National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for large high-power kinetic

  1. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corren, Dean; Colby, Jonathan; Adonizio, Mary Ann

    2013-01-29

    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  2. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pumped Solid State Laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser You are accessing ...

  3. Plasma reactivity in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering through oxygen kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitelaru, Catalin; Lundin, Daniel; Brenning, Nils; Minea, Tiberiu

    2013-09-02

    The atomic oxygen metastable dynamics in a Reactive High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS) discharge has been characterized using time-resolved diode laser absorption in an Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixture with a Ti target. Two plasma regions are identified: the ionization region (IR) close to the target and further out the diffusion region (DR), separated by a transition region. The μs temporal resolution allows identifying the main atomic oxygen production and destruction routes, which are found to be very different during the pulse as compared to the afterglow as deduced from their evolution in space and time.

  4. Large kinetic asymmetry in the metal-insulator transition nucleated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Large kinetic asymmetry in the metal-insulator transition nucleated at localized and extended defects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large kinetic...

  5. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), ...

  6. Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High-Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Large-Scale Production of Marine Microalgae for Fuel and Feeds March 24, 2015 Algae Platform Review Mark Huntley Cornell Marine Algal Biofuels Consortium This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement  BETO MYPP Goals (3) Demonstrate 1. Performance against clear cost goals and technical targets (Q4 2013) 2. Productivity of 1,500 gal/acre/yr algal oil (Q4 2014)

  7. Explicit integration with GPU acceleration for large kinetic networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brock, Benjamin; Belt, Andrew; Billings, Jay Jay; Guidry, Mike W.

    2015-09-15

    In this study, we demonstrate the first implementation of recently-developed fast explicit kinetic integration algorithms on modern graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerators. Taking as a generic test case a Type Ia supernova explosion with an extremely stiff thermonuclear network having 150 isotopic species and 1604 reactions coupled to hydrodynamics using operator splitting, we demonstrate the capability to solve of order 100 realistic kinetic networks in parallel in the same time that standard implicit methods can solve a single such network on a CPU. In addition, this orders-of-magnitude decrease in computation time for solving systems of realistic kinetic networks implies thatmore » important coupled, multiphysics problems in various scientific and technical fields that were intractable, or could be simulated only with highly schematic kinetic networks, are now computationally feasible.« less

  8. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  9. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  10. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  11. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minich, Roger W.

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  12. HIGH POWER PULSED OSCILLATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singer, S.; Neher, L.K.

    1957-09-24

    A high powered, radio frequency pulse oscillator is described for generating trains of oscillations at the instant an input direct voltage is impressed, or immediately upon application of a light pulse. In one embodiment, the pulse oscillator comprises a photo-multiplier tube with the cathode connected to the first dynode by means of a resistor, and adjacent dynodes are connected to each other through adjustable resistors. The ohmage of the resistors progressively increases from a very low value for resistors adjacent the cathode to a high value adjacent the plate, the last dynode. Oscillation occurs with this circuit when a high negative voltage pulse is applied to the cathode and the photo cathode is bombarded. Another embodiment adds capacitors at the resistor connection points of the above circuit to increase the duration of the oscillator train.

  13. Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High-Power High-efficiency Waste Heat Recovery for Electricity Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-dimension, high-ZT BiTe and Pb-based nanocomposites produced with a low-cost scalable process were used for development and testing of TE module prototypes, and demonstration of a waste heat recovery system

  14. Recent Advances in Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models for Large Hydrocarbon and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Herbinet, O; Mehl, M

    2009-03-30

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for these two primary reference fuels for diesel, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Also, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. Methyl decanoate and methyl stearate are large methyl esters that are closely related to biodiesel fuels, and kinetic models for these molecules have also been developed. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the fuel molecule size and structure on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  15. High power connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Christopher E.; Beer, Robert C.; McCall, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    A high power connection system adapted for automotive environments which provides environmental and EMI shielding includes a female connector, a male connector, and a panel mount. The female connector includes a female connector base and a snap fitted female connector cover. The male connector includes a male connector base and a snap fitted male connector cover. The female connector base has at least one female power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective female power terminal. The male connector base has at least one male power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective male power terminal. The female connector is covered by a cover seal and a conductive shroud. A pair of lock arms protrude outward from the front end of the male connector base, pass through the panel mount and interface with a lever of a lever rotatably connected to the shroud to thereby mechanically assist mating of the male and female connectors. Safety terminals in the male and female connectors provide a last-to-connect-first-to-break connection with an HVIL circuit.

  16. BEAM INSTRUMENTATION FOR HIGH POWER HADRON BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will describe developments in the beam diagnostics which support the understanding and operation of high power hadron accelerators. These include the measurement of large dynamic range transverse and longitudinal beam profiles, beam loss detection, and non-interceptive diagnostics.

  17. High Power Coax Window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, M. L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Elliott, T. S.; Rimmer, R. A.; Stirbet, M. S.

    2010-05-23

    A su­per­con­duct­ing RF (SRF) power cou­pler ca­pa­ble of han­dling 500 kW CW RF power is re­quired for pre­sent and fu­ture stor­age rings and linacs. There are over 35 cou­pler de­signs for SRF cav­i­ties rang­ing in fre­quen­cy from 325 to 1500 MHz. Cou­pler win­dows vary from cylin­ders to cones to disks, and RF power cou­plers are lim­it­ed by the abil­i­ty of ce­ram­ic win­dows to with­stand the stress­es due to heat­ing and me­chan­i­cal flex­ure. We pro­pose a novel ro­bust co-ax­i­al SRF cou­pler de­sign which uses com­pressed win­dow tech­nol­o­gy. This tech­nol­o­gy will allow the use of high­ly ther­mal­ly con­duc­tive ma­te­ri­als for cryo­genic win­dows. Using com­pressed win­dow tech­niques on disk co-ax­i­al win­dows will make sig­nif­i­cant im­prove­ments in the power han­dling of SRF cou­plers. We pre­sent the bench test re­sults of two win­dow as­sem­blies back to back, as well as in­di­vid­u­al win­dow VSWR in EIA3.125 coax. A vac­u­um test as­sem­bly was made and the win­dows baked out at 155C. The pro­cess­es used to build win­dows is scal­able to larg­er di­am­e­ter coax and to high­er power lev­els.

  18. High power neutron production targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wender, S.

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  19. High power gas laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leland, Wallace T.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1981-01-01

    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  20. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  1. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  2. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Vlieks, Arnold E.

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  3. Turbulent kinetics of a large wind farm and their impact in the neutral boundary layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Na, Ji Sung; Koo, Eunmo; Munoz-Esparza, Domingo; Jin, Emilia Kyung; Linn, Rodman; Lee, Joon Sang

    2015-12-28

    High-resolution large-eddy simulation of the flow over a large wind farm (64 wind turbines) is performed using the HIGRAD/FIRETEC-WindBlade model, which is a high-performance computing wind turbine–atmosphere interaction model that uses the Lagrangian actuator line method to represent rotating turbine blades. These high-resolution large-eddy simulation results are used to parameterize the thrust and power coefficients that contain information about turbine interference effects within the wind farm. Those coefficients are then incorporated into the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model in order to evaluate interference effects in larger-scale models. In the high-resolution WindBlade wind farm simulation, insufficient distance between turbines creates the interference between turbines, including significant vertical variations in momentum and turbulent intensity. The characteristics of the wake are further investigated by analyzing the distribution of the vorticity and turbulent intensity. Quadrant analysis in the turbine and post-turbine areas reveals that the ejection motion induced by the presence of the wind turbines is dominant compared to that in the other quadrants, indicating that the sweep motion is increased at the location where strong wake recovery occurs. Regional-scale WRF simulations reveal that although the turbulent mixing induced by the wind farm is partly diffused to the upper region, there is no significant change in the boundary layer depth. The velocity deficit does not appear to be very sensitive to the local distribution of turbine coefficients. However, differences of about 5% on parameterized turbulent kinetic energy were found depending on the turbine coefficient distribution. Furthermore, turbine coefficients that consider interference in the wind farm should be used in wind farm parameterization for larger-scale models to better describe sub-grid scale turbulent processes.

