault permeability could change upon reactivation, this process can have a significant impact on the leakage rate. Moreover, our analysis shows that induced seismicity associated with fault reactivation may not necessarily open up a new flow path for leakage. Results show a poor correlation between magnitude and amount of fluid leakage, meaning that a single event is generally not enough to substantially change the permeability along the entire fault length. Consequently, even if some changes in permeability occur, this does not mean that the CO{sub 2} will migrate up along the entire fault, breaking through the caprock to enter the overlying aquifer.

  15. Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, Ray; Jones, DBA; Suntharalingam, P; Chen, j.; Andres, Robert Joseph; Wecht, K. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Kulawik, SS; Bowman, K; Worden, JR; Machida, T; Matsueda, H

    2010-01-01

    The use of global three-dimensional (3-D) models with satellite observations of CO2 in inverse modeling studies is an area of growing importance for understanding Earth s carbon cycle. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model (version 8-02-01) CO2 mode with multiple modifications in order to assess their impact on CO2 forward simulations. Modifications include CO2 surface emissions from shipping (0.19 PgC yr 1), 3-D spatially-distributed emissions from aviation (0.16 PgC yr 1), and 3-D chemical production of CO2 (1.05 PgC yr 1). Although CO2 chemical production from the oxidation of CO, CH4 and other carbon gases is recognized as an important contribution to global CO2, it is typically accounted for by conversion from its precursors at the surface rather than in the free troposphere. We base our model 3-D spatial distribution of CO2 chemical production on monthly-averaged loss rates of CO (a key precursor and intermediate in the oxidation of organic carbon) and apply an associated surface correction for inventories that have counted emissions of CO2 precursors as CO2. We also explore the benefit of assimilating satellite observations of CO into GEOS-Chem to obtain an observation-based estimate of the CO2 chemical source. The CO assimilation corrects for an underestimate of atmospheric CO abundances in the model, resulting in increases of as much as 24% in the chemical source during May June 2006, and increasing the global annual estimate of CO2 chemical production from 1.05 to 1.18 Pg C. Comparisons of model CO2 with measurements are carried out in order to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions that result when these new sources are added. Inclusion of CO2 emissions from shipping and aviation are shown to increase the global CO2 latitudinal gradient by just over 0.10 ppm (3%), while the inclusion of CO2 chemical production (and the surface correction) is shown to decrease the latitudinal gradient by about 0.40 ppm (10%) with a complex spatial structure generally resulting in decreased CO2 over land and increased CO2 over the oceans. Since these CO2 emissions are omitted or misrepresented in most inverse modeling work to date, their implementation in forward simulations should lead to improved inverse modeling estimates of terrestrial biospheric fluxes.

  16. Detecting and mitigating abnormal events in large scale networks: budget constrained placement on smart grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhi, Nandakishore; Pan, Feng

    2010-10-19

    Several scenarios exist in the modern interconnected world which call for an efficient network interdiction algorithm. Applications are varied, including various monitoring and load shedding applications on large smart energy grids, computer network security, preventing the spread of Internet worms and malware, policing international smuggling networks, and controlling the spread of diseases. In this paper we consider some natural network optimization questions related to the budget constrained interdiction problem over general graphs, specifically focusing on the sensor/switch placement problem for large-scale energy grids. Many of these questions turn out to be computationally hard to tackle. We present a particular form of the interdiction question which is practically relevant and which we show as computationally tractable. A polynomial-time algorithm will be presented for solving this problem.

  17. Large-scale production of anhydrous nitric acid and nitric acid solutions of dinitrogen pentoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrar, Jackson E.; Quong, Roland; Rigdon, Lester P.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for a large scale, electrochemical production of anhydrous nitric acid and N.sub.2 O.sub.5. The method includes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous-HNO.sub.3 at the anode, while reducing aqueous HNO.sub.3 at the cathode, in a flow electrolyzer constructed of special materials. N.sub.2 O.sub.4 is produced at the cathode and may be separated and recycled as a feedstock for use in the anolyte. The process is controlled by regulating the electrolysis current until the desired products are obtained. The chemical compositions of the anolyte and catholyte are monitored by measurement of the solution density and the concentrations of N.sub.2 O.sub.4.

