Sample records for large water tunnel

  1. Vacuum gaps with small tunnel currents at large electric field...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacuum gaps with small tunnel currents at large electric field and its potential applications for energy storage, charge storage and power supplies. Friday, May 27, 2011 - 4:00pm...

  2. Bifurcation tunneling dynamics in the water trimer Frank N. Keutscha)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    details of the hydrogen bond tunneling dynamics in the water trimer through excitation of intermolecular­6 and for a detailed molecular description of the associated hydrogen bond rear- rangement dynamics.7­35 Ultimately, weBifurcation tunneling dynamics in the water trimer Frank N. Keutscha) and Richard J. Saykallyb

  3. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Theoretical Study of Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Theoretical Study of Water Adsorption on Fe3O4: Implications for Catalysis. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Theoretical Study of Water Adsorption on Fe3O4: Implications...

  4. Carderock Large Cavitation Tunnel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformation 8thCalwind IICaneyNW1Circulating Water

  5. Penn Large Water Tunnel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompanyPCN TechnologyFrance) JumpPearsonCollege Jump

  6. Penn Small Water Tunnel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompanyPCN TechnologyFrance) JumpPearsonCollegeTunnel

  7. An ultrahigh vacuum fast-scanning and variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope for large scale imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohl, Karsten

    An ultrahigh vacuum fast-scanning and variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope for large describe the design and performance of a fast-scanning, variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope of the scanner tube. The total scanning area is about 8 8 m2 . The sample temperature can be adjusted by a few

  8. Merguerian, Charles; and Ozdemir, Levent, 2003, Rock Mass Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Rate Investigations, Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3, Stage 2: p.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merguerian, Charles

    Merguerian, Charles; and Ozdemir, Levent, 2003, Rock Mass Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Rate Investigations, Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3 quantification that the rock mass exhibited an unusually high degree of toughness and rock directional properties

  9. Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional dynamics of the hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional 1993) The far-infrared laservibration-rotation-tunneling (FIR-VRT) spectrumof the propane-water complex calculations. In the present paper and in its counterpart,13we present our results for the water-propane

  10. Multiphoton ionization of large water clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apicella, B., E-mail: apicella@irc.cnr.it [Combustion Research Institute, IRCC.N.R., P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Li, X. [Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Passaro, M. [CNISM and Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production Department, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Spinelli, N. [CNISM and Physics Department, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cintia, 80124 Napoli (Italy); Wang, X. [SPINC.N.R., Via Cintia, 80124 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Water clusters are multimers of water molecules held together by hydrogen bonds. In the present work, multiphoton ionization in the UV range coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry has been applied to water clusters with up to 160 molecules in order to obtain information on the electronic states of clusters of different sizes up to dimensions that can approximate the bulk phase. The dependence of ion intensities of water clusters and their metastable fragments produced by laser ionization at 355 nm on laser power density indicates a (3+1)-photon resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization process. It also explains the large increase of ionization efficiency at 355 nm compared to that at 266 nm. Indeed, it was found, by applying both nanosecond and picosecond laser ionization with the two different UV wavelengths, that no water cluster sequences after n = 9 could be observed at 266 nm, whereas water clusters up to m/z 2000 Th in reflectron mode and m/z 3000 Th in linear mode were detected at 355 nm. The agreement between our findings on clusters of water, especially true in the range with n > 10, and reported data for liquid water supports the hypothesis that clusters above a critical dimension can approximate the liquid phase. It should thus be possible to study clusters just above 10 water molecules, for getting information on the bulk phase structure.

  11. Prediction of net bedload transport rates obtained in oscillating water tunnels and applicability to real surf zone waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David

    Experimental studies of sediment transport rates due to near shore waves are often conducted in oscillating water tunnels (OWTs). In an OWT, the oscillatory motion produced by the piston propagates almost instantaneously ...

  12. Large-scale fabrication of BN tunnel barriers for graphene spintronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Wangyang; Makk, Pter; Maurand, Romain; Bruninger, Matthias; Schnenberger, Christian [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We have fabricated graphene spin-valve devices utilizing scalable materials made from chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Both the spin-transporting graphene and the tunnel barrier material are CVD-grown. The tunnel barrier is realized by Hexagonal boron nitride, used either as a monolayer or bilayer and placed over the graphene. Spin transport experiments were performed using ferromagnetic contacts deposited onto the barrier. We find that spin injection is still greatly suppressed in devices with a monolayer tunneling barrier due to resistance mismatch. This is, however, not the case for devices with bilayer barriers. For those devices, a spin relaxation time of ?260 ps intrinsic to the CVD graphene material is deduced. This time scale is comparable to those reported for exfoliated graphene, suggesting that this CVD approach is promising for spintronic applications which require scalable materials.

  13. Natural Ventilation in Buildings: Measurement in a Wind Tunnel and Numerical Simulation with Large Eddy Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    save energy consumed by the heating, ventilating, and air- conditioning systems in a building1 Natural Ventilation in Buildings: Measurement in a Wind Tunnel and Numerical Simulation@purdue.edu Abstract Natural ventilation in buildings can create a comfortable and healthy indoor environment, and can

  14. Reconstruction Algorithms in the Super--Kamiokande Large Water Cherenkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    Reconstruction Algorithms in the Super--Kamiokande Large Water Cherenkov Detector M. Shiozawa a;1 , On behalf of the Super--Kamiokande Collaboration a Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo; Abstract The Super--Kamiokande experiment, using a large underground water Cherenkov detector, has started

  15. Terahertz vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the water tetramer-d8: Combined analysis of vibrational bands at 4.1 and 2.0 THz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Terahertz vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the water tetramer-d8: Combined analysis in the global fit of the water trimer. The detailed understanding of the water tetramer evolving from this work calculated concentrations of water trimers, tetramers, and pentamers of 1012 , 1011 , and 1010 cm-3

  16. Glendale Water and Power- Large Business Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Glendale Water and Power (GWP) offers a rebate to its medium and large business customers with electric bills of more than $3000 per month (electric usage of 250,000 kWh annually ~ $36,000 per year...

  17. Actinide Sorption in Rainier Mesa Tunnel Waters from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, P; Zavarin, M; Leif, R; Powell, B; Singleton, M; Lindvall, R; Kersting, A

    2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorption behavior of americium (Am), plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), and uranium (U) in perched Rainier Mesa tunnel water was investigated. Both volcanic zeolitized tuff samples and groundwater samples were collected from Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, NV for a series of batch sorption experiments. Sorption in groundwater with and without the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated. Am(III) and Pu(IV) are more soluble in groundwater that has high concentrations of DOM. The sorption K{sub d} for Am(III) and Pu(IV) on volcanic zeolitized tuff was up to two orders of magnitude lower in samples with high DOM (15 to 19 mg C/L) compared to samples with DOM removed (< 0.4 mg C/L) or samples with naturally low DOM (0.2 mg C/L). In contrast, Np(V) and U(VI) sorption to zeolitized tuff was much less affected by the presence of DOM. The Np(V) and U(VI) sorption Kds were low under all conditions. Importantly, the DOM was not found to significantly sorb to the zeolitized tuff during these experiment. The concentration of DOM in groundwater affects the transport behavior of actinides in the subsurface. The mobility of Am(III) and Pu(IV) is significantly higher in groundwater with elevated levels of DOM resulting in potentially enhanced transport. To accurately model the transport behavior of actinides in groundwater at Rainier Mesa, the low actinide Kd values measured in groundwater with high DOM concentrations must be incorporated in predictive transport models.

  18. Design and calibration of a scanning tunneling microscope for large machined surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last year the large sample STM has been designed, built and used for the observation of several different samples. Calibration of the scanner for prope dimensional interpretation of surface features has been a chief concern, as well as corrections for non-linear effects such as hysteresis during scans. Several procedures used in calibration and correction of piezoelectric scanners used in the laboratorys STMs are described.

  19. Variations of surface water extent and water storage in large river basins: A comparison of different global data sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    of the spatio-temporal variations of total terrestrial water storage (the sum of ground water, soil water1 Variations of surface water extent and water storage in large river basins: A comparison mass variations monitored by GRACE, simulated surface and total water storage from WGHM, water levels

  20. Monitoring microbial corrosion in large oilfield water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, E.Y.; Chen, R.B.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring of microbial corrosion is always difficult because of the sessile nature of bacteria and the lack of meaningful correlation between routine bacteria counts and bacterial activity. This problem is further aggravated in a large oilfield water system because of its size and sampling difficulties. This paper discusses some monitoring techniques currently used in the oil industry, their limitations and the possible areas for improvement. These suggested improvements either are presently being implemented or will be implemented in the Aramco systems.

  1. Monitoring microbial corrosion in large oilfield water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, E.Y.; Chen, R.B.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring of microbial corrosion is always difficult because of the sessile nature of bacteria and the lack of meaningful correlation between routine bacteria counts and bacterial activity. This problem is further aggravated in a large oilfield water system because of size and sampling difficulties. This paper discusses some monitoring techniques currently used in the oil industry, their limitations, and possible areas for improvement. These improved techniques are in use or will be implemented in the Aramco systems.

  2. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  3. Terahertz Laser Vibration-Rotation Tunneling Spectroscopy of the Water Tetramer Jeff D. Cruzan, Mark R. Viant, Mac G. Brown, and Richard J. Saykally*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Terahertz Laser Vibration-Rotation Tunneling Spectroscopy of the Water Tetramer Jeff D. Cruzan, which increase nonlinearly with increasing J, were found in both D2O and H2O tetramer spectra. Evidence of 1% of the total stabilization energy of the tetramer and pentamer.12-21 Xantheas' recent MP2

  4. Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of public safety and property from a potential LNG spill. For that reason the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, requested that Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) develop guidance on a risk-based analysis approach to assess and quantify potential threats to an LNG ship, the potential hazards and consequences of a large spill from an LNG ship, and review prevention and mitigation strategies that could be implemented to reduce both the potential and the risks of an LNG spill over water. Specifically, DOE requested: (1) An in-depth literature search of the experimental and technical studies associated with evaluating the safety and hazards of an LNG spill from an LNG ship; (2) A detailed review of four recent spill modeling studies related to the safety implications of a large-scale LNG spill over water; (3) Evaluation of the potential for breaching an LNG ship cargo tank, both accidentally and intentionally, identification of the potential for such breaches and the potential size of an LNG spill for each breach scenario, and an assessment of the potential range of hazards involved in an LNG spill; (4) Development of guidance on the use of modern, performance-based, risk management approaches to analyze and manage the threats, hazards, and consequences of an LNG spill over water to reduce the overall risks of an LNG spill to levels that are protective of public safety and property.

  5. Channel tunnel

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Jacques Lemley, amricain et "chief executif" parle du projet de l'Eurotunnel - tunnel sous la manche

  6. Water dynamics in large and small reverse micelles: From two ensembles to collective behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water dynamics in large and small reverse micelles: From two ensembles to collective behavior David July 2009 The dynamics of water in Aerosol-OT reverse micelles are investigated with ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the hydroxyl stretch. In large reverse micelles, the dynamics of water are separable into two

  7. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  8. Accurate Energies and Structures for Large Water Clusters Using the X3LYP Hybrid Density Functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Accurate Energies and Structures for Large Water Clusters Using the X3LYP Hybrid Density FunctionalVed: June 9, 2004; In Final Form: August 10, 2004 We predict structures and energies of water clusters containing up to 19 waters with X3LYP, an extended hybrid density functional designed to describe

  9. A penalization method for calculating the flow beneath travelling water waves of large amplitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian Constantin; Konstantinos Kalimeris; Otmar Scherzer

    2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A penalization method for a suitable reformulation of the governing equations as a constrained optimization problem provides accurate numerical simulations for large-amplitude travelling water waves in irrotational flows and in flows with constant vorticity.

  10. Conceptual Design of a Large, Passive Pressure-Tube Light Water Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hejzlar, P.

    A design for a large, passive, light water reactor has been developed. The proposed concept is a pressure tube reactor of similar design to CANDU reactors, but differing in three key aspects. First, a solid SiC-coated ...

  11. Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system Xingxing Kuang & Jiu Jimmy negative air pressure can be generated in the vadose zone during pumping. The negative air pressure. The initial water-table depth has a significant effect on the generated negative air pressure. The shallower

  12. Modeling the large-scale water balance impact of different irrigation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Modeling the large-scale water balance impact of different irrigation systems J. P. Evans1 and B. F precipitation causes the Turkish government to invest in modernizing its own irrigation systems balance impact of different irrigation systems, Water Resour. Res., 44, W08448, doi:10.1029/2007WR006671

  13. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  14. PRO-DAIRY Alert and Action Statement Water use reporting required for New York State dairy farms that use large quantities of water.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    be difficult to accurately determine water use for many dairy farms. Most farms lack water meters and many have1 PRO-DAIRY Alert and Action Statement Water use reporting required for New York State dairy farms that use large quantities of water. All dairy farms should be aware of this requirement, especially those

  15. Energy, water and large-scale patterns of reptile and amphibian species richness in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrguez, Miguel ngel

    Energy, water and large-scale patterns of reptile and amphibian species richness in Europe Miguel and amphibian species richness in Europe and 11 environmental variables related to five hypotheses, an estimate of plant biomass generated through satellite remote sensing, both described similar proportions

  16. PORTFOLIO RISK ASSESSMENT OF SA WATER'S LARGE DAMS by David S. Bowles1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowles, David S.

    PORTFOLIO RISK ASSESSMENT OF SA WATER'S LARGE DAMS by David S. Bowles1 , Andrew M. Parsons2 , Loren R. Anderson3 and Terry F. Glover4 ABSTRACT This paper summarises the Portfolio Risk Assessment (PRA and an initial prioritisation of future investigations and possible risk reduction measures. The PRA comprised

  17. ARM - PI Product - Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheatProductsISDAC Microphysics ARM DataProductsLarge

  18. Breach and safety analysis of spills over water from large liquefied natural gas carriers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2004, at the request of the Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) prepared a report, ''Guidance on the Risk and Safety Analysis of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water''. That report provided framework for assessing hazards and identifying approaches to minimize the consequences to people and property from an LNG spill over water. The report also presented the general scale of possible hazards from a spill from 125,000 m3 o 150,000 m3 class LNG carriers, at the time the most common LNG carrier capacity.

  19. Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district heating system and makes a proposal for a technical and economic improvement. Monitoring of water quality in district heating systems is necessary

  20. Selective Filtration of Gadolinium Trichloride for Use in Neutron Detection in Large Water Cherenkov Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vagins, Mark R.

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Cherenkov detectors have been used for many years as inexpensive, effective detectors for neutrino interactions and nucleon decay searches. While many important measurements have been made with these detectors a major drawback has been their inability to detect the absorption of thermal neutrons. We believe an inexpensive, effective technique could be developed to overcome this situation via the addition to water of a solute with a large neutron cross section and energetic gamma daughters which would make neutrons detectable. Gadolinium seems an excellent candidate especially since in recent years it has become very inexpensive, now less than $8 per kilogram in the form of commercially-available gadolinium trichloride, GdCl{sub 3}. This non-toxic, non-reactive substance is highly soluble in water. Neutron capture on gadolinium yields a gamma cascade which would be easily seen in detectors like Super-Kamiokande. We have been investigating the use of GdCl{sub 3} as a possible upgrade for the Super-Kamiokande detector with a view toward improving its performance as a detector for atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, wrong-sign solar neutrinos, reactor neutrinos, proton decay, and also as a target for the coming T2K long-baseline neutrino experiment. This focused study of selective water filtration and GdCl{sub 3} extraction techniques, conducted at UC Irvine, followed up on highly promising benchtop-scale and kiloton-scale work previously carried out with the assistance of 2003 and 2005 Advanced Detector Research Program grants.

  1. Large

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLand and AssetLandscapingLarge

  2. Optimal Response to Periodic Shortage: Engineering/Economic Analysis for a Large Urban Water District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Anthony C.; Fullerton, David; Hatch, Nile; Reinelt, Peter

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The total supply shortages and water supply accomplishmentsThe total supply shortage and water supply accomplishmentsTotal supply shortage Total water supply accomplishments

  3. Hazards to nuclear power plants from large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spills on water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kot, C.A.; Eichler, T.V.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Pape, R.; Srinivasan, M.G.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hazards to nuclear power plants arising from large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on water transportation routes are treated by deterministic analytical procedures. Global models, which address the salient features of the LNG spill phenomena are used in the analysis. A coupled computational model for the combined LNG spill, spreading, and fire scenario is developed. To predict the air blast environment in the vicinity of vapor clouds with pancake-like geometries, a scalable procedure using both analytical methods and hydrocode calculations is synthesized. Simple response criteria from the fire and weapons effects literature are used to characterize the susceptibility of safety-related power plant systems. The vulnerability of these systems is established either by direct comparison between the LNG threat and the susceptibility criteria or through simple response calculations. Results are analyzed.

  4. Operating Water Cherenkov Detectors in high altitude sites for the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; Gonzlez, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; Lpez, J A; Martnez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Nez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Prez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) are efficient detectors for detecting GRBs in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV energy range using the single particle technique, given their sensitivity to low energy secondary photons produced by high energy photons when cascading in the atmosphere. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) operates arrays of WCD in high altitude sites (above 4500 m a.s.l.) in Bolivia, Mexico and Venezuela, with planned extension to Peru. Details on the operation and stability of these WCD in remote sites with high background rates of particles will be detailed, and compared to simulations. Specific issues due to operation at high altitude, atmospheric effects and solar activity, as well as possible hardware enhancements will also be presented.

  5. TBM tunnel friction values for the Grizzly Powerhouse Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutsman, R.D. [Ensign & Buckley Consulting Engineers, Larkspur, CA (United States); Rothfuss, B.D. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunnel boring machine (TBM) driven water conveyance tunnels are becoming increasingly more common. Despite advances in tunnel engineering and construction technology, hydraulic performance data for TBM driven tunnels remains relatively unavailable. At the Grizzly Powerhouse Project, the TBM driven water conveyance tunnel was designed using friction coefficients developed from a previous PG&E project. A range of coefficients were selected to bound the possible hydraulic performance variations of the water conveyance system. These friction coefficients, along with the water conveyance systems characteristics, and expected turbine characteristics, were used in a hydraulic transient analysis to determine the expected system pressure fluctuations, and surge chamber performance. During startup test data, these performance characteristics were measured to allow comparison to the original design assumptions. During construction of the tunnel, plaster casts were made of the actual excavated tunnel unlined and fiber reinforced shotcrete lined surfaces. These castings were used to measure absolute roughness of the surfaces so that a friction coefficient could be developed using the Moody diagram and compare them against the design values. This paper compares the assumed frictional coefficient with computed coefficients from headlosses measured during startup testing, and plaster cast measurement calculations. In addition, a comparison of coefficients will be presented for an other TBM driven water conveyance tunnel constructed in the 1980`s.

  6. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Andrew, E-mail: pandrew@ucla.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  7. Dynamical tunneling and control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srihari Keshavamurthy

    2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This article summarizes the recent work on the influence of dynamical tunneling on the control of quantum systems. Specifically, two examples are discussed. In the first, it is shown that the bichromatic control of tunneling in a driven double well system is hampered by the phenomenon of chaos-assisted tunneling. The bichromatic control landscape exhibits several regions indicating lack of control with every such region involving chaos-assisted tunneling. The second example illustrates the failure of controlling the dissociation dynamics of a driven Morse oscillator due to the phenomenon of resonance-assisted tunneling. In particular, attempts to control the dissociation dynamics by rebuilding local phase space barriers are foiled due to resonance-assisted tunneling.

  8. Large-scale experiments on aerosol behavior in light water reactor containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, W.; Bunz, H.; Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Rahn, F.J.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, three large-scale experimental programs were carried out dealing with the behavior of aerosols during core-melt accidents in light water reactors (LWRs). In the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) program, the principal behaviors of different insoluble aerosols and of mixed aerosols were measured in dry air atmospheres and in condensing steam-air atmospheres contained in a 38-m/sup 3/ steel vessel. The Demonstration of Nuclear Aerosol Behavior (DEMONA) program used a 640-m/sup 3/ concrete containment model to simulate typical accident sequence conditions, and measured the behavior of different insoluble aerosols and mixed aerosols in condensing and transient atmospheric conditions. Part of the LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) program was also devoted to aerosol behavior in containment; and 852-m/sup 3/ steel vessel was used, and the aerosols were composed of mixtures of insoluble and soluble species. The results of these experiments provide a suitable data base for validation of aerosol behavior codes. Fundamental insight into details of aerosol behavior in condensing environments has been gained through the results of the NSPP tests. Code comparisons have been and are being performed in the DEMONA and LACE experiments.

  9. Author's personal copy How large is the subducted water flux? New constraints on mantle regassing rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    as pore water and chemically- bound water in sediments, altered oceanic crust and serpentinized lith (Fig. 1). A quantitative assessment of the long-term water cycle is critical to our understanding and Kohlstedt, 1996; Karato and Jung, 2003; Mei and Kohlstedt, 2000), structure and style of convection (Crowley

  10. Tunneling of Polymer Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Martn-Ruiz; E. Chan-Lpez; A. Carbajal-Domnguez; J. Bernal

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study the tunneling using a background independent (polymer) quantization scheme. We show that at low energies, for the tunneling through a single potential barrier, the polymer transmission coefficient and the polymer tunneling time converge to its quantum-mechanical counterparts in a clear fashion. As the energy approaches the maximum these polymer quantities abruptly decrease to zero. We use the transfer matrix method to study the tunneling through a series of identical potential barriers. We obtain that the transmission coefficients (polymer and quantum-mechanical) behave qualitatively in a similar manner, as expected. Finally we show that the polymer tunneling time exhibits anomalous peaks compared with the standard result. Numerical results are also presented.

  11. A Modeling Study Evaluating the Thermal-Hydrological Conditions In and Near Waste Emplacement Tunnels At Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.T. Birkholzer; N. Halecky; S.W> Webb; P.F. Peterson; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In heated tunnels such as those designated for emplacement of radioactive waste at the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, temperature gradients cause natural convection processes that may significantly influence the moisture conditions in the tunnels and in the surrounding fractured rock. Large-scale convection cells in the heated tunnels would provide an effective mechanism for turbulent mixing and axial transport of vapor generated from evaporation of pore water in the nearby formation. As a result, vapor would be transported from the elevated-temperature sections of the tunnels into cool end sections (where no waste is emplaced), would condense there, and subsequently drain into underlying rock units. To study these processes, we have developed a new simulation method that couples existing tools for simulating thermal-hydrological (TH) conditions in the fractured formation with a module that approximates turbulent natural convection in heated emplacement drifts. The new method simultaneously handles (1) the flow and energy transport processes in the fractured rock, (2) the flow and energy transport processes in the cavity, and (3) the heat and mass exchange at the rock-cavity interface. An application is presented studying the future TH conditions within and near a representative waste emplacement tunnel at Yucca Mountain. Particular focus is on the potential for condensation along the emplacement section, a possible result of heat output differences between individual waste packages.

  12. Commissioning the Domestic Hot Water System on a Large University Campus: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Bensouda, N.; Claridge, D.; Bruner, H.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was to investigate the causes of these problems and help determine how to best operate the system. It was found that reported problems of low flows, low temperatures and long hot water lag time resulted from reverse flows and no hot water circulation caused by: 1...

  13. Subcooling Effects for Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cullum, Wes

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A counter current annular flow experiment was performed to determine flooding conditions for varying degrees of subcooling using steam and water. The findings can be used in reactor safety codes to provide an improved model of flooding during...

  14. Factors Influencing Water Heating Energy Use and Peak Demand in a Large Scale Residential Monitoring Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchelle, M. P.; Parker, D. S.; Anello, M. T.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , as well as obtain improved appliance energy consumption indexes and load profiles. A portion of the monitoring measures water heater energy use and demand in each home on a 15-minute basis....

  15. Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boushell, C. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the paper is to disseminate information on the energy savings possible with High Temperature Water (HTW) for heating and industrial process application and to provide information on coal fired HTW generator design and availability....

  16. INTRODUCTION The Amazon basin is a large body of extremely soft water. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Graham

    in oxygen concentrations can be substantial and hypoxic waters are very common. Studies on several fish that scale positively with fish size (Almeida-Val et al., 2000; Sloman et al., 2006). Ventilation does increase under hypoxia (Chippari-Gomes et al., 2005; Scott et al., 2008), which puts the fish at risk

  17. Water Consumption Footprint and Land Requirements of Large-Scale Alternative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD to: discover new interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess

  18. Institute for Water Resources, US Army Corps of Engineers Australian National Committee on Large Dams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowles, David S.

    Committee on Large Dams LIFESim: A Model for Estimating Dam Failure Life Loss DRAFT by Maged A. Aboelata ABSTRACT Catastrophic events such as dam failures or severe floods are considered to be of low probability linked circumstances surrounding historical dam failure events to actual loss of life and produced

  19. Risk analysis for tunneling projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sousa. Rita L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunnel construction is increasing world wide. Although the majority of tunnel construction projects have been completed safely, there have been several incidents that have resulted in delays, cost overruns, and sometimes ...

  20. Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Susan Nicole

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    on the section of pipe connected to the pressurizer. Descriptions of the di user at the bottom of the pres- surizer tank, which determines the water ow con guration into the surge line, are di cult to obtain. As predicted by the SCDAP/RELAP5 code for a typical 4... impact on plant behavior. In a countercurrent, two-phase ow system, ooding is commonly de ned as the This thesis follows the style of International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2 onset of ow reversal which results in cocurrent ow [3]. In general...

  1. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yun-Zhong (West Lafayette, IN); Reifenberger, Ronald G. (West Lafayette, IN); Andres, Ronald P. (West Lafayette, IN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  2. Global study of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) behaviour and the tuning of a 1-dimensional model to determine the LSWTs of large lakes worldwide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Layden, Aisling

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) of 246 globally distributed large lakes were derived from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSR) for the period 1991 to 2011. These LSWTs, derived in a systematic manner, presents ...

  3. Pressure loadings of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) reactor release mitigation structures from large-break LOCAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Horak, W.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses have been carried out of the pressurization of the accident release mitigation structures of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) pressurized water reactors following large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Specific VVER systems for which calculations were performed are the VVER-440 model V230, VVER-440 model V213, and VVER-1000 model V320. Descriptions of the designs of these and other VVER models are contained in the report DOE/NE-0084. The principal objective of the current analyses is to calculate the time dependent pressure loadings inside the accident localization or containment structures immediately following the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary coolant pipe. In addition, the pressures are compared with the results of calculations of the response of the structures to overpressure. Primary coolant system thermal hydraulic conditions and the fluid conditions at the break location were calculated with the RETRAN-02 Mod2 computer code (Agee, 1984). Pressures and temperatures inside the building accident release mitigation structures were obtained from the PACER (Pressurization Accompanying Coolant Escape from Ruptures) multicompartment containment analysis code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The analyses were carried out using best estimate models and conditions rather than conservative, bounding-type assumptions. In particular, condensation upon structure and equipment was calculated using correlations based upon analyses of the HDR, Marviken, and Battelle Frankfurt containment loading experiments. The intercompartment flow rates incorporate an effective discharge coefficient and liquid droplet carryover fraction given by expressions of Schwan determined from analyses of the Battelle Frankfurt and Marviken tests. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon tomography : a calibration experiment using a water tower tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Jourde; Dominique Gibert; Jacques Marteau; Jean de Bremond d'Ars; Serge Gardien; Claude Girerd; Jean-Christophe Ianigro

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of using secondary cosmic muons to scan the internal structure of a given body has known significant developments since the first archaeological application by Alvarez and collaborators on the Gizah pyramids. Recent applications cover the fields of volcanology, hydrology, civil engineering, mining, archaeology etc. Muon radiography features are essentially identical to those of medical X-ray imaging techniques. It is a contrast densitometry method using the screening effect of the body under study on the natural flux of cosmic muons. This technique is non-invasive and complements the standard geophysical techniques, e.g. electrical tomography or gravimetry. It may be applied to a large variety of geological targets, among which the domes of active volcanoes. In this context muon tomography presents the noticeable advantage to perform measurements of large volumes, with a large aperture, from a distant point, far from the potentially dangerous zones. The same conclusions apply regarding the monitoring of the volcano's activity since muon tomography provides continuous data taking, provided the muon detectors are sufficiently well designed and autonomous. Recent measurements on La Soufri\\`ere of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles, France) show, over a one year period, large modulations of the crossing muon flux, correlated with an increase of the activity in the dome. In order to firmly establish the sensitivity of the method and of our detectors and to disentangle the effects on the muon flux modulations induced by the volcano's hydrothermal system from those induced by other sources, e.g. atmospheric temperature and pressure, we perform a dedicated calibration experiment inside a water tower tank. We show how the method is fully capable of dynamically following fast variations in the density.

  5. DETECTION OF GEOTHERMAL INTERFERENCE IN THE TUNNEL EXCAVATION USING MAGNETOTELLURICS TECHNIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harinarayana, T.

    temperature of the hot springs is as high as 900 C at some places. Major civil construction sites such as dams, tunnels etc. need to be carefully planned to avoid the hot spring locations. For example, high temperature-engineers involved in tunnel construction in Himalayas is to know the possible interference of hot water regimes

  6. Computational design and analysis of flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  7. Thin power law film flow down an inclined plane: consistent shallow water models and stability under large scale perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, Pascal

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we derive consistent shallow water equations for thin films of power law fluids down an incline. These models account for the streamwise diffusion of momentum which is important to describe accurately the full dynamic of the thin film flows when instabilities like roll-waves arise. These models are validated through a comparison with Orr Sommerfeld equations for large scale perturbations. We only consider laminar flow for which the boundary layer issued from the interaction of the flow with the bottom surface has an influence all over the transverse direction to the flow. In this case the concept itself of thin film and its relation with long wave asymptotic leads naturally to flow conditions around a uniform free surface Poiseuille flow. The apparent viscosity diverges at the free surface which, in turn, introduces a singularity in the formulation of the Orr-Sommerfeld equations and in the derivation of shallow water models. We remove this singularity by introducing a weaker formulation of Cauc...

