Sample records for large solid angle

  1. Large angle solid state position sensitive x-ray detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, D.S.; Ruud, C.O.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for x-ray measurement of certain properties of a solid material. In distinction to known methods and apparatus, this invention employs a specific fiber-optic bundle configuration, termed a reorganizer, itself known for other uses, for coherently transmitting visible light originating from the scintillation of diffracted x-radiation from the solid material gathered along a substantially one dimensional linear arc, to a two-dimensional photo-sensor array. The two-dimensional photodetector array, with its many closely packed light sensitive pixels, is employed to process the information contained in the diffracted radiation and present the information in the form of a conventional x-ray diffraction spectrum. By this arrangement, the angular range of the combined detector faces may be increased without loss of angular resolution. Further, the prohibitively expensive coupling together of a large number of individual linear diode photodetectors, which would be required to process signals generated by the diffracted radiation, is avoided. 7 figs.

  2. Large angle solid state position sensitive x-ray detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, David S. (State College, PA); Ruud, Clay O. (State College, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for x-ray measurement of certain properties of a solid material. In distinction to known methods and apparatus, this invention employs a specific fiber-optic bundle configuration, termed a reorganizer, itself known for other uses, for coherently transmitting visible light originating from the scintillation of diffracted x-radiation from the solid material gathered along a substantially one dimensional linear arc, to a two-dimensional photo-sensor array. The two-dimensional photodetector array, with its many closely packed light sensitive pixels, is employed to process the information contained in the diffracted radiation and present the information in the form of a conventional x-ray diffraction spectrum. By this arrangement, the angular range of the combined detector faces may be increased without loss of angular resolution. Further, the prohibitively expensive coupling together of a large number of individual linear diode photodetectors, which would be required to process signals generated by the diffracted radiation, is avoided.

  3. Large angle solid state position sensitive x-ray detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, D.S.; Ruud, C.O.

    1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for x-ray measurement of certain properties of a solid material are disclosed. In distinction to known methods and apparatus, this invention employs a specific fiber-optic bundle configuration, termed a reorganizer, itself known for other uses, for coherently transmitting visible light originating from the scintillation of diffracted x-radiation from the solid material gathered along a substantially one dimensional linear arc, to a two-dimensional photo-sensor array. The two-dimensional photodetector array, with its many closely packed light sensitive pixels, is employed to process the information contained in the diffracted radiation and present the information in the form of a conventional x-ray diffraction spectrum. By this arrangement, the angular range of the combined detector faces may be increased without loss of angular resolution. Further, the prohibitively expensive coupling together of a large number of individual linear diode photodetectors, which would be required to process signals generated by the diffracted radiation, is avoided. 7 figs.

  4. Suppression of large-scale perturbations by stiff solid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimír Balek; Matej Škovran

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Evolution of large-scale scalar perturbations in the presence of stiff solid (solid with pressure to energy density ratio > 1/3) is studied. If the solid dominated the dynamics of the universe long enough, the perturbations could end up suppressed by as much as several orders of magnitude. To avoid too steep large-angle power spectrum of CMB, radiation must have prevailed over the solid long enough before recombination.

  5. Suppression of large-scale perturbations by stiff solid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balek, Vladimír

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evolution of large-scale scalar perturbations in the presence of stiff solid (solid with pressure to energy density ratio > 1/3) is studied. If the solid dominated the dynamics of the universe long enough, the perturbations could end up suppressed by as much as several orders of magnitude. To avoid too steep large-angle power spectrum of CMB, radiation must have prevailed over the solid long enough before recombination.

  6. Solid angle and surface density as criticality parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, J.T.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two methods often used to establish nuclear criticality safety limits for operations with fissile materials are the surface density and solid angle techniques. The two methods are used as parameters to express experimental and validated calculations of critical configurations. It is demonstrated that each method can represent critical arrangements of subcritical units and that there can be established a one-to-one correspondence between them. The analyses further show that the effect on an array neutron multiplication factor of perturbations to the array can be reliably estimated and that each form of fissile material and unit shape has a specific representation.

  7. Surplus solid angle as an imprint of Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Yoonbai [Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Department of Physics, BK21 Physics Research Division, and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the electrostatic field of a point charge coupled to Horava-Lifshitz gravity and find an exact solution describing the space with a surplus (or deficit) solid angle. Although, theoretically in general relativity, a surplus angle is hardly to be obtained in the presence of ordinary matter with positive energy distribution, it seems natural in Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We present the sudden disappearance and reappearance of a star image as an astrophysical effect of a surplus angle. We also consider matter configurations of all possible power law behaviors coupled to Horava-Lifshitz gravity and obtain a series of exact solutions.

  8. Constraining MODIS snow albedo at large solar zenith angles: Implications for surface energy budget in Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    Constraining MODIS snow albedo at large solar zenith angles: Implications for surface energy budget; Solar Zenith Angle; Greenland; Surface Energy Budget 2 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 plays a pivotal role in determining the surface energy balance of Greenland which, by virtue of its area

  9. High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    725 High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments respectively. They are vacuum furnaces with a thin maintained in a tantalum box. In a neutron beam, the furnaces produce a very low scattering level (without

  10. Transformation optofluidics for large-angle light bending and tuning{{ L. K. Chin,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Transformation optofluidics for large-angle light bending and tuning{{ Y. Yang,*a L. K. Chin,a J. M DOI: 10.1039/c2lc40442g Transformation optics is a new art of light bending by designing materials with spatially variable parameters for developing wave-manipulation devices. Here, we introduce a transformation

  11. Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Dynamics: Large-Angle Motions in Euler-Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    wind turbines in deep water, where environmental forcing could subject the rotor to meaningful angular relative to (X,Y,Z) CT Thrust coefficient, used to calculate wind force on the blade swept area 1Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Dynamics: Large-Angle Motions in Euler-Space Bert Sweetman Texas A

  12. Large zenith angle observations with the high-resolution GRANITE III camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Petry; the VERITAS Collaboration

    2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The GRANITE III camera of the Whipple Cherenkov Telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona (2300 m a.s.l.) has the highest angular resolution of all cameras used on this telescope so far. The central region of the camera has 379 pixels with an individual angular diameter of 0.12 degrees. This makes the instrument especially suitable for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at large zenith angles since the increase in average distance to the shower maximum leads to smaller shower images in the focal plane of the telescope. We examine the performance of the telescope for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at zenith angles up to 63 degrees based on observations of Mkn 421 and using Monte Carlo Simulations. An improvement to the standard data analysis is suggested.

  13. Large zenith angle observations with the high-resolution GRANITE III camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petry, D

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GRANITE III camera of the Whipple Cherenkov Telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona (2300 m a.s.l.) has the highest angular resolution of all cameras used on this telescope so far. The central region of the camera has 379 pixels with an individual angular diameter of 0.12 degrees. This makes the instrument especially suitable for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at large zenith angles since the increase in average distance to the shower maximum leads to smaller shower images in the focal plane of the telescope. We examine the performance of the telescope for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at zenith angles up to 63 degrees based on observations of Mkn 421 and using Monte Carlo Simulations. An improvement to the standard data analysis is suggested.

  14. Min-max control design for large angle maneuvers of flexible spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Cheolho

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    usiug the ICF approxiusation method is [M]J = (4. 7) Define the A[M] is 6[M] = e([i1~I] ? [M] J) 0 M, ] (4. 8) where e is the scaling factor to control the magnitude of A[M]. In this case, the state space fornr is z=Az+Bu (4. 9) where 0 I ? M... ( ber) gP Shankar P. Bhattacharyy (Member) Srinivas R. Vadali (Member) /Ye~- gc'g Walter E. Haisler (Head of Department) December 1991 ABSTRACT Min-Max Control Design for Large Angle Maneuvers of Flexible Spacecraft(December 1991) Cheolho I...

  15. An investigation of the buckling criteria of columns that have large angles of initial twist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Basil Magee, Jr

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE August, 1962 Major Subject: Aeronautical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE BUCKLING CRITERIA. OF COLUMNS THAT HAVE LARGE ANGLES OF INITIAL TWIST A Thesis BASIL MAGEE JORDAN, JR. Approved ss to style... for the stepped columns were 2120 and 1750 pounds. The longer stepped oolumn buckled at 1750 pounds whereas the shorter column buckled at 2120 pounds. The theoretical buckling loads were calculated from mEI2 cr 2 L where m is a function of the length...

  16. Structure of spontaneously formed solid-electrolyte interphase on lithiated graphite determined using small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Cheng, Yongqiang [ORNL; Wildgruber, Christoph U [ORNL; Jones, Lacy L [ORNL; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first small-angle neutron scattering of a chemically formed solid-electrolyte interphase from LixC6 reacting with ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbon solvent. This provides a different and perhaps simpler view of SEI formation than the usual electrochemically-driven reaction. We show that an organic layer coats the graphite particles filling in micro-pores and is polymeric in nature being 1-3 nm thick. We used inelastic neutron scattering to probe the chemistry, and we found that the SEI showed similar inelastic scattering to polyethylene oxide.

  17. A novel method for experimental characterization of large-angle scattered particles in scanned carbon-ion therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, Yousuke, E-mail: y-hara@nirs.go.jp; Furukawa, Takuji; Inaniwa, Taku; Mizushima, Kota; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji [Medical Physics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)] [Medical Physics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: It is essential to consider large-angle scattered particles in dose calculation models for therapeutic carbon-ion beams. However, it is difficult to measure the small dose contribution from large-angle scattered particles. In this paper, the authors present a novel method to derive the parameters describing large-angle scattered particles from the measured results. Methods: The authors developed a new parallel-plate ionization chamber consisting of concentric electrodes. Since the sensitive volume of each channel is increased linearly with this type, it is possible to efficiently and easily detect small contributions from the large-angle scattered particles. The parameters describing the large-angle scattered particles were derived from pencil beam dose distribution in water measured with the new ionization chamber. To evaluate the validity of this method, the correction for the field-size dependence of the doses, “predicted-dose scaling factor,” was calculated with the new parameters. Results: The predicted-dose scaling factor calculated with the new parameters was compared with the existing one. The difference between the new correction factor and the existing one was 1.3%. For target volumes of different sizes, the calculated dose distribution with the new parameters was in good agreement with the measured one. Conclusions: Parameters describing the large-angle scattered particles can be efficiently and rapidly determined using the new ionization chamber. The authors confirmed that the field-size dependence of the doses could be compensated for by the new parameters. This method makes it possible to easily derive the parameters describing the large-angle scattered particles, while maintaining the dose calculation accuracy.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of large-grain solid-phase crystallized polycrystalline silicon thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Avishek, E-mail: avishek.kumar@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: dalapatig@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, #06-01, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Law, Felix; Widenborg, Per I. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, #06-01, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Dalapati, Goutam K., E-mail: avishek.kumar@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: dalapatig@imre.a-star.edu.sg; Subramanian, Gomathy S.; Tan, Hui R. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, #06-01, Singapore 117574 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    n-type polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films with very large grains, exceeding 30??m in width, and with high Hall mobility of about 71.5?cm{sup 2}/V s are successfully prepared by the solid-phase crystallization technique on glass through the control of the PH{sub 3} (2% in H{sub 2})/SiH{sub 4} gas flow ratio. The effect of this gas flow ratio on the electronic and structural quality of the n-type poly-Si thin film is systematically investigated using Hall effect measurements, Raman microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), respectively. The poly-Si grains are found to be randomly oriented, whereby the average area weighted grain size is found to increase from 4.3 to 18??m with increase of the PH{sub 3} (2% in H{sub 2})/SiH{sub 4} gas flow ratio. The stress in the poly-Si thin films is found to increase above 900?MPa when the PH{sub 3} (2% in H{sub 2})/SiH{sub 4} gas flow ratio is increased from 0.025 to 0.45. Finally, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high angle annular dark field-scanning tunneling microscopy, and EBSD are used to identify the defects and dislocations caused by the stress in the fabricated poly-Si films.

  19. Towards engineered branch placement: Unreal™ match between vapour-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition nanowire growth and simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taschuk, M. T.; Tucker, R. T.; LaForge, J. M.; Beaudry, A. L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6H 2V4 (Canada); Kupsta, M. R. [NRC National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Brett, M. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6H 2V4 (Canada); NRC National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The vapour-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition (VLS-GLAD) process is capable of producing complex nanotree structures with control over azimuthal branch orientation and height. We have developed a thin film growth simulation including ballistic deposition, simplified surface diffusion, and droplet-mediated cubic crystal growth for the VLS-GLAD process using the Unreal{sup TM} Development Kit. The use of a commercial game engine has provided an interactive environment while allowing a custom physics implementation. Our simulation's output is verified against experimental data, including a volumetric film reconstruction produced using focused ion beam and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), crystallographic texture, and morphological characteristics such as branch orientation. We achieve excellent morphological and texture agreement with experimental data, as well as qualitative agreement with SEM imagery. The simplified physics in our model reproduces the experimental films, indicating that the dominant role flux geometry plays in the VLS-GLAD competitive growth process responsible for azimuthally oriented branches and biaxial crystal texture evolution. The simulation's successful reproduction of experimental data indicates that it should have predictive power in designing novel VLS-GLAD structures.

  20. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurber, Kent R., E-mail: thurberk@niddk.nih.gov; Tycko, Robert [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)] [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report solid state {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, {sup 1}H and cross-polarized {sup 13}C NMR signals from {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T{sub 1e} is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.

  1. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

    2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

  2. Realization of the large mixing angle solar neutrino solution in an SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, Carl H.; Barr, S. M.

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model proposed earlier leading to the solar solution involving ''just-so'' vacuum oscillations is reexamined to study its ability to obtain the other possible solar solutions. It is found that all four viable solar neutrino oscillation solutions can be achieved in the model simply by modification of the right-handed Majorana neutrino mass matrix M{sub R}. Whereas the small mixing and vacuum solutions are easily obtained with several texture zeros in M{sub R}, the currently favored large mixing angle solution requires a nearly geometric hierarchical form for M{sub R} that leads by the seesaw formula to a light neutrino mass matrix which has two or three texture zeros. The form of the matrix which provides the ''fine-tuning'' necessary to achieve the large mixing angle solution can be understood in terms of Froggatt-Nielsen diagrams for the Dirac and right-handed Majorana neutrino mass matrices. The solution satisfies several leptogenesis requirements which in turn can be responsible for the baryon asymmetry in the universe.

  3. Realizing in-plane surface diffraction by x-ray multiple-beam diffraction with large incidence angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xian-Rong, E-mail: xiahuang@aps.anl.gov; Gog, Thomas; Assoufid, Lahsen [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Peng, Ru-Wen, E-mail: rwpeng@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Siddons, D. P. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on rigorous dynamical-theory calculations, we demonstrate the principle of an x-ray multiple-beam diffraction (MBD) scheme that overcomes the long-lasting difficulties of high-resolution in-plane diffraction from crystal surfaces. This scheme only utilizes symmetric reflection geometry with large incident angles but activates the out-of-plane and in-plane diffraction processes simultaneously and separately in the continuous MBD planes. The in-plane diffraction is realized by detoured MBD, where the intermediate diffracted waves propagate parallel to the surface, which corresponds to an absolute Bragg surface diffraction configuration that is extremely sensitive to surface structures. A series of MBD diffraction and imaging techniques may be developed from this principle to study surface/interface (misfit) strains, lateral nanostructures, and phase transitions of a wide range of (pseudo)cubic crystal structures, including ultrathin epitaxial films and multilayers, quantum dots, strain-engineered semiconductor or (multi)ferroic materials, etc.

  4. Small-angle neutron scattering reveals the assembly mode and oligomeric architecture of TET, a large, dodecameric aminopeptidase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appolaire, Alexandre; Girard, Eric; Colombo, Matteo; Durá, M. Asunción [Université Grenoble Alpes, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); CEA, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael [Institut Laue–Langevin, 38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Franzetti, Bruno [Université Grenoble Alpes, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); CEA, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); Gabel, Frank, E-mail: frank.gabel@ibs.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); CEA, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue–Langevin, 38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work illustrates that small-angle neutron scattering, deuteration and contrast variation, combined with in vitro particle reconstruction, constitutes a very efficient approach to determine subunit architectures in large, symmetric protein complexes. In the case of the 468 kDa heterododecameric TET peptidase machine, it was demonstrated that the assembly of the 12 subunits is a highly controlled process and represents a way to optimize the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. The specific self-association of proteins into oligomeric complexes is a common phenomenon in biological systems to optimize and regulate their function. However, de novo structure determination of these important complexes is often very challenging for atomic-resolution techniques. Furthermore, in the case of homo-oligomeric complexes, or complexes with very similar building blocks, the respective positions of subunits and their assembly pathways are difficult to determine using many structural biology techniques. Here, an elegant and powerful approach based on small-angle neutron scattering is applied, in combination with deuterium labelling and contrast variation, to elucidate the oligomeric organization of the quaternary structure and the assembly pathways of 468 kDa, hetero-oligomeric and symmetric Pyrococcus horikoshii TET2–TET3 aminopeptidase complexes. The results reveal that the topology of the PhTET2 and PhTET3 dimeric building blocks within the complexes is not casual but rather suggests that their quaternary arrangement optimizes the catalytic efficiency towards peptide substrates. This approach bears important potential for the determination of quaternary structures and assembly pathways of large oligomeric and symmetric complexes in biological systems.

  5. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 56 (2008) 17791793 A theory of coupled diffusion and large deformation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xuanhe

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in elastic solids date at least back to Gibbs (1878), who formulated a thermodynamic theory of largeJournal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 56 (2008) 1779­1793 A theory of coupled diffusion and mixing the network with the small molecules. Both the small molecules and the long polymers are taken

  6. Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q. Li; K. H. Luo; Q. J. Kang; Q. Chen

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio. The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994)] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model, the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions: the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper, are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles, however, is unable to reproduce static contact angles close to 180 degrees. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modified pseudopotential-based interaction performs better in light of the maximum and the minimum densities and is overall more suitable for simulating large contact angles as compared with the other two types of fluid-solid interactions. Furthermore, the spurious currents are found to be enlarged when the fluid-solid interaction force is introduced. Increasing the kinematic viscosity ratio between the vapor and liquid phases is shown to be capable of reducing the spurious currents caused by the fluid-solid interactions.

  7. THE PLASTIC BALL - A MULTI-DETECTOR, LARGE SOLID ANGLE SPECTROMETER WITH CHARGED PARTICLE IDENTIFICATION FOR THE BEVALAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, M.R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of charged particles in a Plastic Ball module. (XBL 7910-of Califomia. THE PLASTIC BALL - A MULTI-DETECTOR, LARGEBerkeley, California Summary PLASTIC 8/>Ll PLASTIC WALL For

  8. Contact Angle Hysteresis on Superhydrophobic Stripes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander L. Dubov; Ahmed Mourran; Martin Möller; Olga I. Vinogradova

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, $\\phi_S$. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e. is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with $\\phi_S$, in contrast to predictions of the Cassie equation. To interpret this we develop a simple theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the elastic energy of strong defects at the borders of stripes, which scales as $\\phi_S^2 \\ln \\phi_S$. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except as in a dilute regime, and its value is determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on $\\phi_S$, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at $\\phi_S\\simeq 0.5$. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be proportional to $\\phi_S^2$. Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when $\\phi_S\\leq 0.2$.

  9. Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and ultra-small angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy of silica aerogels has been extensively studied mainly by scattering techniques (neutrons, X-rays, light) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments have been carried out on aerogels at dierent steps of densi

  10. Role of Anharmonic Vibration on Heavy-ion Fusion Reaction and Large Angle Quasi-elastic Scattering of {sup 16}O+{sup 144}Sm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhammad, Zamrun F. [Jurusan Fisika, FMIPA Universitas Haluoleo, Kendari, Sulawesi Tenggara, 93232 (Indonesia); Hagino, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8576 (Japan)

    2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effects of double quadrupole and octupole phonon excitations of {sup 144}Sm nucleus on heavy-ion fusion reaction and large angle quasi-elastic scattering for {sup 16}O+{sup 144}Sm reaction using the coupled-channels approach. We explicitly taken into account the anharmonicites of nuclear vibrations using the sdf-interacting boson model. It is shown that the anhamronicities play an essential role in reproducing the experimental data of the fusion cross section as well as the fusion barrier distribution for this system. Also the quasi-elastic cross section is well reproduced in this way. However, the quasi-elastic barrier distribution has a high distinct peak which is smeared out in the experimental data. Our study indicates that the fusion and quasi-elastic barrier distribution for {sup 16}O+{sup 144}Sm system cannot be accounted for simultaneously with the standard coupled-channels formalism.

  11. Generator module architecture for a large solid oxide fuel cell power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Riggle, Matthew W.; Litzinger, Kevin P.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell module contains a plurality of integral bundle assemblies, the module containing a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion receiving air inlet feed and containing a base support, the base supports dense, ceramic exhaust manifolds which are below and connect to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the fuel cells comprise a fuel cell stack bundle all surrounded within an outer module enclosure having top power leads to provide electrical output from the stack bundle, where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all 100% of the weight of the stack, and each bundle assembly has its own control for vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control.

  12. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  13. Angle-resolved scattering spectroscopy of explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of angle-resolved scattering from solid explosives residues on a car door for non-contact sensing geometries. Illumination with a mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade laser tuning between 7 and 8 microns was detected both with a sensitive single point detector and a hyperspectral imaging camera. Spectral scattering phenomena were discussed and possibilities for hyperspectral imaging at large scattering angles were outlined.

  14. Wide Angle Compton Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer Jakob

    2000-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the handbag contribution to Wide Angle Compton Scattering (WACS) at moderately large momentum transfer obtained with a proton distribution amplitude close to the asymptotic form. In comparison it is found to be significantly larger than results from the hard scattering (pQCD) approach.

  15. Phosphate single mode large mode area all-solid photonic crystal fiber with multi-watt output power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Longfei; He, Dongbing; Yu, Chunlei; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping, E-mail: dpchen2008@aliyun.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Hui [Navigation Staff Room, Anhui Bengbu Petty Officer Academy of Navy, Bengbu 233000 (China); Qiu, Jianrong [Institute of Optical Communication Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An index-depressed active core, single-mode phosphate all-solid large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is theoretically investigated using full-vectorial finite difference approach and experimentally realized. The PCF has a maximum output power of 5.4?W and 31% slope efficiency. Single-mode operation is realized through PCFs with core diameters of 30, 35, and 40??m, respectively. The beam quality is not degraded even at maximum output power. Our simulations and experiments reveal that the laser performance is significantly affected by the center-to-center distance between the two nearest rods ?, the rod diameter d, and their ratio d/?, implying that much attention should be given in employing optimal parameters to achieve excellent laser performance.

  16. Additive angles in H_3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitriy G. Pavlov; Sergey S. Kokarev

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the framework of Berwald-Moor Geometry in H_3, the paper studies the construction of additive poly-angles (bingles and tringles). It is shown that, considering additiveness in the large, there exist an infinity of such poly-angles.

  17. Large-angle production of charged pions by 3 GeV/c - 12 GeV/c protons on carbon, copper and tin targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HARP Collaboration

    2007-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement of the double-differential $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production cross-section in proton--carbon, proton--copper and proton--tin collisions in the range of pion momentum $100 \\MeVc \\leq p < 800 \\MeVc$ and angle $0.35 \\rad \\le \\theta <2.15 \\rad$ is presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 \\GeVc to 12 \\GeVc hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was done using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed in a solenoidal magnet. An elaborate system of detectors in the beam line ensured the identification of the incident particles. Results are shown for the double-differential cross-sections at four incident proton beam momenta (3 \\GeVc, 5 \\GeVc, 8 \\GeVc and 12 \\GeVc).

  18. Large

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLand and AssetLandscapingLarge

  19. Hydro-mechanical behavior of Municipal Solid Waste subject to leachate recirculation in a large-scale compression reactor cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivier, Franck [Environment, Energy and Waste Research Center (CREED), 291, avenue Dreyfous Ducas, 78520 Limay (France) and Laboratoire LIRIGM - Maison des Geosciences, 1381, rue de la piscine 38400 Saint-Martin d'Heres (France)]. E-mail: franck.olivier@ujf-grenoble.fr; Gourc, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire LIRIGM - Maison des Geosciences, 1381, rue de la piscine 38400 Saint-Martin d'Heres (France)]. E-mail: gourc@ujf-grenoble.fr

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents the results of a laboratory experiment on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) subjected to one-dimensional compression in a 1 m{sup 3} instrumented cell. The focus was on the hydro-mechanical behavior of the material under conditions of confinement and leachate percolation that replicate those found in real-scale landfills. The operation of the apparatus is detailed together with the testing methodology and the monitoring program. Two samples of waste were tested: the first extended over a period of 10 months ('Control Test') and the second for 22 months ('Enhanced Test' with leachate recirculation). Consolidation data is reported with regard to both short-term (stress-dependent) and long-term (time-dependent) settlements. A discussion follows based on the derived values of primary and secondary compression ratios. Correlations between compression parameters and the biodegradation process are presented. In particular, results clearly highlight the effect of leachate recirculation on waste settlement: 24% secondary deformation reached after slightly less than 2 years (equivalent to a 5-fold increase in compressibility) and 17.9% loss of dry matter. Comparisons are proposed considering the results derived from the few monitoring programs conducted on experimental bioreactors worldwide. Finally, the hydraulic characterization of waste is discussed with regard to the evaluation of effective porosity and permeability.

  20. Caustic graphene plasmons with Kelvin angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Hongyi; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A century-long argument made by Lord Kelvin that all swimming objects have an effective Mach number of 3, corresponding to the Kelvin angle of 19.5 degree for ship waves, has been recently challenged with the conclusion that the Kelvin angle should gradually transit to the Mach angle as the ship velocity increases. Here we show that a similar phenomenon can happen for graphene plasmons. By analyzing the caustic wave pattern of graphene plasmons stimulated by a swift charged particle moving uniformly above graphene, we show that at low velocities of the charged particle, the caustics of graphene plasmons form the Kelvin angle. At large velocities of the particle, the caustics disappear and the effective semi-angle of the wave pattern approaches the Mach angle. Our study introduces caustic wave theory to the field of graphene plasmonics, and reveals a novel physical picture of graphene plasmon excitation during electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurement.

  1. Tetraphenylborate Solids Stability Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

    1997-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Tetraphenylborate solids provide a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene.

  2. Structural dynamics and ssDNA binding activity of the three N-terminal domains of the large subunit of Replication Protein A from small angle X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pretto, Dalyir I.; Tsutakawa, Susan; Brosey, Chris A.; Castillo, Amalchi; Chagot, Marie-Eve; Smith, Jarrod A.; Tainer, John A.; Chazin, Walter J.