  18. Measurement of the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 3mm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, G.L.

    1983-12-01

    A balloon-borne differential radiometer has measured the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) with high sensitivity. The antenna temperature dipole anistropy at 90 GHz (3 mm wavelength) is 2.82 +- 0.19 mK, corresponding to a thermodynamic anistropy of 3.48 +- mK for a 2.7 K blackbody CBR. The dipole direction, 11.3 +- 0.1 hours right ascension and -5.7/sup 0/ +- 1.8/sup 0/ declination, agrees well with measurements at other frequencies. Calibration error dominates magnitude uncertainty, with statistical errors on dipole terms being under 0.1 mK. No significant quadrupole power is found, placing a 90% confidence-level upper limit of 0.27 mK on the RMS thermodynamic quadrupolar anistropy. 22 figures, 17 tables.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulations from SNL's Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Plimpton, Steve; Thompson, Aidan; Crozier, Paul

    LAMMPS (http://lammps.sandia.gov/index.html) stands for Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator and is a code that can be used to model atoms or, as the LAMMPS website says, as a parallel particle simulator at the atomic, meso, or continuum scale. This Sandia-based website provides a long list of animations from large simulations. These were created using different visualization packages to read LAMMPS output, and each one provides the name of the PI and a brief description of the work done or visualization package used. See also the static images produced from simulations at http://lammps.sandia.gov/pictures.html The foundation paper for LAMMPS is: S. Plimpton, Fast Parallel Algorithms for Short-Range Molecular Dynamics, J Comp Phys, 117, 1-19 (1995), but the website also lists other papers describing contributions to LAMMPS over the years.

  20. Overview of large scale experiments performed within the LBB project in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadecka, P.; Lauerova, D.

    1997-04-01

    During several recent years NRI Rez has been performing the LBB analyses of safety significant primary circuit pipings of NPPs in Czech and Slovak Republics. The analyses covered the NPPs with reactors WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 and WWER 1000 Type 320. Within the relevant LBB projects undertaken with the aim to prove the fulfilling of the requirements of LBB, a series of large scale experiments were performed. The goal of these experiments was to verify the properties of the components selected, and to prove the quality and/or conservatism of assessments used in the LBB-analyses. In this poster, a brief overview of experiments performed in Czech Republic under guidance of NRI Rez is presented.

  1. Drivers and barriers to e-invoicing adoption in Greek large scale manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinagi, Catherine E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Trivellas, Panagiotis E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Reklitis, Panagiotis E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com; Skourlas, Christos

    2015-02-09

    This paper attempts to investigate the drivers and barriers that large-scale Greek manufacturing industries experience in adopting electronic invoices (e-invoices), based on three case studies with organizations having international presence in many countries. The study focuses on the drivers that may affect the increase of the adoption and use of e-invoicing, including the customers demand for e-invoices, and sufficient know-how and adoption of e-invoicing in organizations. In addition, the study reveals important barriers that prevent the expansion of e-invoicing, such as suppliers’ reluctance to implement e-invoicing, and IT infrastructures incompatibilities. Other issues examined by this study include the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the financial priorities of the organizations assumed to be supported by e-invoicing.

  2. Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Electrostatic Embedding: Application to Acetylcholinesterase Catalysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Lau, Edmond Y.; Bennion, Brian J.; Huang, Patrick; Lightstone, Felice C.