  4. Turbulent kinetics of a large wind farm and their impact in the neutral boundary layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Na, Ji Sung; Koo, Eunmo; Munoz-Esparza, Domingo; Jin, Emilia Kyung; Linn, Rodman; Lee, Joon Sang

    2015-12-28

    High-resolution large-eddy simulation of the flow over a large wind farm (64 wind turbines) is performed using the HIGRAD/FIRETEC-WindBlade model, which is a high-performance computing wind turbine–atmosphere interaction model that uses the Lagrangian actuator line method to represent rotating turbine blades. These high-resolution large-eddy simulation results are used to parameterize the thrust and power coefficients that contain information about turbine interference effects within the wind farm. Those coefficients are then incorporated into the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model in order to evaluate interference effects in larger-scale models. In the high-resolution WindBlade wind farm simulation, insufficient distance between turbines createsmore » the interference between turbines, including significant vertical variations in momentum and turbulent intensity. The characteristics of the wake are further investigated by analyzing the distribution of the vorticity and turbulent intensity. Quadrant analysis in the turbine and post-turbine areas reveals that the ejection motion induced by the presence of the wind turbines is dominant compared to that in the other quadrants, indicating that the sweep motion is increased at the location where strong wake recovery occurs. Regional-scale WRF simulations reveal that although the turbulent mixing induced by the wind farm is partly diffused to the upper region, there is no significant change in the boundary layer depth. The velocity deficit does not appear to be very sensitive to the local distribution of turbine coefficients. However, differences of about 5% on parameterized turbulent kinetic energy were found depending on the turbine coefficient distribution. Furthermore, turbine coefficients that consider interference in the wind farm should be used in wind farm parameterization for larger-scale models to better describe sub-grid scale turbulent processes.« less

  5. Feedthrough terminal for high-power cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1982-05-28

    A feedthrough terminal for a high power electrochemical storage cell providing low resistance coupling to the conductive elements therein while isolating the terminal electrode from the highly corrosive environment within the cell is disclosed. A large diameter, cylindrical copper electrode is enclosed in a stainless steel tube with a BN powder feedthrough seal maintained around the stainless steel tube by means of facing insulative bushings and an outer sleeve. One end of the copper conductor is silver-brazed directly to a flat, butterfly bus bar within the cell, with the adjacent end of the surrounding outer feedthrough sleeve welded to the bus bar. A threaded seal is fixedly positioned on a distal portion of the stainless steel tube immediately adjacent the distal insulative bushing so as to compress the feedthrough seal in tight fitting relation around the stainless steel tube in providing a rugged, leak-proof electrical feedthrough terminal for the power cell.

  6. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering High power ...

  7. High power laser perforating tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-04-22

    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  8. Structure and charging kinetics of electrical double layers at large electrode voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cagle, Clint [Clemson University; Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Qiao, Rui [Clemson University; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The structure and charging kinetics of electrical double layers (EDLs) at interfaces of NaCl solutions and planar electrodes are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) and Poisson Nernst Planck (PNP) simulations. Based on the MD results and prior experimental data, we show that counterion packing in planar EDLs does not reach the steric limit at electrode voltages below 1 V. In addition, we demonstrate that a PNP model, when complemented with a Stern model, can be effectively used to capture the overall charging kinetics. However, the PNP/Stern model can only give a qualitative description of the fine features of the EDL.

  9. High Power Co-Axial Coupler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, M.; Dudas, A.; Rimmer, Robert A.; Guo, Jiquan; Williams, R. Scott

    2013-12-01

    A very high power Coax RF Coupler (MW-Level) is very desirable for a number of accelerator and commercial applications. For example, the development of such a coupler operating at 1.5 GHz may permit the construction of a higher-luminosity version of the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) being planned at JLab. Muons, Inc. is currently funded by a DOE STTR grant to develop a 1.5-GHz high-power doublewindowcoax coupler with JLab (about 150 kW). Excellent progress has been made on this R&D project, so we propose an extension of this development to build a very high power coax coupler (MW level peak power and a max duty factor of about 4%). The dimensions of the current coax coupler will be scaled up to provide higher power capability.

  10. New High-Power Laser Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Power Laser Technology New High-Power Laser Technology December 10, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Foro Energy partners with Dept of Energy to commercialize high power lasers for the ...

  11. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Researchers at ...

  12. Novel Manufacturing Technologies for High Power Induction and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Permanent Magnet Electric Motors Novel Manufacturing Technologies for High Power ... More Documents & Publications Novel Manufacturing Technologies for High Power Induction ...

  13. Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Poster presentation given at the 16th Directions in ...

  14. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering You are ...

  15. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: Scalable plasma sources ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High power impulse magnetron sputtering and ...

  16. Method and apparatus for improved high power impulse magnetron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Method and apparatus for improved high power impulse magnetron sputtering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method and apparatus for improved high power impulse ...

  17. Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy ...

  18. High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential May 29, 2015 - 11:02am Addthis The Energy Department's ...

  19. New high power linacs and beam physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangler, T.P.; Gray, E.R.; Nath, S.; Crandall, K.R.; Hasegawa, K.

    1997-08-01

    New high-power proton linacs must be designed to control beam loss, which can lead to radioactivation of the accelerator. The threat of beam loss is increased significantly by the formation of beam halo. Numerical simulation studies have identified the space-charge interactions, especially those that occur in rms mismatched beams, as a major concern for halo growth. The maximum-amplitude predictions of the simulation codes must be subjected to independent tests to confirm the validity of the results. Consequently, the authors compare predictions from the particle-core halo models with computer simulations to test their understanding of the halo mechanisms that are incorporated in the computer codes. They present and discuss scaling laws that provide guidance for high-power linac design.

  20. High-Powered Lasers for Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    highpowered lasers High-Powered Lasers for Clean Energy Eli-Beamlines Architectural Design Architect's Rendering of the exterior of the Eli-Beamlines facility now under construction in the Czech Republic. Fusion is the process by which the Sun and other stars convert or "burn" hydrogen (the lightest element) and produce helium (the next lightest element). The fusion of hydrogen releases immense amounts of energy. Conditions needed to burn fusion fuel include extremely high temperatures

  1. High power, high frequency, vacuum flange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felker, Brian (Livermore, CA); McDaniel, Michael R. (Manteca, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved waveguide flange is disclosed for high power operation that helps prevent arcs from being initiated at the junctions between waveguide sections. The flanges at the end of the waveguide sections have counterbores surrounding the waveguide tubes. When the sections are bolted together the counterbores form a groove that holds a fully annealed copper gasket. Each counterbore has a beveled step that is specially configured to insure the gasket forms a metal-to-metal vacuum seal without gaps or sharp edges. The resultant inner surface of the waveguide is smooth across the junctions between waveguide sections, and arcing is prevented.

  2. High power, high frequency, vacuum flange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felker, B.; McDaniel, M.R.

    1993-03-23

    An improved waveguide flange is disclosed for high power operation that helps prevent arcs from being initiated at the junctions between waveguide sections. The flanges at the end of the waveguide sections have counter bores surrounding the waveguide tubes. When the sections are bolted together the counter bores form a groove that holds a fully annealed copper gasket. Each counterbore has a beveled step that is specially configured to insure the gasket forms a metal-to-metal vacuum seal without gaps or sharp edges. The resultant inner surface of the waveguide is smooth across the junctions between waveguide sections, and arcing is prevented.