  8. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface Radar and Satellite Data in Support of ARM SCM Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guosheng

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-column modeling (SCM) is one of the key elements of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research initiatives for the development and testing of various physical parameterizations to be used in general circulation models (GCMs). The data required for use with an SCM include observed vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water, as well as the large-scale vertical motion and tendencies of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water due to horizontal advection. Surface-based measurements operated at ARM sites and upper-air sounding networks supply most of the required variables for model inputs, but do not provide the horizontal advection term of condensed water. Since surface cloud radar and microwave radiometer observations at ARM sites are single-point measurements, they can provide the amount of condensed water at the location of observation sites, but not a horizontal distribution of condensed water contents. Consequently, observational data for the large-scale advection tendencies of condensed water have not been available to the ARM cloud modeling community based on surface observations alone. This lack of advection data of water condensate could cause large uncertainties in SCM simulations. Additionally, to evaluate GCMsâ?? cloud physical parameterization, we need to compare GCM results with observed cloud water amounts over a scale that is large enough to be comparable to what a GCM grid represents. To this end, the point-measurements at ARM surface sites are again not adequate. Therefore, cloud water observations over a large area are needed. The main goal of this project is to retrieve ice water contents over an area of 10 x 10 deg. surrounding the ARM sites by combining surface and satellite observations. Built on the progress made during previous ARM research, we have conducted the retrievals of 3-dimensional ice water content by combining surface radar/radiometer and satellite measurements, and have produced 3-D cloud ice water contents in support of cloud modeling activities. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) area measurement. That is, the study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements (particularly cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements) at the point of the ARM sites. We use the cloud ice water characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain a satellite retrieval algorithm, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the 3-D cloud ice water distributions within an 10?° (latitude) x 10?° (longitude) area. During the research period, we have developed, validated and improved our cloud ice water retrievals, and have produced and archived at ARM website as a PI-product of the 3-D cloud ice water contents using combined satellite high-frequency microwave and surface radar observations for SGP March 2000 IOP and TWP-ICE 2006 IOP over 10 deg. x 10 deg. area centered at ARM SGP central facility and Darwin sites. We have also worked on validation of the 3-D ice water product by CloudSat data, synergy with visible/infrared cloud ice water retrievals for better results at low ice water conditions, and created a long-term (several years) of ice water climatology in 10 x 10 deg. area of ARM SGP and TWP sites and then compared it with GCMs.

  9. How large is the subducted water flux? New constraints on mantle regassing1 R. Parai and S. Mukhopadhyay4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    the exosphere at subduction zones,36 carried as pore water and chemically-bound water in sediments, altered referred to as the post-arc subducted water flux (Figure 1). A quantitative43 assessment of the long), structure and style of47 convection (Crowley et al., 2011), and a return flux of exospheric water

  10. ANDREW W. TUNNELL

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of2 of 5) ALARA TrainingANDREW W. TUNNELL t: (205)

  11. Gravitational Tunneling Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz

    2002-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The isolated black hole radiation of both Hawking and Zel'dovich are idealized abstractions as there is always another body to distort the potential. This is considered with respect to both gravitational tunneling, and black hole "no-hair" theorems. The effects of a second body are to lower the gravitational barrier of a black hole and to give the barrier a finite rather than infinite width so tha a particle can escape by tunneling (as in field emission) or over the top of the lowered barrier (as in Schottky emission). Thus radiation may be emitted from black holes in a process differing from that of Hawking radiation, P SH, which has been undetected for over 24 years. The radiated power from a black hole derived here is PR e ^2__ PSH, where e ^2__ is he ransmission probability for radiation through the barrier. This is similar to electric field emission of electrons from a metal in that the emission can in principle be modulated and beamed. The temperature and entropy of black holes are reexamined. Miniscule black holes herein may help explain the missing mass of the universe, accelerated expansion of the universe, and anomalous rotation of spiral galaxies. A gravitational interference effect for black hole radiation similar to the Aharonov-Bohm effect is also examined.

  12. Two tunnels to inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Johnson, Matthew C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the formation via tunneling of inflating (false-vacuum) bubbles in a true-vacuum background, and the reverse process. Using effective potentials from the junction condition formalism, all true- and false-vacuum bubble solutions with positive interior and exterior cosmological constant, and arbitrary mass are catalogued. We find that tunneling through the same effective potential appears to describe two distinct processes: one in which the initial and final states are separated by a wormhole (the Farhi-Guth-Guven mechanism), and one in which they are either in the same hubble volume or separated by a cosmological horizon. In the zero-mass limit, the first process corresponds to the creation of an inhomogenous universe from nothing, while the second mechanism is equivalent to the nucleation of true- or false-vacuum Coleman-De Luccia bubbles. We compute the probabilities of both mechanisms in the WKB approximation using semiclassical Hamiltonian methods, and find that--assuming both process are allowed--neither mechanism dominates in all regimes.

  13. H-CANYON AIR EXHAUST TUNNEL INSPECTION VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minichan, R.; Fogle, R.; Marzolf, A.

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The H-Canyon at Savannah River Site is a large concrete structure designed for chemical separation processes of radioactive material. The facility requires a large ventilation system to maintain negative pressure in process areas for radioactive contamination control and personnel protection. The ventilation exhaust is directed through a concrete tunnel under the facility which is approximately five feet wide and 8 feet tall that leads to a sand filter and stack. Acidic vapors in the exhaust have had a degrading effect on the surface of the concrete tunnels. Some areas have been inspected; however, the condition of other areas is unknown. Experience from historical inspections with remote controlled vehicles will be discussed along with the current challenge of inspecting levels below available access points. The area of interest in the exhaust tunnel must be accessed through a 14 X 14 inch concrete plug in the floor of the hot gang valve corridor. The purpose for the inspection is to determine the condition of the inside of the air tunnel and establish if there are any structural concerns. Various landmarks, pipe hangers and exposed rebar are used as reference points for the structural engineers when evaluating the current integrity of the air tunnel.

  14. Tunneling study on HTS -digest version-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    Tunneling study on HTS -digest version- Tunneling study on HTS -digest version- #12;Type contact tunneling #12;Tunneling spectra observed with different types of probes. (a):600 m Pt wire, (b):200 m Ag wire of coil shaped and (c):30 m Au wire probes. The corresponding surface SEM image were

  15. Propeller design optimization for tunnel bow thrusters in the bollard pull condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, James R., IV

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunnel bow thrusters are often used by large ships to provide low-speed lateral maneuverability when docking. Required to provide high thrust while essentially at a standstill, the design point for these thrusters is the ...

  16. Relativistic tunneling through opaque barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Leo, Stefano; Leonardi, Vinicius [Department of Applied Mathematics, State University of Campinas, SP 13083-970, Campinas (Brazil)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an analytical study of relativistic tunneling through opaque barriers. We obtain a closed formula for the phase time. This formula is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations and corrects the standard formula obtained by the stationary phase method. An important result is found when the upper limit of the incoming energy distribution coincides with the upper limit of the tunneling zone. In this case, the phase time is proportional to the barrier width.

  17. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy currents on locally disordered graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Shan-Wen; Peres, Nuno M. R.; Santos, J. E.; Ribeiro, R. M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy currents on locally disorderedcharacteristic curves of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)for the calculation of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)

  18. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Graphene and Magnetic Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brar, Victor Watson

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. J. Chen, Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Graphene and MagneticAli Javey Fall 2010 Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of

  19. Amending constructed roadside and urban soils with large volume-based compost applications: effects on water quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Nels Edward

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Mineral nutrients imported in composted dairy manure (CDM) and municipal biosolid (CMB) amendments for highway-rights-of-way and urban landscapes can pose a threat to surface water quality. Treatments were developed to evaluate recommendations...

  20. Development of a wireless sensor unit for tunnel monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheekiralla, Sivaram M. S. L., 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis we describe the development of a wireless sensor module for tunnel monitoring. The tunnel in question is a part of the London Underground system. Construction of a new tunnel beneath the existing tunnel is ...

  1. Tunnel ventilation effectiveness in fire scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colella, Francesco; Rein, Guillermo; Carvel, Ricky O; Torero, Jose L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout most of a tunnel network the ventilation behaviour may be approximated with a simple 1D flow model. However, there are some important - but relatively small - regions of the tunnel that require CFD analysis. The multi-scale model...

  2. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon tomography : a calibration experiment using a water tower tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jourde, Kevin; Marteau, Jacques; d'Ars, Jean de Bremond; Gardien, Serge; Girerd, Claude; Ianigro, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of using secondary cosmic muons to scan the internal structure of a given body has known significant developments since the first archaeological application by Alvarez and collaborators on the Gizah pyramids. Recent applications cover the fields of volcanology, hydrology, civil engineering, mining, archaeology etc. Muon radiography features are essentially identical to those of medical X-ray imaging techniques. It is a contrast densitometry method using the screening effect of the body under study on the natural flux of cosmic muons. This technique is non-invasive and complements the standard geophysical techniques, e.g. electrical tomography or gravimetry. It may be applied to a large variety of geological targets, among which the domes of active volcanoes. In this context muon tomography presents the noticeable advantage to perform measurements of large volumes, with a large aperture, from a distant point, far from the potentially dangerous zones. The same conclusions apply regarding the monitoring...

  3. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  4. Neuroreceptor Activation by Vibration-Assisted Tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoehn, Ross D; Neven, Hartmut; Kais, Sabre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of receptor proteins that sense molecular signals on the exterior of a cell and activate signal transduction pathways within the cell. Modeling how an agonist activates such a receptor is fundamental for an understanding of a wide variety of physiological processes and it is of tremendous value for pharmacology and drug design. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) has been proposed as a model for the mechanism by which olfactory GPCRs are activated by a bound agonist. We apply this hypothesis to GPCRs within the mammalian nervous system using quantum chemical modeling. We found that non-endogenous agonists of the serotonin receptor share a particular IET spectral aspect both amongst each other and with the serotonin molecule: a peak whose intensity scales with the known agonist potencies. We propose an experiential validation of this model by utilizing lysergic acid dimethylamide (DAM-57), an ergot derivative, and its deuterated isotopo...

  5. Chemistry of Water Collected From an Unventilated Drift, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Brian D.; Peterman, Zell E. [WRD/YMPB, U.S. Geological Survey, WRD MS 963, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO, 80225-0046 (United States); Oliver, Thomas A. [WRD/YMPB, S.M. Stoller Corp., c/o U.S. Geological Survey, WRD MS 963, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO, 80225-0046 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water samples (referred to as puddle water samples) were collected from the surfaces of a conveyor belt and plastic sheeting in the unventilated portion of the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift in 2003 and 2005 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The chemistry of these puddle water samples is very different than that of pore water samples from borehole cores in the same region of the Cross Drift or than seepage water samples collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility tunnel in 2005. The origin of the puddle water is condensation on surfaces of introduced materials and its chemistry is dominated by components of the introduced materials. Large CO{sub 2} concentrations may be indicative of localized chemical conditions induced by biologic activity. (authors)

  6. High Tunnels: A First Years Experience Ron Goldy, MSUE and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). This is a report on our experience. Tunnel Construction The tunnel consists of pipe, hardware, wire, plastic in tunnel plants went a foot or more over the stake and had more lateral growth. `Mt. Spring' total fruit

  7. Superconducting Tunnel Junctions as Direct Detectors for Submillimeter Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Superconducting Tunnel Junctions as Direct Detectors for Submillimeter Astronomy A Dissertation 2008 by John Daniel Teufel. All rights reserved. #12;Abstract Superconducting Tunnel Junctions on the of performance of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) as direct detectors for submillimeter radiation. Over

  8. MASON LAB B-7 WIND TUNNEL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS Our wind tunnel is a low speed tunnel with a test section 15"x24" It has a digital controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    MASON LAB B-7 WIND TUNNEL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS Our wind tunnel is a low speed tunnel with a test up to a maximum velocity of about 39M/s (~130 feet/s , 88mph) We have a 2 axis force balance that can measure lift (~25 N) and drag (~8 N) PRECAUTIONS: ALL OBJECTS MUST BE SECURED BEFORE STARTING WIND TUNNEL

  9. Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Joiner, C. A.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Liu, L.; Gu, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, 1520 Middle Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Barrera, S. de la; Feenstra, R. M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene symmetric field effect transistors. Gate control of the tunneling characteristics is observed similar to previously reported results for exfoliated graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene devices. Density-of-states features are observed in the tunneling characteristics of the devices, although without large resonant peaks that would arise from lateral momentum conservation. The lack of distinct resonant behavior is attributed to disorder in the devices, and a possible source of the disorder is discussed.

  10. Enhancement of tunnel magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junction by a superlattice barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C. H.; Hsueh, W. J., E-mail: hsuehwj@ntu.edu.tw [Nanomagnetism Group, Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10660, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunnel magnetoresistance of magnetic tunnel junction improved by a superlattice barrier composed of alternate layers of a nonmagnetic metal and an insulator is proposed. The forbidden band of the superlattice is used to predict the low transmission range in the superlattice barrier. By forbidding electron transport in the anti-parallel configuration, the tunnel magnetoresistance is enhanced in the superlattice junction. The results show that the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio for a superlattice magnetic tunnel junction is greater than that for traditional single or double barrier junctions.

  11. Design and Commissioning of a Wind Tunnel for Integrated Physical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commissioning of a Wind Tunnel for Integrated Physical and Chemical Measurements of PM Dispersing Plume of Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Design and Commissioning of a Wind Tunnel for...

  12. A New Interpretation of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interpretation of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image of Graphite. A New Interpretation of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image of Graphite. Abstract: In this work,...

  13. Ivar Giaever, Tunneling, and Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as Ready for Summer as You Are?Ivar Giaever, Tunneling,

  14. Iowa High Tunnel Fruit and Vegetable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Introduction to High Tunnels 3 Site Selection 10 Soil Management and Fertility 13 High Tunnel Selection 23 High by a competitive grant from the Marketing and Food Systems Initiative of the Leopold Center for Sustainable Center for Sustainable Agriculture. For more information, go to www.leopold.iastate.edu, or call (515

  15. Division of Water, Parts 670-672: Reservoir Releases Regulations (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Water releases from New York State reservoirs are subject to monitoring and regulation; these sections establish rules for the Schoharie, Shandaken Tunnel-Esopus Creek, Cannonsville, Pepacton,...

  16. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Mississippi-Oxford, University, MS 38677 (United States)

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  17. Preliminary studies of tunnel interface response modeling using test data from underground storage facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Bartel, Lewis Clark

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In attempting to detect and map out underground facilities, whether they be large-scale hardened deeply-buried targets (HDBT's) or small-scale tunnels for clandestine border or perimeter crossing, seismic imaging using reflections from the tunnel interface has been seen as one of the better ways to both detect and delineate tunnels from the surface. The large seismic impedance contrast at the tunnel/rock boundary should provide a strong, distinguishable seismic response, but in practice, such strong indicators are often lacking. One explanation for the lack of a good seismic reflection at such a strong contrast boundary is that the damage caused by the tunneling itself creates a zone of altered seismic properties that significantly changes the nature of this boundary. This report examines existing geomechanical data that define the extent of an excavation damage zone around underground tunnels, and the potential impact on rock properties such as P-wave and S-wave velocities. The data presented from this report are associated with sites used for the development of underground repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste; these sites have been excavated in volcanic tuff (Yucca Mountain) and granite (HRL in Sweden, URL in Canada). Using the data from Yucca Mountain, a numerical simulation effort was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the damage zone on seismic responses. Calculations were performed using the parallelized version of the time-domain finitedifference seismic wave propagation code developed in the Geophysics Department at Sandia National Laboratories. From these numerical simulations, the damage zone does not have a significant effect upon the tunnel response, either for a purely elastic case or an anelastic case. However, what was discovered is that the largest responses are not true reflections, but rather reradiated Stoneley waves generated as the air/earth interface of the tunnel. Because of this, data processed in the usual way may not correctly image the tunnel. This report represents a preliminary step in the development of a methodology to convert numerical predictions of rock properties to an estimation of the extent of rock damage around an underground facility and its corresponding seismic velocity, and the corresponding application to design a testing methodology for tunnel detection.

  18. Neuroreceptor Activation by Vibration-Assisted Tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross D. Hoehn; David Nichols; Hartmut Neven; Sabre Kais

    2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of receptor proteins that sense molecular signals on the exterior of a cell and activate signal transduction pathways within the cell. Modeling how an agonist activates such a receptor is fundamental for an understanding of a wide variety of physiological processes and it is of tremendous value for pharmacology and drug design. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) has been proposed as a model for the mechanism by which olfactory GPCRs are activated by a bound agonist. We apply this hypothesis to GPCRs within the mammalian nervous system using quantum chemical modeling. We found that non-endogenous agonists of the serotonin receptor share a particular IET spectral aspect both amongst each other and with the serotonin molecule: a peak whose intensity scales with the known agonist potencies. We propose an experiential validation of this model by utilizing lysergic acid dimethylamide (DAM-57), an ergot derivative, and its deuterated isotopologues; we also provide theoretical predictions for comparison to experiment. If validated our theory may provide new avenues for guided drug design and elevate methods of in silico potency/activity prediction.

  19. Maintenance of Water Quality for Healthy Fish As with any aquarium (small home aquarium or large public aquarium) or pond (indoor or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by calcium and magnesium. It is expressed in terms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). One degree of hardness equals 17ppm CaCO3. Soft water refers to water with 0-75ppm CaCO3 and has the lowest buffering capacity. Moderately hard water has 75-150ppm CaCO3. Hard water has 150-300ppm CaCO3 and very hard water had

  20. Quantitative tunneling spectroscopy of nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    First, Phillip N; Whetten, Robert L; Schaaff, T Gregory

    2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed goals of this collaborative work were to systematically characterize the electronic structure and dynamics of 3-dimensional metal and semiconducting nanocrystals using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES). This report describes progress in the spectroscopic work and in the development of methods for creating and characterizing gold nanocrystals. During the grant period, substantial effort also was devoted to the development of epitaxial graphene (EG), a very promising materials system with outstanding potential for nanometer-scale ballistic and coherent devices ("graphene" refers to one atomic layer of graphitic, sp2 -bonded carbon atoms [or more loosely, few layers]). Funding from this DOE grant was critical for the initial development of epitaxial graphene for nanoelectronics

  1. Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene hexagonal boron nitride graphene junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene ­ hexagonal boron nitride ­ graphene junctions T. Roy1 , L. Liu2 , S. de la Barrera,3 B. Chakrabarti1,4 , Z. R. Hesabi1 , C. A. Joiner1 Abstract: Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate

  2. Molecular engineering of oligomerization and metabolite channeling through a molecular tunnel of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jungwook

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    -23, and Gly-575 from the large subunit of CPS were substituted by mutagenesis with bulkier amino acids in an attempt to obstruct and/or hinder the passage of the unstable intermediate through the carbamate tunnel. The kinetic data are consistent...

  3. Josephson scanning tunneling microscopy -- a local and direct probe of the superconducting order parameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimura, Hikari

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title Josephson scanning tunneling microscopy a local andthe sample using a novel scanning tunneling microscope (STM)discussed. I. INTRODUCTION Scanning tunneling microscopy (

  4. Antenna-coupled Photon Emission from hexagonal Boron Nitride Tunnel Junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parzefall, Markus; Jain, Achint; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Novotny, Lukas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultrafast conversion of electrical to optical signals at the nanoscale is of fundamental interest for data processing, telecommunication and optical interconnects. However, the modulation bandwidths of semiconductor LEDs are limited by the spontaneous recombination rate of electron-hole pairs and the footprint of electrically-driven ultrafast lasers is too large for practical on-chip integration. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junction approaches the ultimate size limit of electronic devices and its operating speed is fundamentally limited only by the tunneling time. Here we study the conversion of electron energy - localized in vertical gold-h-BN-gold tunnel junctions - into free space photons, mediated by resonant slot antennas. Optical antennas efficiently bridge the size-mismatch between nanoscale volumes and far-field radiation and strongly enhance the electron-photon conversion efficiency. We achieve polarized, directional and resonantly enhanced light emission from inelastic electron tunnelin...

  5. Giant amplification of tunnel magnetoresistance in a molecular junction: Molecular spin-valve transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhungana, Kamal B.; Pati, Ranjit, E-mail: patir@mtu.edu [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Amplification of tunnel magnetoresistance by gate field in a molecular junction is the most important requirement for the development of a molecular spin valve transistor. Herein, we predict a giant amplification of tunnel magnetoresistance in a single molecular spin valve junction, which consists of Ru-bis-terpyridine molecule as a spacer between two ferromagnetic nickel contacts. Based on the first-principles quantum transport approach, we show that a modest change in the gate field that is experimentally accessible can lead to a substantial amplification (320%) of tunnel magnetoresistance. The origin of such large amplification is attributed to the spin dependent modification of orbitals at the molecule-lead interface and the resultant Stark effect induced shift in channel position with respect to the Fermi energy.

  6. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Et si la lumire au bout du tunnel du LHC tait cosmique ? En d?autres termes, qu?est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l?Univers ? Car la monte en nergie des acclrateurs de particules nous permet de mieux apprhender l?univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l?Univers ? La matire noire est-elle dtectable au LHC ? L?nergie noire ? Pourquoi l?antimatire accumule au CERN est-elle si rare dans l?Univers ? Et si le CERN a bti sa rputation sur l?exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui oprent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l?volution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d?annes, notre comprhension de l?univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l?apprhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement lies : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester exprimentalement cette vision unifie ? Tout public, entre libre / Rservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  7. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David; Waldhauer, Ann

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  8. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D; Waldhauer, Ann

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  9. Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with epitaxial and textured ferromagnetic layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Austin (Middleton, WI); Yang, Jianhua Joshua (Madison, WI)

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to magnetic tunnel junctions and methods for making the magnetic tunnel junctions. The magnetic tunnel junctions include a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers both of which are epitaxial or textured with respect to the underlying substrate upon which the magnetic tunnel junctions are grown. The magnetic tunnel junctions provide improved magnetic properties, sharper interfaces and few defects.

  10. Axial SiGe Heteronanowire Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs), where on-state tunneling occurs in the Ge drain section, while off-state leakage is dominated by the Si junction in the source. Our...

  11. Multiscale Modelling of Tunnel Ventilation Flows and Fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colella, Francesco

    Tunnels represent a key part of world transportation system with a role both in people and freight transport. Past events show that fire poses a severe threat to safety in tunnels. Indeed in the past decades over four ...

  12. ACCEPTOR COMPLEXES IN GERMANIUM: SYSTEMS WITH TUNNELING HYDROGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, E.E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SYSTEMS WIT! l 7UNNELING HYDROGEN E. E. Haller, B. Joos andSYSTEMS WITH TUNNELING HYDROGEN E. E. Haller, B. Joos and L.SYSTEMS WITH TUNNELING HYDROGEN E. E. Haller, B. Jo6s and L.

  13. Design and Construction of a Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chi

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (LTSTM) was built that we could use in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) system. The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was tested on an existing 3He cryostat and calibrated at room, liquid nitrogen...

  14. Chiral tunneling in single and bilayer graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Tudorovskiy; K. J. A. Reijnders; M. I. Katsnelson

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We review chiral (Klein) tunneling in single-layer and bilayer graphene and present its semiclassical theory, including the Berry phase and the Maslov index. Peculiarities of the chiral tunneling are naturally explained in terms of classical phase space. In a one-dimensional geometry we reduced the original Dirac equation, describing the dynamics of charge carriers in the single layer graphene, to an effective Schr\\"odinger equation with a complex potential. This allowed us to study tunneling in details and obtain analytic formulas. Our predictions are compared with numerical results. We have also demonstrated that, for the case of asymmetric n-p-n junction in single layer graphene, there is total transmission for normal incidence only, side resonances are suppressed.

  15. Water Privatisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zlls, Elisa

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  16. Electron tunneling studies of Mn12-Acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lianxi

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 10 Frame for rotating the tunneling wires in the PLD chamber during deposition. The two black posts are brass that were wrapped with shrink tubing so that the wires can be attached to them and still be insulated from one another. The two white... copper posts that are made from 0.010 diameter bare copper wires. The tunneling wires are first wrapped around the copper posts and then fixed in position with PbSn solder. Although silver print and silver epoxy have also been used to connect the wires...

  17. A seasonal high tunnel is a temporary plastic supported structure, at least 6 feet in height, which modifies the cli-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    resource concerns on private lands with structural and management conservation practices. Applications natural resource benefits from using tunnel struc- tures could include (1) improved plant quality, (2) improved soil quality, and (3) improved water quality through meth- ods such as reduced nutrient

  18. Optical realization of two-boson tunneling dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Longhi

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical realization of the tunneling dynamics of two interacting bosons in a double-well potential, based on light transport in a four-core microstructured fiber, is proposed. The optical setting enables to visualize in a purely classical system the entire crossover from Rabi oscillations to correlated pair tunneling and to tunneling of a fragmented pair in the fermionization limit.

  19. Comparison of Ornithopter Wind Tunnel Force Measurements with Free Flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fearing, Ron

    Comparison of Ornithopter Wind Tunnel Force Measurements with Free Flight Cameron Rose and Ronald S flight force model from wind tunnel data is a practical approach. In this work, we compare the flight, to measured wind tunnel force and moment values. We compare the two data sets at equilibrium as a metric

  20. Josephson inplane and tunneling currents in bilayer quantum Hall system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezawa, Z. F. [Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsitsishvili, G. [Georgia Department of Physics, Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi 0179 (Georgia); Sawada, A. [Research Center for Low Temperature and Materials Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A Bose-Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ? = 1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless in tunneling experiments with various geometries.

  1. Dedicated to Sharing Information About Water Management and the Florida LAKEWATCH Program Volume 60 (2013) LAKEWATCH Continues to be a Large Part of Florida Fish and Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a largemouth bass during a sampling event for the long-term fish monitoring program Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's (FWC) Long-Term Fish Monitoring Program in their water bodies. Focusing more on fish and wildlife (biological integrity

  2. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 23, NO.9, PAGES 1751-1756, SEPTEMBER 1987 Use of Current Meters for Continuous Measurement of Flows in Large Rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    accuracy during ice-free periods, but may contain large errors during winter months with extensive ice cover. The St. Clair River is particularly prone to large ice jams because of practically unlimited ice flow supply provided by Lake Huron and an extensive river delta that retards the passage of these ice

  3. Report on Water Programs at Stanford University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the challenging and risky Coast Range Tunnel 1-month shutdown · Climate change and future SFPUC water supply: statewide per capita reduction by 20% · CA Green Building Standards Code, requiring indoor efficiency Snowpack in Sierras 2030- 2090 Source: Changes in the California snowpack, and snow water predicted

  4. Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformation 8thCalwind IICaneyNW1 8LHInformation

  5. Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformation 8thCalwind IICaneyNW1

  6. Spin-polarized tunneling in MgO-based tunnel junctions with superconducting electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schebaum, Oliver

    We prepared magnetic tunnel junctions with one ferromagnetic and one superconducting AlSi electrode. Pure cobalt electrodes were compared with a CoFeB alloy and the Heusler compound Co[subscript 2]FeAl. The polarization ...

  7. DNA Sequencing via Electron Tunneling Michael Zwolak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zwolak, Michael

    DNA Sequencing via Electron Tunneling Michael Zwolak Department of Physics Oregon State University-cost DNA sequencing methods would revolutionize medicine: a person could have his/her full genome sequenced of "personalized medicine" is hampered today by the high cost and slow speed of DNA sequencing methods. We

  8. Inelastic Tunneling Spectroscopy in Unconventional Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inelastic Tunneling Spectroscopy in Unconventional Superconductors Molecular Vibration and Single Superconductors p.1/13 #12;Old Results R.C. Jaklevic and J. Lambe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1139-1140 (1966 in Unconventional Superconductors p.2/13 #12;STM observation of local inelastic mode B.C. Stipe, M.A Rezaei, and W

  9. Vector particles tunneling from BTZ black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge-Rui Chen; Shiwei Zhou; Yong-Chang Huang

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate vector particles' Hawking radiation from a BTZ black hole. By applying the WKB approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi Ansatz to the Proca equation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. The expected Hawking temperature is recovered.

  10. Scanning Josephson Tunneling Microscopy of Single Crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta with a Conventional Superconducting Tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimura, H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title) Scanning Josephson Tunneling Microscopy of Singlea conventional superconducting scanning tunneling microscopeabstract} (Body) Remarkable scanning tunneling microscopy (

  11. Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1982-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

  12. Understanding and Predicting Changes in Precipitation and Water Availability Under the Influence of Large-Scale Circulation Patterns: Rio Grande and Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khedun, Chundun 1977-

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    of Dissertation ................................................................................... 5 2 INFLUENCE OF LARGE-SCALE CIRCULATION PATTERNS ON PRECIPITATION... ....................................................................................... 9 2.3.3 Pacific Decadal Oscillation ..................................................................... 11 2.4 Methodology ..................................................................................................... 13 2.5 Study Area...