    2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Replication Protein A (RPA) is the primary eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein utilized in diverse DNA transactions in the cell. RPA is a heterotrimeric protein with seven globular domains connected by flexible linkers, which enable substantial inter-domain motion that is essential to its function. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments on two multi-domain constructs from the N-terminus of the large subunit (RPA70) were used to examine the structural dynamics of these domains and their response to the binding of ssDNA. The SAXS data combined with molecular dynamics simulations reveal substantial interdomain flexibility for both RPA70AB (the tandem high affinity ssDNA binding domains A and B connected by a 10-residue linker) and RPA70NAB (RPA70AB extended by a 70-residue linker to the RPA70N protein interaction domain). Binding of ssDNA to RPA70NAB reduces the interdomain flexibility between the A and B domains, but has no effect on RPA70N. These studies provide the first direct measurements of changes in orientation of these three RPA domains upon binding ssDNA. The results support a model in which RPA70N remains structurally independent of RPA70AB in the DNA bound state and therefore freely available to serve as a protein recruitment module.

  3. Measuring and modeling solids movement in a large, cold fluidized bed test facility. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, T. J.; Mrazek, R. V.; Crane, S. D.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plume model is developed to represent a tube-filled AFBC with large particles, in which air-entrained coal enters in a number of feed ports from below. It assumes that the volatiles are rapidly released from the coal at the feed entry ports to rise as plumes of combustible vapors. Graphs have been prepared to display the predictions of this model for narrow size cuts of a typical coal feed. For a feed of wide size distribution, use these single size charts and properly sum. The lowest carbon efficiency always comes with an intermediate size of feed coal, not with very large or very small feed sizes. Thus the coal feed to the AFBC should try to avoid this critical size. The plume behavior, whether it breaks the surface of the bed, the temperature jump above the bed, concentration variations across the bed, etc., are all governed by one dimensionless group HD/u/sub 0/L/sub 2//sup 2/, which depends primarily on the spacing of feed ports in the bed. For a given coal feed, the carbon efficiency depends only on superficial gas velocity in the bed, the excess air, and elutriation rate constant. A special case and simplification of this model views the coal as being uniformly distributed all over the bed before the volatiles are released. Here analysis is very much simpler, not involving plumes and no volatiles leaving the bed. This plumeless model should reasonably represent AFBC using large feed particles, introduced across the top of the bed and then rapidly mixed by large scale convective flow of solids. The analysis shows that, even in beds with plumes, the simpler plumeless model can be used with negligible error to calculate carbon efficiency; for volatile efficiency, temperature jumps and composition variations across the bed, the complete plume model must be used.

  4. Solid Target Options S. Childress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    power is higher than for existing solid target designs - but not by a large factor. · NuMI graphite beam power) · High beam power solid targets frequently use higher z materials for increased yield plusSolid Target Options NuFACT'00 S. Childress Solid Target Options · The choice of a primary beam

  5. Cross-sections of large-angle hadron production in proton- and pion-nucleus interactions II: beryllium nuclei and beam momenta from +/- 3 GeV/c to +/-15 GeV/c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The HARP-CDP group; :; A. Bolshakova

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on double-differential inclusive cross-sections of the production of secondary protons and charged pions, in the interactions with a 5% interaction length thick stationary beryllium target, of proton and pion beams with momentum from +/-3 GeV/c to +/-15 GeV/c. Results are given for secondary particles with production angles between 20 and 125 degrees.

  6. Cross-Sections of Large-Angle Hadron Production in Proton- and Pion-Nucleus Interactions I: Beryllium Nuclei and Beam Momenta of +8.9 Gev/c and -8.0 Gev/c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The HARP-CDP group; :; A. Bolshakova; I. Boyko; G. Chelkov; D. Dedovitch; A. Elagin; M. Gostkin; S. Grishin; A. Guskov; Z. Kroumchtein; Yu. Nefedov; K. Nikolaev; A. Zhemchugov; F. Dydak; J. Wotschack A. De Min; V. Ammosov; V. Gapienko; V. Koreshev; A. Semak; Yu. Sviridov; E. Usenko; V. Zaets

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on double-differential inclusive cross-sections of the production of secondary protons, deuterons, and charged pions and kaons, in the interactions with a 5% nuclear interaction length thick stationary beryllium target, of a +8.9 GeV/c proton and pion beam, and a -8.0 GeV/c pion beam. Results are given for secondary particles with production angles between 20 and 125 degrees.

  7. Angle performance on optima MDxt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, Jonathan; Kamenitsa, Dennis [Axcelis Technologies, Inc., 108 Cherry Hill Dr, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Angle control on medium current implanters is important due to the high angle-sensitivity of typical medium current implants, such as halo implants. On the Optima MDxt, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through six narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by electrostatically steering the beam, while cross-wafer beam parallelism is adjusted by changing the focus of the electrostatic parallelizing lens (P-lens). In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen prior to implant. A variety of tests were run to measure the accuracy and repeatability of Optima MDxt's angle control. SIMS profiles of a high energy, channeling sensitive condition show both the cross-wafer angle uniformity, along with the small-angle resolution of the system. Angle repeatability was quantified by running a channeling sensitive implant as a regular monitor over a seven month period and measuring the sheet resistance-to-angle sensitivity. Even though crystal cut error was not controlled for in this case, when attributing all Rs variation to angle changes, the overall angle repeatability was measured as 0.16 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}). A separate angle repeatability test involved running a series of V-curves tests over a four month period using low crystal cut wafers selected from the same boule. The results of this test showed the angle repeatability to be <0.1 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}).

  8. HELIUM, SOLID 1 Helium, Solid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    HELIUM, SOLID 1 Helium, Solid Henry R. Glyde Introduction Helium was first solidified at the famous focused on the melting curve, the specific heat, and the thermal conductivity of solid helium as a test criterion of melting does not hold in solid helium. This pioneering work up to 1957 is elegantly

  9. Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering W. Wang, D. A. Sokolov, A. D. Huxley, and K. V. Kamenev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher

    Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering W. Wang, D. A. Sokolov, A. D for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of quantum fluids and solids Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 015101 (2013) TOF-SEMSANS--Time-of-flight spin-echo modulated small-angle neutron scattering J. Appl. Phys. 112

  10. Structural dynamics and ssDNA binding activity of the three N-terminal domains of the large subunit of Replication Protein A from small angle X-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pretto, Dalyir I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regulatory functions of the N-terminal domain of the 70-kDaactivity of the three N-terminal domains of the largeA: global fold of the N-terminal RPA-70 domain reveals a

  11. HYDROGEN AND DEUTERIUM NMR OF SOLIDS BY MAGIC ANGLE SPINNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckman, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduced H~S for Hydrogen ••..•. Observation ofb. Dilution of Hydrogen: Appraoch to High Resolution ProtonMolecular Research ,Division HYDROGEN AND DEUTERIUM NMR OF

  12. Amorphous Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption. Amorphous Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption. Abstract: We show that molecular organic compounds with large accessible...

  13. Ultrasonic estimation of the contact angle of a sessile droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintero, R.; Simonetti, F. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation of energy by large amplitude leaky Rayleigh waves is regarded as one of the key physical mechanisms regulating the actuation and manipulation of droplets in surface acoustic wave (SAW) microfluidic devices. The interaction between a SAW and a droplet is highly complex and is presently the subject of extensive research. This paper investigates the existence of an additional interaction mechanism based on the propagation of quasi-Stoneley waves inside sessile droplets deposited on a solid substrate. In contrast with the leaky Rayleigh wave, the energy of the Stoneley wave is confined within a thin fluid layer in contact with the substrate. The hypothesis is confirmed by three-dimensional finite element simulations and ultrasonic scattering experiments measuring the reflection of Rayleigh waves from droplets of different diameters. Moreover, real-time monitoring of the droplet evaporation process reveals a clear correlation between the droplet contact angle and the spectral information of the reflected Rayleigh signal, thus paving the way for ultrasonic measurements of surface tension.

  14. On the Nature of the Response of the General Purpose Heat Source to the Impact of Large Solid Rocket Motor Casing Fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After the Challenger (STS-51L)accident new tests were performed to assess the response of the GPHS module to large fragment impacts. The subject of this paper is the analytical process used to perform macro calibrations of the analytical methods and their application to predict the GPHS modules' response to serially increasing levels of test environment complexity. Sensitivity studies were performed to generate a fueled-clad-distortion-response statistical database for use in a Monte Carlo based fuel release analysis. The analyses showed that the iridium fueled clads in the GPHS-RTG have high resistance to distortion induced by the impact of large, high velocity (>200 m/s), SRM casing fragments. It was concluded that the impact of large SRM fragments will cause little clad disruption at early Mission Elapsed Time (MET), and that the effects of these impacts will be less severe than had initially been believe. There are three copies in the file.

  15. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  16. Wide Angle Effects in Galaxy Surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Jaiyul

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current and future galaxy surveys cover a large fraction of the entire sky with a significant redshift range, and the recent theoretical development shows that general relativistic effects are present in galaxy clustering on very large scales. This trend has renewed interest in the wide angle effect in galaxy clustering measurements, in which the distant-observer approximation is often adopted. Using the full wide-angle formula for computing the redshift-space correlation function, we show that compared to the sample variance, the deviation in the redshift-space correlation function from the simple Kaiser formula with the distant-observer approximation is negligible in the SDSS and is completely irrelevant in future galaxy surveys such as Euclid and the BigBOSS, if the theoretical prediction from the Kaiser formula is averaged over the survey volume and the non-uniform distribution of cosine angle between the line-of-sight and the pair separation directions is properly considered. We also find small correctio...

  17. Angling chromium to let oxygen through | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Angling chromium to let oxygen through Angling chromium to let oxygen through Released: September 10, 2014 New semiconducting material works at lower temperatures Scanning...

  18. A Large Sample Volume Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the surface functional groups of HPAmeso-silicalite-1 under the condition of in-situ drying . We also show that the reaction dynamics of 2-butanol dehydration using HPA...

  19. High Temperature, Large Sample Volume, Constant Flow Magic Angle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sample spinning rate of 3.5 kHz, 1 H and 13 C 90-degree pulse width of 8 s, constant flow control at 1.0 atmospheric pressure, and temperature control up to 250 C. This...

  20. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

  1. Solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA)

    1993-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  2. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito [Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by ?{sub j} ? 1/5?{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, ?{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of ?{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle ?{sub j,{sub max}} ? 1/5 ? 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling pitch and flap angles of a wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deering, Kenneth J. (Seattle, WA); Wohlwend, Keith P. (Issaquah, WA)

    2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine with improved response to wind conditions is provided. Blade flap angle motion is accompanied by a change in pitch angle by an amount defining a pitch/flap coupling ratio. The coupling ratio is non-constant as a function of a flap angle and is preferably a substantially continuous, non-linear function of flap angle. The non-constant coupling ratio can be provided by mechanical systems such as a series of linkages or by configuring electronic or other control systems and/or angle sensors. A link with a movable proximal end advantageously is part of the mechanical system. The system can provide relatively large coupling ratios and relatively large rates of coupling ratio changes especially for near-feather pitches and low flap angles.

  4. SPINEVOLUTION: A powerful tool for the simulation of solid and liquid state NMR experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Robert G.

    SPINEVOLUTION: A powerful tool for the simulation of solid and liquid state NMR experiments Mikhail. Simulations of solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) experiments can be particularly demanding both with complex pulse sequences and multi-spin systems in solids, SPINEVO- LUTION is a versatile and easy to use

  5. SPINEVOLUTION: A powerful tool for the simulation of solid and liquid state NMR experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Robert G.

    SPINEVOLUTION: A powerful tool for the simulation of solid and liquid state NMR experiments Mikhail and dynamic information from the spectra. Simulations of solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) experiments for the simulation of experiments with complex pulse sequences and multi-spin systems in solids, SPINEVO- LUTION

  6. Opening angles and shapes of parsec-scale AGN jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pushkarev, Alexander B; Kovalev, Yuri Y; Savolainen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We used 15 GHz VLBA observations of 366 sources having at least 5 epochs within a time interval 1995-2013 from the MOJAVE program and/or its predecessor, the 2 cm VLBA Survey. For each source we produced a corresponding stacked image averaging all available epochs for a better reconstruction of the cross section of the flow. We have analyzed jet profiles transverse to the local jet ridge line and derived both apparent and intrinsic opening angles of the parsec-scale outflows. The sources detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 24 months of operation show wider apparent jet opening angle and smaller viewing angles on a very high level of significance supporting our early findings. Analyzing transverse shapes of the outflows we found that most sources have conical jet geometry at parsec scales, though there are also sources that exhibit active jet collimation.

  7. DARCY'S FLOW WITH PRESCRIBED CONTACT ANGLE WELL-POSEDNESS AND LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DARCY'S FLOW WITH PRESCRIBED CONTACT ANGLE ­ WELL-POSEDNESS AND LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION HANS KN on a solid sub- strate. We use a model for viscous fluids where evolution is governed by Darcy's Law converge to the solutions of a one-dimensional degenerate parabolic fourth order equation which belongs

  8. Softening of edges of solids by surface tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serge Mora; Yves Pomeau

    2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface tension tends to minimize the area of interfaces between pieces of matter in different thermodynamic phases, be they in the solid or the liquid state. This can be relevant for the macroscopic shape of very soft solids, and lead to a roughening of initially sharp edges. We calculate this effect for a neo-Hookean elastic solid, with assumptions corresponding to actual experiments, namely the case where an initially sharp edge is rounded by the effect of surface tension felt when the fluid surrounding the soft solid (and so surface tension) is changed at the solid/liquid boundary. We consider two opposite limits where the analysis can be carried to the end, the one of a shallow angle and the one of a very sharp angle. Both cases yield a discontinuity of curvature in the state with surface tension although the initial state had a discontinuous slope.

  9. Efficient Parallelization of RMCRT for Large Scale LES Combustion Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    = Absorption coefficient = Solid angle = Scattering phase function = Stefan-Boltzmann constant s = Scattering coefficient G = Incident radiation function Iin = Incoming intensity Iout = Outgoing Intensity N modeled the behavior of neutrons and involved following the histories of these neutrons during fission

  10. Solid Waste Management Services Act (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act affirms the commitment of the state government to the development of systems and facilities and technology necessary to initiate large-scale processing of solid wastes and resource...

  11. Gas Bubbles and Gas Pancakes at Liquid/Solid Interface: A Continuum Theory Incorporated with Molecular Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhaoxia Li; Xuehua Zhang; Lijuan Zhang; Xiaocheng Zeng; Jun Hu; Haiping Fang

    2007-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The states of gas accumulated at the liquid-solid interface are analyzed based on the continuum theory where the Hamaker constant is used to describe the long-range interaction at the microscopic scale. The Hamaker constant is always negative, whereas the gas spreading coefficient can be either sign. Despite the complexity of gas, including that the density profile may not be uniform due to absorption on both solid and liquid surfaces, we predict three possible gas states at the liquid-solid interface, i.e. complete wetting, partial wetting and pseudopartial wetting. These possible gas states correspond respectively to a gas pancake (or film) surrounded by a wet solid, a gas bubble with a finite contact angle, and a gas bubble(s) coexisting with a gas pancake. Typical thickness of the gas pancakes is at the nanoscale within the force range of the long-range interaction, whereas the radius of the gas bubbles can be large. The state of gas bubble(s) coexisting with a gas film is predicted theoretically for the first time. Our theoretical results can contribute to the development of a unified picture of gas nucleation at the liquid-solid interface.

  12. Solid Waste (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Mexico Environment Department's Solid Waste Bureau manages solid waste in the state. The Bureau implements and enforces the rules established by the Environmental Improvement Board.

  13. Solid-Liquid Interfacial Premelting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian Bostian

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid-liquid miscibility gap, negligible solubility of Pb in the Al solid phase, and a large melting point separa- tion (600 K for Pb and 933 K for Al). We have previously reported results from MD simulations on this system at 625 K, a temperature just... undergoes a roughening transition about 100 K below the melting point of Al. Simulation details.—In our simulations of the Al-Pb solid-liquid interface, we employ a classical many-body potential developed by Landa et al. [42] to model the inter- atomic...

  14. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  15. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, Tytus R. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine.

  16. The effect of knee separation and backrest angle on lumbar lordosis angle in various seated postures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolen, Bradley Kyle

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the influence of backrest inclination on lumbar lordosis have shown that as trunk-thigh angle increases from the vertical, lumbar lordosis likewise increases towards a more neutral posture (Bridger er al 1989b, Keegan 1953). Keegan reported that the neutral...'il, ", ' " r 20. 32 35, 56 Knee Separation (cmi Figure 5 Lordotic angles for females with backrest at 90-deg Lordotic Angles for Females with Seat Back Angle of 105 Degrees p =0. 881 5. 08 e0 3'r 35. 56 Knoe S. 'prwation (cm} Lordotic Angles for Fcmalcs...

  17. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  18. Solid fuel applications to transportation engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

  19. Solid friction between soft filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Andrew; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the prop...

  20. Solid friction between soft filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Ward; Feodor Hilitski; Walter Schwenger; David Welch; A. W. C. Lau; Vincenzo Vitelli; L. Mahadevan; Zvonimir Dogic

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

  1. Clustering Fossils in Solid Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Akhshik

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In solid inflation the single field non-Gaussianity consistency condition is violated. As a result, the long tensor perturbation induces observable clustering fossils in the form of quardupole anisotropy in large scale structure power spectrum. In this work we revisit the bispectrum analysis for the scalar-scalar-scalar and tensor-scalar-scalar for the general parameter space of solid. We consider the parameter space of the model in which the level of non-Gaussianity generated is consistent with Planck constraints. Specializing to this allowed range of model parameter, we calculate the quadrupole anisotropy induced from the long tensor perturbations on the power spectrum of scalar perturbations. We argue that imprints of clustering fossil from primordial gravitational waves on large scale structures can be detected from the future galaxy surveys.

  2. Measuring contact angle and meniscus shape with a reflected laser beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibach, T. F.; Nguyen, H.; Butt, H. J.; Auernhammer, G. K., E-mail: auhammer@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Fell, D. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technical University Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Side-view imaging of the contact angle between an extended planar solid surface and a liquid is problematic. Even when aligning the view perfectly parallel to the contact line, focusing one point of the contact line is not possible. We describe a new measurement technique for determining contact angles with the reflection of a widened laser sheet on a moving contact line. We verified this new technique measuring the contact angle on a cylinder, rotating partially immersed in a liquid. A laser sheet is inclined under an angle ? to the unperturbed liquid surface and is reflected off the meniscus. Collected on a screen, the reflection image contains information to determine the contact angle. When dividing the laser sheet into an array of laser rays by placing a mesh into the beam path, the shape of the meniscus can be reconstructed from the reflection image. We verified the method by measuring the receding contact angle versus speed for aqueous cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide solutions on a smooth hydrophobized as well as on a rough polystyrene surface.

  3. Small angle neutron scattering from high impact polystyrene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pringle, O.A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High impact polystyrene (HIPS) is a toughened plastic composed of a polystyrene matrix containing a few percent rubber in the form of dispersed 0.1 to 10 micron diameter rubber particles. Some commercial formulations of HIPS include the addition of a few percent mineral oil, which improves the toughness of the plastic. Little is known about the mechanism by which the mineral oil helps toughen the plastic. It is hypothesized that the oil is distributed only in the rubber particles, but whether this hypothesis is correct was not known prior to this work. The size of the rubber particles in HIPS and their neutron scattering length density contrast with the polystyrene matrix cause HIPS samples to scatter neutrons at small angles. The variation of this small angle neutron scattering (SANS) signal with mineral oil content has been used to determine the location of the oil in HIPS. The SANS spectrometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Facility (MURR) was used to study plastic samples similar in composition to commercial HIPS. The MURR SANS spectrometer is used to study the small angle scattering of a vertical beam of 4.75 A neutrons from solid and liquid samples. The scattered neutrons are detected in a 54 x 60 cm/sup 2/ position sensitive detector designed and built at MURR. A series of plastic samples of varying rubber and oil content and different rubber domain sizes and shapes were examined on the MURR SANS spectrometer. Analysis of the scattering patterns showed that the mineral oil is about eight to ten times more likely to be found in the rubber particles than in the polystyrene matrix. This result confirmed the hypothesis that the mineral oil is distributed primarily in the rubber particles.

  4. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected perovskite solid electrolytes incorporated into research size fuel cells have shown stability for > 4000 hours at 600{degrees}C. Perovskite lattice requirements which favor low E{sub a} for ionic conduction include (i) that the perovskite lattice possess a moderate enthalpy of formation, (ii) perovskite lattice possess large free volumes, (iii) that the lattice minimally polarizes the mobile ion and (iv) that the crystallographic saddle point r{sub c} for ionic conduction is {approx_equal} 1.

  5. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected perovskite solid electrolytes incorporated into research size fuel cells have shown stability for > 4000 hours at 600{degrees}C. Perovskite lattice requirements which favor low E{sub a} for ionic conduction include (i) that the perovskite lattice possess a moderate enthalpy of formation, (ii) perovskite lattice possess large free volumes, (iii) that the lattice minimally polarizes the mobile ion and (iv) that the crystallographic saddle point r{sub c} for ionic conduction is {approx equal} 1.

  6. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  7. Solid-State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress and activities are reported on: theoretical solid-state physics (surfaces; electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties; particle-solid interactions; laser annealing), surface and near-surface properties of solids (surface, plasma-material interactions, ion implantation and ion-beam mixing, pulsed-laser and thermal processing), defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, impurities and defects, semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion), transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, mass and charge transport in materials), neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, magnetic properties, structure and instrumentation), and preparation and characterization of research materials (growth and preparative methods, nuclear waste forms, special materials). (DLC)

  8. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  9. Magic Angle Spinning NMR Reveals Sequence-Dependent Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magic Angle Spinning NMR Reveals Sequence-Dependent Structural Plasticity, Dynamics, and the Spacer Peptide 1 Conformation in Magic Angle Spinning NMR Reveals Sequence-Dependent...

  10. Solid Waste Management Written Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Solid Waste Management Program Written Program Cornell University 8/28/2012 #12;Solid Waste.................................................................... 4 4.2.1 Compost Solid Waste Treatment Facility.................................................................... 4 4.2.2 Pathological Solid Waste Treatment Facility

  11. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  12. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, T.R.

    1990-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  13. [superscript 2]H-DNP-enhanced [superscript 2]H-[superscript 13]C solid-state NMR correlation spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maly, Thorsten

    Perdeuteration of biological macromolecules for magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy can yield high-resolution [superscript 2]H–[superscript 13]C correlation spectra and the method is therefore of great interest ...

  14. Angle Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Chow Kit Yee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Vincent W. L.

    . We study the scheduling problem to monitor a target continuously with full angle coverage. Several

  15. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  16. Solid Waste Management (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solid waste facilities operating in Connecticut must abide by these regulations, which describe requirements and procedures for issuing construction and operating permits; environmental...

  17. Solid Waste Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality administers the rules and regulations governing the storage, collection, processing, recovery, and reuse of solid waste protect the air,...

  18. Solid Waste Management (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Indiana Department of...

  19. Solid Waste Management (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act encourages the Department of Environmental Quality and Health Department representatives to develop and encourage methods for disposing solid waste that are environmentally sound, that...

  20. Fabricating the Solid Core Heatpipe Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ring, Peter J.; Sayre, Edwin D. [Advanced Methods and Materials, Inc., 1190 Mountain View-Alviso Road, Suite P, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Houts, Mike [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid core heatpipe nuclear reactor has the potential to be the most dependable concept for the nuclear space power system. The design of the conversion system employed permits multiple failure modes instead of the single failure mode of other concepts. Regardless of the material used for the reactor, either stainless steel, high-temperature alloys, Nb1Zr, Tantalum Alloys or MoRe Alloys, making the solid core by machining holes in a large diameter billet is not satisfactory. This is because the large diameter billet will have large grains that are detrimental to the performance of the reactor due to grain boundary diffusion. The ideal fabrication method for the solid core is by hot isostatic pressure diffusion bonding (HIPing). By this technique, wrought fine-grained tubes of the alloy chosen are assembled into the final shape with solid cusps and seal welded so that there is a vacuum in between all surfaces to be diffusion bonded. This welded structure is then HIPed for diffusion bonding. A solid core made of Type 321 stainless steel has been satisfactorily produced by Advanced Methods and Materials and is undergoing evaluation by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. Surface tension and contact with soft elastic solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Callen Hyland; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

    2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Johnson-Kendall-Robert (JKR) theory is the basis of modern contact mechanics. It describes how two deformable objects adhere together, driven by adhesion energy and opposed by elasticity. However, it does not include solid surface tension, which also opposes adhesion by acting to flatten the surface of soft solids. We tested JKR theory to see if solid surface tension affects indentation behaviour. Using confocal microscopy, we characterised the indentation of glass particles into soft, silicone substrates. While JKR theory held for particles larger than a critical, elastocapillary lengthscale, it failed for smaller particles. Instead, adhesion of small particles mimicked the adsorption of particles at a fluid interface, with a size-independent contact angle between the undeformed surface and the particle given by a generalised version of Young's law. A simple theory quantitatively captures this behaviour, and explains how solid surface tension dominates elasticity for small-scale indentation of soft materials.

  2. Fractal dimension unscreened angles measured for radial viscous fingering Olivier Praud Harry Swinney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Fractal dimension unscreened angles measured for radial viscous fingering Olivier Praud Harry, USA #Received November 2004; published July 2005# have examined fractal patterns formed injection experiments. fractal dimension D 0 of pattern large r / 1.70±0.02. Further, generalized dimensions D pattern

  3. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  4. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  5. Solid Flame: Fundamentals and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    ;Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) Or Combustion Synthesis TECHNOLOGY FOR MATERIAL (solid) ignition front propagation cooling The Phenomenon of Wave Localization for Solid State Self-propagating) 1.0000 Temperature (K) 2744 Gas products amount (mol) 6.00E-15 Products heat capacity (J/K) 74

  6. Creating Addressable Aqueous Microcompartments above Solid Supported

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    combinatorial libraries of solid supported fluid lipid membranes because these systems retain many a novel soft lithographic technique5 for partitioning and addressing aqueous solutions above supported methodology affords the ability to create a large number of aqueous compartments consisting of various

  7. Energy Conversion: Solid-State Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Energy Conversion: Solid-State Lighting E. Kioupakis1,2 , P. Rinke1,3 , A. Janotti1 , Q. Yan1 fraction of the world's energy resources [1]. Lighting has been one of the earliest applications. The inefficiency of existing light sources that waste most of the power they consume is the reason for this large

  8. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM MCU SOLIDS OUTAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 drain pipe from extraction contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium aluminosilicate ? A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into the MCU system. There were 53 recommendations for improving operations recently identified. Some additional considerations or additional details are provided below as recommendations. ? From this point on, IC-Anions analyses of the DSSHT should be part of the monthly routine analysis in order to spot negative trends in the oxalate leaving the MCU system. Care must be taken to monitor the oxalate content to watch for sudden precipitation of oxalate salts in the system. ? Conduct a study to optimize the cleaning strategy at ARP-MCU through decreasing the concentration or entirely eliminating the oxalic acid. ? The contents of the SSFT should remain unagitated. Routine visual observation should be maintained to ensure there is not a large buildup of solids. As water with agitation provided sufficient removal of the solids in the feed tank, it should be considered as a good means for dissolving oxalate solids if they are found in the future. ? Conduct a study to improve prediction of oxalate solubility in salt batch feed materials. As titanium and mercury have been found in various solids in this report, evaluate if either element plays a role in oxalate solubility during processing. ? Salt batch characterization focuses primarily on characterization and testing of unaltered Tank 21H material; however, non-typical feeds are developed through cleaning, washing, and/or sump transfers. As these solutions are processed through MCU, they may precipitate solids or reduce performance. Salt batch characterization and testing should be expanded to encompass a broader range of feeds that may be processed through ARPMCU.