  3. Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

    2009-03-09

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for both primary reference fuels, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Additionally, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the aforementioned fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  4. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  5. High-Power Options for LANSCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garnett, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The LANSCE linear accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory has a long history of successful beam operations at 800 kW. We have recently studied options for restoration of high-power operations including approaches for increasing the performance to multi-MW levels. In this paper we will discuss the results of this study including the present limitations of the existing accelerating structures at LANSCE, and the high-voltage and RF systems that drive them. Several options will be discussed and a preferred option will be presented that will enable the first in a new generation of scientific facilities for the materials community. The emphasis of this new facility is 'Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes' (MaRIE) which will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges.

  6. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing Wave Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing ...

  7. Measuring Tiny Waves with High Power Particle Beams | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab Measuring Tiny Waves with High Power Particle Beams American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Measuring Tiny Waves with High Power Particle Beams

  8. High power free-electron laser concepts and problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) have long been thought to offer the potential of high average power operation. That potential exists because of several unique properties of FELs, such as the removal of ``waste heat`` at the velocity of light, the ``laser medium`` (the electron beam) is impervious to damage by very high optical intensitites, and the technology of generating very high average power relativistic electron beams. In particular, if one can build a laser with a power extraction efficiency 11 which is driven by an electron beam of average Power P{sub EB}, one expects a laser output power of P{sub L} = {eta} P{sub EB}. One approach to FEL devices with large values of {eta} (in excess of 10 %) is to use a ``tapered`` (or nonuniform) wiggler. This approach was followed at several laboratories during the FEL development Program for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) project. In this paper, we review some concepts and technical requirements for high-power tapered-wiggler FELs driven by radio-frequency linear accelerators (rf-linacs) which were developed during the SDI project. Contributions from three quite different technologies - rf-accelerators, optics, and magnets - are needed to construct and operate an FEL oscillator. The particular requirements on these technologies for a high-power FEL were far beyond the state of the art in those areas when the SDI project started, so significant advances had to be made before a working device could be constructed. Many of those requirements were not clearly understood when the project started, but were developed during the course of the experimental and theoretical research for the project. This information can be useful in planning future high-power FEL projects.

  9. High power linear pulsed beam annealer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strathman, Michael D.; Sadana, Devendra K.; True, Richard B.

    1983-01-01

    A high power pulsed electron beam is produced in a system comprised of an electron gun having a heated cathode, control grid, focus ring, and a curved drift tube. The drift tube is maintained at a high positive voltage with respect to the cathode to accelerate electrons passing through the focus ring and to thereby eliminate space charge. A coil surrounding the curved drift tube provides a magnetic field which maintains the electron beam focused about the axis of the tube and imparts motion on electrons in a spiral path for shallow penetration of the electrons into a target. The curvature of the tube is selected so there is no line of sight between the cathode and a target holder positioned within a second drift tube spaced coaxially from the curved tube. The second tube and the target holder are maintained at a reference voltage that decelerates the electrons. A second coil surrounding the second drift tube maintains the electron beam focused about the axis of the second drift tube and compresses the electron beam to the area of the target. The target holder can be adjusted to position the target where the cross section of the beam matches the area of the target.

  10. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  11. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.

    1993-01-01

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  12. High power pulsed magnicon at 34-GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nezhevenko, O.A.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Ganguly, A.K.; Hirshfield, J.L. [Omega-P Inc., 202008 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    A high efficiency, high power magnicon amplifier at 34.272 GHz has been designed as a radiation source to drive multi-TeV electron-positron linear colliders. Simulations show peak output power of 45 MW in a 1.5 microsecond wide pulse with an efficiency of 45{percent} and gain of 55 dB. The repetition rate is 10 Hz. The amplifier is a frequency tripler, or third harmonic amplifier, in that the output frequency of 34.272 GHz is three times the input drive frequency of 11.424 GHz. Thus the rotating TM{sub 110} modes in the drive cavity, 3 gain cavities and double decoupled penultimate cavities are resonant near 11.424 GHz; and the rotating TM{sub 310} mode in the output cavity is resonant at 34.272 GHz. A 500 kV, 200 A high area compression electron gun will provide a low emittance electron beam with a diameter of about 0.8 mm. A superconducting solenoid magnet will provide a magnetic field of 13 kG in the deflection system and 22 kG in the output cavity. A collector for the spent beam has also been designed. Detailed simulation results for the operation of the entire magnicon amplifier (gun, magnetic system, rf system and collector) will be given. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation vss058_fenske_2011_o.pdf (352.55 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development of High Power Density

  14. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley ... by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). ...

  15. Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development Energy Storage Testing and ... Testing Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity ...

  16. Mechanical Analysis of High Power Internally Cooled Annular Fuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mechanical Analysis of High Power Internally Cooled Annular Fuel Annular fuel with internal flow is proposed to allow higher power density in pressurized water reactors. The ...

  17. High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is backing a new patented technology that uses high power lasers to maximize heat recovery for geothermal energy production.

  18. High-Power Batteries | Center for Energy Efficient Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Batteries Our goal is to develop and apply a new biologically inspired, low cost, ... exceptionally high power and stability as anodes and cathodes for lithium ion batteries. ...

  19. Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M

    2008-12-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic models are needed to simulate the combustion of current and future transportation fuels. These models should represent the various chemical classes in these fuels. Conventional diesel fuels are composed of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics (Farrell et al. 2007). For future fuels, there is a renewed interest in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) processes which can be used to synthesize diesel and other transportation fuels from biomass, coal and natural gas. F-T diesel fuels are expected to be similar to F-T jet fuels which are commonly comprised of iso-alkanes with some n-alkanes (Smith and Bruno, 2008). Thus, n-alkanes and iso-alkanes are common chemical classes in these conventional and future fuels. This paper reports on the development of chemical kinetic models of large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes to represent these chemical classes in conventional and future fuels. Two large iso-alkanes are 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, which is a primary reference fuel for diesel, and isooctane, a primary reference fuel for gasoline. Other iso-alkanes are branched alkanes with a single methyl side chain, typical of most F-T fuels. The chemical kinetic models are then used to predict the effect of these fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  20. A High Power Density DC-DC Converter for Distributed PV Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed S. Agamy; Song Chi; Ahmed Elasser; Maja Harfman-Todorovic; Yan Jiang; Frank Mueller; Fengfeng Tao

    2012-06-01

    In order to maximize solar energy harvesting capabilities, power converters have to be designed for high efficiency and good MPPT and voltage/current performance. When many converters are used in distributed systems, power density also becomes an important factor as it allows for simpler system integration. In this paper a high power density string dc-dc converter suitable for distributed medium to large scale PV installation is presented. A simple partial power processing topology, implemented with all silicon carbide devices provides high efficiency as well as high power density. A 3.5kW, 100kHz converter is designed and tested to verify the proposed methods.

  1. High power density fuel cell stack development for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pow, R.; Reindl, M.; Tilmetz, W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the joint development by Daimler-Benz and Ballard Power Systems of a high power-density fuel cell stack and its demonstration in a 6-passenger Minivan.

  2. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the

  3. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  4. High power laser workover and completion tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-10-28

    Workover and completion systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser workover and completion of a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform laser workover and completion operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  5. Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Poster presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-20_banerjee.pdf (160.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Diesel Injection Shear-Stress Advanced Nozzle (DISSAN) In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel Reactivity

  6. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-09-02

    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  7. High-power optical-fiber transport network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, S.J; Paris, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the U-AVLIS Program, organic dye laser chains generate the high-power, tunable laser light required by the uranium photoionization process. Up to fifteen chains of large-bore copper vapor lasers (CVLs) serve as the excitation source for these dye laser chains. Due to physical constraints and other considerations, the copper and dye laser systems are physically separated within the U-AVLIS Program`s Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF). An optical network is therefore required that serves as the conduit to efficiently transport the multi-kilowatt CVL beams to the dye lasers chains. Approximately ten years ago, the program began investigating the use of large-core optical-fiber cables as an alternative means of transporting CVL light. At that time, it was decided to separate the portion of the discrete delivery network that transported laser light to the dye master oscillators (DMOs) of the dye laser chains and convert that to an optical-fiber delivery approach. This first step in using optical fibers to transport CVL light to the low-power `front end` of the system was very successful and to date, several hundred thousand hours of routine, fiber-pumped DMO operation have been recorded. A key advantage in using optical fibers to deliver pump light to the DMOs is that the alignment of the optical fiber to the laser cavity is fixed, eliminating the need to make adjustments after the initial setup. Based on the experience gained pumping the DMOs with light delivered by optical fibers, nearly four years ago the more challenging task of converting the entire discrete copper laser delivery system to an optical-fiber-based network was begun.