  13. Linear nanometric tunnel junction sensors with exchange pinned sensing layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitao, D. C., E-mail: dleitao@inesc-mn.pt; Silva, A. V.; Cardoso, S. [INESC-MN and IN, Rua Alves Redol 9, 1000-029 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tcnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1000-029 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira, R.; Paz, E.; Deepack, F. L. [INL, Av. Mestre Jose Veiga, 4715-31 Braga (Portugal); Freitas, P. P. [INESC-MN and IN, Rua Alves Redol 9, 1000-029 Lisboa (Portugal); INL, Av. Mestre Jose Veiga, 4715-31 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly sensitive nanosensors with high spatial resolution provide the necessary features for high accuracy imaging of isolated magnetic nanoparticles. In this work, we report the fabrication and characterization of MgO-barrier magnetic tunnel junction nanosensors, with two exchange-pinned electrodes. The perpendicular magnetization configuration for field sensing is set using a two-step annealing process, where the second annealing temperature was optimized to yield patterned sensors responses with improved linearity. The optimized circular nanosensors show sensitivities up to 0.1%/Oe, larger than previously reported for nanometric sensors and comparable to micrometric spin-valves. Our strategy avoids the use of external permanent biasing or demagnetizing fields (large for smaller structures) to achieve a linear response, enabling the control of the linear operation range using only the stack and thus providing a small footprint device.

  14. CMOS Interface Circuits for Spin Tunneling Junction Based Magnetic Random Access Memories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh Saripalli

    2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Magneto resistive memories (MRAM) are non-volatile memories which use magnetic instead of electrical structures to store data. These memories, apart from being non-volatile, offer a possibility to achieve densities better than DRAMs and speeds faster than SRAMs. MRAMs could potentially replace all computer memory RAM technologies in use today, leading to future applications like instan-on computers and longer battery life for pervasive devices. Such rapid development was made possible due to the recent discovery of large magnetoresistance in Spin tunneling junction devices. Spin tunneling junctions (STJ) are composite structures consisting of a thin insulating layer sandwiched between two magnetic layers. This thesis research is targeted towards these spin tunneling junction based Magnetic memories. In any memory, some kind of an interface circuit is needed to read the logic states. In this thesis, four such circuits are proposed and designed for Magnetic memories (MRAM). These circuits interface to the Spin tunneling junctions and act as sense amplifiers to read their magnetic states. The physical structure and functional characteristics of these circuits are discussed in this thesis. Mismatch effects on the circuits and proper design techniques are also presented. To demonstrate the functionality of these interface structures, test circuits were designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35{micro} CMOS process. Also circuits to characterize the process mismatches were fabricated and tested. These results were then used in Matlab programs to aid in design process and to predict interface circuit's yields.

  15. Direct observation of electron emission from the grain boundaries of chemical vapour deposition diamond films by tunneling atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    .1063/1.3475506 Direct observation of electron emission site on boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films using or energy harvesting devices. Electron emission studies usually use doped polycrystalline diamond films observation of the emission sites over a large area of polycrystalline diamond using tunneling atomic force

  16. Graphene on Ru(0001) Moire Corrugation Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy on Au/Graphene/Ru(0001) Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciobanu, Cristian

    Graphene on Ru(0001) Moire Corrugation Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy on Au/Graphene on graphene/Ru(0001) were used to study the corrugation of the moire structure of graphene/Ru(0001 for the graphene/Ru(0001) moire is of structural nature rather than electronic. STM showed a large value

  17. Determination of leaf area index of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and its relationship to site water balance across a large precipitation gradient in East Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebert, Mark Thomas

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    zones and the four soil groups. 4 Relationship between PCA LAI (summer 1994 and 1995) and allometric LAI Page . 12 . 18 . 19 5 Relationship between LAI (littertrap) and PCA LAI (summer 1994 and 1995) and allornetric LAI . . 20 6 Relationship... increase of only 2' C for the months of June through September significantly reduced canopy biomass production. This was attributed to increased potential evapotraspiration (PET, from the higher temperature) and decreased soil water storage which together...

  18. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  19. The Emergent Universe scheme and tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labraa, Pedro [Departamento de Fsica, Universidad del Bo-Bo, Avenida Collao 1202, Casilla 5-C, Concepcin, Chile and Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Matria and Institut de Cincies del Cosmos, Universitat (Spain)

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an alternative scheme for an Emergent Universe scenario, developed previously in Phys. Rev. D 86, 083524 (2012), where the universe is initially in a static state supported by a scalar field located in a false vacuum. The universe begins to evolve when, by quantum tunneling, the scalar field decays into a state of true vacuum. The Emergent Universe models are interesting since they provide specific examples of non-singular inflationary universes.

  20. Large grain growth of Ge-rich Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} (x???0.02) on insulating surfaces using pulsed laser annealing in flowing water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurosawa, Masashi, E-mail: kurosawa@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); JSPS, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Taoka, Noriyuki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate Sn incorporation effects on the growth characteristics of Ge-rich Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} (x?water. Despite the very low Sn content of 2%, Sn atoms within the GeSn layers play a role in preventing ablation and aggregation of the layers during these PLA. Raman and electron backscatter diffraction measurements demonstrate achievement of large-grain (?800?nm?) growth of Ge{sub 0.98}Sn{sub 0.02} polycrystals by using PLA in water. These polycrystals also show a tensile-strain of ?0.68%. This result opens up the possibility for developing GeSn-based devices fabricated on flexible substrates as well as Si platforms.

  1. Tunneling spectroscopy of superconducting MoN and NbTiN grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groll, Nickolas R., E-mail: ngroll@anl.gov; Klug, Jeffrey A.; Claus, Helmut; Pellin, Michael J.; Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: proslier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Cao, Chaoyue; Becker, Nicholas G.; Zasadzinski, John F. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Altin, Serdar [Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Inonu Universitesi, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A tunneling spectroscopy study is presented of superconducting MoN and Nb{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}N thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The films exhibited a superconducting gap of 2?meV and 2.4?meV, respectively, with a corresponding critical temperature of 11.5?K and 13.4?K, among the highest reported T{sub c} values achieved by the ALD technique. Tunnel junctions were obtained using a mechanical contact method with a Au tip. While the native oxides of these films provided poor tunnel barriers, high quality tunnel junctions with low zero bias conductance (below ?10%) were obtained using an artificial tunnel barrier of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the film's surface grown ex situ by ALD. We find a large critical current density on the order of 4??10{sup 6}?A/cm{sup 2} at T?=?0.8T{sub c} for a 60?nm MoN film and demonstrate conformal coating capabilities of ALD onto high aspect ratio geometries. These results suggest that the ALD technique offers significant promise for thin film superconducting device applications.

  2. Time Evolution of Tunneling in Thermal Medium -- Environment-driven Excited Tunneling --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sh. Matsumoto; M. Yoshimura

    2003-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Time evolution of tunneling phenomena proceeding in thermal medium is studied using a standard model of environment interaction. A semiclassical probability formula for the particle motion in a metastable state of one dimensional system put in thermal medium is combined with the formula of quantum penetration factor through a potential barrier, to derive the tunneling rate in medium. Effect of environment, its influence on time evolution in particular, is clarified in a real-time formalism. A nonlinear resonance effect is shown to enhance the tunneling rate at finite times of order $2/\\eta $, with $\\eta $ the friction coefficient. In the linear approximation this effect has relevance to the parametric resonance. This effect enhances the possibility of early termination of the cosmological phase transition much prior to the typical Hubble time.

  3. An analysis of three nuclear events in P-Tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fourney, W.L.; Dick, R.D. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States); Taylor, S.R.; Weaver, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines experimental results obtained from three P Tunnel events -- Mission Cyber, Disko Elm, and Distant Zenith. The objective of the study was to determine if there were any differences in the explosive source coupling for the three events. It was felt that Mission Cyber might not have coupled well because the ground motions recorded for that event were much lower than expected based on experience from N Tunnel. Detailed examination of the physical and chemical properties of the tuff in the vicinity of each explosion indicated only minor differences. In general, the core samples are strong and competent out to at least 60 m from each working point. Qualitative measures of core sample strength indicate that the strength of the tuff near Mission Cyber may be greater than indicated by results of static testing. Slight differences in mineralogic content and saturation of the Mission Cyber tuff were noted relative to the other two tests, but probably would not result in large differences in ground motions. Examination of scaled free-field stress and acceleration records collected by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) indicated that Disko Elm showed the least scatter and Distant Zenith the most scatter. Mission Cyber measurements tend to lie slightly below those of Distant Zenith, but still within two standard deviations. Analysis of regional seismic data from networks operated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and SNL also show no evidence of Mission Cyber coupling low relative to the other two events. The overall conclusion drawn from the study is that there were no basic differences in the way that the explosions coupled to the rock.

  4. Interference effects in tunnelling of "cat" wave packet states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Sokolovski

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyse tunnelling of a single particle, whose initial state is given by a superposition of spatially separated wave packet modes. It is shown that "pile up" of different components the scatterer may change the tunnelling probabilities, making such states a convenient tool for probing the barrier's scattering times. Interference effects arising in resonance tunnelling in are studied in detail. The analysis allows us to gain further insight into the origin of interference effects in scattering of several identical particles.

  5. Ferroelectric tunneling element and memory applications which utilize the tunneling element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalinin, Sergei V. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Christen, Hans M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Baddorf, Arthur P. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Meunier, Vincent (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Lee, Ho Nyung (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A tunneling element includes a thin film layer of ferroelectric material and a pair of dissimilar electrically-conductive layers disposed on opposite sides of the ferroelectric layer. Because of the dissimilarity in composition or construction between the electrically-conductive layers, the electron transport behavior of the electrically-conductive layers is polarization dependent when the tunneling element is below the Curie temperature of the layer of ferroelectric material. The element can be used as a basis of compact 1R type non-volatile random access memory (RAM). The advantages include extremely simple architecture, ultimate scalability and fast access times generic for all ferroelectric memories.

  6. The impact of disorder on charge transport in three dimensional quantum dot resonant tunneling structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puthen-Veettil, B., E-mail: b.puthen-veettil@unsw.edu.au; Patterson, R.; Knig, D.; Conibeer, G.; Green, M. A. [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, UNSW, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient iso-entropic energy filtering of electronic waves can be realized through nanostructures with three dimensional confinement, such as quantum dot resonant tunneling structures. Large-area deployment of such structures is useful for energy selective contacts but such configuration is susceptible to structural disorders. In this work, the transport properties of quantum-dot-based wide-area resonant tunneling structures, subject to realistic disorder mechanisms, are studied. Positional variations of the quantum dots are shown to reduce the resonant transmission peaks while size variations in the device are shown to reduce as well as broaden the peaks. Increased quantum dot size distribution also results in a peak shift to lower energy which is attributed to large dots dominating transmission. A decrease in barrier thickness reduces the relative peak height while the overall transmission increases dramatically due to lower series resistance. While any shift away from ideality can be intuitively expected to reduce the resonance peak, quantification allows better understanding of the tolerances required for fabricating structures based on resonant tunneling phenomena/.

  7. Calculation of tunneling rates across a barrier with continuous potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sina Khorasani

    2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, approximate, but accurate expressions for calculation of wavefunctions and tunneling rates are obtained using the method of uniform asymptotic expansion.

  8. Tunneling in Polymer Quantization and the Quantum Zeno Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durmus Ali Demir; Ozan Sargin

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    As an application of the polymer quantization scheme, in this work we investigate the one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling phenomenon from the perspective of polymer representation of a non-relativistic point particle and derive the transmission and reflection coefficients. Since any tunneling phenomenon inevitably evokes a tunneling time we attempt an analytical calculation of tunneling times by defining an operator well suited in discrete spatial geometry. The results that we come up with hint at appearance of the Quantum Zeno Effect in polymer framework.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A FAST-RUNNING TOOL TO CHARACTERIZE SHOCK DAMAGE WITHIN TUNNEL STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, L; Morris, J; Glenn, L; Krnjajic, M

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful but time-intensive use of high-fidelity computational capabilities for shock loading events and resultant effects on and within enclosed structures, e.g., tunnels, has led to an interest in developing more expedient methods of analysis. While several tools are currently available for the general study of the failure of structures under dynamic shock loads at a distance, presented are a pair of statistics- and physics-based tools that can be used to differentiate different types of damage (e.g., breach versus yield) as well as quantify the amount of damage within tunnels for loads close-in and with standoff. Use of such faster running tools allows for scoping and planning of more detailed model and test analysis and provides a way to address parametric sensitivity over a large multivariate space.

  10. Potential for tunneling based on rock and soil melting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowley, J.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rock-melting drill was invented at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1960. Electrically heated, laboratory-scale drills were subsequently shown to penetrate igneous rocks at usefully high rates, with moderate power consumptions. The development of compact nuclear reactors and of heat pipes now makes possible the extension of this technology to much larger melting penetrators, potentially capable of producing holes up to several meters in diameter and several tens of kilometers long or deep. Development of a rapid, versatile, economical method of boring large, long shafts and tunnels offers solutions to many of man's most urgent ecological, scientific, raw-materials, and energy-supply problems. A melting method appears to be the most promising and flexible means of producing such holes. It is relatively insensitive to the composition, hardness, structure, and temperature of the rock, and offers the possibilities of producing self-supporting, glass-lined holes in almost any formation and (using a technique called lithofracturing) of eliminating the debris-removal problem by forcing molten rock into cracks created in the bore wall. Large rock-melting penetrators, called Electric Subterrenes or Nuclear Subterrenes according to the energy source used, are discussed in this report, together with problems anticipated in their development. It is concluded that this development is within the grasp of present technology.

  11. Soil erosion rates caused by wind and saltating sand stresses in a wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind erosion tests were performed in a wind tunnel in support of the development of long-term protective barriers to cap stabilized waste sites at the Hanford Site. Controlled wind and saltating sand erosive stresses were applied to physical models of barrier surface layers to simulate worst-case eolian erosive stresses. The goal of these tests was to provide information useful to the design and evaluation of the surface layer composition of an arid-region waste site barrier concept that incorporates a deep fine-soil reservoir. A surface layer composition is needed that will form an armor resistant to eolian erosion during periods of extreme dry climatic conditions, especially when such conditions result in the elimination or reduction of vegetation by water deprivation or wildfire. Because of the life span required of Hanford waste barriers, it is important that additional work follow these wind tunnel studies. A modeling effort is planned to aid the interpretation of test results with respect to the suitability of pea gravel to protect the finite-soil reservoir during long periods of climatic stress. It is additionally recommended that wind tunnel tests be continued and field data be obtained at prototype or actual barrier sites. Results wig contribute to barrier design efforts and provide confidence in the design of long-term waste site caps for and regions.

  12. Radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy U. Kemiktarak1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS Radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy U. Kemiktarak1 , T. Ndukum3 , K. C. Schwab3 measurementsinmesoscopicelectronicsandmechanics. Broadband noise measurements across the tunnel junction using this radio-frequency STM available from nanoscale optical and electrical displacement detection tech- niques, and the radio

  13. Tunneling of Graphene Massive Dirac Fermions through a Double Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hocine Bahlouli; El Bouazzaoui Choubabi; Ahmed Jellal; Miloud Mekkaoui

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the tunneling of Dirac fermions in graphene through a double barrier potential allowing the carriers to have an effective mass inside the barrier as generated by a lattice miss-match with the boron nitride substrate. The consequences of this gap opening on the transmission are investigated. The realization of resonant tunneling conditions is also analyzed.

  14. Long-term behaviour of twin tunnels in London clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laver, Richard George

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Offset of maximum horizontal displacement from tunnel cen- treline ARS Coefficient in relative settlement equation, see equation (8.19) AT Cross-sectional area of tunnel Atw Multiple of i defining extent of full trough width B Pore pressure coefficient...

  15. High Tunnel Crop Production Tips Lewis W. Jett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    . Specifically, high tunnels are passively vented, solar greenhouses covered with 1-2 layers of greenhouse perpendicular (at right angles) to the prevailing winds on your farm. Generally, this is a north-south direction supplemental heating systems? High tunnels should be designed and managed as passively vented and solar heated

  16. Water Interactions with Terminal Hydroxyls on TiO2 (110). | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions with Terminal Hydroxyls on TiO2 (110). Water Interactions with Terminal Hydroxyls on TiO2 (110). Abstract: A combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and density...

  17. Computational Role of Multiqubit Tunneling in a Quantum Annealer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio Boixo; Vadim N. Smelyanskiy; Alireza Shabani; Sergei V. Isakov; Mark Dykman; Vasil S. Denchev; Mohammad Amin; Anatoly Smirnov; Masoud Mohseni; Hartmut Neven

    2015-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum tunneling, a phenomenon in which a quantum state traverses energy barriers above the energy of the state itself, has been hypothesized as an advantageous physical resource for optimization. Here we show that multiqubit tunneling plays a computational role in a currently available, albeit noisy, programmable quantum annealer. We develop a non-perturbative theory of open quantum dynamics under realistic noise characteristics predicting the rate of many-body dissipative quantum tunneling. We devise a computational primitive with 16 qubits where quantum evolutions enable tunneling to the global minimum while the corresponding classical paths are trapped in a false minimum. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum tunneling can outperform thermal hopping along classical paths for problems with up to 200 qubits containing the computational primitive. Our results indicate that many-body quantum phenomena could be used for finding better solutions to hard optimization problems.

  18. Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Amit; Grace Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height of the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.

  19. A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1998-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.

  20. The tunneling hamiltonian representation of false vacuum decay V. Application to cosmological constant question

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. W. Beckwith

    2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The tunneling Hamiltonian has proven to be a useful method in many body physics to treat particle tunneling between different states represented as wavefunctions. Here we apply a generalization of the way we formed appropriate wave functionals for charge density waves to how to present nucleation of an inflationary universe. This allows us to make a first order phase transition to initiate nucleation of an inflationary universe, in which tunneling between states which are wave functionals of a scalar quantum field are considered. Our prior article showed us how we can have particle - anti particle pairs as a model of how nucleation occurs and construct a potential which may permit formation of dark matter, using Sherrers k essence model construction. This same construction permits a definitive analysis of when conditions for pure cosmological constant behavior but no growth of density pertubations occur, largely as a matter of change of slope of a soliton-anti soliton pair during the nucleation process of a new universe.

  1. Multiple percolation tunneling staircase in metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Rupam; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Nadgorny, Boris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple percolation transitions are observed in a binary system of RuO{sub 2}-CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites near percolation thresholds. Apart from a classical percolation transition, associated with the appearance of a continuous conductance path through RuO{sub 2} metal oxide nanoparticles, at least two additional tunneling percolation transitions are detected in this composite system. Such behavior is consistent with the recently emerged picture of a quantum conductivity staircase, which predicts several percolation tunneling thresholds in a system with a hierarchy of local tunneling conductance, due to various degrees of proximity of adjacent conducting particles distributed in an insulating matrix. Here, we investigate a different type of percolation tunneling staircase, associated with a more complex conductive and insulating particle microstructure of two types of non-spherical constituents. As tunneling is strongly temperature dependent, we use variable temperature measurements to emphasize the hierarchical nature of consecutive tunneling transitions. The critical exponents corresponding to specific tunneling percolation thresholds are found to be nonuniversal and temperature dependent.

  2. Massless neutrino oscillations via quantum tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hai-Long

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order for different kinds of neutrino to transform into each other, the eigenvalues of energy of neutrino must be different. In the present theory of neutrino oscillations, this is guaranteed by the mass differences between the different eigenstates of neutrino. Thus neutrino cannot oscillate if it is massless. We suggest an explanation for neutrino oscillations by analogy with the oscillation of quantum two-state system, where the flipping of one state into the other may be regarded as a process of quantum tunneling and the required energy difference between the two eigenstates comes from the barrier potential energy. So neutrino with vanishing mass can also oscillate. One of the advantages of the explanation is that neutrino can still be described with Weyl equation within the framework of standard model.

  3. Massless neutrino oscillations via quantum tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hai-Long Zhao

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In order for different kinds of neutrino to transform into each other, the eigenvalues of energy of neutrino must be different. In the present theory of neutrino oscillations, this is guaranteed by the mass differences between the different eigenstates of neutrino. Thus neutrino cannot oscillate if it is massless. We suggest an explanation for neutrino oscillations by analogy with the oscillation of quantum two-state system, where the flipping of one state into the other may be regarded as a process of quantum tunneling and the required energy difference between the two eigenstates comes from the barrier potential energy. So neutrino with vanishing mass can also oscillate. One of the advantages of the explanation is that neutrino can still be described with Weyl equation within the framework of standard model.

  4. Wavevector Selective Metasurfaces and Tunnel Vision Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedotov, Vassili A; Walther, Markus; Perino, Mauro; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metasurfaces offer unprecedented flexibility in the design and control of light propagation, replacing bulk optical components and exhibiting exotic optical effects. One of the basic properties of the metasurfaces, which renders them as frequency selective surfaces, is the ability to transmit or reflect radiation within a narrow spectral band that can be engineered on demand. Here we introduce and demonstrate experimentally in the THz domain the concept of wavevector selective surfaces -- metasurfaces transparent only within a narrow range of light propagation directions operating effectively as tunnel vision filters. Practical implementations of the new concept include applications in wavefront manipulation, observational instruments, vision and free-space communication in light-scattering environments, as well as passive camouflage.

  5. Resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Galda, Alexey; Mel'nikov, A. S.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting fluctuations have proved to be an irreplaceable source of information about microscopic and macroscopic material parameters that could be inferred from the experiment. According to common wisdom, the effect of thermodynamic fluctuations in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, is to round off all of the sharp corners and discontinuities, which otherwise would have been expected to occur at Tc. Here we report the current spikes due to radiation-induced resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs between two superconductors which grow even sharper and more pronounced upon approach to Tc. This striking effect offers an unprecedented tool formoredirect measurements of fluctuation Cooper pair lifetime, which is key to our understanding of the fluctuation regime, most notably to nature of the pseudogap state in high-temperature superconductors. Our finding marks a radical departure from the conventional view of superconducting fluctuations as a blurring and rounding phenomenon.less

  6. Modeling direct interband tunneling. II. Lower-dimensional structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Andrew, E-mail: pandrew@ucla.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the applicability of the two-band Hamiltonian and the widely used Kane analytical formula to interband tunneling along unconfined directions in nanostructures. Through comparisons with kp and tight-binding calculations and quantum transport simulations, we find that the primary correction is the change in effective band gap. For both constant fields and realistic tunnel field-effect transistors, dimensionally consistent band gap scaling of the Kane formula allows analytical and numerical device simulations to approximate non-equilibrium Green's function current characteristics without arbitrary fitting. This allows efficient first-order calibration of semiclassical models for interband tunneling in nanodevices.

  7. Computational modeling of electrophotonics nanomaterials: Tunneling in double quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlahovic, Branislav, E-mail: vlahovic@nccu.edu; Filikhin, Igor, E-mail: vlahovic@nccu.edu [Department of Physics, North Carolina Central University, 1801 Fayetteville Street, Durham, North Carolina 27707 (United States)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Single electron localization and tunneling in double quantum dots (DQD) and rings (DQR) and in particular the localized-delocalized states and their spectral distributions are considered in dependence on the geometry of the DQDs (DQRs). The effect of violation of symmetry of DQDs geometry on the tunneling is studied in details. The cases of regular and chaotic geometries are considered. It will be shown that a small violation of symmetry drastically affects localization of electron and that anti-crossing of the levels is the mechanism of tunneling between the localized and delocalized states in DQRs.

  8. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  9. Theoretical relation between water flow rate in a vertical fracture and rock temperature in the surrounding massif

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchal, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady-state analytical solution is given describing the temperature distribution in a homogeneous massif perturbed by cold water flow through a discrete vertical fracture. A relation is derived to express the flow rate in the fracture as a function of the temperature measured in the surrounding rock. These mathematical results can be useful for tunnel drilling as it approaches a vertical cold water bearing structure that induces a thermal anomaly in the surrounding massif. During the tunnel drilling, by monitoring this anomaly along the tunnel axis one can quantify the flow rate in the discontinuity ahead before intersecting the fracture. The cases of the Simplon, Mont Blanc and Gotthard tunnels (Alps) are handled with this approach which shows very good agreement between observed temperatures and the theoretical trend. The flow rates before drilling of the tunnel predicted with the theoretical solution are similar in the Mont Blanc and Simplon cases, as well as the flow rates observed during the drilling....

  10. Response of continuous pipelines to tunnel induced ground deformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ieronymaki, Evangelia S

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops analytical solutions for estimating the bending moments and axial loads in a buried pipeline due to ground movements caused by tunnel construction in soft ground. The solutions combine closed-form, ...

  11. Hawking Radiation as Tunneling: the D-dimensional rotating case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Nadalini; L. Vanzo; S. Zerbini

    2005-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The tunneling method for the Hawking radiation is revisited and applied to the $D$ dimensional rotating case. Emphasis is given to covariance of results. Certain ambiguities afflicting the procedure are resolved.

  12. Hydrogen adsorption on Ru(001) studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatarkhanov, Mous; Rose, Franck; Fomin, Evgeny; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    001) and first hydrogen adsorption structure with (?3?3)R30Hydrogen adsorption on Ru(001) studied by Scanning TunnelingCA 94720 Keywords: STM, Adsorption, Dissociation; Hydrogen,

  13. Effect of anisotropy in ground movements caused by tunnelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zymnis, Despina Maria

    This paper presents closed-form analytical solutions for estimating far-field ground deformations caused by shallow tunnelling in a linear elastic soil mass with cross-anisotropic stiffness properties. The solutions describe ...

  14. Effect of existing building on tunneling-induced ground movements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Law, Rachel Hoi-chee

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this thesis is to assess the influence of an existing structure on tunneling-induced ground movements. This is accomplished through 2D numerical simulations that are compared with similar prior studies reported ...

  15. Resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of Mn?? acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lendinez, S. [Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Billinge, S. J. L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Zarzuela, R. [Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Tejada, J. [Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Terban, M. W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Espin, J. [Univ. Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Imaz, I. [Univ. Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Maspoch, D. [Univ. Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Chudnovsky, E. M. [City Univ. of New York, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements and theoretical analysis of resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of a molecular magnet. Amorphous nanospheres of Mn?? acetate have been fabricated and characterized by chemical, infrared, TEM, X-ray, and magnetic methods. Magnetic measurements have revealed sharp tunneling peaks in the field derivative of the magnetization that occur at the typical resonant field values for the Mn?? acetate crystal in the field parallel to the easy axis.Theoretical analysis is provided that explains these observations. We argue that resonant spin tunneling in a molecular magnet can be established in a powder sample, without the need for a single crystal and without aligning the easy magnetization axes of the molecules. This is confirmed by re-analyzing the old data on a powdered sample of non-oriented micron-size crystals of Mn?? acetate. Our findings can greatly simplify the selection of candidates for quantum spin tunneling among newly synthesized molecular magnets.

  16. Tunneling from super- to normal-deformed minima in nuclei.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khoo, T. L.

    1998-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An excited minimum, or false vacuum, gives rise to a highly elongated superdeformed (SD) nucleus. A brief review of superdeformation is given, with emphasis on the tunneling from the false to the true vacuum, which occurs in the feeding and decay of SD bands. During the feeding process the tunneling is between hot states, while in the decay it is from a cold to a hot state. The {gamma} spectra connecting SD and normal-deformed (ND) states provide information on several physics issues: the decay mechanism; the spin/parity quantum numbers, energies and microscopic structures of SD bands; the origin of identical SD bands; the quenching of pairing with excitation energy; and the chaoticity of excited ND states at 2.5-5 MeV. Other examples of tunneling in nuclei, which are briefly described, include the possible role of tunneling in {Delta}I = 4 bifurcation in SD bands, sub-barrier fusion and proton emitters.

  17. UNSTEADY WIND TUNNEL CONTROL OF STABILITY AND TRANSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fluid Mechanics #12;UNSTEADY WIND TUNNEL 3-D BOUNDARY LAYERS CROSSFLOW Swept Wing Rotating Disk INSTABILITY MECHANISMS Leading-edge contamination Streamwise instabilities Crossflow instabilities AT ASU BASIC CROSSFLOW EXPERIMENT with Ray Dagenhart 1988, 1989 isolate crossflow mechanism from T

  18. annular josephson tunnel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of an order of magnitude and the corresponding lifetime of about seven decades. R. Yamapi; G. Filatrella 2014-06-24 458 Emergent Universe by Tunneling HEP - Theory (arXiv)...

  19. One Hair Postulate for Hawking Radiation as Tunneling Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Dong; Qing-yu Cai; X. F. Liu; C. P. Sun

    2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    For Hawking radiation, treated as a tunneling process, the no-hair theorem of black hole together with the law of energy conservation is utilized to postulate that the tunneling rate only depends on the external qualities (e.g., the mass for the Schwarzschild black hole) and the energy of the radiated particle. This postulate is justified by the WKB approximation for calculating the tunneling probability. Based on this postulate, a general formula for the tunneling probability is derived without referring to the concrete form of black hole metric. This formula implies an intrinsic correlation between the successive processes of the black hole radiation of two or more particles. It also suggests a kind of entropy conservation and thus resolves the puzzle of black hole information loss in some sense.

  20. Hawking Radiation as Tunnelling in Static Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenbiao Liu

    2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hawking radiation can usefully be viewed as a semi-classical tunnelling process that originates at the black hole horizon. The conservation of energy implies the effect of self-gravitation. For a static black hole, a generalized Painleve coordinate system is introduced, and Hawking radiation as tunnelling under the effect of self-gravitation is investigated. The corrected radiation is consistent with the underlying unitary theory.

  1. Hawking Radiation as Tunnelling in Static Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hawking radiation can usefully be viewed as a semi-classical tunnelling process that originates at the black hole horizon. The conservation of energy implies the effect of self-gravitation. For a static black hole, a generalized Painleve coordinate system is introduced, and Hawking radiation as tunnelling under the effect of self-gravitation is investigated. The corrected radiation is consistent with the underlying unitary theory.