  9. A study of contact angles in porous solids using heat pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Richard Clark

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aviation and Space Conference, 1968, 655-658. 25 Brosens, P. , "Thermionic Converters with Heat Pipe Radiators, " Advances in Energy Conversion Engineering, 1967, 181-187. 33 26 Werner, R. W. , and G. A. Carlson, "Heat Pipe Radiator for Space Power... heat from a nuclear source to a thermionic generator (~29 , since thermionic generators are sensitive to high levels of radiation. Heat pipes have been suggested for controlling cryogenic boiloff in space (~30 . An investigation of using heat pipes...

  10. Characterization of porous materials using combined small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Naiping; Borkar, Neha; Kohls, Doug; Schaefer, Dale W. (UCIN)

    2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of ultra small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) is used to characterize porous materials. The analysis methods yield quantitative information, including the mean skeletal chord length, mean pore chord length, skeletal density, and composition. A mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane with a manufacturer-labeled pore size of 0.1 {mu}m was used as a model to elucidate the specifics of the method. Four approaches describing four specific scenarios (different known parameters and form of the scattering data) are compared. Pore chords determined using all four approaches are in good agreement with the scanning electron microscopy estimates but are larger than the manufacturer's nominal pore size. Our approach also gives the average chord of the skeletal solid (struts) of the membrane, which is also consistent for all four approaches. Combined data from USAXS and USANS gives the skeletal density and the strut composition.

  11. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComas, D.J.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a new capability for stereoscopically imaging the magnetosphere. By imaging the charge exchange neutral atoms over a broad energy range (1 < E , {approximately} 100 keV) using two identical instruments on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS will enable the 3-dimensional visualization and the resolution of large scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time. These observations will provide a leap ahead in the understanding of the global aspects of the terrestrial magnetosphere and directly address a number of critical issues in the ``Sun-Earth Connections`` science theme of the NASA Office of Space Science.

  12. Comparison of collimation systems for small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeger, P.A.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown by simple first-order geometric arguments that for a given resolution, the flux on sample in a small-angle scattering instrument is independent of the form of the collimator or of the length of the instrument. Count rate may be increased by increasing the sample size, through the use of multi-aperture systems. In second order, it is shown to be advantageous to place the beam defining elements as close as possible to the source and the sample. The multiple-pinhole system gives maximum flux on small samples but has non-uniform illumination so that intensity increases only about half as fast as sample area. Soller slits and continuous tubes from source to sample were also considered, but neutron scattering and reflection from surfaces generate a large halo. Monte-Carlo simulations confirm these results, with the conclusion that the optimum collimator configuration is the multiple-pinhole system. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Management Division of the Department of Environmental Quality regulates solid waste disposal or any person who generates, collects, transports, processes, and/or disposes of solid...

  14. Quantum mechanical theory of dynamic nuclear polarization in solid dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Kan-Nian

    Microwave driven dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a process in which the large polarization present in an electron spin reservoir is transferred to nuclei, thereby enhancing NMR signal intensities. In solid dielectrics ...

  15. Solid Waste Management Act (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act establishes rules for the permitting, posting of security, construction, operation, closure, maintenance and remediation of solid waste disposal sites; disposal of solid waste in ways that...

  16. Solid Waste Rules (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The solid waste statute applies to construction and demolition debris, appliances, recyclables, and the facilities that collect, process, and dispose of solid waste. DES oversees the management of...

  17. Solid Waste Management (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Program regulates safe management of solid waste through guidance, technical assistance, regulations, permitting, environmental monitoring, compliance evaluation and enforcement....

  18. Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9Morgan ManagingW.tepidumAngle X-ray Scattering

  19. angle diffractometer sans: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 SANS -Small Angle Neutron Scattering Tcnica de difrao Chemistry Websites Summary: SANS - Small Angle Neutron...

  20. angle neutron diffractometer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    steel Low alloy ferritic steel Alloy 52 L0 L d0 d Bandara, Arosha 6 SANS -Small Angle Neutron Scattering Tcnica de difrao Chemistry Websites Summary: SANS - Small Angle Neutron...

  1. Solid Waste Management (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act aims to establish and maintain a cooperative state and local program of planning and technical and financial assistance for comprehensive solid waste management. No person shall construct,...

  2. Solid model design simplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, A.L.; Rivera, J.J.; Webb, A.J.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents an investigation of approaches to improving the quality of Pro/Engineer-created solid model data for use by downstream applications. The investigation identified a number of sources of problems caused by deficiencies in Pro/Engineer`s geometric engine, and developed prototype software capable of detecting many of these problems and guiding users towards simplified, useable models. The prototype software was tested using Sandia production solid models, and provided significant leverage in attacking the simplification problem.

  3. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  4. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  5. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Laboratory Learning Experiences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meagher, Mary

    .A. & Svergun D.I. (1987). Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering. NY: Plenum PressSmall Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Laboratory Learning Experiences o - Use of small angle X-ray scattering instrumentation o - Programs that you will use SAXS (BRUKER AXS) PRIMUS (Konarev, Volkov, Koch

  6. Classification of two dimensional fixed sun angle solar sail trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Mark

    Classification of two dimensional fixed sun angle solar sail trajectories Stephen Wokes, Phil heliocentric trajectories for fixed sun angle solar sails are examined. The objective of this work (lightness factor) and Sun angle this phase space shows all possible solar sail trajectories. This phase

  7. Radiative Generation of Quark Masses and Mixing Angles in the Two Higgs Doublet Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Ibarra; Ana Solaguren-Beascoa

    2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a framework to generate the quark mass hierarchies and mixing angles by extending the Standard Model with one extra Higgs doublet. The charm and strange quark masses are generated by small quantum effects, thus explaining the hierarchy between the second and third generation quark masses. All the mixing angles are also generated by small quantum effects: the Cabibbo angle is generated at zero-th order in perturbation theory, while the remaining off-diagonal entries of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix are generated at first order, hence explaining the observed hierarchy $|V_{ub}|,|V_{cb}|\\ll |V_{us}|$. The values of the radiatively generated parameters depend only logarithmically on the heavy Higgs mass, therefore this framework can be reconciled with the stringent limits on flavor violation by postulating a sufficiently large new physics scale.

  8. Channel Meander Migration in Large-Scale Physical Model Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Po Hung

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of large-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to study channel meander migration. Factors affecting the migration of banklines, including the ratio of curvature to channel width, bend angle, and the Froude ...

  9. Reactor Neutrino Experiments with a Large Liquid Scintillator Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachim Kopp; Manfred Lindner; Alexander Merle; Mark Rolinec

    2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss several new ideas for reactor neutrino oscillation experiments with a Large Liquid Scintillator Detector. We consider two different scenarios for a measurement of the small mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ with a mobile $\\bar{\

  10. Economic disposal of solid oilfield wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, M.S.; Qian, H.X.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of solid oilfield wastes, including produced sand, tank bottoms, and crude contaminated soils, are generated during drilling, production, and storage processes. Crude oil and crude-contaminated sands or soils are generally designated as nonhazardous wastes. However, these materials still must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The problems can become most pressing as oil fields in urban areas reach the end of their productive lives and the productive lives and the properties are redeveloped for residential use. An economically and environmentally sound solution is to reinject the solid waste into sand formations through slurry fracture muds and cuttings in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, and the North Sea; naturally occurring radioactive materials in Alaska and the Gulf of Mexico; and large volumes of produced oily sand in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. The technique offers a number of economic and environmental advantages for disposal of solid oilfield wastes. When reinjecting into depleted oil sands, the crude waste is simply being returned to its place of origin. The long-term liability to the operator is eliminated, in marked contrast to surface storage or landfill disposal. Finally, fracture-injection costs are less than typical transport and landfill disposal costs for moderate to large quantities of solid waste

  11. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  12. Beyond the plane-parallel and Newtonian approach: wide-angle redshift distortions and convergence in general relativity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertacca, Daniele; Maartens, Roy [Physics Department, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Raccanelli, Alvise [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States); Clarkson, Chris, E-mail: daniele.bertacca@pd.infn.it, E-mail: Roy.Maartens@port.ac.uk, E-mail: Alvise@caltech.edu, E-mail: Clarkson@maths.uct.ac.za [Centre for Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravitation and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7701 (South Africa)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend previous analyses of wide-angle correlations in the galaxy power spectrum in redshift space to include all general relativistic effects. These general relativistic corrections to the standard approach become important on large scales and at high redshifts, and they lead to new terms in the wide-angle correlations. We show that in principle the new terms can produce corrections of nearly 10% on Gpc scales over the usual Newtonian approximation. General relativistic corrections will be important for future large-volume surveys such as SKA and Euclid, although the problem of cosmic variance will present a challenge in observing this.

  13. Dosimetric Comparison of Manual and Beam Angle Optimization of Gantry Angles in IMRT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Shiv P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Reid Hospital and Health Care Services, Richmond, IN (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Das, Indra J., E-mail: idas@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Kumar, Arvind [Department of Radiation Oncology, Reid Hospital and Health Care Services, Richmond, IN (United States); Johnstone, Peter A.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dosimetric comparison of manual beam angle selection (MBS) and beam angle optimization (BAO) for IMRT plans is investigated retrospectively for 15 head and neck and prostate patients. The head and neck and prostate had planning target volumes (PTVs) ranging between 96.0 and 319.9 cm{sup 3} and 153.6 and 321.3 cm{sup 3}, whereas OAR ranged between 8.3 and 47.8 cm{sup 3} and 68.3 and 469.2 cm{sup 3}, respectively. In MBS, a standard coplanar 7-9 fields equally spaced gantry angles were used. In BAO, the selection of gantry angle was optimized by the algorithm for the same number of beams. The optimization and dose-volume constraints were kept the same for both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on the Eclipse treatment planning system. Our results showed that the dose-volume histogram for PTV are nearly identical in both techniques but BAO provided superior sparing of the organs at risk compared with the MBS. Also, MBS produced statistically significant higher monitor units (MU) and segments than the BAO; 13.1 {+-} 6.6% (p = 0.012) and 10.4 {+-} 13.6% (p = 0.140), and 14.6 {+-} 5.6% (p = 1.003E-5) and 12.6 {+-} 7.4% (p = 0.76E-3) for head and neck and prostate cases, respectively. The reduction in MU translates into the reduction in total body and integral dose. It is concluded that BAO provides advantage over MBS for most intenisty-modulated radiation therapy cases.

  14. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  15. Emission angle distribution and flavor transformation of supernova neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Liao

    2009-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Using moment equations we analyze collective flavor transformation of supernova neutrinos. We study the convergence of moment equations and find that numerical results using a few moment converge quite fast. We study effects of emission angle distribution of neutrinos on neutrino sphere. We study scaling law of the amplitude of neutrino self-interaction Hamiltonian and find that it depends on model of emission angle distribution of neutrinos. Dependence of neutrino oscillation on different models of emission angle distribution is studied.

  16. Solid-State NMR Study of Intercalated Species in Poly( -caprolactone)/Clay Nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Solid-State NMR Study of Intercalated Species in Poly( - caprolactone)/Clay Nanocomposites J of surfactant and polymer chains in intercalated poly( - caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites are characterized by 31 P magic-angle spinning (MAS) and 13 C cross-polarization MAS NMR techniques. To obtain hybrid

  17. STELLAR ORBITAL STUDIES IN NORMAL SPIRAL GALAXIES. I. RESTRICTIONS TO THE PITCH ANGLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Villegas, A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E., E-mail: barbara@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-264, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We built a family of non-axisymmetric potential models for normal non-barred or weakly barred spiral galaxies as defined in the simplest classification of galaxies: the Hubble sequence. For this purpose, a three-dimensional self-gravitating model for the spiral arm PERLAS is superimposed on the galactic axisymmetric potentials. We analyze the stellar dynamics varying only the pitch angle of the spiral arms, from 4 Degree-Sign to 40 Degree-Sign for an Sa galaxy, from 8 Degree-Sign to 45 Degree-Sign for an Sb galaxy, and from 10 Degree-Sign to 60 Degree-Sign for an Sc galaxy. Self-consistency is indirectly tested through periodic orbital analysis and through density response studies for each morphological type. Based on ordered behavior, periodic orbit studies show that, for pitch angles up to approximately 15 Degree-Sign , 18 Degree-Sign , and 20 Degree-Sign for Sa, Sb, and Sc galaxies, respectively, the density response supports the spiral arms' potential, a requisite for the existence of a long-lasting large-scale spiral structure. Beyond those limits, the density response tends to ''avoid'' the potential imposed by maintaining lower pitch angles in the density response; in that case, the spiral arms may be explained as transient features rather than long-lasting large-scale structures. In a second limit, from a phase-space orbital study based on chaotic behavior, we found that for pitch angles larger than {approx}30 Degree-Sign , {approx}40 Degree-Sign , and {approx}50 Degree-Sign for Sa, Sb, and Sc galaxies, respectively, chaotic orbits dominate the all phase-space prograde region that surrounds the periodic orbits sculpting the spiral arms and even destroying them. This result seems to be in good agreement with observations of pitch angles in typical isolated normal spiral galaxies.

  18. Unique determination of the -CN group tilt angle in Langmuir...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    angle and phase. Abstract: The relative phase and amplitude ratio between the ssp and ppp polarization combinations of the vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) response...

  19. ANGLE-RESOLVED PHOTOEMISSION STUDIES OF Ag, Au, AND Pt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R.F.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    under Contract W-7405-ENG-48 ANGLE-RESOLVED PHOTOEMISSIONEnergy under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. It was performed at

  20. angle light scattering: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological tissues tend Kim, Arnold D. 11 Static light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering study on aggregated recombinant gelatin in aqueous solution University...

  1. angle scattering studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    report gives selected examples illustrating the use of specific techni- cal 2 Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Charged Carboxyl-Terminated Dendrimers in Solutions...

  2. angling commercial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chronic open angle glaucoma by UK community optometrists. (Unpublished Doctoral thesis, City University London) City Research Online Original citation: Myint, Joy (2013). A study...

  3. Local Uniqueness for the Fixed Energy Fixed Angle Inverse Problem ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract. We prove local uniqueness for the inverse problem in obstacle scattering at a fixed energy and fixed incident angle. We consider the inverse problem of ...

  4. angle changing device: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bend angle Physics Websites Summary: mercury water flow through a bend pipe into the air environment Medium Reynolds Number Inner DiameterSimulation for pipes with changing bend...

  5. The new small-angle diffractometer SAND at IPNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, R.K.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Epperson, J.E.; Trouw, F.; Kleb, R.; Wozniak, D.; Leach, D.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new small-angle neutron diffractometer SAND is undergoing commissioning at IPNS pulsed source. This paper provides details of the design and expected performance of this instrument.

  6. Min-max control design for large angle maneuvers of flexible spacecraft 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Cheolho

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vector a is a =a, b, ! 1 j ff 0 dsi ? J u;dm ? eij ka j fikdm 1 . f 1 ? e;. kib J ukdm ? e e kiv ia ukdm M''J M B B B B + ui + e|jkivjuk + eqk~j (&k + uk) + eigpep Jkaga~j(~k + uk) bi (2. 1. 15) where ds, is obtained from Eq. (2. 1. 10) os...) into the form l P aP =a, i2; = Bftqd?+ + eijkdkpq + Nspq(lp (2. 1. 18) Np ? Np (tt' M )rj +2 . sq~s (tt M )rj MB B Np (ql M )1v 9 + e 's*r1v B Np ? )(iv;1vs ? 6, sa1, 1v?)qlq+ xr(a1;a1s ? b;ra1?a2?) b, with (1j = 1, 2, . . . , M). From the Newton...

  7. Event Generation of Large-Angle Bhabha Scattering at LEP2 Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Arbuzov

    1999-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    LABSMC Monte Carlo event generator is used to simulate Bhabha scattering at high energies. Different sources of radiative corrections are considered. The resulting precision is discussed.

  8. Solid Waste Act (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The main purpose of the Solid Waste Act is to authorize and direct the establishment of a comprehensive solid waste management program. The act states details about specific waste management...

  9. Solid Waste Management Program (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Management Program in the Department of Natural Resources regulates the management of solid waste in the state of Missouri. A permit is required prior to the construction or...

  10. Delaware Solid Waste Authority (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) runs three landfills, all of which recover methane and generate electricity with a total capacity of 24 MWs. The DSWA Solid Waste Plan includes goals,...

  11. Solid Waste Disposal Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality is responsible for the regulation and management of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste. A fee is applied to all solid waste disposed in the...

  12. TRANSPORT NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard C. De Jonghe TWO-AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard C. De JongheAND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard C. De Jonghe

  13. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich (Sarov, RU); Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich (Sarov, RU)

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  14. Heat Recovery From Solid Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, O. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    areas of evaluation, including the cost of fuel, cost of solid waste disposal, plant energy requirements, available technology, etc....

  15. Amine enriched solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Fredericktown, PA)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The new method entails treating a solid substrate with acid or base and simultaneous or subsequent treatment with a substituted amine salt. The method eliminates the need for organic solvents and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  16. Long cycle life solid-state solid polymer electrolyte cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a rechargeable solid-state lithium conducting solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical cell comprising: a lithium intercalation compound negative electrode selected from the group consisting of: MoO/sub 2/; RuO/sub 2/; WO; OsO/sub 2/; IrO/sub 2/; and Mo1/2V1/2O/sub 2/; a lithium ion conducting solid polymer electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte complexed with a solid polymer contacting the negative electrode on one side; and a lithium intercalation compound positive electrode contacting the opposite side of the solid polymer electrolyte.

  17. A blurred interface formulation of The Reference Map Technique for Fluid-Solid Interactions and Fluid-Solid-Solid Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valkov, Boris Ivanov

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present a blurred interface method for Fluid-Solid Interactions (FSI) and multiple solids immersed in a fluid or FSSI (Fluid-Solid-Solid Interactions) based on the reference map technique as presented by ...

  18. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  19. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, B.D.

    1986-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  20. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  1. Steiner Minimal Trees, Twist Angles, and the Protein Folding Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. MacGregor

    Steiner Minimal Trees, Twist Angles, and the Protein Folding Problem J. MacGregor Smith, Yunho Jang. These properties should be ultimately useful in the ab ini- tio protein folding prediction. Proteins 2007;66:889­ 902. VVC 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: Steiner trees; twist angles; protein fold- ing; side chain

  2. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO ESTIMATE ACCUMULATED SOLIDS IN NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream; Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel; Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas; Laser rangefinders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds; Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds; Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These devices and techniques were very effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing plutonium and are expected to perform well at a larger scale. The operation of the techniques and their measurement accuracies will be discussed as well as the overall results of the accumulated solids test.

  4. An ultrafast angle-resolved photoemission apparatus for measuring complex materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smallwood, Christopher L.; Lanzara, Alessandra [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Jozwiak, Christopher [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Zhang Wentao [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present technical specifications for a high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy setup based on a hemispherical electron analyzer and cavity-dumped solid state Ti:sapphire laser used to generate pump and probe beams, respectively, at 1.48 and 5.93 eV. The pulse repetition rate can be tuned from 209 Hz to 54.3 MHz. Under typical operating settings the system has an overall energy resolution of 23 meV, an overall momentum resolution of 0.003 A{sup -1}, and an overall time resolution of 310 fs. We illustrate the system capabilities with representative data on the cuprate superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}. The descriptions and analyses presented here will inform new developments in ultrafast electron spectroscopy.

  5. Electron mean free path from angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldmann, Maximilian; West, Adam H C; Yoder, Bruce L; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles as an alternative way to determine the electron mean free path of low energy electrons in solid and liquid materials. The mean free path is obtained from fits of simulated photoemission images to experimental ones over a broad range of different aerosol particle sizes. The principal advantage of the aerosol approach is twofold. Firstly, aerosol photoemission studies can be performed for many different materials, including liquids. Secondly, the size-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectrons can be exploited in addition to size-dependent changes in their kinetic energy. These finite size effects depend in different ways on the mean free path and thus provide more information on the mean free path than corresponding liquid jet, thin film, or bulk data. The present contribution is a proof of principle employing a simple model for the photoemission of electrons and preliminary experimental data for potassium chloride aerosol particles.

  6. FTIR spectrometer with solid-state drive system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An FTIR spectrometer (10) and method using a solid-state drive system with thermally responsive members (27) that are subject to expansion upon heating and to contraction upon cooling. Such members (27) are assembled in the device (10) so as to move an angled, reflective surface (22) a small distance. The sample light beam (13) is received at a detector (24) along with a reference light beam (13) and there it is combined into a resulting signal. This allows the "interference" between the two beams to occur for spectral analysis by a processor (29).

  7. SU-E-I-56: Scan Angle Reduction for a Limited-Angle Intrafraction Verification (LIVE) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, L; Zhang, Y; Yin, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To develop a novel adaptive reconstruction strategy to further reduce the scanning angle required by the limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for intrafraction verification. Methods: LIVE acquires limited angle MV projections from the exit fluence of the arc treatment beam or during gantry rotation between static beams. Orthogonal limited-angle kV projections are also acquired simultaneously to provide additional information. LIVE considers the on-board 4D-CBCT images as a deformation of the prior 4D-CT images, and solves the deformation field based on deformation models and data fidelity constraint. LIVE reaches a checkpoint after a limited-angle scan, and reconstructs 4D-CBCT for intrafraction verification at the checkpoint. In adaptive reconstruction strategy, a larger scanning angle of 30° is used for the first checkpoint, and smaller scanning angles of 15° are used for subsequent checkpoints. The onboard images reconstructed at the previous adjacent checkpoint are used as the prior images for reconstruction at the current checkpoint. As the algorithm only needs to reconstruct the small deformation occurred between adjacent checkpoints, projections from a smaller scan angle provide enough information for the reconstruction. XCAT was used to simulate tumor motion baseline drift of 2mm along sup-inf direction at every subsequent checkpoint, which are 15° apart. Adaptive reconstruction strategy was used to reconstruct the images at each checkpoint using orthogonal 15° kV and MV projections. Results: Results showed that LIVE reconstructed the tumor volumes accurately using orthogonal 15° kV-MV projections. Volume percentage differences (VPDs) were within 5% and center of mass shifts (COMS) were within 1mm for reconstruction at all checkpoints. Conclusion: It's feasible to use an adaptive reconstruction strategy to further reduce the scan angle needed by LIVE to allow faster and more frequent intrafraction verification to minimize the treatment errors in lung cancer treatments. Grant from Varian Medical System.

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  10. angle diffraction studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A. 3 DMSO-Induced Dehydration of DPPC Membranes Studied by X-ray Diffraction, Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, and Calorimetry Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The influence of...

  11. Bond Angle Torsion http://www.nobelprize.org/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukai, Tomoki

    MARBLE-K 20141024 1 #12;2 MARBLE MARBLE #12;MD Bond Angle Torsion http) MARBLE-K PME CHARMM Force Field AMBER Force Field NMRSAXS molx XNMR #12;MARBLE

  12. Modelling contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned and superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kusumaatmaja; J. M. Yeomans

    2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned and superhydrophobic surfaces, as the drop volume is quasi-statically increased and decreased. We consider both two, and three, dimensions using analytical and numerical approaches to minimise the free energy of the drop. In two dimensions we find, in agreement with other authors, a slip, jump, stick motion of the contact line. In three dimensions this behaviour persists, but the position and magnitude of the contact line jumps are sensitive to the details of the surface patterning. In two dimensions we identify analytically the advancing and receding contact angles on the different surfaces and we use numerical insights to argue that these provide bounds for the three dimensional cases. We present explicit simulations to show that a simple average over the disorder is not sufficient to predict the details of the contact angle hysteresis, and to support an explanation for the low contact angle hysteresis of suspended drops on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  13. Solid Waste Management (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute contains provisions for solid waste management systems, groundwater monitoring, liability for pollution, permitting, inspections, and provisions for waste reduction and recycling...

  14. Solid Waste Management Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act provides for the planning and regulation of solid waste storage, collection, transportation, processing, treatment, and disposal. It requires that municipalities submit plans for municipal...

  15. Effect of catalyst diameter on vapour-liquid-solid growth of GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dowd, B. J., E-mail: odowdbj@tcd.ie; Shvets, I. V. [CRANN, School of Physics, Trinity College, the University of Dublin, Dublin D2 (Ireland); Wojtowicz, T.; Kolkovsky, V.; Wojciechowski, T.; Zgirski, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw 02-668 (Poland); Rouvimov, S. [Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility (NDIIF), University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Liu, X.; Pimpinella, R.; Dobrowolska, M.; Furdyna, J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    GaAs nanowires were grown on (111)B GaAs substrates using the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism. The Au/Pt nanodots used to catalyse wire growth were defined lithographically and had varying diameter and separation. An in-depth statistical analysis of the resulting nanowires, which had a cone-like shape, was carried out. This revealed that there were two categories of nanowire present, with differing height and tapering angle. The bimodal nature of wire shape was found to depend critically on the diameter of the Au-Ga droplet atop the nanowire. Transmission electron microscopy analysis also revealed that the density of stacking faults in the wires varied considerably between the two categories of wire. It is believed that the cause of the distinction in terms of shape and crystal structure is related to the contact angle between the droplet and the solid-liquid interface. The dependency of droplet diameter on contact angle is likely related to line-tension, which is a correction to Young's equation for the contact angle of a droplet upon a surface. The fact that contact angle may influence resulting wire structure and shape has important implications for the planning of growth conditions and the preparation of wires for use in proposed devices.