  8. Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handren, R.T.

    1993-03-01

    Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest has been the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program has progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility has been built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a >90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities ({approximately}3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory`s safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

  9. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  10. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  11. A HIGH-POWER L-BAND RF WINDOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. RIMMER; G. KOEHLER; ET AL

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses the design, fabrication and testing of a high power alumina disk window in WR1500 waveguide at L Band, suitable for use in the NLC damping ring RF cavities at 714 MHz and the LEDA Accelerator at 700 MHz. The design is based on the fabrication methods used for the successful PEP-II cavity windows. Four prototype windows at 700 MHz have been produced by LBNL for testing at LANL. The RF design and simulation using MAFIA, laboratory cold test measurements, fabrication methods and preliminary high power test results are discussed.

  12. Transmutation and energy-production with high power accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1995-07-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required.

  13. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  14. All-metal metamaterial slow-wave structure for high-power sources with high efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yanshuai; Duan, Zhaoyun Tang, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhanliang; Zhang, Yabin; Gong, Yubin; Feng, Jinjun

    2015-10-12

    In this paper, we have proposed a metamaterial (MTM) which is suitable for the compact high-power vacuum electron devices. For example, an S-band slow-wave structure (SWS) based on the all-metal MTMs has been studied by both simulation and experiment. The results show that this MTM SWS is very helpful to miniaturize the high-power vacuum electron devices and largely improve the output power and the electronic efficiency. The simulation model of an S-band MTM backward wave oscillator (BWO) is built, and the particle-in-cell simulated results are presented here: a 2.454 GHz signal is generated and its peak output power is 4.0 MW with a higher electronic efficiency of 31.5% relative to the conventional BWOs.

  15. High-Power Microwave Transmission and Mode Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, Ronald J.

    2015-08-14

    This is a final technical report for a long term project to develop improved designs and design tools for the microwave hardware and components associated with the DOE Plasma Fusion Program. We have developed basic theory, software, fabrication techniques, and low-power measurement techniques for the design of microwave hardware associated gyrotrons, microwave mode converters and high-power microwave transmission lines. Specifically, in this report we discuss our work on designing quasi-optical mode converters for single and multiple frequencies, a new method for the analysis of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters, perturbed-wall launcher design for TE0n mode gyrotrons, quasi-optical traveling-wave resonator design for high-power testing of microwave components, and possible improvements to the HSX microwave transmission line.

  16. Technology requirements for high-power Lithium Lorentz Force accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, J.; Frisbee, R.; Krauthamer, S.; Tikhonov, V.; Semenikhin, S.; Kim, V.

    1997-01-01

    Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerators (LFA{close_quote}s) are capable of processing very high power levels and are therefore applicable to a wide range of challenging missions. An analysis of a reusable orbit transfer vehicle with a solar or nuclear electric power source was performed to assess the applicability of high-power LFA{close_quote}s to this mission and to define engine performance and lifetime goals to help guide the technology development program. For this class of missions, the emphasis must be on achieving high efficiency at an Isp of 4000{endash}5000 s at power levels of 200{endash}250 kWe. The engines must demonstrate very reliable operation for a service life of about 3000 hours. These goals appear to be achievable with engine technologies currently under development. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covrig, S. D.

    2013-11-07

    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 μA rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 μA beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets.

  18. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covrig, Silviu D.

    2013-11-01

    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 {micro}A rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 {micro}A beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets.

  19. High-Power Ka-Band Window and Resonant Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2006-11-29

    A stand-alone 200 MW rf test station is needed for carrying out development of accelerator structures and components for a future high-gradient multi-TeV collider, such as CLIC. A high-power rf window is needed to isolate the test station from a structure element under test. This project aimed to develop such a window for use at a frequency in the range 30-35 GHz, and to also develop a high-power resonant ring for testing the window. During Phase I, successful conceptual designs were completed for the window and the resonant ring, and cold tests of each were carried out that confirmed the designs.

  20. High power femtosecond lasers at ELI-NP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabu, Razvan

    2015-02-24

    Specifications of the high power laser system (HPLS) designed for nuclear physics experiments are presented. Configuration of the 2 × 10 PW femtosecond laser system is described. In order to reach the required laser beam parameters, advanced laser techniques are proposed for the HPLS: parametric amplification and cross-polarized wave generation for the intensity contrast improvement and spectral broadening, acousto-optic programmable filters to compensate for spectral phase dispersion, optical filters for spectrum management, combined methods for transversal laser suppression.

  1. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the

  2. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the

  3. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the

  4. Method and apparatus for tuning high power lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Vandersluis, Kenneth L.

    1977-04-19

    This invention relates to high power gas lasers that are adapted to be tuned to a desired lasing wavelength through the use of a gas cell to lower the gain at a natural lasing wavelength and "seeding" the laser with a beam from a low power laser which is lasing at the desired wavelength. This tuning is accomplished with no loss of power and produces a pulse with an altered pulse shape. It is potentially applicable to all gas lasers.

  5. Method and apparatus for improved high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2013-11-05

    A high power impulse magnetron sputtering apparatus and method using a vacuum chamber with a magnetron target and a substrate positioned in the vacuum chamber. A field coil being positioned between the magnetron target and substrate, and a pulsed power supply and/or a coil bias power supply connected to the field coil. The pulsed power supply connected to the field coil, and the pulsed power supply outputting power pulse widths of greater that 100 .mu.s.

  6. High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization Test (HPPC) results for 3 coin cells of various AB:PVDF ratios. Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization Test (HPPC) results for 3 coin cells of various AB:PVDF ratios. Technology Marketing SummaryGao Liu and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have

  7. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the

  8. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the

  9. Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Ruth, Ronald D.; Zolotorev, Max

    1998-01-01

    A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

  10. Lightning control system using high power microwave FEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiho, M.; Watanbe, A.; Kawasaki, S.

    1995-12-31

    A research project for developing a thunder lightning control system using an induction linac based high power microwave free electron laser (FEL) started at JAERI The system will produce weakly ionized plasma rod in the atmosphere by high power microwaves and control a lightning path, away from , e. g., nuclear power stations and rocket launchers. It has been known that about MW/cm{sup 2} power density is enough for the atmospheric breakdown in the microwave region, and which means high power microwave FEL with GW level output power is feasible for atmospheric breakdown, and accordingly is feasible for thunder lightning control tool with making a conductive plasma channel in the atmosphere. From the microwave attenuation consideration in the atmosphere, FEL of 35GHz(0.13dB/km), 90GHz(0.35dB/km), 140GHz(1.7dB/km), and of 270 GHz(4.5dB/km) are the best candidates for the system. Comparing with other proposed lightning control system using visible or ultraviolet laser, the system using microwave has an advantage that microwave suffers smaller attenuation by rain or snow which always exist in the real atmospheric circumstances when lightning occurs.