  2. Fabrication of a gated gallium arsenide heterostructure resonant tunneling diode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinard, William Brian

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) William Brian Kinard, B. S, Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Mark H. Weichold The objective of this research was to design and fabricate a device capable of electrically contrulhng current through a vertical resonant tunneling diode.... Addi- tionally, this modulation of current must not aB'ect the normal cperation of the resonant tunneling diode such as shifting resonant bias. Device arrays of various sizes were successfully 1'abricated for the first time utilizing unique...

  3. Computational Role of Collective Tunneling in a Quantum Annealer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio Boixo; Vadim N. Smelyanskiy; Alireza Shabani; Sergei V. Isakov; Mark Dykman; Vasil S. Denchev; Mohammad Amin; Anatoly Smirnov; Masoud Mohseni; Hartmut Neven

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum tunneling is a phenomenon in which a quantum state traverses energy barriers above the energy of the state itself. Tunneling has been hypothesized as an advantageous physical resource for optimization. Here we present the first experimental evidence of a computational role of multiqubit quantum tunneling in the evolution of a programmable quantum annealer. We develop a theoretical model based on a NIBA Quantum Master Equation to describe the multiqubit dissipative tunneling effects under the complex noise characteristics of such quantum devices. We start by considering a computational primitive, an optimization problem consisting of just one global and one false minimum. The quantum evolutions enable tunneling to the global minimum while the corresponding classical paths are trapped in a false minimum. In our study the non-convex potentials are realized by frustrated networks of qubit clusters with strong intra-cluster coupling. We show that the collective effect of the quantum environment is suppressed in the "critical" phase during the evolution where quantum tunneling "decides" the right path to solution. In a later stage dissipation facilitates the multiqubit tunneling leading to the solution state. The predictions of the model accurately describe the experimental data from the D-Wave Two quantum annealer at NASA Ames. In our computational primitive the temperature dependence of the probability of success in the quantum model is opposite to that of the classical paths with thermal hopping. Specifically, we provide an analysis of an optimization problem with sixteen qubits, demonstrating eight qubit tunneling that increases success probabilities. Furthermore, we report results for larger problems with up to 200 qubits that contain the primitive as subproblems.

  4. Theory of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Tunnelling in Cuprate Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Beanland; A. S. Alexandrov

    2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A theory capable of explaining intrinsic and extrinsic tunnelling conductance in underdoped cuprates has been devised that accounts for the existence of two energy scales, their temperature and doping dependencies. The asymmetry and inhomogeneity seen in extrinsic (normal metal - superconductor (NS)) tunnelling and the normal-state gapped intrinsic (SS) conductance is explained, as well as the superconducting gap and normal state pseudogap and the temperature dependence of the full gap.

  5. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and High Pressure X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of Adsorbate Structure, Composition and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions on A Model Single Crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montano, M.O.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guntherodt, H. -J. , Eds. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy III;157. Chapter 7 : High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopypressure high-temperature scanning tunneling microscope and

  6. Two-Color Ultrafast Photoexcited Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camillone, N.; Dolocan, A.; Acharya, D.P.; Zahl, P.; Sutter, P.

    2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on two-color two-photon photoexcitation of a metal surface driven by ultrafast laser pulses and detected with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip as a proximate anode. Results are presented for two cases: (i) where the tip is retracted from the surface far enough to prohibit tunneling, and (ii) where the tip is within tunneling range of the surface. A delay-modulation technique is implemented to isolate the two-color photoemission from concurrent one-color two-photon photoemission and provide subpicosecond time-resolved detection. When applied with the tip in tunneling range, this approach effectively isolates the two-photon photoexcited current signal from the conventional tunneling current and enables subpicosecond time-resolved detection of the photoexcited surface electrons. The advantage of the two-color approach is highlighted by comparison with the one-color case where optical interference causes thermal modulation of the STM tip length, resulting in tunneling current modulations that are orders of magnitude larger than the current due to photoexcitation of surface electrons. By completely eliminating this interference, and thereby avoiding thermal modulation of the STM tip length, the two-color approach represents an important step toward the ultimate goal of simultaneous subnanometer and subpicosecond measurements of surface electron dynamics by ultrafast-laser-excited STM.

  7. Resonant tunneling with high peak to valley current ratio in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D. Y., E-mail: cdy7659@126.com [Department of Physics, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic, materials, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Nanjing University of posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Sun, Y.; He, Y. J. [Nanjing University of posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Xu, L.; Xu, J. [Department of Physics, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic, materials, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated carrier transport in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers by room temperature current-voltage measurements. Resonant tunneling signatures accompanied by current peaks are observed. Carrier transport in the multi-layers were analyzed by plots of ln(I/V{sup 2}) as a function of 1/V and ln(I) as a function of V{sup 1/2}. Results suggest that besides films quality, nc-Si and barrier sub-layer thicknesses are important parameters that restrict carrier transport. When thicknesses are both small, direct tunneling dominates carrier transport, resonant tunneling occurs only at certain voltages and multi-resonant tunneling related current peaks can be observed but with peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) values smaller than 1.5. When barrier thickness is increased, trap-related and even high field related tunneling is excited, causing that multi-current peaks cannot be observed clearly, only one current peak with higher PVCR value of 7.7 can be observed. While if the thickness of nc-Si is large enough, quantum confinement is not so strong, a broad current peak with PVCR value as high as 60 can be measured, which may be due to small energy difference between the splitting energy levels in the quantum dots of nc-Si. Size distribution in a wide range may cause un-controllability of the peak voltages.

  8. Ventilation and Suppression Systems in Road Tunnels: Some Issues regarding their Appropriate Use in a Fire Emergency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvel, Ricky O; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    Two important tunnel safety technologies are addressed. The majority of long road tunnels have ventilation systems. In the event of a fire in a tunnel, such systems will influence fire development in a number of different ...

  9. Calculation and design of tunnel ventilation systems using a two-scale modelling approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colella, Francesco; Rein, Guillermo; Borchiellini, Romano; Carvel, Ricky O; Torero, Jose L; Verda, Vittorio

    This paper develops a novel modelling approach for ventilation flow in tunnels at ambient conditions (i.e. cold flow). The complexity of full CFD models of low in tunnels or the inaccuracies of simplistic assumptions are avoided by efficiently...

  10. Analysis of the ventilation systems in the Dartford tunnels using a multiscale modelling approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colella, Francesco; Rein, Guillermo; Carvel, Ricky O; Reszka, Pedro; Torero, Jose L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capabilities of the ventilation systems in the two road tunnels at Dartford (London, UK) are analysed using a multi-scale modelling approach. Both tunnels have complex semi-transverse ventilation systems with jet fans to control longitudinal...

  11. EFFECT OF PREPARATION PARAMETERS ON LIGHT SENSITIVITY IN SUPERCONDUCTIVE TUNNEL JUNCTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    , Italy Rsum. 2014 Des jonctions tunnel supraconductrices utilisant du sulfure de cadmium et du al. [17] have considered semiconductor barriers for low capacitance tunnel junctions. Light can be depo- sited in ultra high vacuum systems without fear of contamination. Work

  12. The contribution of asphalt road surfaces to fire risk in tunnel fires: Preliminary findings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvel, Ricky O; Torero, Jose L

    2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Most fire experiments carried out in tunnels to date have focussed on the burning behaviour and smoke production of liquid pool fires and vehicle fires. Other combustible surfaces, commonly found in tunnels, have not ...

  13. Development of the resource model for the Decision Aids for Tunneling (DAT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min, Sangyoon, 1973-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Decision Aids for Tunneling (DAT) are a computer based method with which distributions of tunnel construction time and cost as well as required and produced resources can be estimated considering uncertainties in ...

  14. Internal Image Potential in Semiconductors - Effect on Scanning-Tunneling-Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HUANG, ZH; WEIMER, M.; Allen, Roland E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tunneling of electrons from a semiconductor surface to a metal tip, across a vacuum gap, is influenced by two image interactions: an attractive image potential in the vacuum region, which lowers the apparent tunneling barrier, and a repulsive...

  15. Photon induced tunneling of electron through a graphene electrostatic barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, R. [Department of Physics, P.K. College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal 721401 (India)] [Department of Physics, P.K. College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal 721401 (India); Sinha, C. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)] [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of an external intense laser field on the tunneling transport (ballistic) of the Dirac fermions through a monolayer graphene electrostatic barrier is studied in the framework of the Floquet approach for a continuous wave, linearly polarized, monochromatic laser. The Klein tunneling is shown to be suppressed by the irradiation of a strong laser field, arising due to breaking of chiral symmetry. The symmetric nature of the field free angular transmission spectrum around the normal to the well-barrier interface is destroyed due to the additional coupling between the pseudo-spin and the time dependent vector potential. The energy distribution of the tunneling spectrum displays Fano resonance which is absent for a laser assisted conventional electrostatic barrier but similar to the case of quantum well structures, providing an optical tool to identify field free quasi bound states inside the graphene nanostructures.

  16. Axial SiGe Heteronanowire Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, Son T.; Jannaty, P.; Luo, Xu; Zaslavsky, A.; Perea, Daniel E.; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, Samuel T.

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present silicon-compatible tri-gated p-Ge/i-Si/n-Si axial heteronanowire tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs), where on-state tunneling occurs in the Ge drain section, while off-state leakage is dominated by the Si junction in the source. Our TFETs have high ION ~ 2 A/m, fully suppressed ambipolarity, and a sub-threshold slope SS ~ 140 mV/decade over 4 decades of current with lowest SS ~ 50 mV/decade. Device operation in the tunneling mode is confirmed by three-dimensional TCAD simulation. Interestingly, in addition to the TFET mode, our devices work as standard nanowire FETs with good ION/IOFF ratio when the source-drain junction is forward-biased. The improved transport in both biasing modes confirms the benefits of utilizing bandgap engineered axial nanowires for enhancing device performance.

  17. Decoherence on Quantum Tunneling in the Multi-Dimensional Wave Function Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiro Tanaka

    1994-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider fundamental problems on the understanding of the tunneling phenomena in the context of the multi-dimensional wave function. In this paper, we reconsider the quantum state after tunneling and extend our previous formalism to the case when the quantum state before tunneling is in a squeezed state. Through considering this problem, we reveal that the quantum decoherence plays a crucial role to allow us of the concise description of the quantum state after tunneling.

  18. Programming Wireless Sensor Networks with Logical Neighborhoods: A Road Tunnel Use Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Picco, Gian Pietro

    on sensed data, the system operates a variety of devices, such as ventilation fans inside the tunnel

  19. Vacuum gaps with small tunnel currents at large electric field and its

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilize Available Resources Print

  20. Tunneling properties of nonplanar molecules in a gas medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahrami, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Bassi, Angelo [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste Section, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple, general, and accurate formula for analyzing the tunneling between classical configurations of a nonplanar molecule in a gas medium, as a function of the thermodynamic parameters of the gas. We apply it to two interesting cases: (i) the shift to zero frequency of the inversion line of ammonia, upon an increase in the pressure of the gas; and (ii) the destruction of the coherent tunneling of D{sub 2}S{sub 2} molecules in a He gas. In both cases, we compare our analysis with previous theoretical and experimental results.

  1. Quality factors and dynamical tunneling in annular microcavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnd Bcker; Roland Ketzmerick; Steffen Lck; Jan Wiersig; Martina Hentschel

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The key characteristic of an optical mode in a microcavity is its quality factor describing the optical losses. The numerical computation of this quantity can be very demanding for present-day devices. Here we show for a certain class of whispering-gallery cavities that the quality factor is related to dynamical tunneling, a phenomenon studied in the field of quantum chaos. We extend a recently developed approach for determining dynamical tunneling rates to open cavities. This allows us to derive an analytical formula for the quality factor which is in very good agreement with full solutions of Maxwell's equations.

  2. Horizons and Tunneling in the Euclidean False Vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kate Marvel; Neil Turok

    2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In the thin-wall approximation, the decay of a gravitating false vacuum to a lower-energy state is affected by the cosmological horizon structure in both spaces. The nucleation radius of a bubble of true vacuum depends on the surface tension of its boundary and equals the false vacuum cosmological horizon at a critical tension. We argue that there is no tunneling instanton solution beyond the critical tension and argue that there is therefore a bound on allowed membrane tension in theories which rely on semiclassical tunneling to relax the cosmological constant.

  3. Power and efficiency analysis of a realistic resonant tunneling diode thermoelectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Akshay; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran, E-mail: bm@ee.iitb.ac.in [Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-dimensional systems with sharp features in the density of states have been proposed as a means for improving the efficiency of thermoelectric devices. Quantum dot systems, which offer the sharpest density of states achievable, however, suffer from low power outputs while bulk (3-D) thermoelectrics, while displaying high power outputs, offer very low efficiencies. Here, we analyze the use of a resonant tunneling diode structure that combines the best of both aspects, that is, density of states distortion with a finite bandwidth due to confinement that aids the efficiency and a large number of current carrying transverse modes that enhances the total power output. We show that this device can achieve a high power output (?0.3?MW?m{sup 2}) at efficiencies of ?40% of the Carnot efficiency due to the contribution from these transverse momentum states at a finite bandwidth of kT?2. We then provide a detailed analysis of the physics of charge and heat transport with insights on parasitic currents that reduce the efficiency. Finally, a comparison between the resonant tunneling diode and a quantum dot device with comparable bandwidth reveals that a similar performance requires ultra-dense areal quantum dot densities of ?10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}.

  4. Are the tunnel ventilation systems adapted for the different risk situations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Are the tunnel ventilation systems adapted for the different risk situations? B. TRUCHOT * INERIS Tunnels, France ABSTRACT The ventilation design criteria for both road and rail tunnel is based of such an approach is that it considers only the impact on the safety ventilation of the smoke propagation

  5. Vibration-Induced Kondo Tunneling through Metal-Organic Complexes with Even Electron Occupation Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - neling Hamiltonian H Hmol Hres Htun: (1) Here Hmol includes the 3d electron levels in a ligand field of the cage electrons, the molecular orbitals of these ligands, as well as interactions within the 3d shell with tunneling electrons (vibration assisted tunneling) [813] and modulation of the tunnel barriers (shuttling

  6. Developing a Practical Wind Tunnel Test Engineering Course for Undergraduate Aerospace Engineering Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recla, Benjamin Jeremiah

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the development and assessment of an undergraduate wind tunnel test engineering course utilizing the 7ft by 10ft Oran W. Nicks Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). Only 5 other universities in the United States have a wind tunnel...

  7. Molecularly Resolved Images of Peptide-Functionalized Gold Surfaces by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Lauren J.

    Molecularly Resolved Images of Peptide-Functionalized Gold Surfaces by Scanning Tunneling propargylglycine unnatural functional groups 20 apart and an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a gold-terminated surfaces were imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) using a low tunneling current of 10 p

  8. Observation of Turbulent Intermittency Scaling with Magnetic Helicity in an MHD Plasma Wind Tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael R.

    . An unstable spheromak injected into the MHD wind tunnel of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment displays-tunnel configuration of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) [16,17] explores this possible relationship between indices. The scan is conducted on the wind-tunnel configuration of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment

  9. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 82, 033510 (2011) Calibrated cylindrical Mach probe in a plasma wind tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wind tunnel X. Zhang,1,a) D. Dandurand,1 T. Gray,1 M. R. Brown,1 and V. S. Lukin2 1 Department probe is described along with an independent calibration procedure in a magnetized plasma wind tunnel calibration method based on magnetic time-of-flight in a magnetized wind tunnel is pre- sented and a particle

  10. Ris-R-999(EN) Wind Tunnel Test of the RIS-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ris-R-999(EN) Wind Tunnel Test of the RIS-1 Airfoil Peter Fuglsang, Ioannis Antoniou, Christian Bak, Helge Aa. Madsen Ris National Laboratory, Roskilde May 1998 #12;Abstract Wind tunnel tests with approximately 2d flow were carried out for the RIS-1 airfoil in the VELUX open jet wind tunnel. The airfoil

  11. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the August 5, 1998, Load Haul Dump Accident at U16b Tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thisis theType B Accident Investigation Board report of an industrial accident at the Nevada Test site (NTS), U16b tunnel in which a Bechtel Nevada (BN) employee suffered a compressed skull fracture as a result of being struck onthe head by a valve and fitting assembly on the end of a hose whichhad been broken from a water pipe by a moving piece of construction equipment.

  12. Tunneling processes in asymmetric double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with a thin top MgO layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D. L.; Feng, J. F. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Yu, G. Q.; Guo, P.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F., E-mail: xfhan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, J. Y.; Coey, J. M. D. [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic conductance dI/dV and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) d{sup 2}I/dV{sup 2} have been measured at different temperatures for double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with a thin top MgO layer. The resistance in the antiparallel state exhibits a normal tunnel-like behavior, while the resistance in the parallel state shows metallic-like transport, indicating the presence of pinholes in the thin top MgO layer. Three IETS peaks are the zero-bias anomaly, interface magnons, and barrier phonons in both the parallel and antiparallel states. The zero-bias anomaly is the strongest peak in the parallel state and its intensity decreases with temperature. The magnon has the largest intensity in the antiparallel state and its intensity also decreases with temperature. The origins of the dips and peaks in the dI/dV-V curve are also discussed.

  13. Very low 1/f barrier noise in sputtered MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with high tunneling magnetoresistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, J. F.; Chen, J. Y.; Kurt, H.; Coey, J. M. D. [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Low frequency 1/f barrier noise has been investigated in sputtered MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of up to 330% at room temperature. The lowest normalized noise parameter {alpha} of the tunnel barrier reaches 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12}-2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} {mu}m{sup 2}, which is comparable to that found in MTJs with the MgO barrier grown by MBE or electron-beam evaporation. This normalized barrier noise is almost bias independent in the voltage range of up to {+-}1.2 V. The low noise level and high voltage stability may reflect the high quality of the sputtered MgO with a uniform distribution of defects in the MgO layer.

  14. Technology in water conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... conservation, however, is just as dependent on technological factors. #27;e technology does not have to be complex to be important #20; consider high e#23;ciency toilets and showerheads. #27;ese everyday appliances largely rely on simple technologies...

  15. Technology in water conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... conservation, however, is just as dependent on technological factors. #27;e technology does not have to be complex to be important #20; consider high e#23;ciency toilets and showerheads. #27;ese everyday appliances largely rely on simple technologies...

  16. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect.

  17. Topekas Green Light Tunnel Saves Fuel and Time

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Topeka, Kansas is saving their motorists time and gasoline through the use of a real-time, adaptive "green light tunnel". A traffic signal system that synchronizes traffic lights in order to create a series of green lights that result in fewer stops and less travel time.

  18. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect. 5 figs.

  19. Surface Science Letters Scanning tunneling microscopy study of the anatase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    ; Surface structure, morphology, roughness, and topography; Low index single crystal surfaces The structureSurface Science Letters Scanning tunneling microscopy study of the anatase (1 0 0) surface NancyO2 anatase (1 0 0) surface. Natural single crystals of anatase were employed; and after several

  20. SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR NANOSCOPE II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR NANOSCOPE II 1) Set monitor #1 on top side of the able. 3) Set the keyboard on top and front of the computer. 4) Set the scanning head on gel into the scanning head. 12) Suspend bungee cords, as necessary, from a secure point in the ceiling. 13) Fasten onto

  1. INFLATABLE PLUG FOR THREAT MITIGATION IN TRANSPORTATION TUNNELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbero, Ever J.

    INFLATABLE PLUG FOR THREAT MITIGATION IN TRANSPORTATION TUNNELS Xavier Martinez1 , Julio Davalos2 and government entities. Fires, noxious fumes, deadly gasses, and flooding threats have occurred in major are of difficult and limited accessibility, but also because most of the potential threats, such as fires, flooding

  2. Tunnel MOS Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor for RF Switching Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rezanezhad Gatabi, Iman

    2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    6 dry etching on the trap density and trap state energy of AlGaN surface are investigated using the GP/w- w method. Various tunneling mechanisms at different biases are then characterized in samples and compared with each other. To improve...

  3. Extraction of the tunnel magnetocapacitance with two-terminal measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Minn-Tsong

    Extraction of the tunnel magnetocapacitance with two-terminal measurements Yin-Ming Chang,1 Kai in the four-terminal measurement with high frequency operation, two-terminal approach was developed circuit analy- sis with four-terminal complex impedance measurements. Aside from their conclusion

  4. Losses in superconducting Niobium Films caused by Interface Tunnel Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junginger, Tobias; Welsch, Carsten

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Identifying the loss mechanisms of niobium film cavities enables an accurate determination of applications for future accelerator projects and points to research topics required to mitigate their limitations. Measurements on samples show that the electric field is a dominant loss mechanism for niobium films, acting through interface tunneling between localized states in surface oxides and delocalized states in the superconducting niobium.

  5. area lhc tunnel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Keith 2006-01-01 9 A High Luminosity e+e- Collider in the LHC tunnel to study the Higgs Boson HEP - Experiment (arXiv) Summary: We consider the possibility of a 120x120 GeV e+e-...

  6. Tunneling control using classical non-linear oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kar, Susmita [Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata -700032 (India); Bhattacharyya, S. P., E-mail: pcspb@chem.iitb.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai- 400076 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantum particle is placed in symmetric double well potential which is coupled to a classical non-linear oscillator via a coupling function. With different spatial symmetry of the coupling and under various controlling fashions, the tunneling of the quantum particle can be enhanced or suppressed, or totally destroyed.

  7. Exercice session Cargse, October 2008 Klein tunneling in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud 11, Universit de

    Exercice session Cargse, October 2008 Klein tunneling in graphene Pierre Allain and Jean-Nol Fuchs 1 Introduction : plane wave The goal is to compute the probability transmission T of a graphene 1 = n2 sin 2 for an electron in graphene and show that the optical index n is proportional

  8. Particle production related to the tunneling in false vacuum decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Maziashvili

    2003-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by the work of Mersini, the particle production related to the tunneling in false vacuum decay is carefully investigated in the thin-wall approximation. It is shown that in this case the particle production is exponentially suppressed even when the momentum is comparable to the curvature scale of the bubble. The number of created particles is ultraviolet finite.

  9. Macroscopic quantum tunneling and the 'cosmic' Josephson effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barone, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', CNR-SPIN, Piazzale Tecchio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Gasperini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, Via G. Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Rotoli, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli (SUN), Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the possible influence of a cosmic magnetic field on the macroscopic quantum tunneling process associated, in a cosmological context, to the decay of the 'false vacuum'. We find a close analogy with the effects of an external magnetic field applied to a Josephson junction in the context of low-temperature/high-temperature superconducting devices.

  10. Wind and saltation driven particle resuspension in a wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairchild, C.I.; Tillery, M.I.; Wheat, L.D.; Redmond, D.J.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine parameters of primary importance in wind and saltation driven resuspension of fine particles from surfaces, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to study the resuspension of small polydisperse particles (diameter <10 ..mu..m) by monodisperse saltation particles (diameter >80 ..mu..m). The experiments were designed to simulate the atmospheric boundary layer resuspension of fine particles. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Simulation of localized barrier defects in resonant tunneling diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoneberg, Jason Neal

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much research has been devoted to understanding the resonant tunneling diode in the last two decades, but some aspects of current conduction in this device are still not well understood. At Texas A&M University, Weichold, et al., have proposed...

  12. Tunnel MOS Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor for RF Switching Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rezanezhad Gatabi, Iman

    2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    structure called Tunnel MOS Heterostructure FET (TMOSHFET) is introduced which has lower ON-state resistance and faster switching speed compared to conventional AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. In the switch ON process, the channel of this device is charged up by electron...

  13. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  14. Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sriram Krishnamoorthy; Digbijoy N. Nath; Fatih Akyol; Pil Sung Park; Michele Esposto; Siddharth Rajan

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the design and demonstration of polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junction diodes with high current density and low tunneling turn-on voltage. Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) calculations were used to model and design tunnel junctions with narrow bandgap InGaN-based barrier layers. N-polar p-GaN/In0.33Ga0.67N/n-GaN heterostructure tunnel diodes were grown using molecular beam epitaxy. Efficient zero bias tunneling turn-on with a high current density of 118 A/cm2 at a reverse bias of 1V, reaching a maximum current density up to 9.2 kA/cm2 were obtained. These results represent the highest current density reported in III-nitride tunnel junctions, and demonstrate the potential of III-nitride tunnel devices for a broad range of optoelectronic and electronic applications.

  15. Anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs Universe from Gravitational Tunneling and its Observational Signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julian Adamek; David Campo; Jens C. Niemeyer

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In a landscape of compactifications with different numbers of macroscopic dimensions, it is possible that our universe has nucleated from a vacuum where some of our four large dimensions were compact while other, now compact, directions were macroscopic. From our perspective, this shapeshifting can be perceived as an anisotropic background spacetime. As an example, we present a model where our universe emerged from a tunneling event which involves the decompactification of two dimensions compactified on the two-sphere. In this case, our universe is of the Kantowski-Sachs type and therefore homogeneous and anisotropic. We study the deviations from statistical isotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background induced by the anisotropic curvature, with particular attention to the anomalies. The model predicts a quadrupolar power asymmetry with the same sign and acoustic oscillations as found by WMAP. The amplitude of the effect is however too small given the current estimated bound on anisotropic curvature derived from the quadrupole.

  16. Anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs Universe from Gravitational Tunneling and its Observational Signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adamek, Julian; Niemeyer, Jens C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a landscape of compactifications with different numbers of macroscopic dimensions, it is possible that our universe has nucleated from a vacuum where some of our four large dimensions were compact while other, now compact, directions were macroscopic. From our perspective, this shapeshifting can be perceived as an anisotropic background spacetime. As an example, we present a model where our universe emerged from a tunneling event which involves the decompactification of two dimensions compactified on the two-sphere. In this case, our universe is of the Kantowski-Sachs (KS) type and therefore homogeneous and anisotropic. We study the deviations from statistical isotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) induced by the RxS2-topology of the KS universe and present a preliminary discussion of their observability if inflation was sufficiently short.

  17. Regional terrestrial water storage change and evapotranspiration from terrestrial and atmospheric water balance computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Famiglietti, J. S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is derived as the residual of precipitation and water vaporThe largest mean water budget residual calculated from theresidual between the two large terms in the combined water

  18. Tunnel and Subsurface Void Detection and Range to Target Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip B. West

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineers and technicians at the Idaho National Laboratory invented, designed, built and tested a device capable of detecting and measuring the distance to, an underground void, or tunnel. Preliminary tests demonstrated positive detection of, and range to, a void thru as much as 30 meters of top-soil earth. Device uses acoustic driving point impedance principles pioneered by the Laboratory for well-bore physical properties logging. Data receipts recorded by the device indicates constructive-destructive interference patterns characteristic of acoustic wave reflection from a downward step-change in impedance mismatch. Prototype tests demonstrated that interference patterns in receipt waves could depict the patterns indicative of specific distances. A tool with this capability can quickly (in seconds) indicate the presence and depth/distance of a void or tunnel. Using such a device, border security and military personnel can identify threats of intrusion or weapons caches in most all soil conditions including moist and rocky.

  19. Analysis of different tunneling mechanisms of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}As/AlGaAs tunnel junction light-emitting transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Cheng-Han [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chao-Hsin, E-mail: chaohsinwu@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical and optical characteristics of tunnel junction light-emitting transistors (TJLETs) with different indium mole fractions (x?=?5% and 2.5%) of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}As base-collector tunnel junctions have been investigated. Two electron tunneling mechanisms (photon-assisted or direct tunneling) provide additional currents to electrical output and resupply holes back to the base region, resulting in the upward slope of I-V curves and enhanced optical output under forward-active operation. The larger direct tunneling probability and stronger Franz-Keldysh absorption for 5% TJLET lead to higher collector current slope and less optical intensity enhancement when base-collector junction is under reverse-biased.

  20. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, C. R.

    1997-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24).

  1. Nanopillar Spin Filter Tunnel Junctions with Manganite Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasad, Bhagwati; Egilmez, Mehmet; Schoofs, Frank; Fix, Thomas; Vickers, Mary E; Zhang, Wenrui; Jian, Jie; Wang, Haiyan; Blamire, Mark G

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS, UK Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77843-3128, USA KEYWORDS: Spin filter, Nano... magnetic memories, reprogrammable logic and quantum computers.1,2 These devices rely on the generation of highly spin-polarized currents. Spin filter tunnel junction (SFTJ) has emerged as a promising alternative for this purpose. A possible way...

  2. Subbarrier fusion reactions and many-particle quantum tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagino; N. Takigawa

    2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Low energy heavy-ion fusion reactions are governed by quantum tunneling through the Coulomb barrier formed by a strong cancellation of the repulsive Coulomb force with the attractive nuclear interaction between the colliding nuclei. Extensive experimental as well as theoretical studies have revealed that fusion reactions are strongly influenced by couplings of the relative motion of the colliding nuclei to several nuclear intrinsic motions. Heavy-ion subbarrier fusion reactions thus provide a good opportunity to address a general problem on quantum tunneling in the presence of couplings, which has been a popular subject in the past decades in many branches of physics and chemistry. Here we review theoretical aspects of heavy-ion subbarrier fusion reactions from the view point of quantum tunneling in systems with many degrees of freedom. Particular emphases are put on the coupled-channels approach to fusion reactions, and the barrier distribution representation for multi-channel penetrability. We also discuss an application of the barrier distribution method to elucidation of the mechanism of dissociative adsorption of H$_2$ melecules in surface science.