    2015-10-22

    Enzymes are complicated solvated systems that typically require many atoms to simulate their function with any degree of accuracy. We have recently developed numerical techniques for large scale First-Principles molecular dynamics simulations and applied them to study the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. We carried out Density functional theory calculations for a quantum mechanical (QM) sub- system consisting of 612 atoms with an O(N) complexity finite-difference approach. The QM sub-system is embedded inside an external potential field representing the electrostatic effect due to the environment. We obtained finite temperature sampling by First-Principles molecular dynamics for the acylation reaction of acetylcholinemore » catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. Our calculations shows two energies barriers along the reaction coordinate for the enzyme catalyzed acylation of acetylcholine. In conclusion, the second barrier (8.5 kcal/mole) is rate-limiting for the acylation reaction and in good agreement with experiment.« less

  3. Large-Scale Computational Screening of Zeolites for Ethane/Ethene Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J; Lin, LC; Martin, RL; Swisher, JA; Haranczyk, M; Smit, B

    2012-08-14

    Large-scale computational screening of thirty thousand zeolite structures was conducted to find optimal structures for seperation of ethane/ethene mixtures. Efficient grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were performed with graphics processing units (GPUs) to obtain pure component adsorption isotherms for both ethane and ethene. We have utilized the ideal adsorbed solution theory (LAST) to obtain the mixture isotherms, which were used to evaluate the performance of each zeolite structure based on its working capacity and selectivity. In our analysis, we have determined that specific arrangements of zeolite framework atoms create sites for the preferential adsorption of ethane over ethene. The majority of optimum separation materials can be identified by utilizing this knowledge and screening structures for the presence of this feature will enable the efficient selection of promising candidate materials for ethane/ethene separation prior to performing molecular simulations.

  4. Aerosols released during large-scale integral MCCI tests in the ACE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.; Spencer, B.W.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the internationally sponsored Advanced Containment Experiments (ACE) program, seven large-scale experiments on molten core concrete interactions (MCCIs) have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. One of the objectives of these experiments is to collect and characterize all the aerosols released from the MCCIs. Aerosols released from experiments using four types of concrete (siliceous, limestone/common sand, serpentine, and limestone/limestone) and a range of metal oxidation for both BWR and PWR reactor core material have been collected and characterized. Release fractions were determined for UO{sup 2}, Zr, the fission-products: BaO, SrO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, MoO{sub 2}, Te, Ru, and control materials: Ag, In, and B{sub 4}C. Release fractions of UO{sub 2} and the fission products other than Te were small in all tests. However, release of control materials was significant.

  5. Aerosols released during large-scale integral MCCI tests in the ACE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.; Spencer, B.W. ); Sehgal, B.R. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the internationally sponsored Advanced Containment Experiments (ACE) program, seven large-scale experiments on molten core concrete interactions (MCCIs) have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. One of the objectives of these experiments is to collect and characterize all the aerosols released from the MCCIs. Aerosols released from experiments using four types of concrete (siliceous, limestone/common sand, serpentine, and limestone/limestone) and a range of metal oxidation for both BWR and PWR reactor core material have been collected and characterized. Release fractions were determined for UO{sup 2}, Zr, the fission-products: BaO, SrO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, MoO{sub 2}, Te, Ru, and control materials: Ag, In, and B{sub 4}C. Release fractions of UO{sub 2} and the fission products other than Te were small in all tests. However, release of control materials was significant.

  6. Aerodynamic force measurement on a large-scale model in a short duration test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanno, H.; Kodera, M.; Komuro, T.; Sato, K.; Takahasi, M.; Itoh, K.

    2005-03-01

    A force measurement technique has been developed for large-scale aerodynamic models with a short test time. The technique is based on direct acceleration measurements, with miniature accelerometers mounted on a test model suspended by wires. Measuring acceleration at two different locations, the technique can eliminate oscillations from natural vibration of the model. The technique was used for drag force measurements on a 3 m long supersonic combustor model in the HIEST free-piston driven shock tunnel. A time resolution of 350 {mu}s is guaranteed during measurements, whose resolution is enough for ms order test time in HIEST. To evaluate measurement reliability and accuracy, measured values were compared with results from a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulation. The difference between measured values and numerical simulation values was less than 5%. We conclude that this measurement technique is sufficiently reliable for measuring aerodynamic force within test durations of 1 ms.