  16. SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach: Individual simulation modules for each fuel cell type · Tubular SOFC · Planar SOFC · MCFC · PEM Reformer · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

  17. Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan; Luebke David; Pennline, Henry

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promising CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  18. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Y [NETL; Sorescu, D C [NETL; Luebke, D [NETL; Li, B Y; Zhang, K; King, D

    2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; A further objective is to explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  19. Accepted Manuscript Using Small Angle Solution Scattering Data in Xplor-NIH Structure Calcula-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clore, G. Marius

    and wide angle X-ray and small angle neutron scattering for biomolecular structure calculation using and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data, on the otherAccepted Manuscript Using Small Angle Solution Scattering Data in Xplor-NIH Structure Calcula

  20. Solid and gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, H.; Wells, A.W.; Frommell, E.A.; Flenory, P.B.

    1987-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids covered during the period of October 1984 through Sept 30, 1986. Energy Research Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts were used as the reference sources. In most categories the volume of material available made it necessary to limit the number of publications in the review. This review also surveys publications concerned with methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels and related materials. Articles of significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature that were not available at the time of the last review are also included. Chemical Abstracts and Energy Research Abstracts were used extensively as reference sources. Some selectivity was necessary in order to include the most pertinent publications in preparing this review.

  1. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  2. Running Effects on Lepton Mixing Angles in Flavour Models with Type I Seesaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin Lin; Luca Merlo; Alessio Paris

    2009-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study renormalization group running effects on neutrino mixing patterns when a (type I) seesaw model is implemented by suitable flavour symmetries. We are particularly interested in mass-independent mixing patterns to which the widely studied tribimaximal mixing pattern belongs. In this class of flavour models, the running contribution from neutrino Yukawa coupling, which is generally dominant at energies above the seesaw threshold, can be absorbed by a small shift on neutrino mass eigenvalues leaving mixing angles unchanged. Consequently, in the whole running energy range, the change in mixing angles is due to the contribution coming from charged lepton sector. Subsequently, we analyze in detail these effects in an explicit flavour model for tribimaximal neutrino mixing based on an A4 discrete symmetry group. We find that for normally ordered light neutrinos, the tribimaximal prediction is essentially stable under renormalization group evolution. On the other hand, in the case of inverted hierarchy, the deviation of the solar angle from its TB value can be large depending on mass degeneracy.

  3. An SO(10) GUT Model With Lopsided Mass Matrix and Neutrino Mixing Angle theta_13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiangdong Ji; Yingchuan Li; R. N. Mohapatra

    2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative supersymmetric SO(10) grand unification model with lopsided fermion mass matrices is introduced. It generates a large solar-neutrino-mixing angle through the neutrinos' Dirac mass matrix constrained by the SO(10) group structure, avoiding the fine-tuning required in the Majorana mass matrix of right-handed neutrinos. The model fits well the known data on masses and mixings of quarks and leptons, and predicts a sizable lepton mixing $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}\\simeq 0.074$, which is significantly larger than that of the original lopsided model.

  4. Disorder resistivity of solid neutron-star matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. B. Jones

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lower limits are found for the disorder resistivity of solid neutron-star matter in the neutron-drip region which is amorphous and heterogeneous in nuclear charge. This temperature-independent resistivity, large compared with that produced by phonon scattering, has direct consequences for theories of neutron-star magnetic field generation and evolution.

  5. Unsteady Flow Evolution and Combustion Dynamics of Homogeneous Solid Propellant in a Rocket Motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Sourabh V.

    Unsteady Flow Evolution and Combustion Dynamics of Homogeneous Solid Propellant in a Rocket Motor University, University Park, PA 16802, USA A time-resolved numerical analysis of combustion dynamics of double-base homogenous solid propellant in a rocket motor is performed by means of a Large

  6. A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Steven O.

    A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces Chi are largely determined by the solid-liquid surface tension. This is especially true for nanoscale systems with high surface area to volume ratios. While experimental techniques can only measure surface tension

  7. Interacting delayed critical 38.1-cm-diam uranium (93.2) metal cylinders at large distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A delayed critical experiment was performed with two 38.10-cm-diam, {approximately}7.62-cm-thick unmoderated and unreflected uranium metal cylinders to study the interaction of two loosely coupled large flat cylinders. Previously tightly coupled, two component uranium metal assemblies of 27.93-cm-diam cylinders had been assembled to delayed criticality and the results reported. For this experiment, the uranium metal density was 18.75 g U/cm{sup 3}, and the enrichment was 93.15 wt% {sup 235}U. The two right circular cylinders were coaxial and separated 1.3 m; thus the fractional solid angle subtended by one cylinder as seen from the other is {approximately}5 X 10{sup -3}. This delayed critical configuration is a useful experiment for assessing the convergence of Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron multiplication factor because it is a very loosely coupled system, a problem that has been designated as {open_quotes}k{sub eff} of the world{close_quotes}. The neutron multiplication factor of one of the interacting cylinders is 0.994, and the solid angle seen by the other cylinder is such that very few neutrons starting in one cylinder reach the other cylinder. This assembly was configured on a vertical assembly machine in the east cell of the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in 1965 and was unreported until this paper. The east cell of this facility is a 10.6- x 10.6- x 9.1-m room with thick concrete walls. The lower cylinder of this assembly was located 3.5 m from the 1.5-m-thick west wall, 3.9 m from the 0.61-m-thick north wall, and 2.8 m above the concrete floor. The calculation of two such loosely coupled cylinders by Monte Carlo methods can be a problem because the interaction between cylinders is so small.

  8. Accurate measurement of relative tilt and azimuth angles in electron tomography: A comparison of fiducial marker method with electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayashida, Misa [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Malac, Marek; Egerton, Ray F. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6H 2E1 (Canada); Bergen, Michael; Li, Peng [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron tomography is a method whereby a three-dimensional reconstruction of a nanoscale object is obtained from a series of projected images measured in a transmission electron microscope. We developed an electron-diffraction method to measure the tilt and azimuth angles, with Kikuchi lines used to align a series of diffraction patterns obtained with each image of the tilt series. Since it is based on electron diffraction, the method is not affected by sample drift and is not sensitive to sample thickness, whereas tilt angle measurement and alignment using fiducial-marker methods are affected by both sample drift and thickness. The accuracy of the diffraction method benefits reconstructions with a large number of voxels, where both high spatial resolution and a large field of view are desired. The diffraction method allows both the tilt and azimuth angle to be measured, while fiducial marker methods typically treat the tilt and azimuth angle as an unknown parameter. The diffraction method can be also used to estimate the accuracy of the fiducial marker method, and the sample-stage accuracy. A nano-dot fiducial marker measurement differs from a diffraction measurement by no more than ±1°.

  9. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, L.E.

    1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber. 16 figs.

  10. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber.

  11. Solid Xenon Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakishiyeva, Durdana N.; Saab, Tarek [University of Florida (United States); Mahapatra, Rupak [Texas A and M University (United States); Yoo, Jonghee [FNAL (United States)

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystals like Germanium and Silicon need to be grown in specialized facilities which is time and money costly. It takes many runs to test the detector once it's manufactured and mishaps are very probable. It is of a great challenge to grow big germanium crystals and that's why stacking them up in a tower is the only way at the moment to increase testing mass. Liquid Noble gas experiments experiencing contamination problems, their predicted energy resolution at 10 keV and lower energy range is not as good as predicted. Every experiment is targeting one specific purpose, looking for one thing. Why not to design an experiment that is diverse and build a detector that can search for Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Neutrinoless Double Beta decay, etc. Solid Xenon detector is such detector. We designed a simple Xenon crystal growing chamber that was put together at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The first phase of this experiment was to demonstrate that a good, crack free Xenon crystal can be grown (regardless of many failed attempts by various groups) and our first goal, 1 kg crystal, was successful.

  12. Optimal Solid Space Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Theory and computations are provided for building of optimal (minimum weight) solid space towers (mast) up to one hundred kilometers in height. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, observation of the Earth surface, weather and upper atmosphere experiment, and for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch spaceships and Earth satellites. These macroprojects are not expensive. They require strong hard material (steel). Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require human work at high altitudes; the tower is separated into sections; all construction can be done at the Earth surface. The transport system for a tower consists of a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the Earth surface. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in other cited publications.

  13. Illinois Solid Waste Management Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     It is the purpose of this Act to reduce reliance on land disposal of solid waste, to encourage and promote alternative means of managing solid waste, and to assist local governments with solid...

  14. Eugene Solid Waste Management Market Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Eugene Solid Waste Management Market Analysis Prepared By: Mitchell Johnson Alex Sonnichsen #12;Eugene Solid Waste Management Market Analysis May 2012 Page 1 Summary This study examines the economic impact of the solid waste management system

  15. Solute transport under steady and transient conditions in biodegraded municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bendz, David; Singh, Vijay P.

    , Sweden Vijay P. Singh Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge Abstract. The transport of a conservative tracer (lithium) in a large (3.5 m 3) undisturbed municipal solid waste sample has been...

  16. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

  17. Physical region for three-neutrino mixing angles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. C. Latimer; D. J. Ernst

    2004-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a set of symmetry relations for the three-neutrino mixing angles, including the MSW matter effect. Though interesting in their own right, these relations are used to choose the physical region of the mixing angles such that oscillations are parameterized completely and uniquely. We propose that the preferred way of setting the bounds on the mixing angles should be $\\theta_{12} \\in [0,\\pi/2]$, $\\theta_{13} \\in [-\\pi/2,\\pi/2]$, $\\theta_{23}\\in [0,\\pi/2]$, and $\\delta \\in [0,\\pi)$. No CP violation then results simply from setting $\\delta=0$. In the presence of the MSW effect, this choice of bounds is a new result. Since the size of the asymmetry about $\\theta_{13} = 0$ is dependent on the details of the data analysis and is a part of the results of the analysis, we argue that the negative values of $\\theta_{13}$ should not be ignored.

  18. Dirac Lepton Angle Matrix v.s. Majorana Lepton Angle Matrix and Their Renormalization Group Running Behaviours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu Luo

    2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Enlightened by the idea of the 3 times 3 CKM angle matrix proposed recently by Harrison et al., we introduce the Dirac angle matrix Phi and the Majorana angle matrix Psi in the lepton sector for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos respectively. We show that in presence of the CP violation, the angle matrix Phi or Psi is entirely equivalent to the complex MNS matrix V itself, but has the advantage of being real, phase rephasing invariant, directly associated to the leptonic unitarity triangles (UTs) and do not depend on any particular parametrization of V. In this paper, we further analyzed how the angle matrices evolve with the energy scale. The one-loop Renormalization Group Equations (RGEs) of Phi, Psi and some other rephasing invariant parameters are derived and the numerical analysis is performed to compare between the case of Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. Different neutrino mass spectra are taken into account in our calculation. We find that apparently different from the case of Dirac neutrinos, for Majorana neutrinos the RG-evolutions of Phi, Psi and the Jarlskog strongly depend on the Majorana-type CP-violating parameters and are quite sensitive to the sign of Delta m^{2}_{31}. They may receive significant radiative corrections in the MSSM if three neutrino masses are nearly degenerate.

  19. Dirac Lepton Angle Matrix v.s. Majorana Lepton Angle Matrix and Their Renormalization Group Running Behaviours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Shu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enlightened by the idea of the 3 times 3 CKM angle matrix proposed recently by Harrison et al., we introduce the Dirac angle matrix Phi and the Majorana angle matrix Psi in the lepton sector for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos respectively. We show that in presence of the CP violation, the angle matrix Phi or Psi is entirely equivalent to the complex MNS matrix V itself, but has the advantage of being real, phase rephasing invariant, directly associated to the leptonic unitarity triangles (UTs) and do not depend on any particular parametrization of V. In this paper, we further analyzed how the angle matrices evolve with the energy scale. The one-loop Renormalization Group Equations (RGEs) of Phi, Psi and some other rephasing invariant parameters are derived and the numerical analysis is performed to compare between the case of Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. Different neutrino mass spectra are taken into account in our calculation. We find that apparently different from the case of Dirac neutrinos, for Majorana ne...

  20. Off-Angle Iris Correction using a Biological Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL] [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL] [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL] [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL] [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL] [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work implements an eye model to simulate corneal refraction effects. Using this model, ray tracing is performed to calculate transforms to remove refractive effects in off-angle iris images when reprojected to a frontal view. The correction process is used as a preprocessing step for off-angle iris images for input to a commercial matcher. With this method, a match score distribution mean improvement of 11.65% for 30 degree images, 44.94% for 40 degree images, and 146.1% improvement for 50 degree images is observed versus match score distributions with unmodi ed images.

  1. Angle of Arrival Detection with Fifth Order Phase Operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khmou, Youssef

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a fifth order propagator operators are proposed for estimating the Angles Of Arrival (AOA) of narrowband electromagnetic waves impinging on antenna array when its number of sensors is larger than the number of radiating sources. The array response matrix is partitioned into five linearly dependent phases to construct the noise projector using five different propagators from non diagonal blocks of the spectral matrice of the received data; hence, five different estimators are proposed to estimate the angles of the sources. The simulation results proved the performance of the proposed estimators in the presence of white noise comparatively to high resolution eigen based spectra.

  2. On the Euler angles for SU(N)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerchiai, Bianca L; Bertini, S.; Cacciatori, Sergio L.

    2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we reconsider the problem of the Euler parametrization for the unitary groups. After constructing the generic group element in terms of generalized angles, we compute the invariant measure on SU(N) and then we determine the full range of the parameters, using both topological and geometrical methods. In particular, we show that the given parametrization realizes the group SU(N+1) as a fibration of U(N) over the complex projective space CP{sup n}. This justifies the interpretation of the parameters as generalized Euler angles.

  3. Solid Waste Management Act (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to establishing a comprehensive program of controlling all phases of solid waste management and assigning responsibilities for solid waste management to the Secretary of Department of...

  4. 100 MHz NMR Thorium (Solids) | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    100 MHz NMR Thorium (Solids) 100 MHz NMR Thorium (Solids) Research applications Samples containing paramagnetics Soils (SOM and NOM) Metal oxide materials for catalysis...

  5. Solid Waste Management Program (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South Dakota's Solid Waste Management Program offers loans and grants for solid waste disposal, recycling, and waste tire projects. Funds are available for private or public projects, and...

  6. Chapter 47 Solid Waste Facilities (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter establishes the permitting standards for solid waste sites or facilities, the standards applicable to all solid waste sites or facilities, and the standards for certification of...

  7. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target , N. Doshitac

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutz, Hartmut

    On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target J. Balla , G. Baumb , N. Doshitac , M. Finger, Jr target in the COMPASS experiment at CERN since 2001. To achieve high luminosities a large solid polarized target is used. The COMPASS polarized target consists of a high cooling power 3 He/4 He dilution refriger

  8. Sierra/solid mechanics 4.22 user's guide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Jesse David

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for the analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic and implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and an extensive library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments, and it allows for scalable solutions of very large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which allows for coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input structure for Sierra/SM.

  9. Cogeneration/Cogeneration - Solid Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyle, F. B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the rationale for cogeneration and basic turbine types available. Special considerations for cogeneration in conjunction with solid waste firing are outlined. Optimum throttle conditions for cogeneration are significantly...

  10. Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These sections articulate rules for the maintenance and operation of solid waste disposal facilities, as well as site assignment procedures. Applications for site assignment will be reviewed by the...

  11. Solid Waste Facilities Regulations (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the Massachusetts General Laws governs the operation of solid waste facilities. It seeks to encourage sustainable waste management practices and to mitigate adverse effects, such as...

  12. Solid Waste Management Rules (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These rules establish procedures and standards to protect public health and the environment by ensuring the safe, proper, and sustainable management of solid waste in Vermont. The rules apply to...

  13. Cogeneration/Cogeneration - Solid Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyle, F. B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the rationale for cogeneration and basic turbine types available. Special considerations for cogeneration in conjunction with solid waste firing are outlined. Optimum throttle conditions for cogeneration are significantly...

  14. Wind Turbine Pitch Angle Controllers for Grid Frequency Stabilisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind Turbine Pitch Angle Controllers for Grid Frequency Stabilisation Clemens Jauch Risø National Laboratory Wind Energy Department P.O. Box 49 DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark clemens.jauch@risoe.dk Abstract: In this paper it is investigated how active-stall wind turbines can contribute to the stabilisation of the power

  15. angle neutron scattering: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    neutron scattering First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 SANS -Small Angle Neutron Scattering...

  16. Overview of Neutrino Mixing Models and Their Mixing Angle Predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, Carl H.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of neutrino-mixing models is presented with emphasis on the types of horizontal flavor and vertical family symmetries that have been invoked. Distributions for the mixing angles of many models are displayed. Ways to differentiate among the models and to narrow the list of viable models are discussed.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of an Angle Based Indoor Localization System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasipuri, Asis

    Experimental Evaluation of an Angle Based Indoor Localization System Asis Nasipuri and Ribal El available off-the-shelf components. Wireless sensor nodes equipped with photo sensors determine is required at the sensor nodes. The system also does not involve any centralized server or off

  18. Measurements of the angle alpha (phi2) at B factories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Vasseur

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurements of the angle alpha (phi2) of the unitarity triangle at the B factories are reviewed. The value of alpha determined by combining the results obtained in the B to pi pi, B to rho pi, and B to rho rho modes by both the BABAR and Belle experiments is (87.5 +6.2 -5.3) degrees.

  19. SANS -Small Angle Neutron Scattering Tcnica de difrao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    SANS - Small Angle Neutron Scattering Técnica de difração informações sobre tamanho e forma de- Neutrons are created in the centre of the target station when the beam of high energy protons collides by evaporating nuclear particles, mainly neutrons, in all directions. Each proton produces approximately 15

  20. Neutrino Mass Models: Impact of non-zero reactor angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen F. King

    2011-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk neutrino mass models are reviewed and the impact of a non-zero reactor angle and other deviations from tri-bimaximal mixing are discussed. We propose some benchmark models, where the only way to discriminate between them is by high precision neutrino oscillation experiments.

  1. Solid-state microrefrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ullom, Joel N.

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A normal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) microrefrigerator in which a superconducting single crystal is both the substrate and the superconducting electrode of the NIS junction. The refrigerator consists of a large ultra-pure superconducting single crystal and a normal metal layer on top of the superconducting crystal, separated by a thin insulating layer. The superconducting crystal can be either cut from bulk material or grown as a thick epitaxial film. The large single superconducting crystal allows quasiparticles created in the superconducting crystal to easily diffuse away from the NIS junction through the lattice structure of the crystal to normal metal traps to prevent the quasiparticles from returning across the NIS junction. In comparison to thin film NIS refrigerators, the invention provides orders of magnitude larger cooling power than thin film microrefrigerators. The superconducting crystal can serve as the superconducting electrode for multiple NIS junctions to provide an array of microrefrigerators. The normal electrode can be extended and supported by microsupports to provide support and cooling of sensors or arrays of sensors.

  2. Reconstruction of nuclear charged fragment trajectories from a large gap sweeper magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Frank; A. Schiller; D. Bazin; W. A. Peters; M. Thoennessen

    2007-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method to reconstruct charged fragment four-momentum vectors from measured trajectories behind an open, large gap, magnetic dispersion element (a sweeper magnet) has been developed. In addition to the position and angle behind the magnet it includes the position measurement in the dispersive direction at the target. The method improves the energy and angle resolution of the reconstruction significantly for experiments with fast rare isotopes, where the beam size at the target position is large.

  3. Asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R. K.; Fernandez, P. B.; Mills, D. M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Graber, T. J. [Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator was constructed and tested in 1997 at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. The monochromator was originally designed as a high heat load monochromator capable of handling 5-10 kW beams from a wiggler source. This was accomplished by spreading the x-ray beam out on the surface an asymmetric-cut crystal and by using liquid metal cooling of the first crystal. The monochromator turned out to be a highly versatile monochromator that could perform many different types of experiments. The monochromator consisted of two 18 deg. asymmetrically cut Si crystals that could be rotated about 3 independent axes. The first stage ({Phi}) rotates the crystal around an axis perpendicular to the diffraction plane. This rotation changes the angle of the incident beam with the surface of the crystal without changing the Bragg angle. The second rotation ({Psi}) is perpendicular to the first and is used to control the shape of the beam footprint on the crystal. The third rotation ({Theta}) controls the Bragg angle. Besides the high heat load application, the use of asymmetrically cut crystals allows one to increase or decrease the acceptance angle for crystal diffraction of a monochromatic x-ray beam and allows one to increase or decrease the wavelength bandwidth of the diffraction of a continuum source like a bending-magnet beam or a normal x-ray-tube source. When the monochromator is used in the doubly expanding mode, it is possible to expand the vertical size of the double-diffracted beam by a factor of 10-15. When this was combined with a bending magnet source, it was possible to generate an 8 keV area beam, 16 mm wide by 26 mm high with a uniform intensity and parallel to 1.2 arc sec that could be applied in imaging experiments.

  4. A new method to estimate local pitch angles in spiral galaxies: Application to spiral arms and feathers in M81 and M51

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puerari, Ivânio [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro 1, 72840 Santa María Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Block, David L., E-mail: puerari@inaoep.mx [School of Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS 2050 (South Africa)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine 8 ?m IRAC images of the grand design two-arm spiral galaxies M81 and M51 using a new method whereby pitch angles are locally determined as a function of scale and position, in contrast to traditional Fourier transform spectral analyses which fit to average pitch angles for whole galaxies. The new analysis is based on a correlation between pieces of a galaxy in circular windows of (lnR,?) space and logarithmic spirals with various pitch angles. The diameter of the windows is varied to study different scales. The result is a best-fit pitch angle to the spiral structure as a function of position and scale, or a distribution function of pitch angles as a function of scale for a given galactic region or area. We apply the method to determine the distribution of pitch angles in the arm and interarm regions of these two galaxies. In the arms, the method reproduces the known pitch angles for the main spirals on a large scale, but also shows higher pitch angles on smaller scales resulting from dust feathers. For the interarms, there is a broad distribution of pitch angles representing the continuation and evolution of the spiral arm feathers as the flow moves into the interarm regions. Our method shows a multiplicity of spiral structures on different scales, as expected from gas flow processes in a gravitating, turbulent and shearing interstellar medium. We also present results for M81 using classical 1D and 2D Fourier transforms, together with a new correlation method, which shows good agreement with conventional 2D Fourier transforms.

  5. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Charged Carboxyl-Terminated Dendrimers in Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubin, Paul D.

    Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Charged Carboxyl-Terminated Dendrimers in Solutions Q. R-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize the solution behavior of charged carboxylic acid terminated- copy,16 small-angle X-ray scattering,17 and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),18-25 have been used

  6. An Electrothermally-Actuated, Dual-Mode Micromirror for Large Bi-Directional Scanning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    An Electrothermally-Actuated, Dual-Mode Micromirror for Large Bi-Directional Scanning Ankur Jain-crystal-silicon (SCS)-based micromirror that can perform large bi-directional scans and can also generate large piston scan angle) at its resonance of 2.4 kHz. A maximum vertical piston motion of 200 µm is also achieved

  7. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  8. Municipal Solid Waste in The United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    2007 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-08-010 November 2008 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID ............................................................................................................................... 1 WHAT IS INCLUDED IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

  9. Municipal Solid Waste in The United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barlaz, Morton A.

    2011 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-13-001 May 2013 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2011 FACTS AND FIGURES Table of Contents Chapter Page MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

  10. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  11. Electron localization in solid acetonitrile.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkrob, I. A.; Takeda, K.; Williams, F.; Chemistry; Univ. of Tennessee

    2002-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron localization in the bulk condensed phases of acetonitrile differs drastically from the corresponding processes that take place in water and aliphatic alcohols. In particular, electron capture following the ionization of liquid and solid acetonitrile yields well-defined radical anions in place of the largely structureless solvated and trapped electrons characteristic of irradiated solutions and rigid glasses. This is remarkable given the many similarities that exist not only between the intrinsic properties of these individual solvent molecules, such as polarity, but also in their cooperative capacity to function as solvents. Here, with the aid of detailed experimental and computational studies, we examine on a fundamental level what gives rise to such a sharp contrast in the behavior of these alkyl cyanides as compared to water and alcohols. EPR and optical spectra, and ab initio calculations on the radical anions are used together with diffraction data for the crystal structures to demonstrate that electron attachment to nitrile molecules in the crystalline state results in a significant bending of the linear CCN moiety. Moreover, in the formation of the dimer anions, which only takes place in certain crystalline phases, it is determined that the intermolecular bonding occurs between the cyanide carbons in an antiparallel arrangement. A staggered structure for the dimer anion in {alpha}-acetonitrile is then suggested, in which there is a nearly coplanar arrangement with the two bent CCN fragments. The resulting structure accounts for the observed EPR parameters, the position of the UV-vis absorption band, and the trends observed in the vibronic progressions for the four H/D isotopomers. The dimer radical anion in a-acetonitrile retains the same orientation and symmetry as that of the preexisting neutral {l_brace}CH{sub 3}CN{r_brace}{sub 2} pairs in this crystal despite the resulting changes in molecular geometry and in the translational coordinates for the cyanide carbons as the two acetonitrile molecules come together. We suggest that dimer anions of nitriles can form only in the phases where such 'antiparallel' pairs occur, including liquid systems; otherwise, the electron remains attached to a single molecule, as in {beta}-acetonitrile. Because electron capture by water or alcohol molecules in the condensed phase appears to require larger molecular clusters, the contrast between the behavior of these solvents and acetonitrile is attributable to the relative ease with which acetonitrile molecules in the crystal or solvent can undergo valence-electron attachment via their accessible low-lying {pi}* orbitals.

  12. The expected anisotropy in solid inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicola Bartolo; Marco Peloso; Angelo Ricciardone; Caner Unal

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid inflation is an effective field theory of inflation in which isotropy and homogeneity are accomplished via a specific combination of anisotropic sources (three scalar fields that individually break isotropy). This results in specific observational signatures that are not found in standard models of inflation: a non-trivial angular dependence for the squeezed bispectrum, and a possibly long period of anisotropic inflation (to drive inflation, the "solid" must be very insensitive to any deformation, and thus background anisotropies are very slowly erased). In this paper we compute the expected level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations of this model. To do so, we account for the classical background values of the three scalar fields that are generated on large (superhorizon) scales during inflation via a random walk sum, as the perturbation modes leave the horizon. Such an anisotropy is unavoidably generated, even starting from perfectly isotropic classical initial conditions. The expected level of anisotropy is related to the duration of inflation and to the amplitude of the squeezed bispectrum. If this amplitude is close to its current observational limit (so that one of the most interesting predictions of the model can be observed in the near future), we find that a level of statistical anisotropy $\\gtrsim 3\\%$ in the power spectrum is to be expected, if inflation lasted $\\gtrsim 20-30$ e-folds more than the final $50-60$ efolds required to generare the CMB modes. We also comment and point out various similarities between solid inflation and models of inflation where a suitable coupling of the inflaton to a vector kinetic term $F^{2}$ gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations on superhorizon scales.