  11. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  12. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  13. Electron beam diagnostic for profiling high power beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W.; Palmer, Todd A.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2008-03-25

    A system for characterizing high power electron beams at power levels of 10 kW and above is described. This system is comprised of a slit disk assembly having a multitude of radial slits, a conducting disk with the same number of radial slits located below the slit disk assembly, a Faraday cup assembly located below the conducting disk, and a start-stop target located proximate the slit disk assembly. In order to keep the system from over-heating during use, a heat sink is placed in close proximity to the components discussed above, and an active cooling system, using water, for example, can be integrated into the heat sink. During use, the high power beam is initially directed onto a start-stop target and after reaching its full power is translated around the slit disk assembly, wherein the beam enters the radial slits and the conducting disk radial slits and is detected at the Faraday cup assembly. A trigger probe assembly can also be integrated into the system in order to aid in the determination of the proper orientation of the beam during reconstruction. After passing over each of the slits, the beam is then rapidly translated back to the start-stop target to minimize the amount of time that the high power beam comes in contact with the slit disk assembly. The data obtained by the system is then transferred into a computer system, where a computer tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct the power density distribution of the beam.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF PROTON ACCELERATORS FOR HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WENG, W.T.

    2006-05-29

    There are many applications requiring high power proton accelerators of various kinds. However, each type of proton accelerator can only provide beam with certain characteristics, hence the match of accelerators and their applications need careful evaluation. In this talk, the beam parameters and performance limitations of linac, cyclotron, synchrotron, and FFAG accelerators are studied and their relative merits for application in neutron, muon, neutrino, and ADS will be assessed in terms of beam energy, intensity, bunch length, repetition rate, and beam power requirements. A possible match between the applications and the accelerator of choice is presented in a matrix form. The accelerator physics and technology issues and challenges involved will also be discussed.

  15. Optical power splitter for splitting high power light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, Jr., Ronald E.; Christensen, John J.

    1995-01-01

    An optical power splitter for the distribution of high-power light energy has a plurality of prisms arranged about a central axis to form a central channel. The input faces of the prisms are in a common plane which is substantially perpendicular to the central axis. A beam of light which is substantially coaxial to the central axis is incident on the prisms and at least partially strikes a surface area of each prism input face. The incident beam also partially passes through the central channel.

  16. Optical power splitter for splitting high power light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, R.E. Jr.; Christensen, J.J.

    1995-04-18

    An optical power splitter for the distribution of high-power light energy has a plurality of prisms arranged about a central axis to form a central channel. The input faces of the prisms are in a common plane which is substantially perpendicular to the central axis. A beam of light which is substantially coaxial to the central axis is incident on the prisms and at least partially strikes a surface area of each prism input face. The incident beam also partially passes through the central channel. 5 figs.

  17. Interaction of a High-Power Laser Beam with Metal Sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boley, C D; Cutter, K P; Fochs, S N; Pax, P H; Rotter, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-06-24

    Experiments with a high-power laser beam directed onto thin aluminum sheets, with a large spot size, demonstrate that airflow produces a strong enhancement of the interaction. The enhancement is explained in terms of aerodynamic effects. As laser heating softens the material, the airflow-induced pressure difference between front and rear faces causes the metal to bulge into the beam. The resulting shear stresses rupture the material and remove it at temperatures well below the melting point. The material heating is shown to conform to an elementary model. We present an analytic model of elastic bulging. Scaling with respect to spot size, wind speed, and material parameters is determined.

  18. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-15

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an “inline” calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an “offline” calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a “cold test” on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the “inline” calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device’s power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the “offline” calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the “cold tests,” and the experiments show good agreement.

  19. High power RF systems for the BNL ERL project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltsman, A.; Lambiase, R.

    2011-03-28

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) project, now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires two high power RF systems. The first RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting electron gun. The RF power from this system is used to drive nearly half an Ampere of beam current to 2 MeV. There is no provision to recover any of this energy so the minimum amplifier power is 1 MW. It consists of 1 MW CW klystron, transmitter and power supplies, 1 MW circulator, 1 MW dummy load and a two-way power splitter. The second RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting cavity. The system accelerates the beam to 54.7 MeV and recovers this energy. It will provide up to 50 kW of CW RF power to the cavity. It consists of 50 kW transmitter, circulator, and dummy load. This paper describes the two high power RF systems and presents the test data for both.

  20. R&D ERL: High power RF systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltsman, A.

    2010-01-15

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) project, now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires two high power RF systems. The first RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting electron gun. The RF power from this system is used to drive nearly half an Ampere of beam current to 2.5 MeV. There is no provision to recover any of this energy so the minimum amplifier power is 1 MW. It consists of 1 MW CW klystron, transmitter and power supplies, 1 MW circulator, 1 MW dummy load and a two-way power splitter. The second RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting cavity. The system accelerates the beam to 54.7 MeV and recovers this energy. It will provide up to 50 kW of CW RF power to the cavity. It consists of 50 kW transmitter, circulator, and dummy load. This paper describes the two high power RF systems and presents the test data for both.

  1. Screening report on cell materials for high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J.; Kahaian, A.; Belharouak, I.; Kang, S.; Oliver, S.; Henriksen, S.; Amine, K.

    2003-04-24

    The Battery Technology Department at Argonne National Laboratory is a major participant in the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program. This multi-national laboratory program is dedicated to improving lithium-ion batteries for high-power HEV and FCEV applications. As part of the FreedomCAR Partnership, this program is addressing the three key barriers for high-power lithium-ion batteries: calendar life, abuse tolerance, and cost. All three of these barriers can be addressed by the choice of materials used in the cell chemistry. To date, the ATD program has developed two high-power cell chemistries, denoted our Gen 1 and Gen 2 cell chemistries. The selection of materials for use in the Gen 2 cell chemistry was based largely on reducing material cost and extending cell calendar life, relative to our Gen 1 cell chemistry. Table 1 provides a list of the materials used in our Gen 2 cell chemistry and their projected costs, when produced in large-scale quantities. In evaluating advanced materials, we have focused our efforts on materials that are lower cost than those listed in Table 1, while simultaneously offering enhanced chemical, structural, and thermal stability. Therefore, we have focused on natural graphite anode materials (having round-edge particle morphologies), cathode materials that contain more Mn and less Co and Ni (which can be produced via low-cost processes), lower cost electrode binders and/or binders that possess superior bonding properties at lower concentrations, and lower cost salts and solvents (with superior thermal and oxidation/reduction stability) for use in the electrolyte. The purpose of this report is to document the results of screening tests that were performed on a large number of advanced low-cost materials. These materials were screened for their potential to impact positively on the calendar life, safety, and/or cost of high-power lithium-ion cell chemistries, relative to our Gen 2 cell chemistry. As

  2. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-04

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  3. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  4. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  5. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  6. Possible high power limitations from RF pulsed heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritzkau, D.P.; Bowden, G.B.; Menegat, A.; Siemann, R.H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, California 94309 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    One of the possible limitations to achieving high power in RF structures is damage to metal surfaces due to RF pulsed heating. Such damage may lead to degradation of RF performance. An experiment to study RF pulsed heating on copper has been developed at SLAC. The experiment consists of operating two pillbox cavities in the TE{sub 011} mode using a 50 MW X-Band klystron. The estimated temperature rise of the surface of copper is 350&hthinsp;{degree}C for a power input of 20 MW to each cavity with a pulse length of 1.5 {mu}s. Preliminary results from an experiment performed earlier are presented. A revised design for continued experiments is also presented along with relevant theory and calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Self-organization and self-limitation in high power impulse magnetron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self-organization and self-limitation in high power impulse magnetron sputtering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-organization and self-limitation in high power ...

  8. Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions Advanced ...

  9. High-power Laser Interaction With Low-density C-Cu Foams (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-power Laser Interaction With Low-density C-Cu Foams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-power Laser Interaction With Low-density C-Cu Foams You are accessing a ...