  7. Calculation of large scale relative permeabilities from stochastic properties of the permeability field and fluid properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenormand, R.; Thiele, M.R.

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the method and presents preliminary results for the calculation of homogenized relative permeabilities using stochastic properties of the permeability field. In heterogeneous media, the spreading of an injected fluid is mainly sue to the permeability heterogeneity and viscosity fingering. At large scale, when the heterogeneous medium is replaced by a homogeneous one, we need to introduce a homogenized (or pseudo) relative permeability to obtain the same spreading. Generally, is derived by using fine-grid numerical simulations (Kyte and Berry). However, this operation is time consuming and cannot be performed for all the meshes of the reservoir. We propose an alternate method which uses the information given by the stochastic properties of the field without any numerical simulation. The method is based on recent developments on homogenized transport equations (the {open_quotes}MHD{close_quotes} equation, Lenormand SPE 30797). The MHD equation accounts for the three basic mechanisms of spreading of the injected fluid: (1) Dispersive spreading due to small scale randomness, characterized by a macrodispersion coefficient D. (2) Convective spreading due to large scale heterogeneities (layers) characterized by a heterogeneity factor H. (3) Viscous fingering characterized by an apparent viscosity ration M. In the paper, we first derive the parameters D and H as functions of variance and correlation length of the permeability field. The results are shown to be in good agreement with fine-grid simulations. The are then derived a function of D, H and M. The main result is that this approach lead to a time dependent . Finally, the calculated are compared to the values derived by history matching using fine-grid numerical simulations.

  8. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-08-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a hydrogen economy. The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  9. PATHWAYS OF LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC COUPLINGS BETWEEN SOLAR CORONAL EVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; DeRosa, Marc L.; Yeates, Anthony R.

    2013-08-20

    The high-cadence, comprehensive view of the solar corona by SDO/AIA shows many events that are widely separated in space while occurring close together in time. In some cases, sets of coronal events are evidently causally related, while in many other instances indirect evidence can be found. We present case studies to highlight a variety of coupling processes involved in coronal events. We find that physical linkages between events do occur, but concur with earlier studies that these couplings appear to be crucial to understanding the initiation of major eruptive or explosive phenomena relatively infrequently. We note that the post-eruption reconfiguration timescale of the large-scale corona, estimated from the extreme-ultraviolet afterglow, is on average longer than the mean time between coronal mass ejections (CMEs), so that many CMEs originate from a corona that is still adjusting from a previous event. We argue that the coronal field is intrinsically global: current systems build up over days to months, the relaxation after eruptions continues over many hours, and evolving connections easily span much of a hemisphere. This needs to be reflected in our modeling of the connections from the solar surface into the heliosphere to properly model the solar wind, its perturbations, and the generation and propagation of solar energetic particles. However, the large-scale field cannot be constructed reliably by currently available observational resources. We assess the potential of high-quality observations from beyond Earth's perspective and advanced global modeling to understand the couplings between coronal events in the context of CMEs and solar energetic particle events.

  10. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  11. LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC HELICITY FLUXES ESTIMATED FROM MDI MAGNETIC SYNOPTIC CHARTS OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE 23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Shangbin; Zhang Hongqi

    2012-10-10

    To investigate the characteristics of large-scale and long-term evolution of magnetic helicity with solar cycles, we use the method of Local Correlation Tracking to estimate the magnetic helicity evolution over solar cycle 23 from 1996 to 2009 using 795 MDI magnetic synoptic charts. The main results are as follows: the hemispheric helicity rule still holds in general, i.e., the large-scale negative (positive) magnetic helicity dominates the northern (southern) hemisphere. However, the large-scale magnetic helicity fluxes show the same sign in both hemispheres around 2001 and 2005. The global, large-scale magnetic helicity flux over the solar disk changes from a negative value at the beginning of solar cycle 23 to a positive value at the end of the cycle, while the net accumulated magnetic helicity is negative in the period between 1996 and 2009.