  13. ANGLE-RESOLVED PHOTOEMISSION STUDIES OF Ag, Au, AND Pt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.F.; Mills, K.A.; Thornton, G.; Kevan, S.D.; Shirley, D.A.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An important question regarding the technique of angle-resolved photoemission (ARP) is the extent to which it can be used to determine experimental valence-band dispersion relations E{sub i}({rvec k}) for single crystalline solids. In the case of the 3d and 4d transition metals, studies of copper, nickel, palladium, and silver, show that a model based on the assumption of direct interband transitions (direct-transition model) may be used, in conjunction with an appropriate final-state dispersion relation E{sub f}({rvec k}), to elucidate E{sub i}({rvec k}) for these materials along several high symmetry lines (primarily {Gamma}{Lambda}L) in k-space. To answer this question more generally, we have undertaken an extensive study of the valence band structures of other transition metals along various k-space lines. To date, studies have been extended to the (111) faces of the 5d metals Pt and Au along with the Pt(100) ((5 x 20) surface structure) face, and the (110) and (100) faces of Ag. The experiments were all conducted at SSRL, using synchrotron radiation in the range 6 eV < h{nu} < 34 eV. The results of these studies, combined with our previous Ag(111) work at these energies, allow us to invoke important conclusions concerning the relationships between ARP data, E{sub i}({rvec k}) and E{sub f}({rvec k}) for these materials. Several are summarized. For each crystal face investigated, the direct-transition model, along with a simple quasi-free-electron E{sub f}({rvec k}), was sufficient to determine experimental E{sub i}({rvec k}) relations along the appropriate k-space line that were in general agreement with theoretical RAPW band structure calculations. Essentially, we required E{sub f}({rvec k}) to be of the form (h{sup 2}/2m*)|{rvec k} + {rvec G}|{sup 2} + V{sub o}, where {rvec G} is a reciprocal lattice vector, fitting this relation to the appropriate calculated bulk conduction band near the center of the line under investigation, with the inner potential V{sub o} and the reduced mass m* as free parameters. An additional shift of V{sub o} was necessary for Ag(110) and Pt(100) data, to obtain better agreement with theoretical bands. While generally excellent agreement between experimental and theoretical bands was found for Ag, as was the case for other 3d and 4d metals, substantial disagreement was observed for Pt and Au in parts of the Brillouin zone. This is probably an indication that further theoretical work is needed for these more complicated elements. The agreement in Ag is illustrated by Fig. 1, where experimental and theoretical bands are compared for all three high-symmetry directions. The determinations of E{sub i}({rvec k}) for the {Lambda} directions were relatively simple because peaks in the ARP spectra of (111) faces were essentially all attributable to primary direct transition. However, the {Sigma}, {Sigma}{prime}, and {Delta} directions were complicated by secondary emission peaks and dispersionless density-of-states (DOS) features in the spectra of the (100) and (110) faces. Peak intensity resonances associated with the bulk conduction band structure near {Lambda} were observed for each crystal face, and these simplified the assignment of peaks in the ARP spectra. The relationship between these resonances, which appear to be rather general phenomena, and E{sub f}({rvec k}), will be discussed. In summary, it is clear from these and other studies that the ARP technique, in conjunction with the direct-transition model, is generally applicable to valence band mapping in single crystals, provided that a suitable final-state dispersion relation can be calculated. However, complications like those observed in the ARP spectra of Ag, Pt, and Au may make the determination of E{sub i}({rvec k}) relations considerably more difficult for more complicated systems.

  14. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Dean J. (Darien, IL); Field, Michael B. (Jersey City, NJ)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  15. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  16. Methods for magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jian Zhi (Richland, WA); Wind, Robert A. (Kennewick, WA); Minard, Kevin R. (Kennewick, WA); Majors, Paul D. (Kennewick, WA)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object are disclosed that include placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. In particular embodiments the method includes pulsing the radio frequency to provide at least two of a spatially selective read pulse, a spatially selective phase pulse, and a spatially selective storage pulse. Further disclosed methods provide pulse sequences that provide extended imaging capabilities, such as chemical shift imaging or multiple-voxel data acquisition.

  17. Radiation damage studies using small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albertini, G.; Rustichelli, F. [INFM, Ancona (Italy); Carsughi, F. [INFM, Ancona (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Fisiche; [KFA, Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperforschung; Coppola, R. [ENEA-Casaccia, Roma (Italy); Stefanon, M. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution reviews a number of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of irradiated metals and steels of relevance to fission and fusion technology. Information obtainable by SANS measurements is recalled with special reference to the determination of the size distribution function of the microstructural inhomogeneities. The selected examples concern studies of the main kinds of radiation defects: voids, precipitates, He-bubbles. Some recent results obtained on structural materials for the first-wall of fusion reactors are also presented.

  18. BEHAVIOUR AND DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL ANGLES by Dimos Polyzoisl, A. M. ASCE, and Sami Rizkalla2, F. ASCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an attractive alternative to the traditional hot-rolled angles in the construction of transmission and hydro-electric towers. The major advantage in using cold-fonned steel is the savings associated with the cost-electric towers, for examples. are subject to large temperature fluctuations which could effect the performance

  19. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Heinemann; Karol Palczynski; Joachim Dzubiella; Sabine H. L. Klapp

    2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van-der-Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  20. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has been a renewed interest in high-average-power solid-state glass lasers. Much of the prime power technology developed in support of this has definite applications in the long term for fusion power plant scenarios.

  1. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  2. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turnbull, Robert J. (Urbana, IL); Foster, Christopher A. (Champaign, IL); Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  3. TRANSITION PATH SAMPLING STUDIES OF SOLID-SOLID TRANSFORMATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruenwald, Michael

    isomerizations, or transport processes in solids, are characterized by widely disparate timescales. While. Many processes occurring in nature and technology such as the folding of a protein or the transport the freezing point, can remain in this supercooled state for hours or even days. Thus, the time scale

  4. Tensor analyzing powers in forward angle exclusive $\\pi$-meson photoproduction on deuteron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loginov, A Y; Sidorov, A A; Stibunov, V N

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The target tensor analyzing powers of the process $\\gamma d -> \\pi^{-}pp$ had been studied in the plane wave impulse approximation, if both ejected protons are detected in coincidence and in the directions, symmetrical respect to the incoming photon momentum, being in the proton plane. The matrix elements of the studied reaction become essentially simple, if the magnitudes of the proton momenta p1 = p2 = p are equal. That proton kinematics keeps the ejected pion angle near zero, therefore the one body pion production operator does not include the spin-non-flip term. Moreover, the transition to the triplet, spatially antisymmetric final pp- state is strongly suppressed from the symmetrical deuteron S - state as well as matrix elements have a large dependence from the orientation of the deuteron spin. The values of the $T_{22}(\\vec p)$ component, calculated with three realistic deuteron wave functions in the proton momentum region p >= 350 MeV/c and proton polar angle theta >= 40 deg., differ one from another n...

  5. SASfit: A comprehensive tool for small-angle scattering data analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breßler, Ingo; Thünemann, Andreas F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering experiments are used in many fields of the life sciences and condensed matter research to obtain answers to questions about the shape and size of nano-sized structures, typically in the range of 1 to 100 nm. It provides good statistics for large numbers of structural units for short measurement times. With the ever-increasing quantity and quality of data acquisition, the value of appropriate tools that are able to extract valuable information is steadily increasing. SASfit has been one of the mature programs for small-angle scattering data analysis available for many years. We describe the basic data processing and analysis work-flow along with recent developments in the SASfit program package (version 0.94.6). They include (i) advanced algorithms for reduction of oversampled data sets (ii) improved confidence assessment in the optimized model parameters and (iii) a flexible plug-in system for custom user-provided models. A scattering function of a mass fractal model o...

  6. Advanced slow-magic angle spinning probe for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi; Minard, Kevin R.; Rommereim, Donald N.

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a probe and processes useful for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy instruments. More particularly, the invention relates to a MR probe and processes for obtaining resolution enhancements of fluid objects, including live specimens, using an ultra-slow (magic angle) spinning (MAS) of the specimen combined with a modified phase-corrected magic angle turning (PHORMAT) pulse sequence. Proton NMR spectra were measured of the torso and the top part of the belly of a female BALBc mouse in a 2T field, while spinning the animal at a speed of 1.5 Hz. Results show that even in this relatively low field with PHORMAT, an isotropic spectrum is obtained with line widths that are a factor 4.6 smaller than those obtained in a stationary mouse. Resolution of 1H NMR metabolite spectra are thus significantly enhanced. Results indicate that PHORMAT has the potential to significantly increase the utility of 1H NMR spectroscopy for in vivo biochemical, biomedical and/or medical applications involving large-sized biological objects such as mice, rats and even humans within a hospital setting. For small-sized objects, including biological objects, such as excised tissues, organs, live bacterial cells, and biofilms, use of PASS at a spinning rate of 30 Hz and above is preferred.

  7. Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to all solid wastes with the exception of hazardous or radioactive waste. Proposed solid waste processing facilities are required to obtain permits prior to construction,...

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  10. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  11. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  12. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Hawkins, Daniel B. (Fairbanks, AK); Renschler, Clifford L. (Tijeras, NM); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  13. Energetic deposition of metal ions: Observation of self-sputtering and limited sticking for off-normal angles of incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hongchen; Anders, Andre

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The deposition of films under normal and off-normal angle of incidence has been investigated to show the relevance of non-sticking of and self-sputtering by energetic ions, leading to the formation of neutral atoms. The flow of energetic ions was obtained using a filtered cathodic arc system in high vacuum and therefore the ion flux had a broad energy distribution of typically 50-100 eV per ion. The range of materials included Cu, Ag, Au, Ti, and Ni. Consistent with molecular dynamics simulations published in the literature, the experiments show, for all materials, that the combined effects of non-sticking and self-sputtering are very significant, especially for large off-normal angles. Modest heating and intentional introduction of oxygen background affect the results.

  14. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering study of solubilization of tributyl phosphate in aqueous solutions of L64 Pluronic triblock copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeremy Causse; Julian Oberdisse; Jacques Jestin; Serge Lagerge

    2010-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the solubilization behaviour of tributylphosphate (TBP) in aqueous solutions of L64-Pluronics, using light and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Varying the temperature and the oil-content, the system presents a non trivial phase behaviour. In particular, at 308K, a first solubilization followed by an emulsification failure and a resolubilization is found. We have measured the microstructure by SANS and characterized the microemulsion droplet core-size, corona-thickness, polydispersity, and interactions. It is shown that at low oil content, the system is made of small swollen micelles. After the phase separation, the resolubilization is carried by larger oil droplets decorated by copolymer. From specific surface measurements at large angles, a surprising change in surfactant conformation is found to accompany this morphological evolution which is also supported by previous results obtained from 1H NMR experiments. In independent measurements, our structural modelling is confirmed using contrast-variation SANS.

  15. On Radical Ph-Solution of Number 3 Puzzle and Universal Pattern of SM Large Hierarchies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. M. Lipmanov

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we suggest a novel though strange flavor physics idea of dual flavor-geometric nature of neutrino and color quark mixing angles. Success of this idea in considered phenomenology is possible because of the definitive three dimensions of the macroscopic space. At the one hand there are three different elementary particle mixing angles in charged current weak interactions. At the other hand the three angles presents one geometric object that can be visualized at nonrelativistic approximation as a mixing vector with three obeying Pythagorean equation direction angles in the outer euclidean space. The second aspect provides a radical solution to the old fundamental puzzles of equal numbers of particle mixing angles, flavors, colors and dimensions of outer space. Many topical problems of neutrino mixing phenomenology get elucidated by the inferred new Pythagorean equation already at leading basic benchmark approximation without tuning parameters in agreement with data. In particular two large and one small neutrino angles are a direct reflection of macroscopic space euclidean metric. interesting conformable parametrizations with one small empirical parameter determine all six realistic quark and neutrino mixing angles in noticeable agreement with data. Based on the Pythagorean equation semi empirical phenomenology of neutrino mixing angles is further generalized to all SM large flavor hierarchies by the definition of charged lepton and up and down-quark mass hierarchy bimaximal benchmark pattern. Simple, realistic small deviations from that benchmark are considered. As conclusion, the pattern three hierarchy angles - two large and one small is of general nature for all SM large flavor hierarchies.

  16. Independent measurement of the neutrino mixing angle ?13 via neutron capture on hydrogen at Daya Bay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaffe D. E.; Jaffe, D.E., et al. Daya Bay Collaboration

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new measurement of the ?13 mixing angle has been obtained at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment via the detection of inverse beta decays tagged by neutron capture on hydrogen. The antineutrino events for hydrogen capture are distinct from those for gadolinium capture with largely different systematic uncertainties, allowing a determination independent of the gadolinium-capture result and an improvement on the precision of the ?13 measurement. With a 217-day antineutrino data set obtained with six antineutrino detectors and from six 2.9 GWth reactors, the rate deficit observed at the far hall is interpreted as sin22?13=0.083±0.018 in the three-flavor oscillationmore »model. When combined with the gadolinium-capture result from Daya Bay, we obtain sin22?13=0.089±0.008 as the final result for the six-antineutrino-detector configuration of the Daya Bay experiment.« less

  17. Independent measurement of the neutrino mixing angle ?13 via neutron capture on hydrogen at Daya Bay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaffe D. E.; Jaffe, D.E., et al. Daya Bay Collaboration

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new measurement of the ?13 mixing angle has been obtained at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment via the detection of inverse beta decays tagged by neutron capture on hydrogen. The antineutrino events for hydrogen capture are distinct from those for gadolinium capture with largely different systematic uncertainties, allowing a determination independent of the gadolinium-capture result and an improvement on the precision of the ?13 measurement. With a 217-day antineutrino data set obtained with six antineutrino detectors and from six 2.9 GWth reactors, the rate deficit observed at the far hall is interpreted as sin22?13=0.083±0.018 in the three-flavor oscillation model. When combined with the gadolinium-capture result from Daya Bay, we obtain sin22?13=0.089±0.008 as the final result for the six-antineutrino-detector configuration of the Daya Bay experiment.

  18. In situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental Q. Jeangros1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    , Denmark Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are efficient devices for the electrochemical conversion of a largeIn situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental TEM Q phase can occur during SOFC stack operation due to air leakage through the sealing, leakage of fuel

  19. Solid Waste Assessment Fee Exemptions (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A person who owns, operates, or leases an approved solid waste disposal facility is exempt from the payment of solid waste assessment fees, upon the receipt of a Certificate of Exemption from the...

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R Reserved. 3 The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry #12;Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems. All Rights

  1. Solid waste education in children's museums

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Jennifer Campbell

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid waste education in museum environments is an increasingly popular educational tool; however, no documents exist detailing the specifics of such educational approaches. A study was therefore conducted to identify and describe solid waste...

  2. Solid Waste Resource Recovery Financing Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The State of Texas encourages the processing of solid waste for the purpose of extracting, converting to energy, or otherwise separating and preparing solid waste for reuse. This Act provides for...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid-State Lighting InAs Quantum Dot Transitions On April 5, 2011, in EC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, News, Solid-State Lighting March 1, 2011singlepic id364 w320 h240...

  4. Solid Waste Reduction, Recovery, and Recycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute expresses the strong support of the State of Wisconsin for the reduction of the amount of solid waste generated, the reuse, recycling and composting of solid waste, and resource...

  5. Gaines County Solid Waste Management Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act establishes the Gaines County Solid Waste Management District, a governmental body to develop and carry out a regional water quality protection program through solid waste management and...

  6. Material loss angles from direct measurements of broadband thermal noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Principe, Maria; Pierro, Vincenzo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Taurasi, Ilaria; Villar, Akira E; Black, Eric D; Libbrecht, Kenneth G; Michel, Christophe; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate the loss angles of the materials currently used in the highly reflective test-mass coatings of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, namely Silica, Tantala, and Ti-dop ed Tantala, from direct measurement of coating thermal noise in an optical interferometer testbench, the Caltech TNI. We also present a simple predictive theory for the material properties of amorphous glassy oxide mixtures, which gives results in good agreement with our measurements on Ti-doped Tantala. Alternative measure ment methods and results are reviewed, and some critical issues are discussed.

  7. Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells More Documents & Publications Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power System...

  8. Sandia Energy - Solid-State Lighting Technology: Current State...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid-State Lighting Technology: Current State of the Art and Grand Challenges Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Overview Solid-State Lighting...

  9. Investigating the angle or response and maximum stability of a cohesive granular pile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Sara Alice, 1982-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I investigate the static and dynamic properties of a granular heap made cohesive by an interstitial fluid. I present the results of experimental work measuring the maximum angle of stability and the angle ...

  10. In Situ 13C and 23Na Magic Angle Spinning NMR Investigation of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ 13C and 23Na Magic Angle Spinning NMR Investigation of Supercritical CO2 Incorporation in Smectite-Natural Organic In Situ 13C and 23Na Magic Angle Spinning NMR...

  11. Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse Silanized Surfaces and Relationship to Fluid Interfacial Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse...

  12. Solid Waste and Infectious Waste Regulations (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency establishes the rules and regulations regarding solid waste.

  13. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  14. REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø National Laboratory The reversibility of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), i.e. that they could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser at a cell voltage of 1.48 V, which is the overall thermo-neutral voltage. Assuming an electricity cost of 3

  15. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  16. Solid Waste Diversion Plan Fallen Star, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluwihare, Lihini

    Solid Waste Diversion Plan DO HO DUH Fallen Star, 2012 Stuart Collection UC San Diego Updated July 2012 Prepared by: Facilities Management #12;UC San Diego Solid Waste Diversion Plan Table of Contents Overview Location and Areas Covered Recycling and Solid Waste Management Contact Campus/Medical Center

  17. Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes Preparatory thesis Randi Skytte Pedersen is to investigate Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes with respect to particle sizes, structures and composition with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant M°abjergværket, Holstebro. MSW

  18. Accurate measurements of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr., E-mail: ncn@inano.au.dk [Center for Insoluble Protein Structures (inSPIN), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Khaneja, Navin [Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of sets of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl ({sup 13}C?) and aliphatic ({sup 13}C{sub aliphatic}) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of {sup 13}C?-{sup 13}C{sub aliphatic} distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

  19. Stimulated Raman scattering in large plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillion, D.W.; Banner, D.L.

    1980-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Stimulated Raman scattering is of concern to laser fusion since it can create a hot electron environment which can increase the difficulty of achieving high final fuel densities. In earlier experiments with one micron laser light, the energy measured in Raman-scattered light has been insignificant. But these experiments were done with, at most, about 100 joules of laser energy. The Raman instability has a high threshold which also requires a large plasma to be irradiated with a large diameter spot. Only with a long interaction length can the Raman-scattered light wave convectively grow to a large amplitude, and only in recent long pulse, high energy experiments (4000 joules in 2 ns) at the Shiva laser facility have we observed as much as several percent of the laser light to be Raman-scattered. We find that the Raman instability has a much lower intensity threshold for longer laser pulselength and larger laser spot size on a solid target.

  20. Flat Lens Criterion by Small-Angle Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ott, Peter; Lezec, Henri J; Chau, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that a classical imaging criterion based on angular dependence of small-angle phase can be applied to any system composed of planar, uniform media to determine if it is a flat lens capable of forming a real paraxial image and to estimate the image location. The real paraxial image location obtained by this method shows agreement with past demonstrations of far-field flat-lens imaging and can even predict the location of super-resolved images in the near-field. The generality of this criterion leads to several new predictions: flat lenses for transverse-electric polarization using dielectric layers, a broadband flat lens working across the ultraviolet-visible spectrum, and a flat lens configuration with an image plane located up to several wavelengths from the exit surface. These predictions are supported by full-wave simulations. Our work shows that small-angle phase can be used as a generic metric to categorize and design flat lenses.

  1. Hydrophilic property by contact angle change of ion implanted polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chan Young; Kil, Jae Keun [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); R and D Team, Accel Korea, 146-1 Pyeongchon-dong Daeduck-gu Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, ion implantation was performed onto a polymer, polycarbonate (PC), in order to investigate surface hydrophilic property through contact angle measurement. PC was irradiated with N, Ar, and Xe ions at the irradiation energy of 20-50 keV and the dose range of 5x10{sup 15}, 1x10{sup 16}, 7x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The contact angle of water was estimated by means of the sessile drop method and was reduced with increasing fluence and ion mass but increased with increasing implanted energy. The changes of chemical and structural properties are discussed in view of Furier transform infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which shows increasing C-O bonding and C-C bonding. The surface roughness examined by atomic force microscopy measurement changed smoothly from 3.59 to 2.22 A as the fluence increased. It is concluded that the change in wettability may be caused by surface carbonization and oxidation as well as surface roughness.

  2. G$^0$ Electronics and Data Acquisition (Forward-Angle Measurements)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Marchand; J. Arvieux; L. Bimbot; A. Biselli; J. Bouvier; H. Breuer; R. Clark; J. -C. Cuzon; M. Engrand; R. Foglio; C. Furget; X. Grave; B. Guillon; H. Guler; P. M. King; S. Kox; J. Kuhn; Y. Ky; J. Lachniet; J. Lenoble; E. Liatard; J. Liu; E. Munoz; J. Pouxe; G. Quéméner; B. Quinn; J. -S. Réal; O. Rossetto; R. Sellem

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The G$^0$ parity-violation experiment at Jefferson Lab (Newport News, VA) is designed to determine the contribution of strange/anti-strange quark pairs to the intrinsic properties of the proton. In the forward-angle part of the experiment, the asymmetry in the cross section was measured for $\\vec{e}p$ elastic scattering by counting the recoil protons corresponding to the two beam-helicity states. Due to the high accuracy required on the asymmetry, the G$^0$ experiment was based on a custom experimental setup with its own associated electronics and data acquisition (DAQ) system. Highly specialized time-encoding electronics provided time-of-flight spectra for each detector for each helicity state. More conventional electronics was used for monitoring (mainly FastBus). The time-encoding electronics and the DAQ system have been designed to handle events at a mean rate of 2 MHz per detector with low deadtime and to minimize helicity-correlated systematic errors. In this paper, we outline the general architecture and the main features of the electronics and the DAQ system dedicated to G$^0$ forward-angle measurements.

  3. The Provision of IP Crossing Angles for the SSC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritson, David M

    2003-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Luminosity is to be produced at the SSC collider by crossing with finite angle the counter circulating proton beams at each interaction point (IP). Such a crossing angle introduces unwanted dispersion in the high beta triplet quadrupoles adjacent to the IPs which must be corrected out. they propose to produce variable crossing conditions at each IP with local steering dipoles adjusted to give required slopes and displacements for each IP. The anomalous dispersion introduced by these orbit displacements will be corrected in the arcs (dispersive region) just prior to entry and exit into the IRs with opposite polarity quadrupole pairs separated by 90{sup o} in phase, a late correction scheme. Such pairs cause minimal change to the betatron functions but produce dispersion that can be set to cancel the anomalous dispersion. The IR design is such that the phase advance between correctors and the IP triplet gives efficient full local anomalous dispersion cancellation. The proposed system is to be formed from standard SSC corrector elements and will provide the range of crossing conditions required for collision optics and for separating the beams at injection.

  4. Incoherent photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons off nuclei at forward angles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gevorgyan, Sergey [JINR; Gasparian, Ashot H. [North Carolina Ag. and Tech. St. U; Gan, Liping [University of North Carolina at Wilmington; Larin, Ilya F. [ITEP, Moscow; Khandaker, Mahbubul A. [Idaho State U

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in the photon tagging facilities together with the novel, high-resolution fast calorimetry make it possible to perform photoproduction cross section measurements of pseudoscalar mesons on nuclei with a percent level accuracy. The extraction of the radiative decay widths, needed for testing the symmetry breaking effects in QCD, from these measurements at small angles is done by the Primakoff method. This method requires theoretical treatment of all processes participating in these reactions at the same percent level. The most updated description of general processes, including the nuclear coherent amplitude, is done in our previous paper. In this work, in the framework of the Glauber multiple scattering theory, we obtain analytical expressions for the incoherent cross section of the photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons off nuclei accounting for the mesons absorption in nuclei and the Pauli suppression at forward production angles. As illustrations of the obtained formulas, we calculate the incoherent cross section for photoproduction from a closed shell nucleus, {sup 16}O, and from an unclosed shell nucleus, {sup 12}C. These calculations allow one to compare different approaches and estimate their impact on the incoherent cross section of the processes under consideration.

  5. Incoherent photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons off nuclei at forward angles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Gevorkyan; A. Gasparian; L. Gan; I. Larin; M. Khandaker

    2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in the photon tagging facilities together with the novel, high resolution fast calorimetry made possible to perform photoproduction cross section measurements of pseudoscalar mesons on nuclei with a percent level accuracy. The extraction of the radiative decay widths, needed for testing the symmetry breaking effects in QCD, from these measurements at small angles is done by the Primakoff method. This method requires theoretical treatment of all processes participating in these reactions at the same percent level. The most updated description of general processes, including the nuclear coherent amplitude, is done in our previous paper. In this work, based on the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory, we obtain analytical expressions for the incoherent cross section of the photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons off nuclei accounting for the mesons absorption in nuclei and Pauli suppression at forward production angles. As illustrations of the obtained formulas, we calculate the incoherent cross section for photoproduction from a closed shell nucleus, 16^O, and from an unclosed shell nucleus, 12^C. These calculations allow one to compare different approaches and estimate their impact on the incoherent cross section of the processes under consideration.

  6. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard (Salt Lake City, UT); Taylor, Dale M. (Murray, UT)

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  7. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have synthesized a new series of brownmillerite solid electrolyte phases Ba{sub 2}GdIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 5} (x = 0,0.2,0.4) with the x = 0.2 phase exhibiting an unusually low E. relative to both the observed ionic conductivity in this phase and to E{sub a}s observed in similar compounds. We attribute measured ionic conductivities to a lack of available charge carriers in Ba{sub 2}GdIn{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}O{sub 5}. However, the low E{sub a} supports the premise that brownmillerite solid electrolyte structures are suitable for supporting high ionic conductivity. Current work is focusing on enhancing the amount of charge carriers in these materials by systematically introducing disorder into the brownmillerite lattice.