  10. High-Powered Dark Energy Camera Can See Billions of Light Years...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High-Powered Dark Energy Camera Can See Billions of Light Years Away High-Powered Dark Energy Camera Can See Billions of Light Years Away August 21, 2014 - 10:19am Addthis Stars ...

  11. Control system for high power laser drilling workover and completion unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Makki, Siamak; Faircloth, Brian O; DeWitt, Ronald A; Allen, Erik C; Underwood, Lance D

    2015-05-12

    A control and monitoring system controls and monitors a high power laser system for performing high power laser operations. The control and monitoring system is configured to perform high power laser operation on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  12. Perspectives for neutron and gamma spectroscopy in high power laser driven experiments at ELI-NP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negoita, F. Gugiu, M. Petrascu, H. Petrone, C. Pietreanu, D.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S.; Higginson, D.; Vassura, L.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Antici, P.; Balabanski, D.; Balascuta, S.; Cernaianu, M.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Neagu, L.; Petcu, C.; and others

    2015-02-24

    The measurement of energy spectra of neutrons and gamma rays emitted by nuclei, together with charge particles spectroscopy, are the main tools for understanding nuclear phenomena occurring also in high power laser driven experiments. However, the large number of particles emitted in a very short time, in particular the strong X-rays flash produced in laser-target interaction, impose adaptation of technique currently used in nuclear physics experiment at accelerator based facilities. These aspects are discussed (Section 1) in the context of proposed studies at high power laser system of ELI-NP. Preliminary results from two experiments performed at Titan (LLNL) and ELFIE (LULI) facilities using plastic scintillators for neutron detection (Section 2) and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators for gamma detection (Section 3) are presented demonstrating the capabilities and the limitations of the employed methods. Possible improvements of these spectroscopic methods and their proposed implementation at ELI-NP will be discussed as well in the last section.

  13. Plasma potential mapping of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, Albert; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Sanders, Jason M.; Anders, Andre

    2011-12-20

    Pulsed emissive probe techniques have been used to determine the plasma potential distribution of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. An unbalanced magnetron with a niobium target in argon was investigated for pulse length of 100 ?s at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz, giving a peak current of 170 A. The probe data were taken with a time resolution of 20 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 mm. It is shown that the local plasma potential varies greatly in space and time. The lowest potential was found over the targets racetrack, gradually reaching anode potential (ground) several centimeters away from the target. The magnetic pre-sheath exhibits a funnel-shaped plasma potential resulting in an electric field which accelerates ions toward the racetrack. In certain regions and times, the potential exhibits weak local maxima which allow for ion acceleration to the substrate. Knowledge of the local E and static B fields lets us derive the electrons EB drift velocity, which is about 105 m/s and shows structures in space and time.

  14. LCLS-II high power RF system overview and progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeremian, Anahid Dian

    2015-10-07

    A second X-ray free electron laser facility, LCLS-II, will be constructed at SLAC. LCLS-II is based on a 1.3 GHz, 4 GeV, continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator, to be installed in the first kilometer of the SLAC tunnel. Multiple types of high power RF (HPRF) sources will be used to power different systems on LCLS-II. The main 1.3 GHz linac will be powered by 280 1.3 GHz, 3.8 kW solid state amplifier (SSA) sources. The normal conducting buncher in the injector will use four more SSAs identical to the linac SSAs but run at 2 kW. Two 185.7 MHz, 60 kW sources will power the photocathode dual-feed RF gun. A third harmonic linac section, included for linearizing the bunch energy spread before the first bunch compressor, will require sixteen 3.9 GHz sources at about 1 kW CW. A description and an update on all the HPRF sources of LCLS-II and their implementation is the subject of this paper.

  15. Overview of High Power Vacuum Dry RF Load Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2015-08-27

    A specific feature of RF linacs based on the pulsed traveling wave (TW) mode of operation is that only a portion of the RF energy is used for the beam acceleration. The residual RF energy has to be terminated into an RF load. Higher accelerating gradients require higher RF sources and RF loads, which can stably terminate the residual RF power. RF feeders (from the RF source though the accelerating section to the load) are vacuumed to transmit multi-megawatt high power RF. This overview will outline vacuumed RF loads only. A common method to terminate multi-MW RF power is to use circulated water (or other liquid) as an absorbing medium. A solid dielectric interface (a high quality ceramic) is required to separate vacuum and liquid RF absorber mediums. Using such RF load approaches in TW linacs is troubling because there is a fragile ceramic window barrier and a failure could become catastrophic for linac vacuum and RF systems. Traditional loads comprising of a ceramic disk have limited peak and average power handling capability and are therefore not suitable for high gradient TW linacs. This overview will focus on ''vacuum dry'' or ''all-metal'' loads that do not employ any dielectric interface between vacuum and absorber. The first prototype is an original design of RF loads for the Stanford Two-Mile Accelerator.

  16. High power continuous-wave titanium:sapphire laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbert, G.V.; Bass, I.L.; Hackel, R.P.; Jenkins, S.L.; Kanz, V.K.; Paisner, J.A.

    1993-09-21

    A high-power continuous-wave laser resonator is provided, wherein first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth mirrors form a double-Z optical cavity. A first Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the second and third mirrors and at the mid-point of the length of the optical cavity, and a second Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the fourth and fifth mirrors at a quarter-length point in the optical cavity. Each Ti:sapphire rod is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a pair of argon-ion lasers. For narrow band operation, a 3-plate birefringent filter and an etalon are disposed in the optical cavity so that the spectral output of the laser consists of 5 adjacent cavity modes. For increased power, seventy and eighth mirrors are disposed between the first and second mirrors to form a triple-Z optical cavity. A third Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the seventh and eighth mirrors at the other quarter-length point in the optical cavity, and is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a third pair of argon-ion lasers. 5 figures.

  17. High power continuous-wave titanium:sapphire laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Bass, Isaac L.; Hackel, Richard P.; Jenkins, Sherman L.; Kanz, Vernon K.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    A high-power continuous-wave laser resonator (10) is provided, wherein first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth mirrors (11-16) form a double-Z optical cavity. A first Ti:Sapphire rod (17) is disposed between the second and third mirrors (12,13) and at the mid-point of the length of the optical cavity, and a second Ti:Sapphire rod (18) is disposed between the fourth and fifth mirrors (14,15) at a quarter-length point in the optical cavity. Each Ti:Sapphire rod (17,18) is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a pair of argon-ion lasers (21-22, 23-24). For narrow band operation, a 3-plate birefringent filter (36) and an etalon (37) are disposed in the optical cavity so that the spectral output of the laser consists of 5 adjacent cavity modes. For increased power, seventy and eighth mirrors (101, 192) are disposed between the first and second mirrors (11, 12) to form a triple-Z optical cavity. A third Ti:Sapphire rod (103) is disposed between the seventh and eighth mirrors (101, 102) at the other quarter-length point in the optical cavity, and is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a third pair of argon-ion lasers (104, 105).

  18. High power linear pulsed beam annealer. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strathman, M.D.; Sadana, D.K.; True, R.B.

    1980-11-26

    A high power pulsed electron beam system for annealing semiconductors is comprised of an electron gun having a heated cathode, control grid and focus ring for confining the pulsed beam of electrons to a predetermined area, and a curved drift tube. The drift tube and an annular Faraday shield between the focus ring and the drift tube are maintained at a high positive voltage with respect to the cathode to accelerate electrons passing through the focus ring, thereby eliminating space charge limitations on the emission of electrons from said gun. A coil surrounding the curved drift tube provides a magnetic field which maintains the electron beam focused about the axis of the tube. The magnetic field produced by the coil around the curved tube imparts motion to electrons in a spiral path for shallow penetration of the electrons into a target. It also produces a scalloped profile of the electron beam. A second drift tube spaced a predetermined distance from the curved tube is positioned with its axis aligned with the axis of the first drift tube. The second drift tube and the target holder are maintained at a reference voltage between the cathode voltage and the curved tube voltage to decelerate the electrons. A second coil surrounding the second drift tube, maintains the electron beam focused about the axis of the second drift tube. The magnetic field of the second coil comprises the electron beam to the area of the semiconductor on the target holder.