  3. Environmental quality indexing of large industrial development alternatives using AHP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solnes, Julius

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two industrial development alternatives have been proposed for the East Coast of Iceland in order to strengthen its socio-economic basis. The favoured option is to build a large aluminium smelter, which requires massive hydropower development in the nearby highlands. Another viable option is the construction of a 6-million-ton oil refinery, following the planned exploitation of the Timan Pechora oil reserves in the Russian Arctic. A third 'fictitious' alternative could be general development of existing regional industry and new knowledge-based industries, development of ecotourism, establishment of national parks, accompanied by infrastructure improvement (roads, tunnels, communications, schools, etc.). The three alternatives will have different environmental consequences. The controversial hydropower plant for the smelter requires a large water reservoir as well as considerable land disturbance in this unique mountain territory, considered to be the largest uninhabited wilderness in Western Europe. The aluminium smelter and the oil refinery will give rise to substantial increase of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the country (about 20%). Then there is potential environmental risk associated with the refinery regarding oil spills at sea, which could have disastrous impact on the fisheries industry. However, the oil refinery does not require any hydropower development, which is a positive factor. Finally, the third alternative could be defined as a ''green'' solution whereby the detrimental environmental consequences of the two industrial solutions are mostly avoided. In order to compare the three alternatives in an orderly manner, the analytic hierarchy process methodology of Saaty was applied to calculate the environmental quality index of each alternative, which is defined as a weighted sum of selected environmental and socio-economic factors. These factors are evaluated on a comparison basis, applying the AHP methodology, and the weights in the quality index summation are estimated in the same manner. Six persons with different backgrounds were asked to fill in the comparison matrices in order to reduce bias in the evaluation. The final results show that the two industrial alternatives come out poorly, i.e. with low quality indices, whereas the third pseudo-alternative, i.e. general development, with a considerably higher quality index, is certainly worth a further study.

  4. Microstructure and conductance-slope of InAs/GaSb tunnel diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iutzi, Ryan M., E-mail: iutzi@mit.edu; Fitzgerald, Eugene A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    InAs/GaSb and similar materials systems have generated great interest as a heterojunction for tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) due to favorable band alignment. However, little is currently understood about how such TFETs are affected by materials defects and nonidealities. We present measurements of the conductance slope for various InAs/GaSb heterojunctions via two-terminal electrical measurements, which removes three-terminal parasitics and enables direct study on the effect of microstructure on tunnelling. Using this, we can predict how subthreshold swings in TFETs can depend on microstructure. We also demonstrate growth and electrical characterization for structures grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)a generally more scalable process compared with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We determine that misfit dislocations and point defects near the interface can lead to energy states in the band-gap and local band bending that result in trap-assisted leakage routes and nonuniform band alignment across the junction area that lower the steepness of the conductance slope. Despite the small lattice mismatch, misfit dislocations still form in InAs on GaSb due to relaxation as a result of large strain from intermixed compositions. This can be circumvented by growing GaSb on InAs, straining the GaSb underlayer, or lowering the InAs growth temperature in the region of the interface. The conductance slope can also be improved by annealing the samples at higher temperatures, which we believe acts to annihilate point defects and average out major fluctuations in band alignment across the interface. Using a combination of these techniques, we can greatly improve the steepness of the conductance slope which could result in steeper subthreshold swings in TFETs in the future.

  5. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service (NPS) views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other NPS tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr for this tunnel to a much larger figure national

  6. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    : The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

  7. ImpactsofLarge Dams:agLobaL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    #12;ImpactsofLarge Dams:agLobaL assessment Editors Cecilia Tortajada, Dogan Altinbilek, Asit K of the most controversial issues of the water sector in recent years has been the impacts of large dams and environmental costs of large dams far exceed their benefits, and that the era of construction of large dams

  8. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  9. Innovative Water Reuse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Conditioning & Refrigeration ? Energy Meets Water H.W. (Bill)Hoffman, P.E. H.W. (Bill)Hoffman & Associates, LLC 512-294-7193 billhoffmantx@earthlink.net Cooling Towers The purpose of a cooling tower is to get rid of unwanted... energy! By evaporating Water! Cooling Towers 43% Boilers 4%Toilets 20% Other Plumbing 8% Food Service 8% Sterilizers 6% Dialysis 3% Leaks 3% Cleaning 3% Other 2% A Large Hospital in Florida Cooling 50% Indoor 40% Irrigation 10...

  10. GaAsSb-based heterojunction tunnel diodes for tandem solar cell interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolper, J.C.; Klem, J.F.; Plut, T.A.; Tigges, C.P.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a new approach to tunnel junctions that employs a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer to obtain a band alignment at a InGaAs or InAlAs p-n junction favorable for forward bias tunneling. Since the majority of the band offset between GaAsSb and InGaAs or InAlAs is in the valence band, when an GaAsSb layer is placed at an InGaAs or InAlAs p-n junction the tunneling distance is reduced and the tunneling current is increased. For all doping levels studied, the presence of the GaAsSb-layer enhanced the forward tunneling characteristics. In fact, in a InGaAs/GaAsSb tunnel diode a peak tunneling current sufficient for a 1000 sun intercell interconnect was achieved with p = 1.5{times}l0{sup 18} cm{sup -3} while a similarly doped all-InGaAs diode was rectifying. This approach affords a new degree of freedom in designing tunnel junctions for tandem solar cell interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. Our approach relaxes the doping requirements by employing a GaAsSb-based heterojunction.

  11. Evaluation of PM10 and Total Suspended Particulate Sampler Performance Through Wind Tunnel Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thelen, Mary Katherine

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    .................................................... 86 APPENDIX F SHARP-EDGE ORIFICE METER CALIBRATION PROCEDURE ................................................................................ 89 APPENDIX G TEXAS A&M WIND TUNNEL OPERATION PROCEDURE ... 92 APPENDIX H MALVER MASTERSIZER 2000...

  12. Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2011 Wind Tunnel Automation Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2011 Wind Tunnel Automation Project Phase II - Automated Bike Turret Mount Overview SYNERGE LLC is a consulting company working

  13. Vital Alert's C1000 mine and tunnel radios use magnetic induction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and tunnel radios use magnetic induction, advanced digital communications techniques and ultra-low frequency transmission to wirelessly provide reliable 2-way voice, text, or data...

  14. Comment on "Direct space-time observation of pulse tunneling in an electromagnetic band gap"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Nimtz; A. A. Stahlhofen

    2008-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation presented by Doiron, Hache, and Winful [Phys. Rev. A 76, 023823 (2007)] is not valid for the tunneling process as claimed in the paper.

  15. Using Large Eddy Simulation to Study Airflows in and around Buildings Yi Jiang, Ph.D. Mingde Su, Ph.D. Qingyan Chen, Ph.D.*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Using Large Eddy Simulation to Study Airflows in and around Buildings Yi Jiang, Ph.D. Mingde Su-scale models of large eddy simulation (LES) to study airflows in and around buildings. They are the Smagorinsky, studies of airflow around a building often use wind tunnels that could simulate wind conditions. Notable

  16. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

  17. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  18. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature of the residual water encountered by theof hot water and the residual water might occur: (1) thehot water might drive the residual water through the piping

  19. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation Water Heaters and Hot Water DistributionLaboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distributionfor instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss

  20. Automatic signal processing of front monitor radar for tunneling machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Toru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electronics and Communication] [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electronics and Communication; Takeda, Kenya [NTT Co. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)] [NTT Co. Ltd., Chiba (Japan); Nagamatsu, Takashi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Wakayama, Toshio [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan)] [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan); Kimura, Iwane [Osaka Inst. of Tech., Hirakata, Osaka (Japan)] [Osaka Inst. of Tech., Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Shinbo, Tetsuya [Komatsu Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)] [Komatsu Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is planned to install a front monitoring impulse radar on the surface of the rotating drill of tunneling machines in order to detect obstacles such as casing pipes of vertical borings. The conventional aperture synthesis technique can no more be applied to such cases because the radar image of a pipe dies not constituent a hyperbola as is the case for linear scanning radars. The authors have developed a special purpose signal processing algorithm with the aid of the discrete model fitting method, which can be used for any pattern of scanning. The details of the algorithm are presented together with the results of numerical simulations and test site experiments.

  1. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  2. A DONOR COMPLEX WITH TUNNELING HYDROGEN IN PURE GERMANIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joos, B.; Haller, E.E.; Falicov, L.M.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A shallow donor complex observed by several authors in ultrapure germanium grown in a hydrogen atmosphere is attributed to an oxygen-hydrogen system. Photoconductivity data under stress are presented. An abrupt transition in the spectra at a well-defined stress (2.1 x 10{sup 8} dyn cm{sup -2}) is found. It is explained by a theory which involves dynamic tunneling of the hydrogen in the vicinity of an oxygen center. The comparison with other complex donors and acceptors supports the model.

  3. Fabrication of a gated gallium arsenide heterostructure resonant tunneling diode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinard, William Brian

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , . ' 'CONTACT PAD' PLANAR I ZED POLYAM I DE RECTIFYI CONTACT N DBHS Pig. 2. f'utavvay vieiv of a gated gallium arsenide heterostructure resonant tunneling diode 1018 graded from 10 18 io" 10? (lightly doped) units=cm 8 ?graded from 10 to 18...FABRICATION OF A GATED GALLIL". tl ARSEXIDE HETEROSTRL CTL RF. RESONANT TF'XXELI'XG DIODE A Thesis bt ttrILLIAAI BRIA'. s KI'iARD Subnut ted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AE;M Eniverstty tn partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  4. Water Resources Protection and Management Act (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large quantity water users, except those who purchase water from a public or private water utility or other service that is reporting its total withdrawal, shall register with the Department of...

  5. Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boffardi, B. P.

    Over the past decade, the water requirements for cooling industrial manufacturing processes have changed dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water...

  6. Wind Tunnel and Field Test of Three 2D Sonic Anemometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Wind Tunnel and Field Test of Three 2D Sonic Anemometers Wiel Wauben R&D Information and Observation Technology, KNMI September 17, 2007 #12;#12;Wind Tunnel and Field Test of Three 2D Sonic.....................................................................................................1 2. Wind sensors

  7. Integrated micro-scanning tunneling microscope Y. Xu and N. C. MacDonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    Integrated micro-scanning tunneling microscope Y. Xu and N. C. MacDonald School of Electrical of micro-scanning tunneling microscopes micro-STMs have been fabricated. The integrated micro metal conductor on a silicon chip. 1995 American Institute of Physics. Scanned-probe instruments have

  8. Instability of a nonequilibrium state of superconducting niobium films during tunneling injection of quasiparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, V.M.; Rudenko, E.M.

    1981-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments show that intense tunneling injection of quasiparticles may be accompanied by an instability of a nonequilibriun state in a niobium film. The threshold current for the instability, I/sub i/, has been found as a function of the bath temperature T/sub b/ and of the local temperature near the tunneling contact, T/sub l/.

  9. Influence of dimensionality on deep tunneling rates: A study based on the hydrogen-nickel system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeiri, Yehuda

    Influence of dimensionality on deep tunneling rates: A study based on the hydrogen-nickel system hydrogen into a surface site of a nickel crystal is used to investigate deep tunneling phenomena. A method of a hydrogen atom in a nickel fcc crystal is studied. The atom is located in a subsurface interstitial site

  10. Lateral imaging of the superconducting vortex lattice using Doppler-modulated scanning tunneling microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, John Y.T.

    Lateral imaging of the superconducting vortex lattice using Doppler-modulated scanning tunneling on the quasiparticle tunneling spectrum, we have laterally imaged the vortex lattice in superconducting 2H-NbSe2 that circulates along the sample edge. Above the lower critical field, field can penetrate into the superconductor

  11. Oxygen driven reconstruction dynamics of Ni,,977... measured by time-lapse scanning tunneling microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Oxygen driven reconstruction dynamics of Ni,,977... measured by time-lapse scanning tunneling-lapse scanning tunneling microscopy STM has been used to observe the oxygen induced reconstruction behavior of Ni for the merging of steps in the presence of small amounts of adsorbed oxygen, less than 2% of a monolayer. Point

  12. Assessment of Flow Efficiency Through a Closed Circuit Wind Tunnel with Recommendations for Improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guthery, John

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind tunnels are designed for a certain range of test velocities and model sizes. The Oran W. Nicks Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at Texas A&M, was designed to reach 200 mph (M=0.26) with its original 1250 hp motor and 7 x 10 ft test section. In 2012...

  13. The development of a wind tunnel facility for the study of V/STOL noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widnall, S. E.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An open-jet wind tunnel operating within an anechoic chamber was developed for the purpose of the study of V/STOL noise mechanisms. An existing low-speed conventional hard-walled wind tunnel was modified to operate as an ...

  14. Boundary Waters Canoe Area (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Boundary Waters Canoe Area occupies a large section of northern Minnesota, and is preserved as a primitive wilderness area. Construction and new development is prohibited. A map of the...

  15. Hanford waste tanks - light at the end of the tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    POPPITI, J.A.

    1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) faced several problems in its Hanford Site tank farms in the early nineties. It had 177 waste tanks, ranging in size from 55,000 to 1,100,000 gallons, which contained more than 55 million gallons of liquid and solid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from a variety of processes. Unfortunately, waste transfer records were incomplete. Chemical reactions going on in the tanks were not totally understood. Every tank had high concentrations of powerful oxidizers in the form of nitrates and nitrites, and some tanks had relatively high concentrations of potential fuels that could react explosively with oxidizers. A few of these tanks periodically released large quantities of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a mixture that was potentially more explosive than hydrogen and air. Both the nitrate/fuel and hydrogen/nitrous oxide reactions had the potential to rupture a tank exposing workers and the general public to unacceptably large quantities of radioactive material. One tank (241-C-106) was generating so much heat that water had to be added regularly to avoid thermal damage to the tank's concrete exterior shell. The tanks contained more than 250 million Curies of radioactivity. Some of that radioactivity was in the form of fissile plutonium, which represented a potential criticality problem. As awareness of the potential hazards grew, the public and various regulatory agencies brought increasing pressure on DOE to quantify the hazards and mitigate any that were found to be outside accepted risk guidelines. In 1990, then Representative, now Senator Ron Wyden (D-Oregon), introduced an amendment to Public Law 101-510, Section 3137, that required DOE to identify Hanford tanks that might have a serious potential for release of high-level waste.

  16. Attoclock time and exit momentum in strong-field tunnel ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teeny, Nicolas; Bauke, Heiko; Keitel, Christoph H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. The so-called two-step model, which describes the ionization as instantaneous tunneling at electric field maximum and classical motion afterwards, is commonly employed to describe tunnel ionization in adiabatic regimes. In this contribution, we first show by solving numerically the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation in one dimension that there is a time delay between the electric field maximum and the maximum of the ionization rate. This delay is identified as the response time needed by the wavefunction to react to the field maximum. Furthermore, there is a difference between the quantum momentum and the classical momentum from the two-step model after interaction with the driving electric field. Combining both results, we conclude that the electron has an effective initial momentum at the tunneling exit. Our results imply that the two-step model needs modification. The electron's initial momentum has to be incorporated, when tunnel...

  17. Tunneling Hamiltonian representation of false vacuum decay I. Comparison with the Bogomil'nyi inequality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. W. Beckwith

    2004-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The tunneling Hamiltonian has proven to be a useful method in many body physics to treat particle tunneling between different states represented as wave functions. Here we present a generalization of the tunneling Hamiltonian to quantum field theory, in which tunneling between states represented as wave functionals of a scalar quantum field is considered. We examine quantum decay of the false vacuum in the driven Sine-Gordon system, and show it is consistent with the tunneling formalism derived here and matches up with the soliton - anti soliton separation obtained from the Bogomil'nyi inequality. This inequality permits construction of a gaussian wave functional representation of soliton - anti soliton nucleated states and is consistent with respect to the false vacuum hypothesis

  18. Band Offsets of InGaP/GaAs Heterojunctions by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy Y. Dong and R. M. Feenstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Band Offsets of InGaP/GaAs Heterojunctions by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy Y. Dong and R. M Abstract Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are used to study InGaP/GaAs heterojunctions computation of the tunnel current. Curve fitting of theory to experiment is performed. Using an InGaP band gap

  19. Concentrator E-F11 water test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethington, P.R.

    1994-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the Process Test Report for performing operation testing with water of the modified E-F11 concentrator in PUREX on water. The test was performed to determine the effects of the following concentrator modifications; routing concentrator off-gasses via the PUREX air tunnel to the main stack, blanking of condenser cooling water, blanking of process condensate route to a crib, restricting flow to steam tube bundles, and routing of steam condensate to TK-F12. The test was successful. Concentrator boil-off rates of 6--7 gpm were achieved while the overheads exited the PUREX plant in vapor form. With minor recommended modifications, this process is recommended for use in processing PUREX deactivation flush solutions and other miscellaneous wastes accumulated during the completion of the deactivation project.

  20. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; Gonzlez, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; Lpez, J A; Martnez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Nez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Prez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) is aiming at the detection of the high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts, using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) in high mountain sites (Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 5300 m a.s.l., Pico Espejo, Venezuela, 4750 m a.s.l., Sierra Negra, Mexico, 4650 m a.s.l). WCD at high altitude offer a unique possibility of detecting low gamma fluxes in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV range. The status of the Observatory and data collected from 2007 to date will be presented.

  1. Cygnus Water Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulseforming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a self-break switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

  2. Marketing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many... ] Many cities are promoting landscape management and water conservation practices with their citizens. This garden demonstrates the EARTH- KIND principles of environmentally tolerant, low water use ornamentals. tx H2O | pg. 18 and no adverse runoff...

  3. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dayeh, Shadi A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Gin, Aaron V.; Huang, Jian Yu; Picraux, Samuel Thomas (Los Alamos National Laboratory)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Axial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires (NWs) allow energy band-edge engineering along the axis of the NW, which is the charge transport direction, and the realization of asymmetric devices for novel device architectures. This work reports on two significant advances in the area of heterostructure NWs and tunnel FETs: (i) the realization of 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial heterostructure NWs with lengths suitable for device fabrication and (ii) the design and implementation of Schottky barrier tunnel FETs on these NWs for high-on currents and suppressed ambipolar behavior. Initial prototype devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a very high current drive in excess of 100 {micro}A/{micro}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios. Prior work on the synthesis of Ge/Si axial NW heterostructures through the VLS mechanism have resulted in axial Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} NW heterostructures with x{sub max} {approx} 0.3, and more recently 100% composition modulation was achieved with a solid growth catalyst. In this latter case, the thickness of the heterostructure cannot exceed few atomic layers due to the slow axial growth rate and concurrent radial deposition on the NW sidewalls leading to a mixture of axial and radial deposition, which imposes a big challenge for fabricating useful devices form these NWs in the near future. Here, we report the VLS growth of 100% doping and composition modulated axial Ge/Si heterostructure NWs with lengths appropriate for device fabrication by devising a growth procedure that eliminates Au diffusion on the NW sidewalls and minimizes random kinking in the heterostructure NWs as deduced from detailed microscopy analysis. Fig. 1 a shows a cross-sectional SEM image of epitaxial Ge/Si axial NW heterostructures grown on a Ge(111) surface. The interface abruptness in these Ge/Si heterostructure NWs is of the order of the NW diameter. Some of these NWs develop a crystallographic kink that is {approx}20{sup o} off the <111> axis at about 300 nm away from the Ge/Si interface. This provides a natural marker for placing the gate contact electrodes and gate metal at appropriate location for desired high-on current and reduced ambipolarity as shown in Fig. 2. The 1D heterostructures allow band-edge engineering in the transport direction, not easily accessible in planar devices, providing an additional degree of freedom for designing tunnel FETs (TFETs). For instance, a Ge tunnel source can be used for efficient electron/hole tunneling and a Si drain can be used for reduced back-tunneling and ambipolar behavior. Interface abruptness on the other hand (particularly for doping) imposes challenges in these structures and others for realizing high performance TFETs in p-i-n junctions. Since the metal-semiconductor contacts provide a sharp interface with band-edge control, we use properly designed Schottky contacts (aided by 3D Silvaco simulations) as the tunnel barriers both at the source and drain and utilize the asymmetry in the Ge/Si channel bandgap to reduce ambipolar transport behavior generally observed in TFETs. Fig. 3 shows the room-temperature transfer curves of a Ge/Si heterostructure TFET (H-TFET) for different V{sub DS} values showing a maximum on-current of {approx}7 {micro}A, {approx}170 mV/decade inverse subthreshold slope and 5 orders of magnitude I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios for all V{sub DS} biases considered here. This high on-current value is {approx}1750 X higher than that obtained with Si p-i-n{sup +} NW TFETs and {approx}35 X higher than that obtained with CNT TFET. The I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio and inverse subthreshold slope compare favorably to that of Si {approx} 10{sup 3} I{sub on}/I{sub off} and {approx} 800 mV/decade SS{sup -1} but lags behind those of CNT TFET due to poor PECVD nitride gate oxide quality ({var_epsilon}{sub r} {approx} 3-4). The asymmetry in the Schottky barrier heights used here eliminates the stringent requirements of abrupt doped interfaces used in p-i-n based TFETs, which is hard to achieve both in thin-film and

  4. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for deactivation of the PUREX storage tunnel number 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Storage Tunnel Number 2 (hereafter referred to as the PUREX Tunnel) was built in 1964. Since that time, the PUREX Tunnel has been used for storage of radioactive and mixed waste. In 1991, the PUREX Plant ceased operations and was transitioned to deactivation. The PUREX Tunnel continued to receive PUREX Plant waste material for storage during transition activities. Before 1995, a decision was made to store radioactive and mixed waste in the PUREX Tunnel generated from other onsite sources, on a case-by-case basis. This notice of construction (NOC) describes the activities associated with the reactivation of the PUREX Tunnel ventilation system and the transfer of up to 3.5 million curies (MCi) of radioactive waste to the PUREX Tunnel from any location on the Hanford Site. The unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimated for the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) is 5.6 E-2 millirem (mrem). The abated TEDE conservatively is estimated to account for 1.9 E-5 mrem to the MEI. The following text provides information requirements of Appendix A of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 (requirements 1 through 18).

  5. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1997-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the M&O is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment.

  6. Effects of Be acceptors on the spin polarization of carriers in p-i-n resonant tunneling diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awan, I. T.; Galvo Gobato, Y. [Departamento de Fsica, Universidade Federal de So Carlos (UFSCAR) 13560-905, So Carlos, SP (Brazil); Galeti, H. V. A. [Departamento de Engenharia Eltrica, Universidade Federal de So Carlos 13560-905, So Carlos, SP (Brazil); Brasil, M. J. S. P. [Institute of Physics Gleb Wataghin, UNICAMP, Campinas (Brazil); Taylor, D.; Henini, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have investigated the effect of Be acceptors on the electroluminescence and the spin polarization in GaAs/AlAs p-i-n resonant tunneling diodes. The quantum well emission comprise two main lines separated by ?20?meV attributed to excitonic and Be-related transitions, which intensities show remarkably abrupt variations at critical voltages, particularly at the electron resonant peak where it shows a high-frequency bistability. The circular-polarization degree of the quantum-well electroluminescence also shows strong and abrupt variations at the critical bias voltages and it attains relatively large values (of ??75% at 15?T). These effects may be explored to design novel devices for spintronic applications such as a high-frequency spin-oscillators.

  7. Instability of superconducting state in Josephson tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nevirkovets, I.P.; Rudenko, =.M.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments on low-resistance Josephson Sn--I--Sn tunnel junctions have shown the superconductor to exhibit an instability that manifests itself on the current--voltage characteristic (IVC) in the form of a jumplike decrease of the voltage when it reaches a value 2..delta../e. When a weak magnetic field H is applied parallel to the junction plane and suppresses the nonstationary Josephson effect, the negative-slope IVC section vanishes. The H-dependent instability-current component, as well as the dc component of the Josephson current near 2..delta../e, can be approximated by a function of H/sup -2/. The singularity observed is attributed to the presence of a maximum of the superconducting component, due to the Riedel singularity, at V = 2..delta../e.

  8. Relativistic tunneling picture of electron-positron pair creation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anton Wllert; Michael Klaiber; Heiko Bauke; Christoph H. Keitel

    2015-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The common tunneling picture of electron-positron pair creation in a strong electric field is generalized to pair creation in combined crossed electric and magnetic fields. This enhanced picture, being symmetric for electrons and positrons, is formulated in a gauge-invariant and Lorentz-invariant manner for quasistatic fields. It may be used to infer qualitative features of the pair creation process. In particular, it allows for an intuitive interpretation of how the presence of a magnetic field modifies and, in particular cases, even enhances pair creation. The creation of electrons and positrons from the vacuum may be assisted by an energetic photon, which can also be incorporated into this picture of pair creation.

  9. Heat engine driven by three-body photon tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latella, Ivan; Rubi, J Miguel; Biehs, Svend-Age; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-field heat engines are devices that convert the evanescent thermal field supported by a primary source into usable mechanical energy. By analyzing the thermodynamic performance of three-body near-field heat engines, we demonstrate that the power they supply can be substantially larger than that of two-body systems, showing so their strong potential for energy harvesting. Theoretical limits for energy and entropy fluxes in three-body systems are discussed and compared with their corresponding two-body counterparts. Such considerations confirm that the thermodynamic availability in energy-conversion processes driven by three-body photon tunneling can exceed the thermodynamic availability in two-body systems.

  10. Theory of multiphoton and tunnel ionization in a bichromatic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagulov, D. S., E-mail: bagulov-denis@yandex.ru [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Kotelnikov, I. A., E-mail: I.A.Kotelnikov@inp.nsk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Budger Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The imaginary-time method [6, 7] is used to calculate the multiphoton and tunnel ionization probabilities for atoms in a laser radiation field part of which is converted into the second harmonic. We assume that the first harmonic has a linear or elliptical polarization and the second harmonic is polarized linearly, with its polarization vector making an arbitrary angle with that of the first harmonic. The mean momentum of the photoelectrons knocked out from atoms is shown to depend on the phase shift between the first and second harmonics and their mutual polarization and to be identically equal to zero for a monochromatic field. An important difference between the case of elliptical polarization and the case of linear polarization of both harmonics is the absence of conditions under which the conditions for dominance of one of the two generation mechanisms considered here can be identified during the generation of terahertz radiation from the region of optical breakdown in a gas.

  11. Charge confinement and Klein tunneling from doping graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Popovici; O. Oliveira; W. de Paula; T. Frederico

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, we investigate how structural defects in graphene can change its transport properties. In particular, we show that breaking of the sublattice symmetry in a graphene monolayer overcomes the Klein effect, leading to confined states of massless Dirac fermions. Experimentally, this corresponds to chemical bonding of foreign atoms to carbon atoms, which attach themselves to preferential positions on one of the two sublattices. In addition, we consider the scattering off a tensor barrier, which describes the rotation of the honeycomb cells of a given region around an axis perpendicular to the graphene layer. We demonstrate that in this case the intervalley mixing between the Dirac points emerges, and that Klein tunneling occurs.

  12. Isotope effect in tunnelling ionization of neutral hydrogen molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X; Atia-Tul-Noor, A; Hu, B T; Kielpinski, D; Sang, R T; Litvinyuk, I V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been recently predicted theoretically that due to nuclear motion light and heavy hydrogen molecules exposed to strong electric field should exhibit substantially different tunneling ionization rates (O.I. Tolstikhin, H.J. Worner and T. Morishita, Phys. Rev. A 87, 041401(R) (2013) [1]). We studied that isotope effect experimentally by measuring relative ionization yields for each species in a mixed H2/D2 gas jet interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses. In a reaction microscope apparatus we detected ionic fragments from all contributing channels (single ionization, dissociation, and sequential double ionization) and determined the ratio of total single ionization yields for H2 and D2. The measured ratio agrees quantitatively with the prediction of the generalized weak-field asymptotic theory in an apparent failure of the frozen-nuclei approximation.

  13. High energy storage capacitor by embedding tunneling nano-structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holme, Timothy P; Prinz, Friedrich B; Van Stockum, Philip B

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In an All-Electron Battery (AEB), inclusions embedded in an active region between two electrodes of a capacitor provide enhanced energy storage. Electrons can tunnel to/from and/or between the inclusions, thereby increasing the charge storage density relative to a conventional capacitor. One or more barrier layers is present in an AEB to block DC current flow through the device. The AEB effect can be enhanced by using multi-layer active regions having inclusion layers with the inclusions separated by spacer layers that don't have the inclusions. The use of cylindrical geometry or wrap around electrodes and/or barrier layers in a planar geometry can enhance the basic AEB effect. Other physical effects that can be employed in connection with the AEB effect are excited state energy storage, and formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).

  14. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's East Campus. "Consolidating administration,faculty and staff and facilities is costeffectiveandper or commercial products constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government. WATER CURRENT Water Center University

  15. Contained rocket motor burn demonstrations in X-tunnel: Final report for the DoD/DOE Joint Demilitarization Technology Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. W. Allendorf; B. W. Bellow; R. f. Boehm

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three low-pressure rocket motor propellant burn tests were performed in a large, sealed test chamber located at the X-tunnel complex on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site in the period May--June 1997. NIKE rocket motors containing double base propellant were used in two tests (two and four motors, respectively), and the third test used two improved HAWK rocket motors containing composite propellant. The preliminary containment safety calculations, the crack and burn procedures used in each test, and the results of various measurements made during and after each test are all summarized and collected in this document.

  16. Water Conservation and Water Use Efficiency (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wisconsin has several statutes that promote water conservation and controlled water use, and this legislation establishes mandatory and voluntary programs in water conservation and water use...