  8. Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities Arun to minimize public health and environmental impacts. Landfilling is the process by which residual solid waste is placed in a landfill. #12;Case in Supreme Court · Pathetic condition of Solid waste practices in India

  9. A Model and Numerical Framework for the Simulation of Solid-Solid Phase Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee, Sanjay

    A Model and Numerical Framework for the Simulation of Solid-Solid Phase Transformations Garrett J computational realization for the simulation of solid-solid phase transformations of the type observed in shape physical experiments and is indicative of the power of the proposed modelling methodology. In particular

  10. Rotation Angle for the Optimum Tracking of One-Axis Trackers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, W. F.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An equation for the rotation angle for optimum tracking of one-axis trackers is derived along with equations giving the relationships between the rotation angle and the surface tilt and azimuth angles. These equations are useful for improved modeling of the solar radiation available to a collector with tracking constraints and for determining the appropriate motor revolutions for optimum tracking.

  11. UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA INVESTIGATION OF HOW ANGLE OF ATTACK AFFECTS ROTOR SPEED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belanger, David P.

    -pitch blades is tested in UCSC's wind tunnel. The turbine is used to test how varying the blade angle affects the turbine's rotational speed at different wind speeds. The data are used to determine how the blade angle 27 Appendix A Wind Turbine Data 29 Appendix B Converting Blade Pitch to Needle Angle 33 Appendix C

  12. A new method for analyzing collimation angle of neutron Soller collimator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Bo Gao; Yun-Tao Liu; Dong-Feng Chen

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for analyzing collimation angle of neutron Soller collimator is described. Gaussian distribution formula is used to define the angle distribution function of neutron source and neutron transmission function of Soller collimator. A relationship between FWHM of collimator rocking curve and collimation angle is derived.

  13. A new method for analyzing collimation angle of neutron Soller collimator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jian-Bo; Chen, Dong-Feng

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for analyzing collimation angle of neutron Soller collimator is described. Gaussian distribution formula is used to define the angle distribution function of neutron source and neutron transmission function of Soller collimator. A relationship between FWHM of collimator rocking curve and collimation angle is derived.

  14. hal-00154048,version1-12Jun2007 The new very small angle neutron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    hal-00154048,version1-12Jun2007 The new very small angle neutron scattering spectrometer The design and characteristics of the new very small angle neutron scattering spectrometer under construction in order to fill the gap between light scattering and classical small angle neutron scattering (SANS

  15. Conceptual Design of a Large, Passive Pressure-Tube Light Water Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hejzlar, P.

    A design for a large, passive, light water reactor has been developed. The proposed concept is a pressure tube reactor of similar design to CANDU reactors, but differing in three key aspects. First, a solid SiC-coated ...

  16. Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    INL's patented, continuous-flow Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) produces the highest ASTM-quality B-100 biodiesel from waste fats, oils, and greases at the site of waste generation. SSC delivers low-cost transportation fuel, avoids significant landfill costs for municipalities, and reduces potent methane and other emissions produced in landfills from these wastes. You can learn more about INL's energy research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  17. Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INL's patented, continuous-flow Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) produces the highest ASTM-quality B-100 biodiesel from waste fats, oils, and greases at the site of waste generation. SSC delivers low-cost transportation fuel, avoids significant landfill costs for municipalities, and reduces potent methane and other emissions produced in landfills from these wastes. You can learn more about INL's energy research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Y [NETL

    2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported in this presentation was establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO{sub 2} solid sorbents and provide guidelines to the experimentalists. Our methodology can predict thermodynamic properties of solid materials and their CO{sub 2} capture reactions. Single solid may not satisfy the industrial operating conditions as CO{sub 2} sorbent, however, by mixing two or more solids, the new formed solid may satisfy the industrial needs. By exploring series of lithium silicates with different Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio, we found that with decreasing Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio the corresponding silicate has a lower turnover temperature and vice versa. Compared to pure MgO, the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3} promoted MgO sorbent has a higher turnover T. These results provide guidelines to synthesize sorbent materials by mixing different solids with different ratio.

  19. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  20. Unique determination of the -CN group tilt angle in Langmuir monolayers using sum-frequency polarization null angle and phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Wang, Hongfei

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The relative phase and amplitude ratio between the ssp and ppp polarization combinations of the vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) response can be uniquely and accurately determined by the polarization null angle (PNA) method. In this report we show that PNA measurements of the -CN vibration in the 4-n pentyl-4'-cyanoterphenyl (5CT) Langmuir monolayer at the air/water interface yields ssp and ppp response of the same phase, while those in the 4-n-octyl-4'cyanobiphenyl (8CB) Langmuir monolayer have the opposite phase. Accordingly, the -CN group in the 5CT monolayer is tilted around 25+/-2 from the interface normal, while that in the 8CB is tilted around 57+/-2, consistent with the significant differences in the phase diagrams and hydrogen bonding SFG spectra of the two Langmuir monolayers as reported in the literature. These results also demonstrate that in SFG studies the relative phase information of the different polarization combinations, especially for the ssp and ppp, is important in the unique determination of the tilt angle and conformation of a molecular group at the interface.

  1. Silicon-integrated photonic circuit for a single-stage large-angle beam steering optical phased array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    are expected to be effectively utilized in modern radar and communication systems. These systems cover-space sections that imply inevitable diffraction and loss issues. Phase control systems [17] exploit-free steering, increased scan flexibility in two dimensions, precise elemental phase and amplitude control

  2. Constraining MODIS snow albedo at large solar zenith angles: Implications for the surface energy budget in Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xianwei; Zender, Charles S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surface albedo of the Greenland ice sheet: satellite-derivedand J. Box. 2001. Surface climatology of the Greenland IceSheet: Greenland climate net- work 1995-1999. J. Geophys.

  3. Finite ballooning angle effects on ion temperature gradient driven mode in gyrokinetic flux tube simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Rameswar, E-mail: rameswar.singh@lpp.polytechnique.fr [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India) [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India); Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Brunner, S. [CRPP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [CRPP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents effects of finite ballooning angles on linear ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven mode and associated heat and momentum flux in Gyrokinetic flux tube simulation GENE. It is found that zero ballooning angle is not always the one at which the linear growth rate is maximum. The ITG mode acquires a short wavelength (SW) branch (k{sub ?}?{sub i}?>?1) when growth rates maximized over all ballooning angles are considered. However, the SW branch disappears on reducing temperature gradient showing characteristics of zero ballooning angle SWITG in case of extremely high temperature gradient. Associated heat flux is even with respect to ballooning angle and maximizes at nonzero ballooning angle while the parallel momentum flux is odd with respect to the ballooning angle.

  4. IR OPTICS MEASUREMENT WITH LINEAR COUPLING'S ACTION-ANGLE PARAMETERIZATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LUO, Y.; BAI, M.; PILAT, R.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A parameterization of linear coupling in action-angle coordinates is convenient for analytical calculations and interpretation of turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. We demonstrate how to use this parameterization to extract the twiss and coupling parameters in interaction regions (IRs), using BPMs on each side of the long IR drift region. The example of TBT BPM analysis was acquired at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), using an AC dipole to excite a single eigenmode. Besides the full treatment, a fast estimate of beta*, the beta function at the interaction point (IP), is provided, along with the phase advance between these BPMs. We also calculate and measure the waist of the beta function and the local optics.

  5. Pattern Alteration: Large Abdomen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................................................................................................................. Basic Skirt 1. At the center front, draw a horizontal line at the point you determined above or approximately 3 inches (7.5 cm) below the waistline. It should be at a right angle to the center front and should extend to both side seamlines. 2. Draw a... vertical line through the center of the dart(s) to the horizontal line. If the pattern has no darts, draw a line from the waist seamline (about 3 inches in from the center front) to the horizontal line (Fig. 2). 3. Slash the horizontal line from...

  6. Rotor Design for High Pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Hoyt, David W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sears, Jesse A.; Loring, John S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a sample spinning rate exceeding 2.1 kHz and pressure greater than 165 bar has never been realized. In this work, a new sample cell design is reported, suitable for constructing cells of different sizes. Using a 7.5 mm high pressure MAS rotor as an example, internal pressure as high as 200 bar at a sample spinning rate of 6 kHz is achieved. The new high pressure MAS rotor is re-usable and compatible with most commercial NMR set-ups, exhibiting low 1H and 13C NMR background and offering maximal NMR sensitivity. As an example of its many possible applications, this new capability is applied to determine reaction products associated with the carbonation reaction of a natural mineral, antigorite ((Mg,Fe2+)3Si2O5(OH)4), in contact with liquid water in water-saturated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 150 bar and 50 deg C. This mineral is relevant to the deep geologic disposal of CO2, but its iron content results in too many sample spinning sidebands at low spinning rate. Hence, this chemical system is a good case study to demonstrate the utility of the higher sample spinning rates that can be achieved by our new rotor design. We expect this new capability will be useful for exploring solid-state, including interfacial, chemistry at new levels of high-pressure in a wide variety of fields.

  7. Experimental Methods to Estimate Accumulated Solids in Nuclear Waste Tanks - 13313

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, Mark R.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Steimke, John L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: - Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream. - Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel. - Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas. - Laser range finders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds. - Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. - Computer driven positioner that placed the laser range finders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These devices and techniques were very effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing plutonium and are expected to perform well at a larger scale. The operation of the techniques and their measurement accuracies will be discussed as well as the overall results of the accumulated solids test. (authors)

  8. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  9. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1990-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counter electrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films. 4 figs.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  12. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  13. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, Stuart F. (111 Downey St., Norwood, MA 02062); Rauh, R. David (111 Downey St., Norwood, MA 02062)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  14. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cogan, Stuart F. (Sudbury, MA); Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  15. Solid phase microextraction field kit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A field kit for the collection, isolation and concentration of trace amounts of high explosives (HE), biological weapons (BW) and chemical weapons (CW) residues in air, soil, vegetation, swipe, and liquid samples. The field kit includes a number of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) fiber and syringe assemblies in a hermetically sealed transportation container or tubes which includes a sampling port, a number of extra SPME fiber and syringe assemblies, the fiber and syringe assemblies including a protective cap for the fiber, and an extractor for the protective cap, along with other items including spare parts, protective glove, and an instruction manual, all located in an airtight container.

  16. NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLoveReferenceAgenda Workshop AgendaGraphic of aEnergyResearchSolid

  17. anomalous small angle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation ? 2% and 0.2% (wv) solutions in H2O and D2O ? Filtration through 0.2 ?m filters ? Large aggregates detected by DLS. ? Hydrodynamic radii of several hundred...

  18. Droplet destabilization during Bi catalyzed vapor-liquuid-solid growth of GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJarld, M., E-mail: mdejarld@umich.edu; Nothern, D.; Millunchick, J. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan 2300 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    GaAs nanodiscs are grown in a molecular beam epitaxy chamber via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism with liquid Bi as the catalyst. Each nanostructure consists of a series of increasingly larger overlapping discs. The structure forms during deposition due to the fact that the catalyst grows until reaching a critical size whereupon it destabilizes, dropping off the disc onto the substrate, where it catalyzes the growth of a new disc of larger radius. It is shown that critical size is limited by the sidewall wetting with a contact angle significantly smaller than the Gibb's criterion.

  19. Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear of Block Copolymer Spheres on a Body-Centered Cubic Lattice: Are Micelles Like Metals?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torija, Maria A.; Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S. (UMM)

    2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-angle X-ray diffraction experiments have uncovered a remarkable mechanism of grain alignment during plastic deformation of ordered sphere-forming diblock copolymer micelles when subjected to large amplitude dynamic shearing. A nearly monodisperse poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymer with block molecular weights of 42,000 and 60,000 was mixed with squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}), an EP selective solvent, at a concentration of 10 wt %. After high temperature annealing, the sample formed an ordered polydomain morphology containing glassy S cores at room temperature. SAXS powder patterns confirm body-centered cubic (BCC) symmetry and reveal the development of a complex array of two-dimensionally resolved Bragg reflections following the application, and cessation, of oscillatory shearing. These diffraction results are interpreted on the basis of the classic mechanism of crystalline slip, which accounts for plastic deformation of ductile materials such as metals. Four distinct slip systems are shown to be active in this work, suggesting a robust basis for deforming and mixing of soft ordered solids.

  20. Device for imaging scenes with very large ranges of intensity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance Albert (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for imaging scenes with a very large range of intensity having a pair of polarizers, a primary lens, an attenuating mask, and an imaging device optically connected along an optical axis. Preferably, a secondary lens, positioned between the attenuating mask and the imaging device is used to focus light on the imaging device. The angle between the first polarization direction and the second polarization direction is adjustable.

  1. Contamination and solid state welds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Effect of MLC leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Sen; Li, Guangjun; Wang, Maojie; Jiang, Qinfeng; Zhang, Yingjie [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Wei, Yuquan, E-mail: yuquawei@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To compare dosimetric differences between the simulating plans and the clinical plans with evaluation parameters, 6 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected for simulation of systematic and random MLC leaf position errors, collimator rotation angle errors, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for systematic MLC leaf position errors in response to field size. When the systematic MLC position errors were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm, respectively, the maximum values of the mean dose deviation, observed in parotid glands, were 4.63%, 8.69%, and 18.32%, respectively. The dosimetric effect was comparatively small for systematic MLC shift errors. For random MLC errors up to 2 mm and collimator and gantry rotation angle errors up to 0.5°, the dosimetric effect was negligible. We suggest that quality control be regularly conducted for MLC leaves, so as to ensure that systematic MLC leaf position errors are within 0.5 mm. Because the dosimetric effect of 0.5° collimator and gantry rotation angle errors is negligible, it can be concluded that setting a proper threshold for allowed errors of collimator and gantry rotation angle may increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment time.

  3. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  4. Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta; FV Hoopes

    2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching.

  5. Lower hybrid instability driven by mono-energy {alpha}-particles with finite pitch angle spread in a plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Vishwesh; Tripathi, V. K. [Department of Physics, IIT Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A kinetic formalism of lower hybrid wave instability, driven by mono-energy {alpha}-particles with finite pitch angle spread, is developed. The instability arises through cyclotron resonance interaction with high cyclotron harmonics of {alpha}-particles. The {alpha}-particles produced in D-T fusion reactions have huge Larmor radii ({approx}10 cm) as compared to the wavelength of the lower hybrid wave, whereas their speed is an order of magnitude smaller than the speed of light in vacuum. As a result, large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid waves, suitable for current drive in tokamak, are driven unstable via coupling to high cyclotron harmonics. The growth rate decreases with increase in pitch angle spread of the beam. At typical electron density of {approx}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, magnetic field {approx}4 Tesla and {alpha}-particle concentration {approx}0.1%, the large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid wave grows on the time scale of 20 ion cyclotron periods. The growth rate decreases with plasma density.

  6. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  7. Low Solids Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Biomass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Solids Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: February 4, 2015 M. G. Resch, J. O. Baker, and S. R. Decker...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unfortunately, red emitters that satisfy all criteria for use in solid-state lighting (SSL) applications are ... Sandia's Dr. Jeffrey Tsao Is Recognized as an Asian-American...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology Date: September 14, 2011 Event: Solid-State Lighting Science Workshop in Novel Emitters and Nanostructured Materials Abstract: The...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Energy photovoltaic Photovoltaics PV Renewable Energy solar Solar Energy solar power Solar Research Solid-State Lighting SSLS Connect Contact Us RSS Google+ Twitter...

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of municipal solid waste energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply waste to energy within the Federal sector.

  12. Development of a hybrid margin angle controller for HVDC continuous operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan)] [Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Yamaji, K. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Takamatsu (Japan)] [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Takamatsu (Japan); Sekita, M. [Electric Power Development Co., Tokyo (Japan)] [Electric Power Development Co., Tokyo (Japan); Amano, M.; Nishimura, M.; Konishi, H.; Oomori, T. [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)] [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to present a new hybrid margin angle control method for HVDC continuous operation under AC system fault conditions. For stable continuous operation of HVDC systems, the margin angle controller must be designed to maintain the necessary margin angle to avoid commutation failures. The proposed method uses the open loop margin angle controller (MAC) as the basic controller, and adds output from the closed loop MAC to correct the control angle. A fast voltage detection algorithm is used for open loop control, and margin angle reference correction using harmonics detection for closed loop control are also developed. The combination of open and closed loop control provides quick responses when faults occur with stable and speedy recovery after fault clearance. The effectiveness of the developed controller is confirmed through EMTP digital simulations and also with the experiments using an analogue simulator.

  13. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated defect and DSA map overlay to failed die identified using end product probe test results. Results from our two year effort have led to “automated end-to-end defect detection” with full defect traceability and the ability to unambiguously correlate device killer defects to optically detected features and their point of origin within the process. Success of the program can be measured by yield improvements at our partner’s facilities and new product orders.

  14. The XMM-Newton Wide Angle Survey (XWAS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquej, P; Carrera, F J; Mateos, S; Tedds, J; Watson, M G; Corral, A; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Rosen, S R; Ceballos, M T; Schwope, A; Page, C; Alonso-Herrero, A; Caccianiga, A; Della Ceca, R; Gonzalez-Martín, O; Lamer, G; Severgnini, P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This programme is aimed at obtaining one of the largest X-ray selected samples of identified active galactic nuclei to date in order to characterise such a population at intermediate fluxes, where most of the Universe's accretion power originates. We present the XMM-Newton Wide Angle Survey (XWAS), a new catalogue of almost a thousand X-ray sources spectroscopically identified through optical observations. A sample of X-ray sources detected in 68 XMM-Newton pointed observations was selected for optical multi-fibre spectroscopy. Optical counterparts and corresponding photometry of the X-ray sources were obtained from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Candidates for spectroscopy were initially selected with magnitudes down to R~21, with preference for X-ray sources having a flux F(0.5-4.5 keV) >10^-14 erg s^-1 cm^-2. Optical spectroscopic observations performed at the Anglo Australian Telescope Two Degree Field were analysed, and the derived spectra were classified based on optical emission lines. We have identified ...

  15. Measurements of the CKM Angle Alpha at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stracka, Simone; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan; ,

    2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present improved measurements of the branching fractions and CP-asymmetries fin the B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, and B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0} decays, which impact the determination of {alpha}. The combined branching fractions of B {yields} K{sub 1}(1270){pi} and B {yields} K{sub 1}(1400){pi} decays are measured for the first time and allow a novel determination of {alpha} in the B{sup 0} {yields} {alpha}{sub 1}(1260){sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} decay channel. These measurements are performed using the final dataset collected by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II B-factory. The primary goal of the experiments based at the B factories is to test the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) picture of CP violation in the standard model of electroweak interactions. This can be achieved by measuring the angles and sides of the Unitarity Triangle in a redundant way.

  16. Angle stations in or for endless conveyor belts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steel, Alan (Glasgow, GB6)

    1987-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In an angle station for an endless conveyor belt, there are presented to each incoming run of the belt stationary curved guide members (18, 19) of the shape of a major segment of a right-circular cylinder and having in the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) thereof rectangular openings (15) arranged in parallel and helical paths and through which project small freely-rotatable rollers (14), the continuously-changing segments of the curved surfaces of which projecting through said openings (15) are in attitude to change the direction of travel of the belt (13) through 90.degree. during passage of the belt about the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) of the guide member (18 or 19). The rectangular openings (15) are arranged with their longer edges lengthwise of the diagonals representing the mean of the helix but with those of a plurality of the rows nearest to each end of the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) slightly out of axial symmetry with said diagonals, being slightly inclined in a direction about the intersections (40) of the diagonals of the main portion of the openings, to provide a "toe-in" attitude in relation to the line of run of the endless conveyor belt.

  17. Small angle elastic scattering of protons off of spinless nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, A.G.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elastic differential cross sections and analyzing powers for 800 MeV protons incident on /sup 12/C, /sup 40/Ca, and /sup 208/Pb in the momentum transfer range 20 MeV/c < q < 130 MeV/c have been measured. The data was taken with the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Special delay-line drift chambers with dead regions for the beam to pass through them were used to obtain the data. Through the interference of the Coulomb and nuclear contributions to the differential cross section in the small angle region, the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward nuclear amplitude ..cap alpha../sub n/(0) = Ref/sub n/(0)/Imf/sub n/(0) is extracted. The importance of knowing this quantity at lower energies in order to study the differences between relativistic and non-relativistic scattering theories is discussed. 130 refs., 60 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to accurately determine a volume is a function of the quantity and quality of the waste tank images. Currently, mapping is performed remotely with closed circuit video cameras and still photograph cameras due to the hazardous environment. There are two methods that can be used to create a solids volume map. These methods are: liquid transfer mapping / post transfer mapping and final residual solids mapping. The task is performed during a transfer because the liquid level (which is a known value determined by a level measurement device) is used as a landmark to indicate solids accumulation heights. The post transfer method is primarily utilized after the majority of waste has been removed. This method relies on video and still digital images of the waste tank after the liquid transfer is complete to obtain the relative height of solids across a waste tank in relation to known and usable landmarks within the waste tank (cooling coils, column base plates, etc.). In order to accurately monitor solids over time across various cleaning campaigns, and provide a technical basis to support final waste tank closure, a consistent methodology for volume determination has been developed and implemented at SRS.

  19. Spectroscopy of barium atoms in liquid and solid helium matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, V.; Moroshkin, P.; Weis, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Chemin du Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an exhaustive overview of optical absorption and laser-induced fluorescence lines of Ba atoms in liquid and solid helium matrices in visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. Due to the increased density of isolated atoms, we have found a large number of spectral lines that were not observed in condensed helium matrices before. We have also measured the lifetimes of metastable states. The lowest {sup 3}D{sub 1} metastable state has lifetime of 2.6 s and can be used as an intermediate state in two-step excitations of high-lying states. Various matrix-induced radiationless population transfer channels have been identified.

  20. Solid phase sequencing of biopolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles (Del Mar, CA); Koster, Hubert (La Jolla, CA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing target nucleic acid sequences, to mass modified nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probes comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include DNA or RNA in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated molecular weight analysis and identification of the target sequence.

  1. Solid and gaseous fuels. [Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, H.; Wells, A.W.; Mima, M.J.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids. Energy Research Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts were used as reference sources. The volume of material available made it necessary to limit the number of publications in the review. This review also surveys publications concerned with methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels and related materials. Articles of significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature that were not available at the time of the last review are also included. Chemical Abstracts and Energy Research Abstracts were used extensively as reference sources. Some selectivity was necessary in order to include the most pertinent publications in preparing this review. 386 references.

  2. Solid phase sequencing of biopolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R.; Hubert, Koster

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing target nucleic acid sequences, to mass modified nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probes comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Probes may be affixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated molecular weight analysis and identification of the target sequence.

  3. atomic resolution high-angle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scattering of electrons CERN Preprints Summary: We consider theoretically the energy loss of electrons scattered to high angles when assuming that the primary beam can be...

  4. angle deposited nano-rough: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science Websites Summary: the deposition angle, deposition rate, ro- tation speed, and material specific parameters such as surface deposition T. Karabacak,a) G.-C....

  5. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  6. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  8. Large scale disease prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Patrick R. (Patrick Raphael)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to present the foundation of an automated large-scale disease prediction system. Unlike previous work that has typically focused on a small self-contained dataset, we explore the possibility ...

  9. Solid Waste as an Energy Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlandsson, K. I.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at industrial plants, where using the solid waste as a fuel also alleviates a waste disposal problem. This paper describes presently available and operating equipment, which can convert solid waste into energy in usable forms, such as hot water or steam...

  10. Managing America`s solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  11. DIFFUSION IN SOLIDSDIFFUSION IN SOLIDS FICK'S LAWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    Diffusion bonding To comprehend many materials related phenomenon one must understand Diffusion. The focusDIFFUSION IN SOLIDSDIFFUSION IN SOLIDS FICK'S LAWS KIRKENDALL EFFECT ATOMIC MECHANISMS Diffusion in Solids P.G. Shewmon McGraw-Hill, New York (1963) #12;Oxidation Roles of Diffusion Creep Aging

  12. Small angle neutron scattering study of Linde 80 RPV welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirth, B.D.; Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering; Pavinich, W.A. [Framatome Technologies Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Spooner, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid state Div.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) results are presented for Linde 80 welds irradiated, as part of the B and W Owners Group Integrated Surveillance Program, at low fluxes (<10{sup 15} n/m{sup 2}-s) to fluences from 0.29 to 3.5 {times} 10{sup 23} n/m{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) at irradiation temperatures from 276 to 292 C. The welds all contain about 0.6 Ni (all composition units are in wt.%), 0.009 to 0.18 P and 0.05 to 0.28 Cu. In the welds with significant amounts of copper (>0.2 Cu) the measured defect scattering cross sections were consistent with either: (a) copper rich precipitates (CRPs) alloyed with manganese and nickel; or (b) dominant CRP scattering, plus a weak contribution from so-called matrix defect features. Similar weak scattering was observed in a low copper (0.06 Cu) weld. The identity of matrix defect features cannot be determined from the SANS data alone, but the scattering is consistent with the presence of subnanometer vacancy cluster-solute complexes. The general character of the CRPs, and the trends in their number density, volume fraction and average radius as a function of fluence and irradiation temperature, are very similar to those observed in a wide range of pressure vessel-type steels irradiated in test reactors at intermediate to high flux. The SANS data in the surveillance welds is also in unity with: (a) thermodynamic-kinetic radiation enhanced diffusion models of CRP evolution; (b) mechanical property changes, including predictions of the correlations of the surveillance data base; and (c) an atomic scale, atom probe field ion microscopy study into the nanostructure-chemistry of a CRP.

  13. Adaptive sparse polynomial chaos expansion based on least angle regression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blatman, Geraud, E-mail: geraud.blatman@edf.f [Clermont Universite, IFMA, EA 3867, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Ingenieries, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); EDF R and D, Departement Materiaux et Mecanique des Composants, Site des Renardieres, 77250 Moret-sur-Loing cedex (France); Sudret, Bruno [Clermont Universite, IFMA, EA 3867, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Ingenieries, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Phimeca Engineering, Centre d'Affaires du Zenith, 34 rue de Sarlieve, F-63800 Cournon d'Auvergne (France)

    2011-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Polynomial chaos (PC) expansions are used in stochastic finite element analysis to represent the random model response by a set of coefficients in a suitable (so-called polynomial chaos) basis. The number of terms to be computed grows dramatically with the size of the input random vector, which makes the computational cost of classical solution schemes (may it be intrusive (i.e. of Galerkin type) or non intrusive) unaffordable when the deterministic finite element model is expensive to evaluate. To address such problems, the paper describes a non intrusive method that builds a sparse PC expansion. First, an original strategy for truncating the PC expansions, based on hyperbolic index sets, is proposed. Then an adaptive algorithm based on least angle regression (LAR) is devised for automatically detecting the significant coefficients of the PC expansion. Beside the sparsity of the basis, the experimental design used at each step of the algorithm is systematically complemented in order to avoid the overfitting phenomenon. The accuracy of the PC metamodel is checked using an estimate inspired by statistical learning theory, namely the corrected leave-one-out error. As a consequence, a rather small number of PC terms are eventually retained (sparse representation), which may be obtained at a reduced computational cost compared to the classical 'full' PC approximation. The convergence of the algorithm is shown on an analytical function. Then the method is illustrated on three stochastic finite element problems. The first model features 10 input random variables, whereas the two others involve an input random field, which is discretized into 38 and 30 - 500 random variables, respectively.