  19. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mekhiche, Mike; Dufera, Hiz; Montagna, Deb

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy� technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  20. High Power Hydrogen Injector with Beam Focusing for Plasma Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deichuli, P.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Korepanov, S.A.; Mishagin, V.V.; Sorokin, A.V.; Stupishin, N.V

    2005-01-15

    High power neutral beam injector has been developed with the atom energy of 25 keV, a current of 60 A, and several milliseconds pulse duration. Six of these injectors will be used for upgrade of the atomic injection system at central cell of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device and 2 injectors are planned for SHIP experiment.The injector ion source is based on an arc discharge plasma box. The plasma emitter is produced by a 1 kA arc discharge in hydrogen. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase its efficiency and improve homogeneity of the plasma emitter. The ion beam is extracted by a 4-electrodes ion optical system (IOS). Initial beam diameter is 200 mm. The grids of the IOS have a spherical curvature for geometrical focusing of the beam. The optimal IOS geometry and grid potentials were found with the numerical simulation to provide precise beam formation. The measured angular divergence of the beam is 0.02 rad, which corresponds to the 2.5 cm Gaussian radius of the beam profile measured at focal point.

  1. Development of a high-power lithium-ion battery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A. N.

    1998-09-02

    Safety is a key concern for a high-power energy storage system such as will be required in a hybrid vehicle. Present lithium-ion technology, which uses a carbon/graphite negative electrode, lacks inherent safety for two main reasons: (1) carbon/graphite intercalates lithium at near lithium potential, and (2) there is no end-of-charge indicator in the voltage profile that can signal the onset of catastrophic oxygen evolution from the cathode (LiCoO{sub 2}). Our approach to solving these safety/life problems is to replace the graphite/carbon negative electrode with an electrode that exhibits stronger two-phase behavior further away from lithium potential, such as Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. Cycle-life and pulse-power capability data are presented in accordance with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) test procedures, as well as a full-scale design based on a spreadsheet model.

  2. Optimization Studies for ISOL Type High-Powered Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remec, Igor; Ronningen, Reginald Martin

    2013-09-24

    The research studied one-step and two-step Isotope Separation on Line (ISOL) targets for future radioactive beam facilities with high driver-beam power through advanced computer simulations. As a target material uranium carbide in the form of foils was used because of increasing demand for actinide targets in rare-isotope beam facilities and because such material was under development in ISAC at TRIUMF when this project started. Simulations of effusion were performed for one-step and two step targets and the effects of target dimensions and foil matrix were studied. Diffusion simulations were limited by availability of diffusion parameters for UCx material at reduced density; however, the viability of the combined diffusion?effusion simulation methodology was demonstrated and could be used to extract physical parameters such as diffusion coefficients and effusion delay times from experimental isotope release curves. Dissipation of the heat from the isotope-producing targets is the limiting factor for high-power beam operation both for the direct and two-step targets. Detailed target models were used to simulate proton beam interactions with the targets to obtain the fission rates and power deposition distributions, which were then applied in the heat transfer calculations to study the performance of the targets. Results indicate that a direct target, with specification matching ISAC TRIUMF target, could operate in 500-MeV proton beam at beam powers up to ~40 kW, producing ~8 1013 fission/s with maximum temperature in UCx below 2200 C. Targets with larger radius allow higher beam powers and fission rates. For the target radius in the range 9-mm to 30-mm the achievable fission rate increases almost linearly with target radius, however, the effusion delay time also increases linearly with target radius.

  3. Method and apparatus for delivering high power laser energy over long distances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-04-07

    Systems, devices and methods for the transmission and delivery of high power laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates.

  4. High-power testing of PEP-II RF cavity windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, M.; Allen, M.; Fant, K.; Hill, A.; Hoyt, M.; Judkins, J.; Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    We describe the high power testing of RF cavity windows for the PEP-II B factory. The window is designed for continuous operation at 476 MHz with up to 500 kW throughput and has been tested to full power using a modified PEP Klystron. The windows use an anti-multipactor coating on the vacuum side and the application and processing of this layer is discussed. The high power test configuration, RF processing history and high power performance are described.

  5. Correlating High Power Conversion Efficiency of PTB7:PC71BM Inverted...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cells with Nanoscale Structures Prev Next Title: Correlating High Power Conversion Efficiency of PTB7:PC71BM Inverted Organic Solar Cells with Nanoscale Structures ...

  6. Inverse Kinetics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-03-20

    Given the space-independent, one energy group reactor kinetics equations and the initial conditions, this prgram determines the time variation of reactivity required to produce the given input of flux-time data.

  7. Systems and assemblies for transferring high power laser energy through a rotating junction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, Ryan J.; McKay, Ryan P.; Fraze, Jason D.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-01-26

    There are provided high power laser devices and systems for transmitting a high power laser beam across a rotating assembly, including optical slip rings and optical rotational coupling assemblies. These devices can transmit the laser beam through the rotation zone in free space or within a fiber.

  8. A 15 MHz bandwidth, 60 V{sub pp}, low distortion power amplifier for driving high power piezoelectric transducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capineri, Lorenzo

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the design and the realization of a linear power amplifier with large bandwidth (15 MHz) capable of driving low impedance ultrasonic transducers. The output current driving capability (up to 5 A) and low distortion makes it suitable for new research applications using high power ultrasound in the medical and industrial fields. The electronic design approach is modular so that the characteristics can be scaled according to specific applications and implementation details for the circuit layout are reported. Finally the characterization of the power amplifier module is presented.

  9. Downstream plasma transport and metal ionization in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Liang; Szott, Matthew M.; McLain, Jake T.; Ruzic, David N.; Yu, He

    2014-06-14

    Downstream plasma transport and ionization processes in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron were studied. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of electron density (n{sub e}) and temperature (T{sub e}) were characterized with a 3D scanning triple Langmuir probe. Plasma expanded from the racetrack region into the downstream region, where a high n{sub e} peak was formed some time into the pulse-off period. The expansion speed and directionality towards the substrate increased with a stronger magnetic field (B), largely as a consequence of a larger potential drop in the bulk plasma region during a relatively slower sheath formation. The fraction of Cu ions in the deposition flux was measured on the substrate using a gridded energy analyzer. It increased with higher pulse voltage. With increased B field from 200 to 800 Gauss above racetrack, n{sub e} increased but the Cu ion fraction decreased from 42% to 16%. A comprehensive model was built, including the diffusion of as-sputtered Cu flux, the Cu ionization in the entire plasma region using the mapped n{sub e} and T{sub e} data, and ion extraction efficiency based on the measured plasma potential (V{sub p}) distribution. The calculations matched the measurements and indicated the main causes of lower Cu ion fractions in stronger B fields to be the lower T{sub e} and inefficient ion extraction in a larger pre-sheath potential.

  10. Impedance matched, high-power, rf antenna for ion cyclotron resonance heating of a plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baity, Jr., Frederick W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Owens, Thomas L.

    1988-01-01

    A resonant double loop radio frequency (rf) antenna for radiating high-power rf energy into a magnetically confined plasma. An inductive element in the form of a large current strap, forming the radiating element, is connected between two variable capacitors to form a resonant circuit. A real input impedance results from tapping into the resonant circuit along the inductive element, generally near the midpoint thereof. The impedance can be matched to the source impedance by adjusting the separate capacitors for a given tap arrangement or by keeping the two capacitances fixed and adjustng the tap position. This results in a substantial reduction in the voltage and current in the transmission system to the antenna compared to unmatched antennas. Because the complete circuit loop consisting of the two capacitors and the inductive element is resonant, current flows in the same direction along the entire length of the radiating element and is approximately equal in each branch of the circuit. Unidirectional current flow permits excitation of low order poloidal modes which penetrate more deeply into the plasma.