  17. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

  18. Simulation of Enhanced-Explosive Devices in Chambers and Tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, J B; Kuhl, A L; Beckner, V E

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: Shock-dispersed fuel (SDF) explosives use a small chemical charge to disperse a combustible fuel that burns in the post-detonation environment. The energy released in the combustion process has the potential for generating higher pressures and temperatures than conventional explosives. However, the development of these types of novel explosive systems requires a detailed understanding of all of the modes of energy release. Objective: The objective of this project is develop a simulation capability for predicting explosion and combustion phase of SDF charges and apply that capability to quantifying the behavior of these types of explosives. Methodology: We approximate the dynamics of an SDF charge using high Reynolds number, fast chemistry model that effectively captures the thermodynamic behavior of SDF charges and accurately models the key modes of energy release. The overall computational model is combined with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) , implemented in a parallel adaptive framework suited to the massively parallel computer systems. Results: We have developed a multiphase version of the model and used it to simulate an SDF charge in which the dispersed fuel is aluminum flakes. Flow visualizations show that the combustion field is turbulent for the chamber and tunnel cases studied. During the 3 milli-seconds of simulation, over 90% of the Al fuel was consumed for the chamber case, while about 40% was consumed in the tunnel case in agreement with Al-SDF experiments. Significance to DoD: DoD has a requirement to develop enhanced energetic materials to support future military systems. The SDF charges described here utilize the combustion mechanism to increase energy per gram of fuel by a factor of 7 to 10 over conventional (detonating) charges, and increase the temperature of the explosion cloud to 2,000-4,000 K (depending on the SDF fuel). Accurate numerical simulation of such SDF explosions allows one to understand the energy release mechanism, and thereby design full-scale systems with greatly improved explosive efficiency.

  19. Atomic-scale Authentication Using Resonant Tunnelling Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Roberts; I. E. Bagci; M. A. M. Zawawi; J. Sexton; N. Hulbert; Y. J. Noori; M. P. Young; C. S. Woodhead; M. Missous; M. A. Migliorato; U. Roedig; R. J. Young

    2015-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid development of technology has provided a wealth of resources enabling the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Authentication schemes aim to address this challenge by providing proof of identity. This can be achieved by using devices that, when challenged, give unique but reproducible responses. At present, these distinct signatures are commonly generated by physically unclonable functions, or PUFs. These devices provide a straightforward measurement of a physical characteristic of their structure that has inherent randomness, due to imperfections in the manufacturing process. These hard-to-predict physical responses can generate a unique identity that can be used for authentication without relying on the secrecy of stored data. However, the classical design of these devices limits both their size and security. Here we show that the extensively studied problematic fluctuations in the current-voltage measurements of resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs) provide an uncomplicated, robust measurement that can function as a PUF without conventional resource limitations. This is possible due to quantum tunnelling within the RTD, and on account of these room temperature quantum effects, we term such devices QUFs - quantum unclonable functions. As a result of the current-voltage spectra being dependent on the atomic structure and composition of the nanostructure within the RTD, each device provides a high degree of uniqueness, whilst being impossible to clone or simulate, even with state-of-the-art technology. We have thus created PUF-like devices requiring the fewest resources which make use of quantum phenomena in a highly manufacturable electronic device operating at room temperature. Conventional spectral analysis techniques, when applied to our QUFs, will enable reliable generation of unpredictable unique identities which can be employed in advanced authentication systems.

  20. New Coordinates for BTZ Black Hole and Hawking Radiation via Tunnelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenbiao Liu

    2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hawking radiation can usefully be viewed as a semi-classical tunnelling process that originates at the black hole horizon. For the stationary axisymmetric BTZ black hole, a generalized Painleve coordinate system (Painleve-BTZ coordinates) is introduced, and Hawking radiation as tunnelling under the effect of self-gravitation is investigated. The corrected radiation is obtained which is not precise thermal spectrum. The result is consistent with the underlying unitary theory. Moreover, Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of BTZ black hole is not necessarily corrected when we choose appropriate coordinate system to study the tunnelling effect.

  1. Imaging of buried phosphorus nanostructures in silicon using scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberbeck, Lars [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); TOTAL Marketing Services, New Energies, La Dfense 10, 92069 Paris La Dfense Cedex (France); Reusch, Thilo C. G.; Hallam, Toby; Simmons, Michelle Y., E-mail: n.curson@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Schofield, Steven R. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Curson, Neil J., E-mail: n.curson@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the locating and imaging of single phosphorus atoms and phosphorus dopant nanostructures, buried beneath the Si(001) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. The buried dopant nanostructures have been fabricated in a bottom-up approach using scanning tunneling microscope lithography on Si(001). We find that current imaging tunneling spectroscopy is suited to locate and image buried nanostructures at room temperature and with residual surface roughness present. From these studies, we can place an upper limit on the lateral diffusion during encapsulation with low-temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy.

  2. The monitoring of an existing cast iron tunnel with distributed fibre optic sensing (DFOS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gue, C. Y.; Wilcock, M.; Alhaddad, M. M.; Elshafie, M. Z. E. B.; Soga, K.; Mair, R. J.

    2015-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    and the tunnel still remains closed. Since the Royal Mail tunnel is disused, it presented an ideal trial site for various state-of-the-art monitoring systems to be tested. 2.1.2 Mode of deformation One of the main uncertainties design engineers face when... lining tunnel in the longitudinal direction. (After Alhaddad et al. [1]) J Civil Struct Health Monit 123 risk of creep. Furthermore, having multiple protective layers and coatings increases the complexity of working with the cable on site, i.e. stripping...

  3. The effect of environmental coupling on tunneling of quasiparticles in Josephson junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad H. Ansari; Frank K. Wilhelm; Urbasi Sinha; Aninda Sinha

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We study quasiparticle tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions embedded in an electromagnetic environment. We identify tunneling processes that transfer electrical charge and couple to the environment in a way similar to that of normal electrons, and processes that mix electrons and holes and are thus creating charge superpositions. The latter are sensitive to the phase difference between the superconductor and are thus limited by phase diffusion even at zero temperature. We show that the environmental coupling is suppressed in many environments, thus leading to lower quasiparticle decay rates and thus better superconductor qubit coherence than previously expected. Our approach is nonperturbative in the environmental coupling strength.

  4. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  5. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source waste disposal, acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water of the 1987-1989 drought years, and the flood of 93 and 95, water quantity has become a major topic of concern

  6. Computerized Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ing 2002?2005 and documented in TWRI?s Technical Report 284 released in January 2006, include: ? Capabilities for short-term reliability analyses based on current storage conditions (Or what is the likelihood of meeting water needs in the near... System Reference Manual. TWRI Technical Report 255, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Water Rights Analysis Package Modeling System Users Manual. TWRI Technical Report 256, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling...

  7. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

  8. Evaluation of analytical methods to interpret ground deformations due to soft ground tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zymnis, Despina M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in depth study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of analytical solutions in describing ground movements induced by soft ground tunneling. The analytical solutions that were examined consider both isotropic ...

  9. Wind Tunnel and Flight Testing of Active Flow Control on a UAV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babbar, Yogesh

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Active flow control has been extensively explored in wind tunnel studies but successful in-flight implementation of an active flow control technology still remains a challenge. This thesis presents implementation of active flow control technology...

  10. A New Scanning Tunneling Microscope Reactor Used for High Pressure and High Temperature Catalysis Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Feng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bowl glued at the end of the scanning tube. The arrowbowl at the end of the scanning tube. FIG. 6. (a) STM imageA New Scanning Tunneling Microscope Reactor Used for High

  11. Common-path interference and oscillatory Zener tunneling in bilayer graphene p-n junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nandkishore, Rahul Mahajan

    Interference and tunneling are two signature quantum effects that are often perceived as the yin and yang of quantum mechanics: a particle simultaneously propagating along several distinct classical paths versus a particle ...

  12. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  13. Fire Size and Fire Spread in Tunnels with Longitudinal Ventilation Systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvel, Ricky O; Beard, Alan; Jowitt, P W; Drysdale, Dougal

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results and findings of three previous research projects are combined with new research to estimate the overall influence of longitudinal ventilation on fire size and spread in tunnels. Each of the three previous projects is briefly described...

  14. Instanton-noninstanton transition in nonintegrable tunneling processes: A renormalized perturbation approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akira Shudo; Yasutaka Hanada; Teruaki Okushima; Kensuke S. Ikeda

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The instanton-noninstanton (I-NI) transition in the tunneling process, which has been numerically observed in classically nonintegrable quantum maps, can be described by a perturbation theory based on an integrable Hamiltonian renormalized so as to incorporate the integrable part of the map. The renormalized perturbation theory is successfully applied to the two quantum maps, the H\\'enon and standard maps. In spite of different nature of tunneling in the two systems, the I-NI transition exhibits very common characteristics. In particular, the manifestation of I-NI transition is obviously explained by a remarkable quenching of the renormalized transition matrix element. The enhancement of tunneling probability after the transition can be understood as a sudden change of the tunneling mechanism from the instanton to quite a different mechanism supported by classical flows just outside of the stable-unstable manifolds of the saddle on the top of the potential barrier.

  15. Titanium Silicide Islands on Atomically Clean Si(100): Identifying Single Electron Tunneling Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph L. Tedesco; J. E. Rowe; Robert J. Nemanich

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Titanium silicide islands have been formed by the ultrahigh vacuum deposition of thin films of titanium (electron tunneling (SET) according to the orthodox model of SET. Some of the islands formed are small enough (diameter reliability of future devices.

  16. Structural Fluctuations, Spin, Reorganization Energy, and Tunneling Energy Control of Intramolecular Electron Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurnikova, Maria

    calculations of electronic couplings, molecular dynamics simulations of molecular geometries, and Poisson exists to interpret electron-transfer (ET) reactions and their dependence upon molecular structure.1Structural Fluctuations, Spin, Reorganization Energy, and Tunneling Energy Control

  17. Investigation of the tunneling emitter bipolar transistor as spin-injector into silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Veenhuizen, Marc Julien

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis is discussed the tunneling emitter bipolar transistor as a possible spin-injector into silicon. The transistor has a metallic emitter which as a spin-injector will be a ferromagnet. Spin-polarized electrons ...

  18. A Study of Fire Durability for a Road Tunnel: Comparing CFD and Simple Analytical Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reszka, Pedro; Steinhaus, Thomas; Biteau, Hubert; Carvel, Ricky O; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    The durability of various typical tunnel sections in the event of a prescribed 100 MW fire has been assessed. Cast-iron sections, pre-cast concrete sections and in-situ concrete cut and cover sections are all considered ...

  19. Tunnel determinants from spectral zeta functions. Instanton effects in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izquierdo, A. Alonso [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Guilarte, J. Mateos [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we develop an spectral zeta function regularization procedure on the determinants of instanton fluctuation operators that describe the semi-classical order of tunnel effects between degenerate vacua.

  20. Earth pressure balance (EPB) tunneling induced settlements in the Tren Urbano Project, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrams, Alejandro J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground construction of the Rio Piedras section of the Tren Urbano project involved the construction of twin tunnels (6.3m diameter) with Earth Pressure Balance machines in weathered alluvial soil. The depth of the ...

  1. The tunneling hamiltonian representation of false vacuum decay: III. Application to nucleation of an inflationary universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. W. Beckwith

    2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The tunneling hamiltonian has proven to be a useful method in many body physics to treat particle tunneling between different states represented as wave functions. Here we apply a generalization of a way we formed appropriate wave functionals in CDW to how to present nucleation of an inflationary universe . This allows us to make a generalization of the model used for inflation when the inflaton is trapped in a false vacuum and, after tunneling, makes a first order phase transition to initiate nucleation of an inflationary universe, in which tunneling between states which are wavefunctionals of a scalar quantum field are considered . We explain how we can have particle - anti particle pairs as a model for how nucleation occurs and construct a potential which satisfies the flat slow roll condition even while using a modified false vacuum construction to this problem

  2. Fire modeling for Building 221-T - T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oar, D.L.

    1994-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared by Hughes Associates, Inc. to document the results of fire models for building 221-T Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel. Backup data is contained in document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-010, Rev. 0.

  3. Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) performance in Singapore's Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Wanling

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Singapore's Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) network is one of the largest public works projects undertaken by the Singapore government. This thesis summarizes and evaluates the performance of Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) construction ...

  4. An Updated Procedure for Tare and Interference Wind Tunnel Testing of Strut-Mounted Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kutz, Douglas M

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    to the presence of wind tunnel walls. The standard correction procedure adjusts for the presence of these boundaries using approximations based on linear potential flow theory. Separately,tare and interference removal involves the linear subtraction of mounting...

  5. Water Dynamics at Rough Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Rosenstihl; Kerstin Kmpf; Felix Klameth; Matthias Sattig; Michael Vogel

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We use molecular dynamics computer simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to investigate the dynamics of water at interfaces of molecular roughness and low mobility. We find that, when approaching such interfaces, the structural relaxation of water, i.e., the $\\alpha$ process, slows down even when specific attractive interactions are absent. This prominent effect is accompanied by a smooth transition from Vogel to Arrhenius temperature dependence and by a growing importance of jump events. Consistently, at protein surfaces, deviations from Arrhenius behavior are weak when free water does not exist. Furthermore, in nanoporous silica, a dynamic crossover of liquid water occurs when a fraction of solid water forms near 225 K and, hence, the liquid dynamics changes from bulk-like to interface-dominated. At sufficiently low temperatures, water exhibits a quasi-universal $\\beta$ process, which is characterized by an activation energy of $E_a\\!=\\!0.5$ eV and involves anisotropic reorientation about large angles. As a consequence of its large amplitude, the faster $\\beta$ process destroys essentially all orientational correlation, rendering observation of a possible slower $\\alpha$ process difficult in standard experiments. Nevertheless, we find indications for the existence of structural relaxation down to a glass transition of interfacial water near 185 K. Hydrated proteins show a highly restricted backbone motion with an amplitude, which decreases upon cooling and vanishes at comparable temperatures, providing evidence for a high relevance of water rearrangements in the hydration shell for secondary protein relaxations.

  6. Shock-Dispersed-Fuel Charges: Combustion in Chambers and Tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A L

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In previous studies we have investigated after-burning effects of a fuel-rich explosive (TNT). In that case the detonation only releases about 30% of the available energy, but generates a hot cloud of fuel that can burn in the ambient air, thus evoking an additional energy release that is distributed in space and time. The current series of small-scale experiments can be looked upon as a natural generalization of this mechanism: a booster charge disperses a (non-explosive) fuel, provides mixing with air and, by means of the hot detonation products, the energy to ignite the fuel. The current version of our miniature Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charges consists of a spherical booster charge of 0.5 g PETN, embedded in a paper cylinder of approximately 2.2 cm, which is filled with powdered fuel compositions. The main compositions studied up to now contain aluminum flakes, hydrocarbon powders like polyethylene or hexosen (sucrose) and/or carbon particles. These charges were studied in four different chambers: two cylindrical vessels of 6.6-1 and 40.5-1 volume with a height-to-diameter ratio of approximately 1, a rectangular chamber of 41 (10.5 x 10.5 x 38.6 cm) and a 299.6 cm long tunnel model with a cross section of 8 x 8 cm (volume 19.21) closed at both ends.

  7. Tunnel studies of niobium films containing excess quasiparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, V.M.; Rudenko, E.M.; Nevirkovets, I.P.; Shaternik, V.E.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The instability of the nonequilibrium state in superconducting niobium films is studied for wide-band (eV>3..delta..) and narrow-band (..delta..>>eV-3..delta..) sources of quasiparticles injected into the film. For a wide-band source, the critical instability current I/sub i/ was found to vary anomalously with the helium bath temperature. The pulse technique was used to measure the local heating temperature T/sub l/ in the neighborhood of a tunnel contact. The variation of I/sub i/ with T/sub l/ is not anomalous and is consistent with the theoretical temperature dependence ..beta../sub c/(T) of the critical power (V. F. Elesin, V. E. Kondrashov, and A. S. Sukhikh, Sov. Phys. Solid State 21, 1861 (1979)). Instability is found for a narrow-band source for the contacts having the lowest resistance. The instability current in this case decreases with falling temperature, in qualitative agreement with the theory of threshold instability in a superconductor.

  8. Klein tunneling and supercollimation of pseudospin-1 photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, A; Louie, Steven G; Chan, C T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pseudospin plays a central role in many novel physical properties of graphene and other artificial systems which have pseudospins of 1/2. Here we show that in certain photonic crystals (PCs) exhibiting conical dispersions at k = 0, the eigenmodes near the "Dirac-like point" can be described by an effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian with a pseudospin of 1, treating wave propagations in the upper cone, the lower cone and a flat band (corresponding to zero refractive index) within a unified framework. The 3-component spinor gives rise to boundary conditions distinct from those of pseudospin-1/2, leading to new wave transport behaviors as manifested in Klein tunneling and supercollimation. For example, collimation can be realized more easily with pseudospin-1 than pseudospin-1/2. The special wave scattering properties of pseudospin-1 photons, coupled with the discovery that the effective photonic "potential" can be varied by a simple change of length scale, may offer new ways to control photon transport.

  9. Species Introductions in Large Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinch, Scott G.

    ) No management procedures mandated Fully loaded cargo hold Residual water and accumulated sediment hold #12;Global Ballast Water Global ballast water transfer: ~10 billion tonnes/year Ballast water per of animals and plants transported in ballast water: > 3000/day > 80% of global goods and commodities

  10. INTRODUCTION Information on the abundance of large whales in Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laidre, Kristin L.

    INTRODUCTION Information on the abundance of large whales in Greenland waters, including fin whales surveys were conducted in West Greenland by the Greenland Fisheries Research Institute (m/v Regina Maris when survey conditions are optimal in Greenlandic waters. Between 1983 and 1993, visual aerial surveys

  11. Large scale disease prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Patrick R. (Patrick Raphael)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to present the foundation of an automated large-scale disease prediction system. Unlike previous work that has typically focused on a small self-contained dataset, we explore the possibility ...

  12. Conservation: The Water We Don't Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guz, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -newsleter San Antonio Landscape Care Guide Reporting Water Waste Home Water Conservation Consults Drought Restriction Enforcement Custom Commercial Rebate Program Toilet Retrofit Program Commercial Cooling Tower Audits Restaurant Certified Water...The Water We Don?t Use Karen Guz Conservation Director San Antonio Water System November 9, 2011 November 9, 2011 Energy & Water Nexus Page 2 CPS Energy and SAWS Leading Forward-Looking Utilities Large customer relationship between...

  13. Effective fracture geometry obtained with large water sand ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Amrendra

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    -Pressure z Compressibility Factor viii t Time M Molecular Weight R Gas Constant T Temperature Pi Initial Reservoir Pressure q Flow Rate qsc Flow Rate at Standard Condition B Formation Volume Factor Bg Formation Gas Volume Factor Gp Cumulative... be solved with two boundaries and one initial condition. iprp =)0,( (Initial Condition) (2.34) h qB r prk wrr r pi ? 2=? ? = (Constant Rate Inner Boundary...

  14. Optimal Operation of Large Agricultural Watersheds with Water Quality Restraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, J. R.; Hann, R. W.

    . Nonpoint-source pollution (watersheds) is widely dispersed and not easily measured. Mathematical models are needed to predict nonpoint-source pollution as affected by watershed characteristics, land use, conservation practices, chemical fertilizers...

  15. An Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of Pattern Formation and Molecule Ordering under a Variety of Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yeming

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chen, Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Oxfordvoltages to search the scanning area on the surface. Threecontrol system for scanning tun- neling microscope (STM)

  16. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics Appropriative and riparian water institutions Incentives for conservation Water rights for in-stream environmental use Surface water-groundwater management Water quality regulations Water markets Economic and policy

  17. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Andrew S.

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality Situation (resources) Florida has extensive

  18. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficient gas water heating appliance to market; a plan toefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and to planefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and 3) to

  19. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  20. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in developing a realistic degradation term for tankless water heatersstep (water draw event) in the simulation. Instantaneous Gas Water Heater

  1. National Smart Water Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US-Mexico border; and decreased eutrophication (excessive plant growth and decay) in the Gulf of Mexico to name a few. The National Smart Water Grid{trademark} will pay for itself in a single major flood event.

  2. DEVELOPMENTS IN GROUND WATER HYDROLOGY : AN OVERVIEW C. P. Kumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    . Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which of storage and circulation as ground water. The large alluvial tract extending over 2000 km in length from which allows ground water storage in the weathered residium and its circulation in the underlying

  3. Air Effects on Large Droplet Impact Frank T Smith1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purvis, Richard

    Air Effects on Large Droplet Impact Frank T Smith1 and Richard Purvis2 UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK A study is presented of the interaction(s) between air and water in determining the motion of a large surrounding air motion. I.Nomenclature A = magnitude of shear flow in the air c = ratio U /V D

  4. The Future of Global Water Stress: An Integrated Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlosser, C. Adam

    We assess the ability of global water systems, resolved at 282 large river basins or Assessment Sub Regions (ASRs), to the meet water requirements over the coming decades under integrated projections of socioeconomic growth ...

  5. Water availability, piospheres and evolution in African ruminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Julian F; Dougill, Andy

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water dependency has consequences for the behaviour of African large herbivores from day-to-day and season-to-season. Independently, there have been comparisons made between the water-dependencies of these species and the consequent impact...

  6. COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH THE KYUQUOT and Environmental Management Title of Research Project: Collaborative Investigations of Water Quality Pollution 15, 2006 #12;iii ABSTRACT In 2004, large-scale closures to shellfish harvesting were issued

  7. Water Use for Hydraulic Fracturing: A Texas Sized Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeClere, David

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The state of Texas could face a 2.7 trillion gallon shortfall of water by 2060. Hydraulic fracturing (HF) requires large amounts of water for each well. Tax incentives should be offered to companies that substitute brackish ...

  8. Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

  9. Large Scale Weather Control Using Nuclear Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh-Modgil, M

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is pointed out that controlled release of thermal energy from fission type nuclear reactors can be used to alter weather patterns over significantly large geographical regions. (1) Nuclear heat creates a low pressure region, which can be used to draw moist air from oceans, onto deserts. (2) Creation of low pressure zones over oceans using Nuclear heat can lead to Controlled Cyclone Creation (CCC).(3) Nuclear heat can also be used to melt glaciers and control water flow in rivers.

  10. Large Scale Weather Control Using Nuclear Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moninder Singh Modgil

    2002-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    It is pointed out that controlled release of thermal energy from fission type nuclear reactors can be used to alter weather patterns over significantly large geographical regions. (1) Nuclear heat creates a low pressure region, which can be used to draw moist air from oceans, onto deserts. (2) Creation of low pressure zones over oceans using Nuclear heat can lead to Controlled Cyclone Creation (CCC).(3) Nuclear heat can also be used to melt glaciers and control water flow in rivers.

  11. Water in a Crowd In many situations, form biology to geology, water occurs not as the pure bulk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water in a Crowd In many situations, form biology to geology, water occurs not as the pure bulk species, and interacting with large organic molecules. In such situations, water does not behave in the same manner as it does in the pure bulk liquid. Water dynamics are fundamental to many processes

  12. Performance limits of tunnel transistors based on mono-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Xiang-Wei, E-mail: xwjiang@semi.ac.cn; Li, Shu-Shen [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance limits of tunnel field-effect transistors based on mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides are investigated through numerical quantum mechanical simulations. The atomic mono-layer nature of the devices results in a much smaller natural length ?, leading to much larger electric field inside the tunneling diodes. As a result, the inter-band tunneling currents are found to be very high as long as ultra-thin high-k gate dielectric is possible. The highest on-state driving current is found to be close to 600??A/?m at V{sub g}?=?V{sub d}?=?0.5?V when 2?nm thin HfO{sub 2} layer is used for gate dielectric, outperforming most of the conventional semiconductor tunnel transistors. In the five simulated transition-metal dichalcogenides, mono-layer WSe{sub 2} based tunnel field-effect transistor shows the best potential. Deep analysis reveals that there is plenty room to further enhance the device performance by either geometry, alloy, or strain engineering on these mono-layer materials.

  13. Attoclock time and exit momentum in strong-field tunnel ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Teeny; Enderalp Yakaboylu; Heiko Bauke; Christoph H. Keitel

    2015-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. The so-called two-step model, which describes the ionization as instantaneous tunneling at electric field maximum and classical motion afterwards, is commonly employed to describe tunnel ionization in adiabatic regimes. In this contribution, we first show by solving numerically the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation in one dimension that there is a time delay between the electric field maximum and the maximum of the ionization rate. This delay is identified as the response time needed by the wavefunction to react to the field maximum. Furthermore, there is a difference between the quantum momentum and the classical momentum from the two-step model after interaction with the driving electric field. Combining both results, we conclude that the electron has an effective initial momentum at the tunneling exit. Our results imply that the two-step model needs modification. The electron's initial momentum has to be incorporated, when tunneling times shall be determined in attoclock experiments.

  14. Large power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsai, K.; Kerenyi, D.; Kiss, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The book deals with the following aspects of transformer engineering: general principles governing the function of transformers, iron cores, windings, stray losses caused by stray flux, the insulation of transformers, and the structural parts and accessories. This edition includes the developments in theory and practice on the basis of the authors' experience in design, manufacturing and testing of large transformers. New developments have been particularly extensive in the fields of new magnetic materials, cooling methods, dielectric strength for overvoltages of different types, and stray-load loss problems, which are presented in the book in detail. The many diagrams in the book can be used directly in the design, manufacture and testing of large transformers. In preparing their text, the authors have aimed to satisfy the demand for a work that summarizes the latest experience in development and design of large power transformers.

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  16. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Roberrt C [DRI; Drollinger, Harold [DRI

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16a Tunnel complex is eligible to the National Register of Historic Places under criteria a and c, consideration g of 36 CFR Part 60.4 as a historic landscape. Scientific research conducted at the tunnel has made significant contributions to the broad patterns of our history, particularly in regard to the Cold War era that was characterized by competing social, economic, and political ideologies between the former Soviet Union and the United States. The tunnel also possesses distinctive construction and engineering methods for conducting underground nuclear tests. The Desert Research Institute recommends that the U16a Tunnel area be left in place in its current condition and that the U16a Tunnel historic landscape be included in the Nevada National Security Site monitoring program and monitored on a regular basis.

  17. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, robert C [DRI; Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16a Tunnel complex is eligible to the National Register of Historic Places under criteria a and c, consideration g of 36 CFR Part 60.4 as a historic landscape. Scientific research conducted at the tunnel has made significant contributions to the broad patterns of our history, particularly in regard to the Cold War era that was characterized by competing social, economic, and political ideologies between the former Soviet Union and the United States. The tunnel also possesses distinctive construction and engineering methods for conducting underground nuclear tests. The Desert Research Institute recommends that the U16a Tunnel area be left in place in its current condition and that the U16a Tunnel historic landscape be included in the Nevada National Security Site monitoring program and monitored on a regular basis.

  18. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumer/your_home/water_ heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12980heating is a large source of energy use in California homes.heating is the third largest source of energy use in homes [

  19. Composting Large Animal Carcasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auvermann, Brent W.; Mukhtar, Saqib; Heflin, Kevin

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposing of large animal carcasses can be a problem for agricultural producers. Composting is a simple, low-cost method that yields a useful product that can be used as fertilizer. In this publication you'll learn the basics of composting, how...

  20. Composting Large Animal Carcasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auvermann, Brent W.; Mukhtar, Saqib; Heflin, Kevin

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposing of large animal carcasses can be a problem for agricultural producers. Composting is a simple, low-cost method that yields a useful product that can be used as fertilizer. In this publication you'll learn the basics of composting, how...

  1. Near-Region Modification of Total Pressure Fluctuations by a Normal Shock Wave in a Low-Density Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mai, Chi Luong Nhat

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -density hypersonic wind tunnel. Measurements were obtained with a fast-response Pitot pressure probe traversing in the freestream direction. The tunnel freestream noise level was characterized and served as the inflow/upstream condition to the interaction...

  2. Subthreshold-swing physics of tunnel field-effect transistors Wei Cao, Deblina Sarkar, Yasin Khatami, Jiahao Kang, and Kaustav Banerjee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subthreshold-swing physics of tunnel field-effect transistors Wei Cao, Deblina Sarkar, Yasin) Subthreshold-swing physics of tunnel field-effect transistors Wei Cao, Deblina Sarkar, Yasin Khatami, Jiahao

  3. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews WaterWater

  4. Intermediate-band photosensitive device with quantum dots having tunneling barrier embedded in organic matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A plurality of quantum dots each have a shell. The quantum dots are embedded in an organic matrix. At least the quantum dots and the organic matrix are photoconductive semiconductors. The shell of each quantum dot is arranged as a tunneling barrier to require a charge carrier (an electron or a hole) at a base of the tunneling barrier in the organic matrix to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the respective quantum dot. A first quantum state in each quantum dot is between a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the organic matrix. Wave functions of the first quantum state of the plurality of quantum dots may overlap to form an intermediate band.

  5. Self Excitation of the Tunneling Scalar Field in False Vacuum Decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Hamazaki; Misao Sasaki; Takahiro Tanaka; Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to determine the quantum state of a scalar field after $O(4)$-symmetric bubble nucleation has been developed recently. The method has an advantage that it concisely gives us a clear picture of the resultant quantum state. In particular, one may interpret the excitations as a particle creation phenomenon just as in the case of particle creation in curved spacetime. As an application, we investigate in detail the spectrum of quantum excitations of the tunneling field when it undergoes false vacuum decay. We consider a tunneling potential which is piece-wise quadratic, hence is simple enough to allow us an analytical treatment. We find a strong dependence of the excitation spectrum upon the shape of the potential on the true vacuum side. We then discuss features of the excitation spectrum common to general tunneling potentials not restricted to our simple model.

  6. Hawking radiation as tunneling from a Vaidya black hole in noncommutative gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdipour, S. Hamid [Islamic Azad University, Lahijan Branch, P. O. Box 1616, Lahijan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of a noncommutative model of coordinate coherent states, we present a Schwarzschild-like metric for a Vaidya solution instead of the standard Eddington-Finkelstein metric. This leads to the appearance of an exact (t-r) dependent case of the metric. We analyze the resulting metric in three possible causal structures. In this setup, we find a zero remnant mass in the long-time limit, i.e. an instable black hole remnant. We also study the tunneling process across the quantum horizon of such a Vaidya black hole. The tunneling probability including the time-dependent part is obtained by using the tunneling method proposed by Parikh and Wilczek in terms of the noncommutative parameter {sigma}. After that, we calculate the entropy associated to this noncommutative black hole solution. However, the corrections are fundamentally trifling; one could respect this as a consequence of quantum inspection at the level of semiclassical quantum gravity.