  14. Fabrication of nanostructure by physical vapor deposition with glancing angle deposition technique and its applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horprathum, M., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Eiamchai, P., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Patthanasettakul, V.; Limwichean, S.; Nuntawong, N.; Chindaudom, P. [Optical Thin-Film Laboratory National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand); Kaewkhao, J. [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Chananonnawathorn, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12121 (Thailand)

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanostructural thin film is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications in sensor, photocatalytic, and solar-cell technologies. In the past two decades, the integration of glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) technique to physical vapor deposition (PVD) process has gained significant attention for well-controlled multidimensional nanomorphologies because of fast, simple, cost-effective, and mass-production capability. The performance and functional properties of the coated thin films generally depend upon their nanostructural compositions, i.e., large aspect ratio, controllable porosity, and shape. Such structural platforms make the fabricated thin films very practical for several realistic applications. We therefore present morphological and nanostructural properties of various deposited materials, which included metals, i.e., silver (Ag), and oxide compounds, i.e., tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), and indium tin oxide (ITO). Different PVD techniques based on DC magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation, both with the integrated GLAD component, were discussed. We further explore engineered nanostructures which enable controls of optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. These improvements led to several practical applications in surface-enhanced Raman, smart windows, gas sensors, self-cleaning materials and transparent conductive oxides (TCO)

  15. The MOLLER Experiment: An Ultra-Precise Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle Using Møller Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MOLLER Collaboration; J. Benesch; P. Brindza; R. D. Carlini; J-P. Chen; E. Chudakov; S. Covrig; M. M. Dalton; A. Deur; D. Gaskell; A. Gavalya; J. Gomez; D. W. Higinbotham; C. Keppel; D. Meekins; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; Y. Roblin; R. Suleiman; R. Wines; B. Wojtsekhowski; G. Cates; D. Crabb; D. Day; K. Gnanvo; D. Keller; N. Liyanage; V. V. Nelyubin; H. Nguyen; B. Norum; K. Paschke; V. Sulkosky; J. Zhang; X. Zheng; J. Birchall; P. Blunden; M. T. W. Gericke; W. R. Falk; L. Lee; J. Mammei; S. A. Page; W. T. H. van Oers; K. Dehmelt; A. Deshpande; N. Feege; T. K. Hemmick; K. S. Kumar; T. Kutz; R. Miskimen; M. J. Ramsey-Musolf; S. Riordan; N. Hirlinger Saylor; J. Bessuille; E. Ihloff; J. Kelsey; S. Kowalski; R. Silwal; G. De Cataldo; R. De Leo; D. Di Bari; L. Lagamba; E. NappiV. Bellini; F. Mammoliti; F. Noto; M. L. Sperduto; C. M. Sutera; P. Cole; T. A. Forest; M. Khandekar; D. McNulty; K. Aulenbacher; S. Baunack; F. Maas; V. Tioukine; R. Gilman; K. Myers; R. Ransome; A. Tadepalli; R. Beniniwattha; R. Holmes; P. Souder; D. S. Armstrong; T. D. Averett; W. Deconinck; W. Duvall; A. Lee; M. L. Pitt; J. A. Dunne; D. Dutta; L. El Fassi; F. De Persio; F. Meddi; G. M. Urciuoli; E. Cisbani; C. Fanelli; F. Garibaldi; K. Johnston; N. Simicevic; S. Wells; P. M. King; J. Roche; J. Arrington; P. E. Reimer; G. Franklin; B. Quinn; A. Ahmidouch; S. Danagoulian; O. Glamazdin; R. Pomatsalyuk; R. Mammei; J. W. Martin; T. Holmstrom; J. Erler; Yu. G. Kolomensky; J. Napolitano; K. A. Aniol; W. D. Ramsay; E. Korkmaz; D. T. Spayde; F. Benmokhtar; A. Del Dotto; R. Perrino; S. Barkanova; A. Aleksejevs; J. Singh

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The physics case and an experimental overview of the MOLLER (Measurement Of a Lepton Lepton Electroweak Reaction) experiment at the 12 GeV upgraded Jefferson Lab are presented. A highlight of the Fundamental Symmetries subfield of the 2007 NSAC Long Range Plan was the SLAC E158 measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{PV}$ in polarized electron-electron (M{\\o}ller) scattering. The proposed MOLLER experiment will improve on this result by a factor of five, yielding the most precise measurement of the weak mixing angle at low or high energy anticipated over the next decade. This new result would be sensitive to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude with new neutral current amplitudes as weak as $\\sim 10^{-3}\\cdot G_F$ from as yet undiscovered dynamics beyond the Standard Model. The resulting discovery reach is unmatched by any proposed experiment measuring a flavor- and CP-conserving process over the next decade, and yields a unique window to new physics at MeV and multi-TeV scales, complementary to direct searches at high energy colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The experiment takes advantage of the unique opportunity provided by the upgraded electron beam energy, luminosity, and stability at Jefferson Laboratory and the extensive experience accumulated in the community after a round of recent successfully completed parity-violating electron scattering experiments

  16. Country report Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Country report Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003­2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000

  17. Surface Morphological Response of Crystalline Solids to Mechanical Stresses and Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stavroulakis, Georgios E.

    dynamical simulations with analytical theory to understand the underlying phenomena and to make quantitative such direction involves large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations for identification and analysis of dislocationSurface Morphological Response of Crystalline Solids to Mechanical Stresses and Electric Fields

  18. Mass fractal characteristics of wet sonogels as determined by small-angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vollet, D. R.; Donatti, D. A.; Ibanez Ruiz, A.; Gatto, F. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Unesp-Univerisdade Estadual Paulista, IGCE, P.O. Box 178 CEP 13500-970 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low density silica sonogels were prepared from acid sonohydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. Wet gels were studied by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The DSC tests were carried out under a heating rate of 2 deg. C/min from -120 deg. C up to 30 deg. C. Aerogels were obtained by CO{sub 2} supercritical extraction and characterized by nitrogen adsorption and SAXS. The DSC thermogram displays two distinct endothermic peaks. The first, a broad peak extending from about -80 deg. C up to practically 0 deg. C, was associated to the melting of ice nanocrystals with a crystal size distribution with 'pore' diameter ranging from 1 or 2 nm up to about 60 nm, as estimated from Thomson's equation. The second, a sharp peak with onset temperature close to 0 deg. C, was attributed to the melting of macroscopic crystals. The DSC incremental 'nanopore' volume distribution is in reasonable agreement with the incremental pore volume distribution of the aerogel as determined from nitrogen adsorption. No macroporosity was detected by nitrogen adsorption, probably because the adsorption method applies stress on the sample during measurement, leading to a underestimation of pore volume, or because often positive curvature of the solid surface is in aerogels, making the nitrogen condensation more difficult. According to the SAXS results, the solid network of the wet gels behaves as a mass fractal structure with mass fractal dimension D=2.20{+-}0.01 in a characteristic length scale below {xi}=7.9{+-}0.1 nm. The mass fractal characteristics of the wet gels have also been probed from DSC data by means of an earlier applied modeling for generation of a mass fractal from the incremental ''pore'' volume distribution curves. The results are shown to be in interesting agreement with the results from SAXS.

  19. New gas-filled mode of the large-acceptance spectrometer C. Schmitt, M. Rejmund, A. Navin, B. Lecornu, B. Jacquot, G. de France,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sciences, P.0. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia L. Gaudefroy CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France Ch by broad distributions in angle, energy and charge state, a large angular aper- ture and a high transport

  20. 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta -Fragmentation to probe transversity 31 Hadron pair azimuthal angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 31 Hadron pair azimuthal angle 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 32 Center of mass angle hadron decay plane Center of mass direction in lab frame Center of mass frame R #12;2 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta

  1. Adhesion and Anisotropic Friction Enhancements of Angled Heterogeneous Micro-Fiber Arrays with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Seth Copen

    in a synthetic dry angled fibrillar adhesive sample (spatula tip fiber sample). The direction dependent frictionAdhesion and Anisotropic Friction Enhancements of Angled Heterogeneous Micro-Fiber Arrays and spatula shaped tips via dipping. These fibers are characterized for adhesion and friction and compared

  2. SAYA's head-eye coordination system Correspondence of image-width and angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beimel, Amos

    SAYA's head-eye coordination system Correspondence of image-width and angle 335 - 359 [deg] 0 - 25 - 25 [deg] is input, head and eyes move to right side. b) If the angle within 335 - 359 [deg] is input, head and eyes move to left side. SAYA's head-eye coordination system Correspondence of image

  3. Spectral Mapping of Protein Torsion Angles National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Spectral Mapping of Protein Torsion Angles National High Magnetic Field Laboratory NMR Spectroscopy spectra. #12;Spectral Mapping of Protein Torsion Angles National High Magnetic Field Laboratory NMR, in recording signals that are dependent on the orientation of the atoms with respect to the magnetic field, we

  4. Factors that control the angle of shear bands in geodynamic numerical models of brittle deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaus, Boris

    timescales typically use a pressure-dependent (Mohr­ Coulomb or Drucker­Prager) plastic flow law to simulate University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history work suggest that both Roscoe (45°), Coulomb angles (45+/-/2, where is the angle of internal friction

  5. Thermoelectric figure of merit as a function of carrier propagation angle in semiconducting superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Erica

    Thermoelectric figure of merit as a function of carrier propagation angle in semiconducting;Thermoelectric figure of merit as a function of carrier propagation angle in semiconducting superlattices Shuo a fruitful approach for enhancing the figure of merit, ZT, of thermoelectric materials. Generally

  6. Light is said to be reflected when the angle at which light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 #12;2 Light is said to be reflected when the angle at which light initially strikes a surface is equal to the angle at which light bounces off the same surface. In the diagram, light strikes a surface", this is an example of reflected light. Refraction is the bending of a wave when it enters a medium where it's speed

  7. Small angle neutron scattering from single-wall carbon nanotube suspensions: evidence for isolated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Howard "Hao"

    Small angle neutron scattering from single-wall carbon nanotube suspensions: evidence for isolated online: Abstract We report small angle neutron scattering (SANS) from dilute suspensions of purified University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA e NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards

  8. Small angle neutron scattering on periodically deformed polymers A. R. Rennie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    765 Small angle neutron scattering on periodically deformed polymers A. R. Rennie Institut für Phys-768 SEPTEMBRE 1984, 1. Introduction. Neutron scattering has proved a useful tool for the investigation of a wide time for a small angle neutron scattering spectrum is several minutes. Obser- vation on rapidly

  9. Salt-Dependent Compaction of Di-and Trinucleosomes Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langowski, Jörg

    Salt-Dependent Compaction of Di- and Trinucleosomes Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, Germany, and Institut Laue-Langevin Grenoble, F-38042 Grenoble, France ABSTRACT Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we have measured the salt-dependent static structure factor of di- and trinucleosomes from

  10. Solvent Entrainment in and Flocculation of Asphaltenic Aggregates Probed by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    -Angle Neutron Scattering Keith L. Gawrys, George A. Blankenship, and Peter K. Kilpatrick* Department of ChemicalVed September 14, 2005. In Final Form: January 30, 2006 While small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has proven to the scattering intensity curves were performed using the Guinier approximation, the Ornstein- Zernike (or Zimm

  11. Simulation-guided optimization of small-angle analyzer geometry in the neutron backscattering spectrometer SPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuttke, Joachim; Zamponi, Michaela [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science at MLZ, Lichtenbergstraße 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science at MLZ, Lichtenbergstraße 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The resolution of neutron backscattering spectrometers deteriorates at small scattering angles where analyzers deviate from exact backscattering. By reducing the azimuth angle range of the analyzers, the resolution can be improved with little loss of peak intensity. Measurements at the spectrometer SPHERES are in excellent agreement with simulations, which proves the dominance of geometric effects.

  12. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under non-equilibrium conditions R. C. Oberthr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    663 Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under non-equilibrium conditions R. C. Oberthür Institut with the times obtained from quasi- elastic neutron and light scattering, which yield information about neutrons aux petits angles (DNPA) pour l'étude des systèmes hors d'équi- libre thermodynamique est

  13. From Nuclei to Micro-Structure in Colloidal Crystallization: Investigating Intermediate Length Scales by Small Angle Laser Light Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Beyer; Markus Franke; Hans Joachim Schöpe; Eckhard Bartsch; Thomas Palberg

    2015-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Hard sphere suspensions are well recognized model systems of statistical physics and soft condensed matter. We here investigate the temporal evolution of the immediate environment of nucleating and growing crystals and/or their global scale distribution using time resolved Small Angle Light Scattering (SALS). Simultaneously performed Bragg scattering (BS) measurements provide an accurate temporal gauging of the sequence of events. We apply this approach to studies of re-crystallization in several different shear molten hard sphere and attractive hard sphere samples with the focus being on the diversity of observable signal shapes and their change in time. We demonstrate that depending on the preparation conditions different processes occur on length scales larger than the structural scale which significantly influence both the crystallization kinetics and the final micro-structure. By careful analysis of the SALS signal evolution and by comparing different suggestions for small angle signal shapes to our data we can for most cases identify the processes leading to the observed signals. These include phase contrast form factor scattering from depletion zones during formation and overlap as well as during gelation, amplitude contrast form factor scattering by more transparent crystals, and structure factor scattering from late stage inter-crystallite ordering. The large variety of different small angle signals thus in principle contains valuable information complementary to that gained from Bragg scattering or microscopy. Our comparison, however, also shows that further refinement and adaptation of the theoretical expressions to the sample specific boundary conditions is desired for a quantitative kinetic analysis of micro-structural evolution.

  14. Large power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsai, K.; Kerenyi, D.; Kiss, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The book deals with the following aspects of transformer engineering: general principles governing the function of transformers, iron cores, windings, stray losses caused by stray flux, the insulation of transformers, and the structural parts and accessories. This edition includes the developments in theory and practice on the basis of the authors' experience in design, manufacturing and testing of large transformers. New developments have been particularly extensive in the fields of new magnetic materials, cooling methods, dielectric strength for overvoltages of different types, and stray-load loss problems, which are presented in the book in detail. The many diagrams in the book can be used directly in the design, manufacture and testing of large transformers. In preparing their text, the authors have aimed to satisfy the demand for a work that summarizes the latest experience in development and design of large power transformers.

  15. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of cuprate superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palczewski, Ari Deibert

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation is comprised of three different angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies on cuprate superconductors. The first study compares the band structure from two different single layer cuprates Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 6+{delta}} (Tl2201) T{sub c,max} {approx} 95 K and (Bi{sub 1.35}Pb{sub 0.85})(Sr{sub 1.47}La{sub 0.38})CuO{sub 6+{delta}} (Bi2201) T{sub c,max} {approx} 35 K. The aim of the study was to provide some insight into the reasons why single layer cuprate's maximum transition temperatures are so different. The study found two major differences in the band structure. First, the Fermi surface segments close to ({pi},0) are more parallel in Tl2201 than in Bi2201. Second, the shadow band usually related to crystal structure is only present in Bi2201, but absent in higher T{sub c} Tl2201. The second study looks at the different ways of doping Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} (Bi2212) in-situ by only changing the post bake-out vacuum conditions and temperature. The aim of the study is to systematically look into the generally overlooked experimental conditions that change the doping of a cleaved sample in ultra high vacuum (UHV) experiments. The study found two major experimental facts. First, in inadequate UHV conditions the carrier concentration of Bi2212 increases with time, due to the absorption of oxygen from CO{sub 2}/CO molecules, prime contaminants present in UHV systems. Second, in a very clean UHV system at elevated temperatures (above about 200 K), the carrier concentration decreases due to the loss of oxygen atoms from the Bi-O layer. The final study probed the particle-hole symmetry of the pseudogap phase in high temperature superconducting cuprates by looking at the thermally excited bands above the Fermi level. The data showed a particle-hole symmetric pseudogap which symmetrically closes away from the nested FS before the node. The data is consistent with a charge density wave (CDW) origin of the pseudogap, similar to STM checkerboard patterns in the pseudogap state.

  16. An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borglin, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid Waste." Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response:Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plans at ArmyQuality Fact Sheet on Solid Waste Management practices.

  17. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  18. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  19. The genealogy of convex solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domokos, Gabor; Szabó, Timea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The shape of homogeneous, smooth convex bodies as described by the Euclidean distance from the center of gravity represents a rather restricted class M_C of Morse-Smale functions on S^2. Here we show that even M_C exhibits the complexity known for general Morse-Smale functions on S^2 by exhausting all combinatorial possibilities: every 2-colored quadrangulation of the sphere is isomorphic to a suitably represented Morse-Smale complex associated with a function in M_C (and vice versa). We prove our claim by an inductive algorithm, starting from the path graph P_2 and generating convex bodies corresponding to quadrangulations with increasing number of vertices by performing each combinatorially possible vertex splitting by a convexity- preserving local manipulation of the surface. Since convex bodies carrying Morse-Smale complexes isomorphic to P_2 exist, this algorithm not only proves our claim but also defines a hierarchical order among convex solids and general- izes the known classification scheme in [35], ...

  20. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (353 Church Rd., Beech Island, SC 29841)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  1. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  2. Nonhazardous Solid Waste Management Regulations and Criteria (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Nonhazardous Solid Waste Management Regulations and Criteria is to establish a minimum State Criteria under the Mississippi Solid Waste Law for all solid waste management...

  3. Solid-State Lighting Videos | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Resources Solid-State Lighting Videos Solid-State Lighting Videos On this page you can access DOE Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Program videos. photo of a university...

  4. A study of the effect of boundary conditions and drag force on the diffusion of a Newtonian fluid through a non-linearly elastic solid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasad, Sharat Chand

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we investigate the problem of diffusion of a Newtonian fluid through a non-linearly elastic solid undergoing large deformations, within the framework of mixture theory. The aim is to delineate the effect of various boundary conditions...

  5. Washing of the AW-101 entrained solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta

    2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    BNFL Inc. (BNFL) is under contract with the US Department of Energy, River Protection Project (DOE-RPP) to design, construct, and operate facilities for treating wastes stored in the single-shell and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The DOE-BNFL RPP contract identifies two feeds to the waste treatment plant: (1) primarily liquid low-activity waste (LAW) consisting of less than 2 wt% entrained solids and (2) high-level waste (HLW) consisting of 10 to 200 g/L solids slurry. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AW-101 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-9, Rev. 0, LAW Entrained Solids Water Wash and Caustic Leach Testing. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan. Based on the results of the 0.01 M NaOH washing, a decision was made by BNFL to not proceed with the caustic leaching test. The composition of the washed solids was such that caustic leaching would not result in significant reduction in the immobilized HLW volume.

  6. Relative reactivities of solid benzoic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warwas, Edwin James

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACTIVITIES OF SOLID BENZOIC ACIDS (January 1967) Edwin James Warwas B. S. , Southwest Texas State College Directed by: Dr. C. K. Hancock and Dr. E. A. Meyers The reactions of solid benzoic acid (BZAH) and nine m- or p- substituted benzoic acids (RBZAH...) with solid potassium benzoate (BZAK) and m- or p-substituted potassium benzoates (R'BZAK) have been carried out in sealed thin-walled glass capillary tubes or in 0 sealed weighing bottles at 70 For the reaction, RBZAH + R'BZAK, where R = R', the product...

  7. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Gary Blake; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; Karl Haltiner; Larry Chick; David Schumann; Jeff Weissman; Gail Geiger; Ralphi Dellarocco

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report details the results under the DOE SECA program for the period July 2006 through December 2006. Developments pertain to the development of a 3 to 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. This report details technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the SOFC Power System: Task 1 SOFC System Development; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant Components; Task 5 Project Management; and Task 6 System Modeling & Cell Evaluation for High Efficiency Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System.

  8. Improved FGD dewatering process cuts solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moer, C.; Fernandez, J.; Carraro, B. [Duke Energy (United States)

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2007, Duke Energy's W.H. Zimmer Station set out to advance the overall performance of its flue gas desulfurization (FGD) dewatering process. The plant implemented a variety of measures, including upgrading water-solids separation, improving polymer program effectiveness and reliability, optimizing treatment costs, reducing solid waste sent to the landfill, decreasing labor requirements, and maintaining septic-free conditions in clarifiers. The changes succeeded in greatly reducing solid waste generation and achieving total annual savings of over half a million dollars per year. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Boqin

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C{sub 60} is analyzed.

  10. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  11. 1993 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J.; Blackburn, C.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kaae, P.S.; Armacost, L.L.; Garrett, S.M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, which updates WHC-EP-0567, 1992 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary, (WHC 1992) forecasts the volumes of solid wastes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site during the 30-year period from FY 1993 through FY 2022. The data used in this document were collected from Westinghouse Hanford Company forecasts as well as from surveys of waste generators at other US Department of Energy sites who are now shipping or plan to ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site for disposal. These wastes include low-level and low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and nonradioactive hazardous waste.

  12. Composting Large Animal Carcasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auvermann, Brent W.; Mukhtar, Saqib; Heflin, Kevin

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposing of large animal carcasses can be a problem for agricultural producers. Composting is a simple, low-cost method that yields a useful product that can be used as fertilizer. In this publication you'll learn the basics of composting, how...

  13. Composting Large Animal Carcasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auvermann, Brent W.; Mukhtar, Saqib; Heflin, Kevin

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposing of large animal carcasses can be a problem for agricultural producers. Composting is a simple, low-cost method that yields a useful product that can be used as fertilizer. In this publication you'll learn the basics of composting, how...

  14. X-ray crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yennawar, Hemant [Pennsylvania State University, 8 Althouse Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Møller, Magda [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gillilan, Richard [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yennawar, Neela, E-mail: nhy1@psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, 8 Althouse Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-ray crystal structure and a small-angle X-ray scattering solution structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase have been determined. The details of the interactions that enable the tetramer scaffold to be the functional biological unit have been analyzed. The X-ray crystal structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase (slSDH) has been determined using the crystal structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (hSDH) as a molecular-replacement model. slSDH crystallized in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. A conserved tetramer that superposes well with that seen in hSDH (despite belonging to a different space group) and obeying the 222 crystal symmetry is seen in slSDH. An acetate molecule is bound in the active site, coordinating to the active-site zinc through a water molecule. Glycerol, a substrate of slSDH, also occupies the substrate-binding pocket together with the acetate designed by nature to fit large polyol substrates. The substrate-binding pocket is seen to be in close proximity to the tetramer interface, which explains the need for the structural integrity of the tetramer for enzyme activity. Small-angle X-ray scattering was also used to identify the quaternary structure of the tetramer of slSDH in solution.

  15. Geothermal Power Plants — Minimizing Solid Waste and Recovering Minerals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although many geothermal power plants generate no appreciable solid waste, the unique characteristics of some geothermal fluids require special attention to handle entrained solid byproducts.

  16. National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an...

  17. Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

  18. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic...

  19. Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials. Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell...

  20. annual international solid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solid helium A. E. Melerovich Institute of Physics Problems, USSR Academy of elastic energy in solid helium on nonuniform time-oscillating deformation of the crystal is studied....

  1. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Abstract: Solid-state reversible...

  2. Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low...

  3. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  4. advanced solid state: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    also Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 3 PHYSICS 6555 --ADVANCED SOLID STATE PHYSICS 1 Syllabus --Fall 2013, CRN 95603 Physics Websites Summary: PHYSICS 6555 -- ADVANCED SOLID STATE...

  5. advanced common solid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and deposition of ash in MSW 7 PHYSICS 6555 --ADVANCED SOLID STATE PHYSICS 1 Syllabus --Fall 2013, CRN 95603 Physics Websites Summary: PHYSICS 6555 -- ADVANCED SOLID STATE...

  6. advanced refractory solid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and deposition of ash in MSW 4 PHYSICS 6555 --ADVANCED SOLID STATE PHYSICS 1 Syllabus --Fall 2013, CRN 95603 Physics Websites Summary: PHYSICS 6555 -- ADVANCED SOLID STATE...

  7. advanced solid malignancies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and deposition of ash in MSW 5 PHYSICS 6555 --ADVANCED SOLID STATE PHYSICS 1 Syllabus --Fall 2013, CRN 95603 Physics Websites Summary: PHYSICS 6555 -- ADVANCED SOLID STATE...

  8. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne Particle Analysis. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne...

  9. Technology assessment and market analysis of solid state ultracapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Zibo

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides quantitative analysis of Solid State Ultracapacitors (SSUs) from technological and financial perspectives. SSUs are Ultracapacitors with solid electrolytes predicted to have huge application potential ...

  10. Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well...

  11. advanced solid propellant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Engl; Usa Chapter 403 Optimal Solid Space Tower Physics (arXiv) Summary: Theory and computations are provided for building of optimal (minimum weight) solid space...

  12. Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

  13. active solid state: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Transformer Engineering Websites Summary: converters as distribution transformers 1. A power electronics-based solid state transformer (SST) providesAc-Ac Dual...

  14. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

  15. Georgia Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Act of 1990 (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Georgia Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Act (SWMA) of 1990 was implemented in order to improve solid waste management procedures, permitting processes and management throughout the state. ...

  16. A New Mechanism for Ozonolysis of Unsaturated Organics on Solids...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Unsaturated Organics on Solids: Phosphocholines on NaCl as A Model for Sea Salt particles. A New Mechanism for Ozonolysis of Unsaturated Organics on Solids:...

  17. The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state...

  18. Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting Presentation-given at the Fall 2011 Federal...

  19. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas...

  20. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

  1. A PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF THE NEUTRINO MIXING ANGLE THETA (SUB 13) USING REACTOR ANTINEUTRINOS AT DAYA BAY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KETTELL, S.; ET AL.

    2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the design of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment. Recent discoveries in neutrino physics have shown that the Standard Model of particle physics is incomplete. The observation of neutrino oscillations has unequivocally demonstrated that the masses of neutrinos are nonzero. The smallness of the neutrino masses (<2 eV) and the two surprisingly large mixing angles measured have thus far provided important clues and constraints to extensions of the Standard Model. The third mixing angle, {delta}{sub 13}, is small and has not yet been determined; the current experimental bound is sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} < 0.17 at 90% confidence level (from Chooz) for {Delta}m{sub 31}{sup 2} = 2.5 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}. It is important to measure this angle to provide further insight on how to extend the Standard Model. A precision measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} using nuclear reactors has been recommended by the 2004 APS Multi-divisional Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics as well as a recent Neutrino Scientific Assessment Group (NUSAG) report. We propose to perform a precision measurement of this mixing angle by searching for the disappearance of electron antineutrinos from the nuclear reactor complex in Daya Bay, China. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will be vital in resolving the neutrino-mass hierarchy and future measurements of CP violation in the lepton sector because this technique cleanly separates {theta}{sub 13} from CP violation and effects of neutrino propagation in the earth. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will provide important, complementary information to that from long-baseline, accelerator-based experiments. The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is to reach a sensitivity of 0.01 or better in sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} at 90% confidence level.