  12. EPRI-DOE Joint Report on Fossil Fleet Transition with Fuel Changes and Large Scale Variable Renewable Integration Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new report “Fossil Fleet Transition with Fuel Changes and Large Scale Variable Renewable Integration” from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and jointly funded by the Offices of...

  13. EIS-0473: W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project (PCCS), Fort Bend County, TX

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide financial assistance for a project proposed by NRG Energy, Inc (NRG). DOE selected NRG’s proposed W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project for a financial assistance award through a competitive process under the Clean Coal Power Initiative Program. NRG would design, construct and operate a commercial-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) capture facility at its existing W.A. Parish Generating Station in Fort Bend County, Texas; deliver the CO2 via a new pipeline to the existing West Ranch oil field in Jackson County, Texas, for use in enhanced oil recovery operations; and demonstrate monitoring techniques to verify the permanence of geologic CO2 storage.

  14. Sorption Phase of Supercritical CO2 in Silica Aerogel: Experiments and Mesoscale Computer Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL; Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S [ORNL; Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL; Wallacher, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin; Grimm, Nico [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin; Cole, David [Ohio State University

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption of supercritical CO2 in nanoporous silica aerogel was investigated by a combination of experiments and molecular-level computer modeling. High-pressure gravimetric and vibrating tube densimetry techniques were used to measure the mean pore fluid density and excess sorption at 35 C and 50 C and pressures of 0-200 bar. Densification of the pore fluid was observed at bulk fluid densities below 0.7 g/cm3. Far above the bulk fluid density, near-zero sorption or weak depletion effects were measured, while broad excess sorption maxima form in the vicinity of the bulk critical density region. The CO2 sorption properties are very similar for two aerogels with different bulk densities of 0.1 g/cm3 and 0.2 g/cm3, respectively. The spatial distribution of the confined supercritical fluid was analyzed in terms of sorption- and bulk-phase densities by means of the Adsorbed Phase Model (APM), which used data from gravimetric sorption and small-angle neutron scattering experiments. To gain more detailed insight into supercritical fluid sorption, large-scale lattice gas GCMC simulations were utilized and tuned to resemble the experimental excess sorption data. The computed three-dimensional pore fluid density distributions show that the observed maximum of the excess sorption near the critical density originates from large density fluctuations pinned to the pore walls. At this maximum, the size of these fluctuations is comparable to the prevailing pore sizes.

  15. Projects Selected for Safe and Permanent Geologic Storage of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and conditions related to CO2 storage including faults, fractures, and caprock flaws. ... propagation, and the formation of new fractures. (DOE share: 433,497; recipient share: ...

  16. Carbon Capture and Storage in Southern Africa | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessment of the rationale, possibilities and capacity needs to enable CO2 capture and storage in Botswana, Mozambique and Namibia AgencyCompany Organization Energy Research...

  17. Carbon Capture and Storage Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sequestration Overview Carbon Capture R&D Carbon Storage R&D Monitoring, Verification and Accounting Simulation and Risk Assessment CO2 Utilization Stay Connected Fossil Energy on ...

  18. 'Underground battery' could store renewable energy, sequester CO2 |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration 'Underground battery' could store renewable energy, sequester CO2 Wednesday, January 6, 2016 - 2:40pm NNSA Blog This integrated system would store carbon dioxide in an underground reservoir, with concentric rings of horizontal wells confining the pressurized CO2 beneath the caprock. Stored CO2 displaces brine that flows up wells to the surface where it is heated by thermal plants (e.g., solar farms) and reinjected into the reservoir to store thermal

  19. Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework Previous Next List Jinhee Park , Daqiang Yuan , Khanh T. Pham ,...

  20. Sulfonate-Grafted Porous Polymer Networks for Preferential CO2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sulfonate-Grafted Porous Polymer Networks for Preferential CO2 Adsorption at Low Pressure Previous Next List Weigang Lu, Daqiang Yuan, Julian Sculley, Dan Zhao, Rajamani Krishna,...