  7. australian water resources: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    US Army Corps of Engineers Australian National Committee on Large Dams Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Report to Institute for Water Resources, US Army Corps of Engineers...

  8. A Minimal Model for Large-scale Epitaxial Growth Kinetics of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huijun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be $C_{1}$-attachment for concave growth front segments and $C_{5}$-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  9. Tunneling density of states of high Tc superconductors d-wave BCS model vs. SU(2) slave boson model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    Tunneling density of states of high Tc superconductors d-wave BCS model vs. SU(2) slave boson model conductance curves in the superconducting state at zero temperature. Comparing the two results obtained via Tunneling spectroscopy has been one of the funda- mental tools in studying the superconducting state

  10. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences 45 (2008) 12111225 Consolidation settlements above deep tunnels in fractured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and pore-pressure changes around the tunnel. This is a concern for the 57 km long Gotthard Base Tunnel several important concrete dams. Thus, the assessment and prediction of potential surface displacements, the explicit inclusion of geological structures in the distinct-element models enabled a better fit

  11. A Novel Si-Tunnel FET based SRAM Design for Ultra Low-Power 0.3V VDD Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    A Novel Si-Tunnel FET based SRAM Design for Ultra Low-Power 0.3V VDD Applications J. Singh, K-Band Tunnel Field Effect Transistors (TFETs) in SRAMs at ultra low supply voltages. The uni design using Si- TFETs for reliable operation with low leakage at ultra low voltages. We also demonstrate

  12. Role of midgap states in the inelastic tunneling between a d-wave superconductor and a normal metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei,Hongduo

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IT mediated by the phonons in the barrier or of the electrodes at the barrier. Unlike in N-N tunneling, where the excitable mode frequencies are revealed in d I/dV, here dI/dV is already sufficient to reveal the same. Comparing with N-S (s-wave) tunneling...

  13. Oxidized GaN(0001) Surfaces studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy and by First-Principles Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Oxidized GaN(0001) Surfaces studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy Abstract Oxidized Ga-polar GaN surfaces have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. For in tunneling spectroscopy revealed a surface band gap with size close to that of GaN, indicating that any

  14. Using Renewable Energy to Pump Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, J.; Mecke, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Solar energy pro- duces more water in the summer, when water consumption is high. For wind power, the wind blows more during the spring, when the average monthly wind speed varies from 11.5 to 13.4 mph at a 33-foot height in West and Northwest Texas...Using Renewable Energy to Pump Water Juan Enciso and Michael Mecke* Wind power Wind is often used as an energy source to operate pumps and supply water to livestock. Because of the large amount of water needed for crops, wind power is rarely used...

  15. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Overcoming tunnel vision: Redirecting the U.S. high-level nuclear waste program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    permission. Overcoming tunnel vision: Redirecting the U.S. high-level nuclear waste program James Flynn

  16. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    n n g g : : M i i d d d d l l e e R R i i o o G G r r a a n n d d e e Middle Rio Grande Water Assembly Mid Region Council of Governments Sandia National Laboratories Utton...

  17. Investigating Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    substances. It covers most of the earth?s surface, sometimes to a depth of more than a mile. It exists as a colorless gas in the atmosphere. It caps the poles with ice and occurs in the snows of winter. Liquid water fills brooks, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds...

  18. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  19. A micrometer-size movable light emitting area in a resonant tunneling light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettinari, G., E-mail: giorgio.pettinari@cnr.it [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); National Research Council (CNR), Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN-CNR), Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy); Balakrishnan, N.; Makarovsky, O.; Campion, R. P.; Patan, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Polimeni, A.; Capizzi, M. [CNISM-Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universit di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)] [CNISM-Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universit di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the fabrication of a micrometer-size movable light emitting area in a GaAs/AlAs quantum well resonant tunneling p-i-n diode. The spatial position of the micrometer-size light emitting area shifts linearly with increasing applied bias, up to 30??m for a bias increment of 0.2?V. Also, the simultaneous resonant tunneling injection of both electrons and holes into the quantum well states is achieved at specific positions of the diode, thus resulting in a tenfold increase of the electroluminescence intensity.

  20. Monolithic interconnected module with a tunnel junction for enhanced electrical and optical performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Wilt, David M. (Bay Village, OH)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMS), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

  1. Reduced low frequency noise in electron beam evaporated MgO magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Z.; Feng, J. F.; Kurt, H.; Feng, G.; Coey, J. M. D. [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare low frequency noise in magnetic tunnel junctions with MgO barriers prepared by electron-beam evaporation with those prepared by radiofrequency sputtering, both showing a high tunneling magnetoresistance. The normalized noise parameter in the parallel state of junctions with evaporated barriers is at least one order of magnitude lower than that in junctions with sputtered barriers, and exhibits a weaker bias dependence. The lowest normalized noise is in the 10{sup -11} mum{sup 2} range. A lower density of oxygen vacancies acting as charge trap states in the evaporated MgO is responsible for the lower noise.

  2. Note: Long-range scanning tunneling microscope for the study of nanostructures on insulating substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J., E-mail: aday.molina@uam.es [Departamento de Fsica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, Jos G.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino [Departamento de Fsica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales Nicols Cabrera, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Island, Joshua; Burzuri, Enrique; Zant, Herre S. J. van der [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Agrat, Nicols [Departamento de Fsica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain) [Departamento de Fsica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales Nicols Cabrera, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileo de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia IMDEA-Nanociencia, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a powerful tool for studying the electronic properties at the atomic level, however, it is of relatively small scanning range and the fact that it can only operate on conducting samples prevents its application to study heterogeneous samples consisting of conducting and insulating regions. Here we present a long-range scanning tunneling microscope capable of detecting conducting micro and nanostructures on insulating substrates using a technique based on the capacitance between the tip and the sample and performing STM studies.

  3. Using tevatron magnets for HE-LHC or new ring in LHC tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekarz, Henryk; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two injector accelerator options for HE-LHC of p{sup +} - p{sup +} collisions at 33 TeV cms energy are briefly outlined. One option is based on the Super-SPS (S-SPS) accelerator in the SPS tunnel, and the other one is based on the LER (Low-Energy-Ring) accelerator in the LHC tunnel. Expectations of performance of the main arc accelerator magnets considered for the construction of the S-SPS and of the LER accelerators are used to tentatively devise some selected properties of these accelerators as potential injectors to HE-LHC.

  4. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    faced with the imperative that water is vital to all life onChoy* and Leon Szeptycki Water in the West Keywords: climategreen infrastructure; water; water-energy; water governance;

  5. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Robert A.; Payne, Michael C. [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mostofi, Arash A. [Department of Materials and Department of Physics, and the Thomas Young Centre for Theory and Simulation of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 , highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10{sup ?4}?e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells.

  6. Local tunneling characteristics near a grain boundary of a d-wave superconductor as probed by a normal-metal or a low-Tc-superconductor STM tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hongwei

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the local single-particle tunneling characteristics [as observed with scanning tunnel microscopy (STM)] for N D and S D tunneling, where N is a normal metal, S is a s-wave superconductor, and D is a d-wave superconductor with a {100...

  7. Dimerization Induced Deprotonation of Water on RuO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mu, Rentao; Cantu Cantu, David; Lin, Xiao; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Wang, Zhitao; Lyubinetsky, Igor; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    RuO2 has proven to be indispensable as a co-catalyst in numerous systems designed for photocatalytic water splitting. In this study we have carried out a detailed mechanistic study of water behavior on the most stable RuO2 face, RuO2(110), by employing variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. We show that water monomers adsorb molecularly on Ru sites, become mobile above 238 K, diffuse along the Ru rows and form water dimers. The onset for dimer diffusion is observed at ~277 K indicating significantly higher diffusion barrier than that for monomers. More importantly, we find that water dimers deprotonate readily to form Ru-bound H3O2 and bridging OH species. The observed behavior is compared and contrasted with that observed for water on isostructural rutile TiO2(110).

  8. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  9. WATER-QUALITY CONDITIONS DURING LOW FLOW IN THE LOWER YOUGHIOGHENY RIVER BASIN, PENNSYLVANIA, OCTOBER 5-7, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James I. Sams, III, Karl T. Schroeder; Terry E. Ackman; J. Kent Crawford; Kim L. Otto

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In October 1998, a chemical synoptic survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, in the Lower Youghiogheny River Basin in Pennsylvania to give a snap-shot of present (1998) water quality during low-flow conditions. Water samples from 38 sites--12 mainstem sites, 22 tributaries, and 4 mine discharges that discharge directly to the Youghiogheny River--were used to identify sources of contaminants from mining operations. Specific conductance, water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at each site and concentrations of major ions and trace elements were measured in the laboratory. Unaccounted for gains and losses in streamflow were measured during the study. Unaccounted for losses in streamflow might be attributed to water loss through streambed fractures. Extensive mine tunnels are present in the basin and loss of water to these tunnels seems likely. Unaccounted for gains in streamflow may be from unmeasured tributaries or surface seeps, but most of the gains are suspected to come from artesian flow through fractures in the streambed from underground mine pools. Influent flows of rust-colored water were noted in some river sections. The pH values for all the samples collected during this survey were above 5.8, and most (33 of 38 samples) were above 7.0. Samples from the four mine-discharge sites also had pH values between 6.3 and 6.7. The lowest pH (5.8) was in a tributary, Galley Run. All 38 sampling sites had net alkalinity. The alkalinity load in the Youghiogheny River increased between Connellsville and McKeesport from 35 to 79 tons per day. Above Smithton, the measured alkalinity load in the Lower Youghiogheny River agreed well with the estimated alkalinity load. Below Smithton, measured alkalinity loads in the Lower Youghiogheny River are greater than calculated loads, resulting in unaccounted for gains in alkalinity. These gains are believed to be from seeps in the streambed. Approximately one-third of the load of total alkalinity in the Youghiogheny River at McKeesport is attributed to Sewickley Creek, which contributes 14 tons per day. Sulfate concentrations in the Youghiogheny River steadily increase from 33 milligrams per liter at Connellsville to 77 milligrams per liter near McKeesport. The measured concentrations of sulfate exceeded Pennsylvania water-quality standards at four tributary sites (Galley Run, Hickman Run, Sewickley Creek, and Gillespie Run) and all four mine-discharge sites but not at any main-stem sites. A large increase in sulfate load between West Newton and Sutersville can be attributed almost entirely to the contribution from Sewickley Creek (49 tons per day). Approximately 25 percent of the load measured between Connellsville and McKeesport is unaccounted for. These gains are believed to be from seeps in the streambed from underground mine pools. Similar patterns also were observed for loads of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. Unmeasured inputs from mine rainage are believed to be the source of these loads. Elevated concentrations (above background levels) of chemicals associated with drainage from coal-mining operations were measured in samples from tributaries, especially from Galley Run, Gillespie Run, and Sewickley Creek, and from the mine-discharge sites. The synoptic survey conducted for this study was successful in identifying generalized reaches of the Youghiogheny River where unaccounted for loads of constituents associated with mining activities are entering the river. However, the survey was not able to pinpoint the location of these loads. Remote-sensing techniques, such as thermal infrared imaging by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, could be useful for determining the precise locations of these inputs.

  10. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the quality of Missouri drinking water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity mine areas, hazardous waste disposal, acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems. Because of the 1987-1989 drought years, and the flood of '93 and '95, water quantity has become a major

  11. InGaAs tunnel diodes for the calibration of semi-classical and quantum mechanical band-to-band tunneling models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smets, Quentin; Verreck, Devin; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Groeseneken, Guido; Heyns, Marc M. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); KULeuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S.; Rooyackers, Rita; Merckling, Clment; Simoen, Eddy; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Voon Y. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van De Put, Maarten; Sore, Bart [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Promising predictions are made for III-V tunnel-field-effect transistor (FET), but there is still uncertainty on the parameters used in the band-to-band tunneling models. Therefore, two simulators are calibrated in this paper; the first one uses a semi-classical tunneling model based on Kane's formalism, and the second one is a quantum mechanical simulator implemented with an envelope function formalism. The calibration is done for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As using several p+/intrinsic/n+ diodes with different intrinsic region thicknesses. The dopant profile is determined by SIMS and capacitance-voltage measurements. Error bars are used based on statistical and systematic uncertainties in the measurement techniques. The obtained parameters are in close agreement with theoretically predicted values and validate the semi-classical and quantum mechanical models. Finally, the models are applied to predict the input characteristics of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As n- and p-lineTFET, with the n-lineTFET showing competitive performance compared to MOSFET.

  12. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ........SPECIAL BUREAU OF RECLAMATION CENTENNIAL COVERAGE 14..............Water News Briefs 15 Keyes, Commissioner of Reclamation, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Several con- vention topics will focus afternoon NWRA board of director's meeting. Plains farmers survey their land in western Nebraska, probably

  13. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  14. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  15. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    occur globally every year due to a lack of clean water, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene (1CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths

  16. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

  17. Bright Water- hydrosols, water conservation and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitz, Russell

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since air-water and water-air interfaces are equally refractive, cloud droplets and microbubbles dispersed in bodies of water reflect sunlight in much the same way. The lifetime of sunlight-reflecting microbubbles, and hence the scale on which they may be applied, depends on Stokes Law and the influence of ambient or added surfactants. Small bubbles backscatter light more efficiently than large ones, opening the possibility of using highly dilute micron-radius hydrosols to substantially brighten surface waters. Such microbubbles can noticeably increase water surface reflectivity, even at volume fractions of parts per million and such loadings can be created at an energy cost as low as J m-2 to initiate and milliwatts m-2 to sustain. Increasing water albedo in this way can reduce solar energy absorption by as much as 100 W m-2, potentially reducing equilibrium temperatures of standing water bodies by several Kelvins. While aerosols injected into the stratosphere tend to alter climate globally, hydrosols can be...

  18. Surface plasmon beam splitting by the photon tunneling through the plasmonic nanogap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    Surface plasmon beam splitting by the photon tunneling through the plasmonic nanogap Seung-Yeol Lee Center for Active Plasmonics Application Systems, Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, School that splits a surface plasmon beam by using double triangular prisms coated on a metal surface is proposed

  19. Modelling a Car Safety Controller in Road Tunnels using Hybrid Petri Nets A. Bobbio[1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvth, Andrs

    Modelling a Car Safety Controller in Road Tunnels using Hybrid Petri Nets A. Bobbio[1] , M this specific issue and proposes a hybrid modeling approach based on fluid Petri nets (FPN). An FPN is used that FPN is a valid paradigm to model the dynamics of a car in a detailed way. 1 Introduction In the last

  20. Seismic modeling and analysis of a prototype heated nuclear waste storage tunnel, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    Seismic modeling and analysis of a prototype heated nuclear waste storage tunnel, Yucca Mountain was heated to replicate the effects of long-term storage of decaying nuclear waste and to study the effects for the long- term storage of high-level nuclear waste from reactors and decom- missioned atomic weapons

  1. Influence of pair coherence on charge tunneling through a quantum dot connected to a superconducting lead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domanski, Tadeusz

    Influence of pair coherence on charge tunneling through a quantum dot connected the temperature below T* larger than Tc the single particle states become gradually depleted over a certain energy to a close neighborhood to the Mott insulating state, or because of competition with some other types

  2. Integrated Geophysical Examination of the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel's Fairbanks Silt Units, Fox, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillman, David E.

    C41A-0429 Integrated Geophysical Examination of the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel's Fairbanks Silt Units report on a recent geophysical survey of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Region Research geophysical signatures of permanently frozen loess and massive wedge ice. We exploited the increasing path

  3. Measurement of the Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Rooftop Lawns in a Hot-Climate Wind Tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rooftop lawn. A hot-climate wind tunnel experiment was carried out in order to obtain and analyze the heat and moisture transport in the rooftop lawn. Furthermore, a calculation with the energy conservation equation was carried out using the results...

  4. Decay of the cosmological constant: Equivalence of quantum tunneling and thermal activation in two spacetime dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomberoff, Andres; Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile); Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile); Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile)

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the decay of the cosmological constant in two spacetime dimensions through production of pairs. We show that the same nucleation process looks as quantum-mechanical tunneling (instanton) to one Killing observer and as thermal activation (thermalon) to another. Thus, we find another striking example of the deep interplay between gravity, thermodynamics and quantum mechanics which becomes apparent in presence of horizons.

  5. Benchmark of aerodynamic cycling helmets using a refined wind tunnel test protocol for helmet drag research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidelko, Stephanie

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of aerodynamics is very important in the world of cycling. Wind tunnel research is conducted on most of the equipment that is used by a rider and is a critical factor in the advancement of the sport. However, to ...

  6. Wurtzite GaN Surface Structures Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Reflection High Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    Wurtzite GaN Surface Structures Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Reflection High Energy studies of the surface reconstructions for both the Ga-face and the N-face of wurtzite GaN films grown a surface phenomenon. Although numerous surface studies of wurtzite GaN have been performed, progress

  7. Speech Enhancement of Noisy Speech Using Log-Spectral Amplitude Estimator and Harmonic Tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichmann, Felix

    Speech Enhancement of Noisy Speech Using Log-Spectral Amplitude Estimator and Harmonic Tunneling we present a two stage noise reduction algo- rithm for speech enhancement. The speech noise removal and decreases the performance of speech coding and speech recog- nition systems. In speech enhancement

  8. SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE Operating Instructions On How To Get Atomic Resolution Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE Operating Instructions On How To Get Atomic Resolution Images Do: STM Set-Up: Use either a scanning tip from the tip wire box (skip to the "While holding the tip wire a 45-degree cut on one end of the tip wire, which becomes the scanning tip. Hold the tip wire

  9. Simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Volker; Preissner, Curt A; Hla, Saw-Wai; Wang, Kangkang; Rosenmann, Daniel

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for performing simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast analysis in a scanning, tunneling microscope. The method and system also includes nanofabricated coaxial multilayer tips with a nanoscale conducting apex and a programmable in-situ nanomanipulator to fabricate these tips and also to rotate tips controllably.

  10. Observation of spin-dependent quantum well resonant tunneling in textured CoFeB layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teixeira, J. M., E-mail: jmteixeira@fc.up.pt; Costa, J. D.; Ventura, J.; Sousa, J. B. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, and Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Wisniowski, P. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Freitas, P. P. [INESC-MN and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Rua Alves Redol, 9-1, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the observation of spin-dependent quantum well (QW) resonant tunneling in textured CoFeB free layers of single MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy spectra clearly show the presence of resonant oscillations in the parallel configuration, which are related with the appearance of majority-spin ?{sub 1} QW states in the CoFeB free layer. To gain a quantitative understanding, we calculated QW state positions in the voltage-thickness plane using the so-called phase accumulation model (PAM) and compared the PAM solutions with the experimental resonant voltages observed for a set of MTJs with different CoFeB free layer thicknesses (t{sub fl}?=?1.55, 1.65, 1.95, and 3.0?nm). An overall good agreement between experiment and theory was obtained. An enhancement of the tunnel magnetoresistance with bias is observed in a bias voltage region corresponding to the resonant oscillations.

  11. Close-in blasting at the TRI-MET light rail tunnels in Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revey, G.F.; Painter, D.Z.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Frontier/Traylor Joint Venture is presently constructing a section of the Tri-County Metropolitan Transit District of Oregon`s (TRI-MET) Westside Light Rail System. This new section will extend Portland`s existing transit system to the western suburbs of Beaverton and Hillsboro. The drill-blast excavations at this project include 10,000 feet of 20 foot tunnel, 18 cross passages, three shafts, an underground railway station, and a U-wall open cut. From a blast designer`s perspective, this job has been extremely challenging. Blast vibration is limited to 0.5 ips at 200 feet or at the nearest structure, and airblast is limited to 129 dB--linear peak and 96 dB--C scale. The tunnels pass under heavily built up areas and have top of tunnel to surface cover distances as low as 70 feet. Surface blasting in the 26,000 cubic yard U-wall excavation was limited to five short nighttime periods due to its proximity to the very busy highway 26. This paper describes the techniques that were used to develop safe blasting designs for the TRI-MET Surface blasts and tunnel rounds. It also discusses the measures that were necessary to mitigate noise, vibration, and flyrock.

  12. advanced wind-tunnel instrumentation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    advanced wind-tunnel instrumentation First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 REVIEW OF...

  13. Crossover from tunneling to meta.llic behavior in superconductofgsemiconductor contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    -dominated transport at the superconductor-semiconductor contacts as Schottky barrier thickness decreases of such a crossover in a thin-film structure, and are of interest for investigations of hybrid superconductor-semiconductorCrossover from tunneling to meta.llic behavior in superconductofgsemiconductor contacts A. W

  14. Controlled Low-Temperature Molecular Manipulation of Sexiphenyl Molecules on Ag(111) Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Controlled Low-Temperature Molecular Manipulation of Sexiphenyl Molecules on Ag(111) Using Scanning; published 11 November 2004) A novel scanning tunneling microscope manipulation scheme for a controlled displaced during imag- ing and often dragged with the STM tip [17]. Atomically controlled manipulation

  15. Thoughts on entropic gravity in the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Yu Wen

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this letter, we use the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation to illustrate that a reformulation of Verlinde's entropic gravity is needed to derive the Newton's law for a temperature-varying screen, demanded by the conservation of energy. Furthermore, the entropy stored in the holographic screen is shown to be additive and its temperature dependence can be obtained.

  16. CALCULATIONS OF FIRE SMOKE BEHAVIOUR IN LONG RAIL TUNNELS S. DARON, E. RUFFIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2000-13 CALCULATIONS OF FIRE SMOKE BEHAVIOUR IN LONG RAIL TUNNELS S. DA?RON, E. RUFFIN INERIS Parc in complex underground networks, we want to implement a coupling between a ID ventilation code and a CFD model or a zone model. The project consists in 3 main steps: the development of a ID ventilation code

  17. Tunneling between the giant gravitons in AdS5 x S5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julian Lee

    2001-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    I consider the giant gravitons in AdS5 x S5. By numerical simulation, I show a strong indication that there is no instanton solution describing the direct tunneling between the giant graviton in the S5 and its dual counterpart in the AdS5. I argue that it supports the supersymmetry breaking scenario suggested in hep-th/0008015

  18. Measurement of the Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Rooftop Lawns in a Hot-Climate Wind Tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rooftop lawn. A hot-climate wind tunnel experiment was carried out in order to obtain and analyze the heat and moisture transport in the rooftop lawn. Furthermore, a calculation with the energy conservation equation was carried out using the results...

  19. KS-UWT Building Plans 12 July 2006 TAMU Wind Tunnel Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -scale boundary-layer measurements which are not feasible in larger tunnels Originally from NASA-Glenn Research-turbulence, closed-return facility that can generate oscillatory flows Maximum speed- 35 m/s, 1.4 x 1.4 x 4.9 m

  20. Spontaneous emission from a two--level atom tunneling in a double--well potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Braun; John Martin

    2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a two-level atom in a double--well potential coupled to a continuum of electromagnetic modes (black body radiation in three dimensions at zero absolute temperature). Internal and external degrees of the atom couple due to recoil during emission of a photon. We provide a full analysis of the problem in the long wavelengths limit up to the border of the Lamb-Dicke regime, including a study of the internal dynamics of the atom (spontaneous emission), the tunneling motion, and the electric field of the emitted photon. The tunneling process itself may or may not decohere depending on the wavelength corresponding to the internal transition compared to the distance between the two wells of the external potential, as well as on the spontaneous emission rate compared to the tunneling frequency. Interference fringes appear in the emitted light from a tunneling atom, or an atom in a stationary coherent superposition of its center--of--mass motion, if the wavelength is comparable to the well separation, but only if the external state of the atom is post-selected.

  1. Effect of the hydrogen tunnelling states of the acoustic wave propagation in niobium at low temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-387 Effect of the hydrogen tunnelling states of the acoustic wave propagation in niobium at low son 200 MHz a t mesure jusqu' 50 mK dans des monocristaux de niobium contenant de l'oxygne et at 200 MHz has been measured down to 50 mK in single crystals of niobium doped with oxygen and hydrogen

  2. Wind-Tunnel Simulation of Pedestrian-Level Wind in Los Angeles Bruce R. White

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Bruce

    Wind-Tunnel Simulation of Pedestrian-Level Wind in Los Angeles Bruce R. White University-level winds within the South Coast Air Basin, a 6,000-square mile area that includes Orange County, most of Los Angeles and Riverside Counties. Working with the city of Los Angeles officials guidelines for wind

  3. Multi-field open inflation model and multi-field dynamics in tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: sugimura@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yamauchi@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a multi-field open inflation model, in which one of the fields dominates quantum tunneling from a false vacuum while the other field governs slow-roll inflation within the bubble nucleated from false vacuum decay. We call the former the tunneling field and the latter the inflaton field. In the limit of a negligible interaction between the two fields, the false vacuum decay is described by a Coleman-De Luccia instanton. Here we take into account the coupling between the two fields and construct explicitly a multi-field instanton for a simple quartic potential model. We also solve the evolution of the scalar fields within the bubble. We find our model realizes open inflation successfully. This is the first concrete, viable model of open inflation realized with a simple potential. We then study the effect of the multi-field dynamics on the false vacuum decay, specifically on the tunneling rate. We find the tunneling rate increases in general provided that the multi-field effect can be treated perturbatively.

  4. Resonant tunneling and the bimodal symmetric fission of sup 258 Fm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhandari, B.S. (Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Garyounis, Benghazi, Libya (LY))

    1991-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of resonant tunneling is invoked to explain the sharp drop in the measured spontaneous-fission half-life when going from {sup 256}Fm to {sup 258}Fm. Various consequences of such a suggestion on the other observed characteristics of the bimodal symmetric fission of {sup 258}Fm are briefly discussed.

  5. Systematic Approach for Computing Zero-Point Energy, Quantum Partition Function, and Tunneling Effect Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Systematic Approach for Computing Zero-Point Energy, Quantum Partition Function, and Tunneling, and a proton-transfer barrier modeled by the Eckart potential. The zero-point energy, quantum partition agreement with the ground-state energy (zero-point energy), and the position of the centroid potential

  6. Angular domain optical imaging of turbid media using enhanced micro-tunnel filter arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    performed in tissue mimicking phantoms using a 2-cm thick optical cell with 0.25% IntralipidTM and a near infrared laser. This paper also presents experimental results of the angular domain imaging system employing novel micro-tunnel arrays with minimal internal reflection which can accept the non- scattered

  7. Selective Analysis of Molecular States by Functionalized Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Tips Z. T. Deng,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    . Deng,1 H. Lin,2 W. Ji,1 L. Gao,1 X. Lin,1 Z. H. Cheng,1 X. B. He,1 J. L. Lu,1 D. X. Shi,1 W. A. Hofer,2Selective Analysis of Molecular States by Functionalized Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Tips Z. T

  8. Quantum corrected non-thermal radiation spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subenoy Chakraborty; Subhajit Saha; Christian Corda

    2015-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunnelling mechanism is today considered a popular and widely used method in describing Hawking radiation. However, in relation to black hole (BH) emission, this mechanism is mostly used to obtain the Hawking temperature by comparing the probability of emission of an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. On the other hand, Banerjee and Majhi reformulated the tunnelling framework deriving a black body spectrum through the density matrix for the outgoing modes for both the Bose-Einstein distribution and the Fermi-Dirac distribution. In contrast, Parikh and Wilczek introduced a correction term performing an exact calculation of the action for a tunnelling spherically symmetric particle and, as a result, the probability of emission of an outgoing particle corresponds to a non-strictly thermal radiation spectrum. Recently, one of us (C. Corda) introduced a BH effective state and was able to obtain a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism corresponding to the probability of emission of an outgoing particle found by Parikh and Wilczek. The present work introduces the quantum corrected effective temperature and the corresponding quantum corrected effective metric is written using Hawking's periodicity arguments. Thus, we obtain further corrections to the non-strictly thermal BH radiation spectrum as the final distributions take into account both the BH dynamical geometry during the emission of the particle and the quantum corrections to the semiclassical Hawking temperature.