  2. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  3. Novel phosphors for solid state lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furman, Joshua D

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state white light emitting diode lighting devices outperform conventional light sources in terms of lifetime, durability, and lumens per watt. However, the capital contribution is still to high to encourage widespread adoption. Furthermore...

  4. Solid State Thin Film Lithium Microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.

    Solid state thin film lithium microbatteries fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) are suggested. During deposition the following process parameters must be considered, which are laser energy and fluence, laser pulse ...

  5. Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    III-Nitride core-shell nanowire arrayed solar cells On April 27, 2012, in Energy, Energy Efficiency, News, News & Events, Solid-State Lighting In a new EFRC-supported publication...

  7. AW-101 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau; GF Piepel

    2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AW-1-1 sample using de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AW-101 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-7, Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of LAW Entrained Solids. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan.

  8. Electron transfer reactions in microporous solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallouk, T.E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic thrust the research program involves use of microporous solids (zeolites, clays, layered and tunnel structure oxide semiconductors) as organizing media for artificial photosynthetic systems. Purpose of the microporous solid is twofold. First, it induces spatial organization of photoactive and electroactive components (sensitizers, semiconductor particles, electron relays, and catalysts) at the solid-solution interface, enhancing the quantum efficiency of charge separation and separating physically the ultimate electron donor and acceptor in the electron transport chain. Second, since the microcrystalline solid admits only molecules of a certain charge and size, it is possible to achieve permanent charge separation by sieving chemical photoproducts (e.g., H[sub 2] and I[sub 3][sup [minus

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a roughly 50 billion per year cost to the U.S. consumer. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology with the potential to reduce that energy consumption by a...

  10. County Solid Waste Control Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this chapter is to authorize a cooperative effort by counties, public agencies, and other persons for the safe and economical collection, transportation, and disposal of solid waste...

  11. A Torsional Oscillator Study Solid Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    A Torsional Oscillator Study of Solid Helium George Edgar Marcus Nichols Royal Holloway College and Andy Nichols and Alexandra Zuckermann for theirs out of it. #12;Contents 1 Motivation 10 1.1 Helium

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid State Lighting EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Lighting EFRC SSLS CoffeeDessert Hour Calendar of Topics On June 24, 2013, in All Publications On June 10, 2013, in A list of all publications can be found here: SSLS...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dot Transitions On April 5, 2011, in EC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, News, Solid-State Lighting March 1, 2011singlepic id364 w320 h240 floatright The fundamental interaction...

  14. Pennsylvania Solid Waste- Resource Recovery Development Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act promotes the construction and the application of solid waste disposal/processing and resource recovery systems that preserve and enhance the quality of air, water, and land resources. The...

  15. Montana Solid Waste Management Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the public policy of the state to control solid waste management systems to protect the public health and safety and to conserve natural resources whenever possible. The Department of...

  16. Geothermal Direct-Use — Minimizing Solid Waste

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Aquaculture and horticulture businesses, and other industries that use geothermal direct-use systems typically don't generate any more solid waste than those that use other energy resources.

  17. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment of deep level defects in m-plane GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition On February 22, 2012, in Energy Efficiency, News, News & Events, Solid-State...

  19. Templated dewetting of thin solid films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giermann, Amanda L. (Amanda Leah)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dewetting of solid metal polycrystalline films to form metal nanoparticles occurs by the nucleation and growth of holes in the film. For typical films on flat substrates, this process is not well-controlled and results ...

  20. Drastic Productivity Gain for Large-Truck Operations with Automated Trailer Steering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    ] · A Solution Concept: Automated Trailer Steering · Elimination of Off-tracking (Vehicle Dynamics Only) ­ Models & simulation with ad hoc steering angles [2007] ­ LQR-RWA active control for high speeds [2007] ­ CommandDrastic Productivity Gain for Large-Truck Operations with Automated Trailer Steering via Fuel

  1. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract.... Complex compounds have a number of advantages as working media, including: 43 SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL Engineer Rocky Research Boulder city, NV DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER President Rocky Research Boulder city, NV MR...

  2. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlandson, Alvin C. (Livermore, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Clayton, CA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  3. Experimental analysis of municipal solid waste samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendoza Sanchez, Itza

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE SAMPLES A Thesis by ITZA MENDOZA SANCHEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University tn partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 2002 Major Subject: Civil Engmeering EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE SAMPLES A Thesis by ITZA MENDOZA SANCHEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M Umversity in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  4. Tribological Characterization of Carbon Based Solid Lubricants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Carlos Joel

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    TRIBOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON BASED SOLID LUBRICANTS A Thesis by CARLOS JOEL SANCHEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2011 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering TRIBOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON BASED SOLID LUBRICANTS A Thesis by CARLOS JOEL SANCHEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas...

  5. DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. V. Virkar

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INL’s test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

  6. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on recent work directed towards determining the viability of polycrystalline Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting ..beta..''-alumina solid electrolytes as the basis for a new type of high temperature battery. In this battery system the negative electrode consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electro-chemistry was mediated to the calcium conducting solid electrolyte via the use of the molten salt eutectic CaCl/sub 2/ (51.4/sup M//0), CaI/sub 2/ (mp 550/sup 0/C). Both the molten salt and the calcium-alloy negative active material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting polycrystalline solid electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having a somewhat related crystallographic structure to Ca/sup 2 +/ ..beta..''-alumina, but where a significant fraction of the A1/sup 3 +/ sites located within this solid electrolyte's spinel block were replaced by immobile transition metal species. These species were available for participating in solid-state redox electrochemistry upon electrochemical cell cycling.

  7. Measuring the Running of the Electromagnetic Coupling Alpha in Small Angle Bhabha Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Trentadue

    2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method to determine the running of $\\alpha_{QED}$ from the measurement of small-angle Bhabha scattering. The method is suited to high statistics experiments at $e^{+} e^{-}$ colliders, which are equipped with luminometers in the appropriate angular region. We present a new simulation code predicting small-angle Bhabha scattering. A detailed description of this idea can be found in A.B. Arbuzov, D. Haidt, C. Matteuzzi, M. Paganoni and L. Trentadue, The running of the electromagnetic coupling alpha in small-angle Bhabha scattering, Eur. Phys. J. C34, 267 (2004).

  8. Using Quasi-EZ-NAND Flash Memory to Build Large-Capacity Solid-State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tong

    -NAND flash, and both can reduce the average SSD response time by over 90 percent compared with conventional system data storage integrity and maintain sufficient PE cycling endurance and data retention postcompensation/predistortion [5] for compensating cell-to-cell interference) may demand fine-grained memory cell

  9. Supporting Information for: Surfactant-Free, Large-Scale, Solution-Liquid-Solid (SLS) Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    . ........................ S6 #12; S2- Experimental details: Chemicals. Triethylgallium (TEG, min. 97%, Strem), tris chromatography. Preparation of a stock 0.15 mmol/g TEG-TMSP solution. Squalane was degassed and dried at ~140 C under vacuum for ~ 2 h and stored in a glove box filled with dry N2. The precursor TEG-TMSP solution

  10. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research were undertaken: (1) establishing the design and safety-related basis via neutronic and reactor control assessments with the graphite foam as heat transfer medium; (2) evaluating the thermal performance of the graphite foam for heat removal, reactor stability, reactor operations, and overall core thermal characteristics; (3) characterizing the physical properties of the graphite foam under normal and irradiated conditions to determine any effects on structure, dimensional stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansion; and (4) developing a power conversion system design to match the reactor operating parameters.

  11. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  12. Integrating Multiple Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modules* Burak Ozpineci1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Integrating Multiple Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modules* Burak Ozpineci1 burak@ieee.org Zhong Du2 zdu1 of Energy's Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program [3] is targeting solid oxide fuel cell Laboratory P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 Abstract-According to SECA program guidelines, solid oxide

  13. 2014 Course Description Solid Waste Engineering -CE 477

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barlaz, Morton A.

    2014 Course Description Solid Waste Engineering - CE 477 Engineering Principles of Solid Waste on course web site http://people.engr.ncsu.edu/barlaz/ Solid Waste Technology & Management by Christensen et al (eBook available through NCSU libraries) Solid waste management must be addressed by virtually

  14. MANAGEMENT OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE Revised August 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Fordyce A.

    k MANAGEMENT OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE Revised August 2008 Safety Services #12;MANAGEMENT OF SOLID for Appendices 4 and 5 22 Appendix 10 Flow chart of waste-streaming 23 #12;1 MANAGEMENT OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE The aims of the procedures described here are: To minimise the volumes and activities of solid

  15. Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills G. Vincent Calder, Ph.D.1 ; and Timothy D. Stark, Ph.D., P.E., F.ASCE2 Abstract: Aluminum enters municipal solid waste MSW landfills from: Solid wastes; Aluminum; Chemicals; Waste disposal; Landfills. Author keywords: Solid waste; Leachate

  16. Irrigation of Liquid Manures with Solid Set Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaye, Jason P.

    Irrigation of Liquid Manures with Solid Set Systems Albert R. Jarrett, Professor, Agricultural Extension Solid Set Irrigation System Solid set irrigation is a system of irrigation sprinklers and piping moved from one location to another). Solid set irrigation systems are rarely used to apply liquid manure

  17. Solid sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sirwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    New low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35.degree. C.

  18. Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirwardane, Ranjani V.

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    New low-cost CO2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35 degrees C.

  19. Neutrino Oscillations With Recently Measured Sterile-Active Neutrino Mixing Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard S. Kisslinger

    2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This brief report is an extension of a prediction of neutrino oscillation with a sterile neutrino using parameters of the sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle recently extracted from experiment.

  20. Joint anisotropy characterization and image formation in wide-angle synthetic aperture radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varshney, Kush R. (Kush Raj)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Imagery formed from wide-angle synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements has fine cross-range resolution in principle. However, conventional SAR image formation techniques assume isotropic scattering, which is not valid ...

  1. Acoustic And Elastic Reverse-Time Migration: Novel Angle-Domain Imaging Conditions And Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Rui

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    imaging. For small angles, the PPP and PPS paths carry mosttraveling paths are labeled with two legs such as PPP-PSP.The left leg (PPP) is the downgoing path and the right leg (

  2. Neutrino Oscillations With Recently Measured Sterile-Active Neutrino Mixing Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kisslinger, Leonard S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brief report is an extension of a prediction of neutrino oscillation with a sterile neutrino using parameters of the sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle recently extracted from experiment.

  3. Effect of catch-and-release angling on growth of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilde, Gene

    - pterus salmoides Lace´ pe` de are reported. Because catch- and-release mortality is temperature dependent bass, Micropterus salmoides Lace´ pe` de. Angling mortality was 0.00 ± 0.092% for largemouth bass

  4. Investigation of microstructure of disordered colloidal systems by small-angle scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Wei-Shan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-angle scattering (SAS) has been widely applied to study the microstructure of colloidal systems. Although colloids cover a wide range of materials, in general they can simply be viewed as basic building particles ...

  5. A system for optimizing interior daylight distribution using reflective Venetian blinds with independent blind angle control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, Molly E

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An operational algorithm for blind angle control is developed to optimize the daylighting performance of a system of reflective Venetian blinds. Numerical modeling and experiment confirm that independent control of alternating ...

  6. Improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle ?[subscript 13] with the Double Chooz detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conrad, Janet

    The Double Chooz experiment presents improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle ?[subscript 13] using the data collected in 467.90 live days from a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two ...

  7. [superscript 15]N-[superscript 15]N Proton Assisted Recoupling in Magic Angle Spinning NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, Jozef R.

    We describe a new magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiment for obtaining [superscript 15]N?[superscript 15]N correlation spectra. The approach yields direct information about the secondary and tertiary structure of proteins, ...

  8. Krill-eye : Superposition Compound Eye for Wide-Angle Imaging via GRIN Lenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiura, Shinsaku

    We propose a novel wide angle imaging system inspired by compound eyes of animals. Instead of using a single lens, well compensated for aberration, we used a number of simple lenses to form a compound eye which produces ...

  9. The effects of lithology and initial fault angle in physical models of fault-propagation folds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLain, Christopher Thomas

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimentally deformed physical rock models are used to examine the effects of changing mechanical stratigraphy and initial fault angle on the development of fault-propagation folds over a flat-ramp-flat thrust geometry. This study also...

  10. Microsoft Word - Milestone_Report-12-2012-Small-Angle_Neutron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone M3LW-13OR0402012, Report on Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Experiments of Irradiated RPV Materials Prepared by M. A. Sokolov, K....

  11. Demonstration of a novel focusing small-angle neutron scattering instrument equipped with axisymmetric mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Dazhi

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is the most significant neutron technique in terms of impact on science and engineering. However, the basic design of SANS facilities has not changed since the technique’s inception ...

  12. Using Semantic Similarity to Predict Angle and Distance of Objects in Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Jim

    sterling@sterlingsomers .com Jonathan Gagné Dept. Systems Design Engineering University of Waterloo 200Using Semantic Similarity to Predict Angle and Distance of Objects in Images Sterling Somers

  13. The effect of fuel injection angle and pressure on combustor performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael Lee

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    )ed in the areas of combustion and fuels. Michael is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and Pi Tau Sigma. Mr. Brown's permanent address is: P. O. Box 495 Duluth, Georgia 30136 The typist.... Furthermore, FAR can effect combustor performance. Two different mass flows, 2. 9 and 14. 7 pounds per hour, yielding two different FARs were run at each injection angle and pressure. Concerning fuel injection parameters, six different injection angles (0...

  14. Is the friction angle the maximum slope of a free surface of a non cohesive material?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Modaressi; P. Evesque

    2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting from a symmetric triangular pile with a horizontal basis and rotating the basis in the vertical plane, we have determined the evolution of the stress distribution as a function of the basis inclination using Finite Elements method with an elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive model, defined by its friction angle, without cohesion. It is found that when the yield function is the Drucker-Prager one, stress distribution satisfying equilibrium can be found even when one of the free-surface slopes is larger than the friction angle. This means that piles with a slope larger than the friction angle can be (at least) marginally stable and that slope rotation is not always a destabilising perturbation direction. On the contrary, it is found that the slope cannot overpass the friction angle when a Mohr-Coulomb yield function is used. Theoretical explanation of these facts is given which enlightens the role plaid by the intermediate principal stress in both cases of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion and of the Drucker-Prager one. It is then argued that the Mohr-Coulomb criterion assumes a spontaneous symmetry breaking, as soon as the two smallest principal stresses are different ; this is not physical most likely; so this criterion shall be replaced by a Drucker-Prager criterion in the vicinity of the equality, which leads to the previous anomalous behaviour ; so these numerical computations enlighten the avalanche process: they show that no dynamical angle larger than the static one is needed to understand avalanching. It is in agreement with previous experimental results. Furthermore, these results show that the maximum angle of repose can be modified using cyclic rotations; we propose a procedure that allows to achieve a maximum angle of repose to be equal to the friction angle .

  15. The effects of diamond injector angles on flow structures at various Mach numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLellan, Justin Walter

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF DIAMOND INJECTOR ANGLES ON FLOW STRUCTURES AT VARIOUS MACH NUMBERS A Thesis by JUSTIN WALTER MCLELLAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2005 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering THE EFFECTS OF DIAMOND INJECTOR ANGLES ON FLOW STRUCTURES AT VARIOUS MACH NUMBERS A Thesis by JUSTIN WALTER...

  16. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a propagating turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically-fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angled well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thininterbedded layers and the well bore.

  17. Design of an electronic phase angle meter for use with electronic analog computers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Allen Baxter

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DESIGN OF AN ELECTRONIC PHASE ANGLE METER FOR USE WITH ELECTRONIC ANALOG COMPUTERS A Thesis By Allen Baxter Cunningham Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTFR OF SCIFNCE August 1957 Ma]or Sub]ect! Electrical Engineering DESIGN OF AN ELECTRONIC PHASE ANGLE METER FOR USE WITH ELECTRONIC ANALOG COMPUTERS A Thesis Allen Baxter Cunningham Approved e to style and conte...

  18. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  19. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, Near-InfraRed channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  20. Real-Time Magnetic Field Pitch Angle Estimation with a Motional Stark Effect Diagnostic Using Kalman Filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Real-Time Magnetic Field Pitch Angle Estimation with a Motional Stark Effect Diagnostic Using Kalman Filtering

  1. Photon electroproduction from hydrogen at backward angles and momentum transfer squared of $Q^{2}=1.0Gev^{2}$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laveissière, G; Jaminion, S; Jutier, C; Todor, L; Di Salvo, R; Van Hoorebeke, L; Alexa, L C; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K A; Arundell, K; Audit, G; Auerbach, L; Baker, F T; Baylac, M; Berthot, J; Bertin, P Y; Bertozzi, W; Bimbot, L; Böglin, W; Brash, E J; Breton, V; Breuer, H; Burtin, E; Calarco, J R; Cardman, L S; Cavata, C; Chang, C C; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Dale, D S; De Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A; D'Hose, N; Dodge, G E; Domingo, John J; Elouadrhiri, L; Epstein, M B; Ewell, L A; Finn, J M; Fissum, K G; Fonvieille, H; Fournier, G; Frois, B; Frullani, S; Furget, C; Gao, H; Gao, J; Garibaldi, F; Gasparian, A; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Gómez, J; Gorbenko, V; Grenier, P; Guichon, P A M; Hansen, J O; Holmes, R; Holtrop, M; Howell, C; Huber, G M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Incerti, S; Iodice, M; Jardillier, J; Jones, M K; Kahl, W; Kamalov, S; Kato, S; Katramatou, A T; Kelly, J J; Kerhoas, S; Ketikyan, A; Khayat, M; Kino, K; Kox, S; Kramer, L H; Kumar, K S; Kumbartzki, G; Kuss, M; Leone, A; Le Rose, J J; Liang, M; Lindgren, R A; Liyanage, N K; Lolos, G J; Lourie, R W; Madey, R; Maeda, K; Malov, S; Manley, D M; Marchand, C; Marchand, D; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marroncle, J; Martino, J; McCormick, K; McIntyre, J; Mehrabyan, S S; Merchez, F; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Miller, G W; Mougey, J Y; Nanda, S K; Neyret, D; Offermann, E; Papandreou, Z; Perdrisat, C F; Perrino, R; Petratos, G G; Platchkov, S; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Prout, D L; Punjabi, V A; Pussieux, T; Quéméner, G; Ransome, R D; Ravel, O; Real, J S; Renard, F; Roblin, Y; Rowntree, D; Rutledge, G; Rutt, P M; Saha, A; Saitô, T; Sarty, A J; Serdarevic, A; Smith, T; Smirnov, G; Soldi, K; Sorokin, P; Souder, P A; Suleiman, R; Templon, J A; Terasawa, T; Tiator, L; Tieulent, R; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Tsubota, H; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Van De Vyver, R; Van, R L J; der Meer; Vernin, P; Vlahovic, B; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wijesooriya, K; Wilson, R; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zainea, D G; Zhang, W M; Zhao, J; Zhou, Z L

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photon electroproduction from hydrogen at backward angles and momentum transfer squared of $Q^{2}=1.0Gev^{2}$

  2. Evaluation of the Faraday Angle by Numerical Methods and Comparison with the Tore Supra and JET Polarimeter Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of the Faraday Angle by Numerical Methods and Comparison with the Tore Supra and JET Polarimeter Electronics

  3. Large Spectral Library Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.

  4. Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in the Born–Oppenheimer hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.D. [National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)] [National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Yi, X.X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Fu, L.B., E-mail: lbfu.iapcm@gmail.com [National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in the Born–Oppenheimer (BO) hybrid systems and obtain their algebraic expressions in terms of one form connection. The semiclassical relation of Berry phase and Hannay’s angle is discussed. We find that, besides the usual connection term, the Berry phase of quantum BO composite system also contains a novel term brought forth by the coupling induced effective gauge potential. This quantum modification can be viewed as an effective Aharonov–Bohm effect. Moreover, the similar phenomenon is founded in Hannay’s angle of classical BO composite system, which indicates that the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle possess the same relation as the usual one. An example is used to illustrate our theory. This scheme can be used to generate artificial gauge potentials for neutral atoms. Besides, the quantum–classical hybrid BO system is also studied to compare with the results in full quantum and full classical composite systems. -- Highlights: •We have derived the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in BO hybrid systems. •The Berry phase contains a novel term brought by the effective gauge potential. •This mechanism can be used to generate artificial gauge potentials for neutral atoms. •The relation between Hannay’s angles and Berry phases is established.

  5. Abstract--The FREEDM grid utilizes solid state transformers (SST) and solid state fault interruption devices (FID) which may

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    bidirectional power flow between the system and the renewable energy sources. The system also includes solid of a Distribution Grid with Solid State Power Devices Karl Stefanski, Hengsi Qin, Badrul H. Chowdhury, Senior Member1 Abstract-- The FREEDM grid utilizes solid state transformers (SST) and solid state fault

  6. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Bailey, Sharon A.; Bower, John C.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Michael D.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Lawler, Bruce D.; Loveland, Jesse S.; Mullen, O Dennis; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Peters, Timothy J.; Robinson, Peter J.; Russcher, Michael S.; Sande, Susan; Santoso, Christian; Shoemaker, Steven V.; Silva, Steve M.; Smith, Devin E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Toth, James J.; Wiberg, John D.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zuljevic, Nino

    2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants. The test data were used to independently develop mixing models that can be used to predict full-scale WTP vessel performance and to rate current WTP mixing system designs against two specific performance requirements. One requirement is to ensure that all solids have been disturbed during the mixing action, which is important to release gas from the solids. The second requirement is to maintain a suspended solids concentration below 20 weight percent at the pump inlet. The models predict the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action, and the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate we can calculate the concentration of solids at the pump inlet. The velocity needed to lift the solids is slightly more demanding than "disturbing" the solids, and is used as a surrogate for this metric. We applied the models to assess WTP mixing vessel performance with respect to the two perform¬ance requirements. Each mixing vessel was evaluated against these two criteria for two defined waste conditions. One of the wastes was defined by design limits and one was derived from Hanford waste characterization reports. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The HLP-022 vessel was also evaluated using 12 m/s pulse jet velocity with 6-in. nozzles, and this design also did not satisfy the criteria for all of the conditions evaluated.

  7. Small angle neutron scattering study of deuterated sodium dodecylsulfate micellization in dilute poly((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kofinas, Peter

    Small angle neutron scattering study of deuterated sodium dodecylsulfate micellization in dilute 2010 Keywords: Poly((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) Micelle Small angle neutron scattering a b angle neutron scattering. We found three transitions of the poly ((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate

  8. Apparatus for the investigation of liquid systems in a shear gradient by small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of small angle neutron scattering from fluids in a constant shear gradient. Typical systems which can angle neutron scattering experiments with liquids have given information about structural pro- perties759 Apparatus for the investigation of liquid systems in a shear gradient by small angle neutron

  9. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  10. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Sanner, Robert D. (Livermore, CA); Dias, Victoria L. (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  11. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Sanner, Robert D. (Livermore, CA); Dias, Victoria L. (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  12. Thickening of ultrafine coal-water slurries in a solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinkerton, A.P.; Klima, M.S.; Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a study being conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) to evaluate ultrafine coal dewatering technologies, testing was carried out to investigate the use of a solid-bowl (high-g) centrifuge for thickening ultrafine coalwater slurries. The objective of this study was to increase the solids concentration to a level suitable for use as a coal-water slurry fuel, while maximizing overall solids recovery. Feed material was collected from the combined discharge (centrate) streams from several screen-bowl centrifuges. These devices are currently being used in a commercial coal cleaning facility to dewater the clean coal product from a froth flotation circuit. Current plant practice is to discharge the centrate to settling ponds. The screen bowl centrate averages 5% solids by weight and contains nearly 60% material finer than 10 {mu}m. The current study examined the effects of operating conditions on centrifuge performance. The test conditions included centrifuge bowl and scroll speeds and volumetric feed rate. In addition to thickening, some cleaning was also achieved, because the finest particles (e.g. < 3 {micro}m), which contained a large percentage of liberated clays, were removed with the bulk of the water. The centrifuge products were analyzed for solids concentration, particle size distribution, and ash content. Size selectivity curves were also used to evaluate centrifuge performance.

  13. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Summers; Hisham Menkara; Brent Wagner

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the â??anti-quenchingâ? behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, â??largeâ? nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material systems, the encapsulation of ZnSeS particle phosphors and ZnSeS screens with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} using ALD was shown to improve the stability by >8X and also increased the luminescence efficiency due to improved surface passivation and optical coupling. A large-volume fluidized bed ALD system was designed that can be adapted to a commercial ALD or vapor deposition system. Throughout the program, optical simulations were developed to evaluate and optimize various phosphor mixtures and device configurations. For example, to define the scattering properties of nanophosphors in an LED device or in a stand-off screen geometry. Also this work significantly promoted and assisted in the implementation of realistic phosphor material models into commercial modeling programs.

  14. Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosbie, Gary M. (Dearborn, MI); Predmesky, Ronald L. (Livonia, MI); Nicholson, John M. (Wayne, MI)

    1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  15. Apparatus for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosbie, Gary M. (Dearborn, MI); Predmesky, Ronald L. (Livonia, MI); Nicholson, John M. (Wayne, MI)

    1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  16. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  17. Extreme solid state refrigeration using nanostructured Bi-Te alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lima Sharma, Ana L. (San Jose State University, San Jose, CA); Spataru, Dan Catalin; Medlin, Douglas L.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Morales, Alfredo Martin

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials are desperately needed for cryogenic solid state refrigeration. We have investigated nanostructured Bi-Te alloys for their potential use in Ettingshausen refrigeration to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These alloys form alternating layers of Bi{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} blocks in equilibrium. The composition Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} was identified as having the greatest potential for having a high Ettingshausen figure of merit. Both single crystal and polycrystalline forms of this material were synthesized. After evaluating the Ettingshausen figure of merit for a large, high quality polycrystal, we simulated the limits of practical refrigeration in this material from 200 to 77 K using a simple device model. The band structure was also computed and compared to experiments. We discuss the crystal growth, transport physics, and practical refrigeration potential of Bi-Te alloys.

  18. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  19. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

  20. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.