  9. Current Collapse in Tunneling Transport through Benzene M. H. Hettler,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Current Collapse in Tunneling Transport through Benzene M. H. Hettler,1 W. Wenzel,1 M. R. Wegewijs; published 20 February 2003) We investigate the electrical transport through a system of benzene coupled model for the electrons of the benzene is derived that includes general two-body interactions. After

  10. The benzene molecule as a molecular resonant-tunneling transistor M. Di Ventraa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    The benzene molecule as a molecular resonant-tunneling transistor M. Di Ventraa) and S. T of transport through a benzene-1, 4-dithiolate molecule with a third capacitive terminal gate . We find rectification was demonstrated in 1993.2 More recently, Reed et al. investigated the benzene-1, 4-dithiol rings

  11. Giant higher harmonic generation in mesoscopic metal wires and rings interrupted by tunnel junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    Giant higher harmonic generation in mesoscopic metal wires and rings interrupted by tunnel 5046, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands Received 19 December 1997 Higher harmonic generation in mesoscopic is biased with a sinusoidal varying current, we observe giant higher harmon- ics in the conductance

  12. Cross-sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy of InGaP/GaAs Heterojunctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Cross-sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy of InGaP/GaAs Heterojunctions Y Abstract Compositionally abrupt InGaP/GaAs heterojunctions grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy have the InGaP layer show non-uniform In and Ga distribution. About 1.5 nm of transition region

  13. Semiconductor lasers with broad tunnel-coupled waveguides, emitting at a wavelength of 980 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvonkov, N B; Ershov, A V; Zvonkov, B N; Maksimov, G A; Uskova, E A [Scientific-Research Physicotechnical Institute at the Nizhnii Novgorod State University, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Akhlestina, S A [Research Insitute of Chemistry, N.I. Lobachevskii Nizhnii Novgorod State University, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs semiconductor lasers with broad tunnel-coupled waveguides were developed and investigated experimentally. Output radiation power of 5.2 - 5.8 W was obtained from an emitting region 100 {mu}m wide with a 36{sup 0} divergence of the emitted radiation in a plane perpendicular to the p - n junction. (lasers)

  14. WIND-TUNNEL STUDY ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF SMALL VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    1 WIND-TUNNEL STUDY ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF SMALL VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES J. J. Miau*1 were carried out to study the aerodynamic performance of three vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs. On the other hand, the characteristics of unsteady flow around the helical wind turbine were studied with a hot

  15. SUPERCONDUCTING TUNNEL JUNCTION BOLOMETERS J. CLARKE, G. I. HOFFER and P. L. RICHARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    69 SUPERCONDUCTING TUNNEL JUNCTION BOLOMETERS J. CLARKE, G. I. HOFFER and P. L. RICHARDS DepartmentIioration possible de ces performances. Abstract. 2014 Two new types of superconducting infrared bolometer doped germanium, are widely used as sensitive broadband infrared detectors. Superconducting bolometers

  16. GROUND MOVEMENTS DUE TO SHALLOW TUNNELS IN SOFT GROUND: 1. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    use of numerical analyses, particularly non-linear finite element methods, over a period of more than. Deformation fields based on the superposition of fundamental, singularity solutions are shown to differ only of very shallow tunnels. The Authors demonstrate a simplified method to account for soil plasticity

  17. Policy Name: Golf Carts in Tunnels Originating/Responsible Department: Facilities Management and Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carleton University

    to their manager or department head all incidents involving injury to persons or damage to property. ReportingPolicy Name: Golf Carts in Tunnels Originating/Responsible Department: Facilities Management and Planning Approval Authority: Senior Management Committee Date of Original Policy: October 2008 Last Updated

  18. Large Spectral Library Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identication is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identication is possible. We show that unique identication becomes less likely as p increases.

  19. Water Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm On December 12, 2014, in Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Water...

  1. Water Management Act (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act regulates and registers water withdrawals in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to enable effective planning and management of water use and conservation. The Act establishes a Water...

  2. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  3. Preparing for a Water Emergency A tool for food processors, food manufacturers,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    volume water users to be better prepared for water shortage and contamination emergencies Good business you become better prepared for a water shortage or water contamination situation. #12;PreparingPreparing for a Water Emergency A tool for food processors, food manufacturers, and other large

  4. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  5. Center for Water Resources Research Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Utah. The "Data Fusion for Improved Management of Large Western Water Systems" project described under management issues for large irrigation systems in Utah at the request for assistance from the Sevier River of water quantity and quality through collaboration with government and the private sector. The UCWRR

  6. Drinking Water Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  7. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  8. Using Renewable Energy to Pump Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, J.; Mecke, M.

    Using Renewable Energy to Pump Water Juan Enciso and Michael Mecke* Wind power Wind is often used as an energy source to operate pumps and supply water to livestock. Because of the large amount of water needed for crops, wind power is rarely used... renewable energy sources ? such as solar or wind power ? for your home, for drip irrigation or for livestock water wells. Wind and solar energy can be excellent options in remote areas where the costs of extending transmission lines are high. Extending...

  9. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source waste disposal acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water of the 1987-89 drought years and the floods of 1993 and 1995, water quantity has become a major topic

  10. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's drinking water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non, hazardous waste disposal acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water of the 1987-89 drought years and the floods of 1993 and 1995, water quantity has become a major topic

  11. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  12. Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

  13. Geosynthetic Filters for Water Quality Improvement of Urban Storm Water Runoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    water treatment are retention ponds, detention basins, wetland ponds, and grass swales (Strecker et al are common subsurface storm water runoff treatment systems used in urban areas. Large subsurface fil- ters the treatment system (SEMCOG 2008). Removal of filtration media such as sand is highly labor

  14. Silicon field-effect transistor based on quantum tunneling J. FL Tucker, Chinlee Wang, and P. Scott Carney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhargava, Rohit

    configuration, the gate could be offset in order to permit a shallow implant of the finished device to convert a commercial package, SEMICAD,' together with our own cal- culation of tunneling and thermionic emission

  15. Earth pressure balance (EPB) shield tunneling in Bangkok : ground response and prediction of surface settlements using artificial neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suwansawat, Suchatvee, 1972-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) shields have been used for several decades, very little information exists about the actual mechanisms of shield-ground interaction. The ground response mechanism induced by EPB tunneling ...

  16. A Historical Evaluation of the U12n Tunnel, Nevada national Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Part 2 of 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Jones, Robert C [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12n Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12n Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. A total of 22 nuclear tests were conducted in the U12n Tunnel from 1967 to 1992. These tests include Midi Mist, Hudson Seal, Diana Mist, Misty North, Husky Ace, Ming Blade, Hybla Fair, Mighty Epic, Diablo Hawk, Miners Iron, Huron Landing, Diamond Ace, Mini Jade, Tomme/Midnight Zephyr, Misty Rain, Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Middle Note, Misty Echo, Mineral Quarry, Randsburg, and Hunters Trophy. DTRA sponsored all tests except Tomme and Randsburg which were sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Midnight Zephyr, sponsored by DTRA, was an add on experiment to the Tomme test. Eleven high explosive tests were also conducted in the tunnel and included a Stemming Plan Test, the Pre-Mill Yard test, the two seismic Non-Proliferation Experiment tests, and seven Dipole Hail tests. The U12n Tunnel complex is composed of the portal and mesa areas, encompassing a total area of approximately 600 acres (240 hectares). Major modifications to the landscape have resulted from four principal activities. These are road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, site preparation for activities related to testing, and construction of retention ponds. A total of 202 cultural features were recorded for the portal and mesa areas. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general everyday operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, ventilation equipment, air compressors, communications equipment, mining equipment, rail lines, retention ponds to impound tunnel effluent, and storage containers. Features on the mesa above the tunnel generally relate to tunnel ventilation and cooling, borehole drilling, and data recording facilities. Feature types include concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, equipment pads, ventilation shafts, and ventilation equipment. The U12n Tunnel complex is eligible to the National Register of Historic Places under criteria a and c, consideration g of 36 CFR Part 60.4 as a historic landscape. Scientific research conducted at the tunnel has made significant contributions to the broad patterns of our history, particularly in regard to the Cold War era that was characterized by competing social, economic, and political ideologies between the former Soviet Union and the United States. The tunnel also possesses distinctive construction and engineering methods for conducting underground nuclear tests. The Desert Research Institute recommends that the U12n Tunnel area be left in place in its current condition and that the U12n Tunnel historic landscape be included in the NNSS monitoring program and monitored for disturbances or alterations on a regular basis.

  17. A Historical Evaluation of the U12n Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Jones, Robert C [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12n Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12n Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. A total of 22 nuclear tests were conducted in the U12n Tunnel from 1967 to 1992. These tests include Midi Mist, Hudson Seal, Diana Mist, Misty North, Husky Ace, Ming Blade, Hybla Fair, Mighty Epic, Diablo Hawk, Miners Iron, Huron Landing, Diamond Ace, Mini Jade, Tomme/Midnight Zephyr, Misty Rain, Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Middle Note, Misty Echo, Mineral Quarry, Randsburg, and Hunters Trophy. DTRA sponsored all tests except Tomme and Randsburg which were sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Midnight Zephyr, sponsored by DTRA, was an add on experiment to the Tomme test. Eleven high explosive tests were also conducted in the tunnel and included a Stemming Plan Test, the Pre-Mill Yard test, the two seismic Non-Proliferation Experiment tests, and seven Dipole Hail tests. The U12n Tunnel complex is composed of the portal and mesa areas, encompassing a total area of approximately 600 acres (240 hectares). Major modifications to the landscape have resulted from four principal activities. These are road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, site preparation for activities related to testing, and construction of retention ponds. A total of 202 cultural features were recorded for the portal and mesa areas. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general everyday operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, ventilation equipment, air compressors, communications equipment, mining equipment, rail lines, retention ponds to impound tunnel effluent, and storage containers. Features on the mesa above the tunnel generally relate to tunnel ventilation and cooling, borehole drilling, and data recording facilities. Feature types include concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, equipment pads, ventilation shafts, and ventilation equipment. The U12n Tunnel complex is eligible to the National Register of Historic Places under criteria a and c, consideration g of 36 CFR Part 60.4 as a historic landscape. Scientific research conducted at the tunnel has made significant contributions to the broad patterns of our history, particularly in regard to the Cold War era that was characterized by competing social, economic, and political ideologies between the former Soviet Union and the United States. The tunnel also possesses distinctive construction and engineering methods for conducting underground nuclear tests. The Desert Research Institute recommends that the U12n Tunnel area be left in place in its current condition and that the U12n Tunnel historic landscape be included in the NNSS monitoring program and monitored for disturbances or alterations on a regular basis.

  18. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 2 of 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  19. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 4 of 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  20. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 1 of 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  1. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 6 of 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  2. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 3 of 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  3. Influence of Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones on Their Large-Scale Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobel, Adam

    water vapor, and sea surface tem- perature (SST)] on an index of TC activity [accumulated cyclone energyInfluence of Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones on Their Large-Scale Environment ADAM H. SOBEL) tropical cyclones (TCs) on their large-scale environment by lag regressing various large-scale climate

  4. Irrigation Water Quality Salinity Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small Potassium sulfate K2SO4 Small Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 Small Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Very Small concentration as related to the concentration of calcium and magnesium, and 3 Irrigation Water Quality Standards Na2SO4 Moderate to large Calcium chloride CaCl2 Moderate Calcium sulfate (gypsum) CaSO4 2H2O Moderate

  5. Spin Accumulation Encoded in Electronic Noise for Mesoscopic Billiards with Finite Tunneling Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. G. G. S. Ramos; A. L. R. Barbosa; D. Bazeia; M. S. Hussein

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effects of spin accumulation (inside reservoirs) on electronic transport with tunneling and reflections at the gates of a quantum dot. Within the stub model, the calculation focus on the current-current correlation function for the flux of electrons injected into the quantum dot. The linear response theory used allows to obtain the noise power in the regime of thermal crossover as a function of parameters that reveal the spin polarization at the reservoirs. The calculation is performed employing diagrammatic integration within the universal groups (ensembles of Dyson) for a non-ideal, non-equilibrium chaotic quantum dot. We show that changes in the spin distribution determines significant alteration in noise behavior at values of the tunneling rates close to zero, in the regime of strong reflection at the gates.

  6. Influence of magnetic electrodes thicknesses on the transport properties of magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuchet, La; Rodmacq, Bernard; Auffret, Stphane; Sousa, Ricardo C.; Dieny, Bernard [SPINTEC, UMR 8191, CEA-INAC/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of the bottom and top magnetic electrodes thicknesses on both perpendicular anisotropy and transport properties is studied in (Co/Pt)/Ta/CoFeB/MgO/FeCoB/Ta magnetic tunnel junctions. By carefully investigating the relative magnetic moment of the two electrodes as a function of their thicknesses, we identify and quantify the presence of magnetically dead layers, likely localized at the interfaces with Ta, that is, 0.33?nm for the bottom electrode and 0.60?nm for the top one. Critical thicknesses (spin-reorientation transitions) are determined as 1.60 and 1.65?nm for bottom and top electrodes, respectively. The tunnel magnetoresistance ratio reaches its maximum value, as soon as both effective (corrected from dead layer) electrode thicknesses exceed 0.6?nm.

  7. Effect of the nature of the injection tunnel current on the inhomogeneous state of a superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nevirkovets, I.P.; Rudenko, E.M.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Double tunnel junctions Sn--I--Sn--I--Sn are investigated. An inhomogeneous state of the Sn film, which arises due to the appearance of a second energy gap in addition to the primary one, is obtained in the regime of a narrow quasiparticle source (the voltage on the injector V/sub g/approx. =2..delta../e). The size of the gaps, which are related to the nonuniform state, decreases in a weak magnetic field. This result is explained by the decay of the constant component of the oscillatory Josephson current and by the replacement of the Josephson tunneling current at V/sub g/ = 2..delta../e by a quasiparticle current, which increases the density of nonequilibrium quasiparticles.

  8. Motion of fluxons in distributed two-dimensional Josephson tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nevirkovets, I.P.; Rudenko, E.M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A strong asymmetry is observed in the current--voltage characteristics of distributed two-dimensional Sn--I--Sn, Sn--I--Pb tunnel junctions with dimensions L>>lambda/sub J/ when an external magnetic field is applied in the plane of the junction perpendicular to the L dimension for different orientations of the field. A resistive section in the form of an almost vertical step appears in the IVC in one orientation of the field and is absent in the opposite orientation. It is shown that the appearance of the steps is related to the conditions of motion of Josephson vortices in tunnel junctions under the action of the Lorentz force in the presence of a current domain at the edge of the distributed junction.

  9. Electrical characteristics and interface structure of magnetic tunnel junctions with hafnium oxyfluoride barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y.Y.; Kim, D.S.; Char, K. [Center for Strongly Correlated Materials Research and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the effects of fluorine inclusion on the electrical transport characteristics and interface structure of the hafnium oxide barrier in a magnetic tunnel junction. The tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and resistance-area (RA) as a function of oxidation time show that the TMR ratio of the hafnium oxyfluoride barrier is higher (8.3%) than that of the hafnium oxide barrier (5.7%) at their optimum conditions, and the oxyfluoride barrier junctions maintain a high TMR ratio even when the RA product increases by three orders of magnitude. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the fluorine atoms in the oxyfluoride barrier play an important role in the formation of a barrier with uniform composition. We believe that the initial fluoride layer is causing the subsequent oxygen diffusion to slow down, resulting in the formation of a defect-free hafnium oxide layer. These results are consistent with what we have found for aluminum oxyfluoride barriers.

  10. Bohm-Aharonov and Kondo effects on tunneling currents in a mesoscopic ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovich, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 38071, 22452-970 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, (Brasil)] [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 38071, 22452-970 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, (Brasil); Anda, E.V. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ Brasil, Avenida Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, (Brasil)] [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ Brasil, Avenida Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, (Brasil); Iglesias, J.R. [Instituto de Fisica, Univerisdade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, (Brasil)] [Instituto de Fisica, Univerisdade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, (Brasil); Chiappe, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Caixa Postal 1428-Nunez, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Caixa Postal 1428-Nunez, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of the Kondo effect on the Bohm-Aharonov oscillations of the tunneling currents in a mesoscopic ring with a quantum dot inserted in one of its arms. The system is described by an Anderson-impurity tight-binding Hamiltonian where the electron-electron interaction is restricted to the dot. The currents are obtained using nonequilibrium Green functions calculated through a cumulant diagrammatic expansion in the chain approximation. It is shown that at low temperature, even with the system out of resonance, the Kondo peak provides a channel for the electron to tunnel through the dot, giving rise to the Bohm-Aharonov oscillations of the current. At high temperature these oscillations are important only if the dot level is aligned to the Fermi level, when the resonance condition is satisfied. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Spin-orbit torque magnetization switching of a three-terminal perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cubukcu, Murat; Boulle, Olivier; Drouard, Marc; Mihai Miron, Ioan; Gaudin, Gilles [SPINTEC, UMR 8191, CEA/CNRS/UJF/GINP, INAC, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Garello, Kevin; Onur Avci, Can; Gambardella, Pietro [Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Hnggerbergring 64, CH-8093 Zrich (Switzerland); Langer, Juergen; Ocker, Berthold [Singulus Technologies, Hanauer Landstr, 103, 63796 Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the current-induced magnetization switching of a three-terminal perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction by spin-orbit torque and its read-out using the tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) effect. The device is composed of a perpendicular Ta/FeCoB/MgO/FeCoB stack on top of a Ta current line. The magnetization of the bottom FeCoB layer can be switched reproducibly by the injection of current pulses with density 5??10{sup 11}?A/m{sup 2} in the Ta layer in the presence of an in-plane bias magnetic field, leading to the full-scale change of the TMR signal. Our work demonstrates the proof of concept of a perpendicular spin-orbit torque magnetic memory cell.

  12. Topological Quantum Computation by Manipulating Quantum Tunneling Effect of the Toric Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su-Peng Kou

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum computers are predicted to utilize quantum states to perform memory and to process tasks far faster than those of conventional classical computers. In this paper we show a new road towards building fault tolerance quantum computer by tuning quantum tunneling effect of the degenerate quantum states in topological order, instead of by braiding anyons. Using a designer Hamiltonian - the Wen-Plaquette model as an example, we study its quantum tunneling effect of the toric codes and show how to control the toric code to realize topological quantum computation (TQC). In particular, we give a proposal to the measurement of TQC. In the end the realization of the Wen-Plaquette model in cold atoms is discussed.

  13. Vacuum Tunneling in an Electroweak Model in Extra Dimensions With an External Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aaron J. Roy

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    With the standard system for an SU(2) Higgs field in M_4 X S_1, the top and bottom component of the Higgs spinor have exactly the same coeficients for the quadratic and quadric terms. This makes the vacuum degenerate and thus there are no tunneling effects to zeroth order in radiative corrections of the vector gauge felds in the standard model with this extra dimensional geometry. However, if we include an external magnetic flux that permeates our manifold, then the top component of the Higgs spinor will have an additional term in its coefficient due to this theoretical flux with the usual charge assignments for the standard model. This extra term gives rise to two nondegenerate vacuum states for the resulting potential. We will compute the tunneling probability per unit time per unit volume between these vacuum states for the zero modes of our system as well as investigate the masses for the fields of the model using the false vacuum.

  14. Tunneling and propagation of vacuum bubbles on dynamical backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis Simon; Julian Adamek; Aleksandar Rakic; Jens C. Niemeyer

    2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of bubble universes produced by a first-order phase transition with large nucleation rates compared to the inverse dynamical time scale of the parent bubble, we extend the usual analysis to non-vacuum backgrounds. In particular, we provide semi-analytic and numerical results for the modified nucleation rate in FLRW backgrounds, as well as a parameter study of bubble walls propagating into inhomogeneous (LTB) or FLRW spacetimes, both in the thin-wall approximation. We show that in our model, matter in the background often prevents bubbles from successful expansion and forces them to collapse. For cases where they do expand, we give arguments why the effects on the interior spacetime are small for a wide range of reasonable parameters and discuss the limitations of the employed approximations.

  15. Tunneling and propagation of vacuum bubbles on dynamical backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Dennis; Rakic, Aleksandar; Niemeyer, Jens C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of bubble universes produced by a first-order phase transition with large nucleation rates compared to the inverse dynamical time scale of the parent bubble, we extend the usual analysis to non-vacuum backgrounds. In particular, we provide semi-analytic and numerical results for the modified nucleation rate in FLRW backgrounds, as well as a parameter study of bubble walls propagating into inhomogeneous (LTB) or FLRW spacetimes, both in the thin-wall approximation. We show that in our model, matter in the background often prevents bubbles from succesful expansion and forces them to collapse. For cases where they do expand, we give arguments why the effects on the interior spacetime are small for a wide range of reasonable parameters and discuss the limitations of the employed approximations.

  16. Optimal basis set for ab-initio calculations of energy levels in tunneling structures, using the covariance matrix of the wave functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sever Spanulescu

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper proposes a method to obtain the optimal basis set for solving the self consistent field (SCF) equations for large atomic systems in order to calculate the energy barriers in tunneling structures, with higher accuracy and speed. Taking into account the stochastic-like nature of the samples of all the involved wave functions for many body problems, a statistical optimization is made by considering the covariance matrix of these samples. An eigenvalues system is obtained and solved for the optimal basis set and by inspecting the rapidly decreasing eigenvalues one may seriously reduce the necessary number of vectors that insures an imposed precision. This leads to a potentially significant improvement in the speed of the SCF calculations and accuracy, as the statistical properties of a large number of wave functions in an large spatial domain may be considered. The eigenvalue problem has to be solved only few times, so that the amount of time added may be much smaller that the overall iterating SCF calculations. A simple implementation of the method is presented for a situation where the analytical solution is known, and the results are encouraging.

  17. Laser control of free-carrier density in solids through field-enhanced multiphonon tunneling recombination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheltikov, A. M.; Voronin, A. A. [Department of Physics, International Laser Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Shneider, M. N.; Miles, R. B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 (United States)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancement of multiphonon tunneling recombination of free carriers in strong laser fields is shown to offer a mechanism whereby ultrafast carrier-density dynamics in a semiconductor can be controlled by properly shaped laser pulses. This regime of laser-solid interaction enables an ultrafast switching of optical and electric properties of semiconductor materials, suggesting new strategies for laser micromachining and nanomachining, optical data processing, and ultrafast plasmonics.

  18. Coherent generation of nonclassical light on a chip via photon-induced tunneling and blockade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Faraon; Ilya Fushman; Dirk Englund; Nick Stoltz; Pierre Petroff; Jelena Vuckovic

    2008-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the observation of nonclassical light generated via photon blockade in a photonic crystal cavity with a strongly coupled quantum dot. By tuning the frequency of the probe laser with respect to the cavity and quantum dot resonance we can probe the system in either photon blockade or photon-induced tunneling regime. The transition from one regime to the other is confirmed by the measurement of the second order correlation that changes from anti-bunching to bunching.

  19. Nonlinear tunneling of optical soliton in 3 coupled NLS equation with symbolic computation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani Rajan, M.S., E-mail: senthilmanirajanofc@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Anna University, Madurai Region, Ramanathapuram (India); Mahalingam, A. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India); Uthayakumar, A. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005 (India)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the soliton solution for N coupled nonlinear Schrdinger (CNLS) equations. These equations are coupled due to the cross-phase-modulation (CPM). Lax pair of this system is obtained via the AblowitzKaupNewellSegur (AKNS) scheme and the corresponding Darboux transformation is constructed to derive the soliton solution. One and two soliton solutions are generated. Using two soliton solutions of 3 CNLS equation, nonlinear tunneling of soliton for both with and without exponential background has been discussed. Finally cascade compression of optical soliton through multi-nonlinear barrier has been discussed. The obtained results may have promising applications in all-optical devices based on optical solitons, study of soliton propagation in birefringence fiber systems and optical soliton with distributed dispersion and nonlinearity management. -- Highlights: We consider the nonlinear tunneling of soliton in birefringence fiber. 3-coupled NLS (CNLS) equation with variable coefficients is considered. Two soliton solutions are obtained via Darboux transformation using constructed Lax pair. Soliton tunneling through dispersion barrier and well are investigated. Finally, cascade compression of soliton has been achieved.

  20. Calibration of tip and sample temperature of a scanning tunneling microscope using a superconductive sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stocker, Matthias; Pfeifer, Holger; Koslowski, Berndt, E-mail: berndt.koslowski@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature of the electrodes is a crucial parameter in virtually all tunneling experiments. The temperature not only controls the thermodynamic state of the electrodes but also causes thermal broadening, which limits the energy resolution. Unfortunately, the construction of many scanning tunneling microscopes inherits a weak thermal link between tip and sample in order to make one side movable. Such, the temperature of that electrode is badly defined. Here, the authors present a procedure to calibrate the tip temperature by very simple means. The authors use a superconducting sample (Nb) and a standard tip made from W. Due to the asymmetry in the density of states of the superconductor (SC)normal metal (NM) tunneling junction, the SC temperature controls predominantly the density of states while the NM controls the thermal smearing. By numerically simulating the I-V curves and numerically optimizing the tip temperature and the SC gap width, the tip temperature can be accurately deduced if the sample temperature is known or measureable. In our case, the temperature dependence of the SC gap may serve as a temperature sensor, leading to an accurate NM temperature even if the SC temperature is unknown.

  1. Conductance enhancement due to interface magnons in electron-beam evaporated MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with CoFeB free layer deposited at different pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, P.; Yu, G. Q.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F., E-mail: jiafengfeng@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: xfhan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, D. L.; Feng, J. F., E-mail: jiafengfeng@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: xfhan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kurt, H. [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Department of Engineering Physics, Istanbul Medeniyet University, 34720 Istanbul (Turkey); Chen, J. Y.; Coey, J. M. D. [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron-beam evaporated MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions have been fabricated with the CoFeB free layer deposited at Ar pressure from 1 to 4 mTorr, and their tunneling process has been studied as a function of temperature and bias voltage. By changing the growth pressure, the junction dynamic conductance dI/dV, inelastic electron tunneling spectrum dI/dV, and tunneling magnetoresistance vary with temperature. Moreover, the low-energy magnon cutoff energy E{sub C} derived from the conductance versus temperature curve agrees with interface magnon energy obtained directly from the inelastic electron tunneling spectrum, which demonstrates that interface magnons are involved in the electron tunneling process, opening an additional conductance channel and thus enhancing the total conductance.

  2. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important To use a topographic map To delineate

  3. Grains, Water Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

  4. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

  5. Ice Dome Construction for Large Scale Habitats on Atmosphereless Bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farr, Stefan Harsan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the greatest difficulties that space exploration faces is the lack of technology necessary to establish large volumes of habitable spaces on site. Both transporting the pre-built enclosures or transporting the equipment necessary for building them on site from conventional materials face the same enormous problem: the need to transport huge quantities of material into space, which is technically close to impossible. The current paper, explores the possibility and one approach of building these large spaces from an alternative material, water ice, a material that is a prerequisite for any settlement. The feasibility of dome shaped, pressurized, water ice buildings is analyzed from a structural integrity point of view and the possibility of building them with a technique using water sublimation and deposition onto a thin plastic film, a process which requires extremely little construction equipment with respect to the resulting habitable space.

  6. KNOW YOUR WATER a consumer's guide to water sources, quality,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Kin

    of common minerals and contaminants found in Arizona water sources. Adescriptionofdrinkingwaterregulations...............................................15 2. Properties of Water 2.1 Minerals in Water...............................................23 2.2 Contaminants in Water......................................27 3. Water Quality and Regulations 3.1 Major Water

  7. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  8. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Response to the Baltimore Tunnel Fire Scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Bajwa, Christopher S.

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 18, 2001, a freight train carrying hazardous (non-nuclear) materials derailed and caught fire while passing through the Howard Street railroad tunnel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), one of the agencies responsible for ensuring the safe transportation of radioactive materials in the United States, undertook an investigation of the train derailment and fire to determine the possible regulatory implications of this particular event for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel by railroad. Shortly after the accident occurred, the USNRC met with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB, the U.S. agency responsible for determining the cause of transportation accidents), to discuss the details of the accident and the ensuing fire. Following these discussions, the USNRC assembled a team of experts from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine the thermal conditions that existed in the Howard Street tunnel fire and analyze the effects of this fire on various spent fuel transportation package designs. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) code, developed by NIST, was used to determine the thermal environment present in the Howard Street tunnel during the fire. The FDS results were used as boundary conditions in the COBRA-SFS and ANSYS computer codes to evaluate the thermal performance of different package designs. The staff concluded that larger transportation packages resembling the HOLTEC Model No. HI STAR 100 and TransNuclear Model No. TN-68 would withstand a fire with thermal conditions similar to those that existed in the Baltimore tunnel fire event with only minor damage to peripheral components. This is due to their sizable thermal inertia and design specifications in compliance with currently imposed regulatory requirements. The staff also concluded that some components of smaller transportation packages resembling the NAC Model No. LWT, despite placement within an ISO container, could degrade. USNRC staff evaluated the radiological consequences of the package responses to the Baltimore tunnel fire. Though components in some packages heated up beyond their service temperatures, the staff determined that there would be no significant dose as a result of the fire for any of these and similar packages.

  9. Biofuel impacts on water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  10. Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any water user with the capability to withdraw or divert 100,000 gallons or more per day from any stream, river, lake, well, spring or other water source must register and file for a permit for...

  11. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

  12. Quantum fluctuations and isotope effects in ab initio descriptions of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu Wang; Michele Ceriotti; Thomas E. Markland

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear quantum effects, such as zero-point energy and tunneling, cause significant changes to the structure and dynamics of hydrogen bonded systems such as liquid water. However, due to the current inability to simulate liquid water using an exact description of its electronic structure, the interplay between nuclear and electronic quantum effects remains unclear. Here we use simulations that incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the nuclei and electrons to provide a fully ab initio determination of the particle quantum kinetic energies, free energy change upon exchanging hydrogen for deuterium and the isotope fractionation ratio in water. These properties, which selectively probe the quantum nature of the nuclear degrees of freedom, allow us to make direct comparison to recent experiments and elucidate how electronic exchange and correlation and nuclear quantum fluctuations determine the structure of the hydrogen bond in water.

  13. WATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of transportation, urban blight, agricultural practices, land use, etc. Water resources problems often result fromWATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING formulate sound policy without a good deal of knowledge not presently available. Without adequate models

  14. Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension impurities can be corrected if they are a nuisance. Before beginning any treatment plan, have water tested select the most effective and economical treatment method. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications

  15. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    current pricing policies and legal structures. In analyzing energy-water relationships, wasteful may be obscured by others such as energy, environment, and quality of life, but in the long run of water to all major social issues is finally driven home. The energy crisis is a case in point. Water

  16. Water Use Permitting (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Withdrawers in the Great Lakes Basin who withdraw water in quantities that average 100,000 gallons per day or more in any 30-day period are required to get a water use permit. Two types of water...

  17. Reduction of Water Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, J.

    Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

  18. Water Rights (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality regulates the water rights for the state of Texas. Water and state water may be appropriated, stored, or diverted in the state of Texas for beneficial...

  19. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

  20. Lawn Water Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...