  11. State-of-the-art and recent developments of high-power gyrotron oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thumm, Manfred [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM-FZK, ITP, P.O. Box 3640, D-76012 Karlsruhe (Germany); Universitaet Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik und Elektronik, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1999-05-07

    Gyrotron oscillators (gyromonotrons) are mainly used as high-power millimeter wave sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas for generation of energy by controlled thermonuclear fusion. High unit power and high efficiency single-mode CW gyrotrons with conventional cylindrical (1 MW) and advanced coaxial (2 MW) cavities are worldwide under development. 118 GHz, 140 GHz and 170 GHz conventional cavity gyrotrons with output power P{sub out}{approx_equal}0.5 MW, pulse length {tau}{approx_equal}5.0 s and efficiency {eta}{approx_equal}35% are commercially available. Advanced internal quasi-optical mode converters generate linearly polarized output wave beams from the high-order cavity modes (e.g., TE{sub 22,6}) with efficiencies of 90-95% and separate the millimeter-wave beam from the electron beam, thus allowing the use of large CW-relevant depressed collectors for energy recovery. Overall efficiencies between 50 and 60% have been already achieved at JAERI, FZK, and GYCOM employing single-stage depressed collectors (SDC). First successful experiments at FZK employing a broadband Brewster window gave up to 1.5 MW output power at around 50% efficiency (SDC) for all operating mode series in the frequency range from 114 to 166 GHz (frequency tuning in 3.7 GHz steps by variation of the magnetic field strength in the cavity). Gyrotrons with advanced coaxial cavities designed for operation in the TE{sub 28,16} and TE{sub 31,17} modes at 140 and 165 GHz, respectively, are under development and test at IAP Nizhny Novgorod and FZK Karlsruhe. A maximum output power of 1.7 MW has been measured at 165 GHz with an efficiency of 35.2% (SDC, FZK). Cryogenically edge-cooled single-disk sapphire (T=77 K) and Au-doped silicon (T=230 K) windows as well as CVD-diamond windows with water edge-cooling at room temperature are under investigation in order to solve the window problem. Commercial CVD-diamond disks will easily allow

  12. PPPL delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPPL delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam pulses in a new Berkeley ... Gallery: Interior views of a plasma-source module. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of ...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by TIAX LLC at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy high power battery...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy high power battery...

  15. High Power Co-Axial Coupler (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excellent progress has been made on this R&D project, so we propose an extension of this development to build a very high power coax coupler (MW level peak power and a max duty ...

  16. Combustion Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kinetics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  17. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-06-24

    Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  18. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  19. Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collection and Transmission | Department of Energy Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042313_kobayashi.pdf (1.39 MB) More Documents & Publications Chemically

  20. Method and apparatus for delivering high power laser energy over long distances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2013-08-20

    Systems, devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates.

  1. High power x-ray welding of metal-matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Richard A.; Goeppner, George A.; Noonan, John R.; Farrell, William J.; Ma, Qing

    1999-01-01

    A method for joining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source is provided. The method involves directing an x-ray to the weld line between two adjacent MMCs materials to create an irradiated region or melt zone. The x-rays have a power density greater than about 10.sup.4 watts/cm.sup.2 and provide the volumetric heat required to join the MMC materials. Importantly, the reinforcing material of the metal-matrix composites remains uniformly distributed in the melt zone, and the strength of the MMCs are not diminished. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys.

  2. Space reactor/Stirling cycle systems for high power Lunar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, P.D.; Mason, L.S.

    1994-09-01

    NASA`s Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has proposed the use of high power nuclear power systems on the lunar surface as a necessary alternative to solar power. Because of the long lunar night ({approximately} 14 earth days) solar powered systems with the requisite energy storage in the form of regenerative fuel cells or batteries becomes prohibitively heavy at high power levels ({approximately} 100 kWe). At these high power levels nuclear power systems become an enabling technology for variety of missions. One way of producing power on the lunar surface is with an SP-100 class reactor coupled with Stirling power converters. In this study, analysis and characterization of the SP-100 class reactor coupled with Free Piston Stirling Power Conversion (FPSPC) system will be performed. Comparison of results with previous studies of other systems, particularly Brayton and Thermionic, are made.

  3. High-power free-electron lasers driven by r-f (radio-frequency) linear accelerators. Memorandum report (Interim)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godlove, T.F.; Sprangle, P.

    1989-05-16

    The free-electron laser (FEL) has been developed to the point where projections of its high-power capability have made it an important component of the directed-energy research program within the Strategic Defense Initiative. To achieve the desired near-visible wavelength and high intensity, stringent demands are placed on the electron beam that drives the FEL. Typical requirements are high peak current (0.2 to 2 kA) at a kinetic energy of 100 to 150 MeV, small energy spread (<1%), small diameter (<3mm), and low divergence (<0.1 mrad). Either an induction linear accelerator (linac) or an rf linac may be a suitable candidate to provide the electron beam. This review describes the technical issues and technology needed to achieve a visible light FEL driven by an rf linac. A recently installed linac at Boeing Aerospace is used as the principal illustrative example. Keywords: Free electron laser; Particle accelerator; RF linac; Strategic defense initiative; Electron beam. (jhd)

  4. Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polevaya, Olga; Blanchet, Scott; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Borup, Rod; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-03-19

    Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond today’s state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (≤0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (≥1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45 mgPt.cm–1 and the much lower 0.2 mgPt.cm–2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss

  5. Thin film circuit fabrication on diamond substrates for high power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, D.; Worobey, W.; Peterson, D.; Sweet, J.; Johnson, D.; Miller, D.; Andaleon, D.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia Laboratories has developed a thin film diamond substrate technology to meet the requirements for high power and high density circuits. Processes were developed to metallize, photopattern, laser process, and, package diamond thin film networks which were later assembled into high power multichip modules (MCMS) to test for effectiveness at removing heat. Diamond clearly demonstrated improvement in heat transfer during 20 Watt, strip heating experiments with junction-to-ambient temperature increases of less than 24 C compared to 126 C and 265 C for the aluminum nitride and ceramic versions, respectively.

  6. Electrode-plasma-driven radiation cutoff in long-pulse, high-power microwave devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D. V.; Miller, C. L.; Welch, D. R.; Portillo, S.

    2013-03-15

    The impact of electrode plasma dynamics on the radiation production in a high power microwave device is examined using particle-in-cell simulations. Using the design of a compact 2.4 GHz magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) as the basis for numerical simulations, we characterize the time-dependent device power and radiation output over a range of cathode plasma formation rates. These numerical simulations can self-consistently produce radiation characteristics that are similar to measured signals in long pulse duration MILOs. This modeling capability should result in improved assessment of existing high-power microwave devices and lead to new designs for increased radiation pulse durations.

  7. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  8. Investigation of a metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dong Qin, Fen; Xu, Sha; Yu, Aimin; Wu, Yong

    2015-02-15

    It is demonstrated that an L band metallic photonic crystal TEM-TE{sub 11} mode converter is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. The proposed mode converter is realized by partially filling metallic photonic crystals along azimuthal direction in a coaxial transmission line for phase-shifting. A three rows structure is designed and simulated by commercial software CST Microwave Studio. Simulation results show that its conversion efficiency is 99% at the center frequency 1.58 GHz. Over the frequency range of 1.56-1.625 GHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90 %, with a corresponding bandwidth of 4.1 %. This mode converter has a gigawatt level power handling capability which is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. Using magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator(MILO) as a high power microwave source, particle-in-cell simulation is carried out to test the performance of the mode converter. The expected TE{sub 11} mode microwave output is obtained and the MILO works well. Mode conversion performance of the converter is tested by far-field measurement method. And the experimental result confirms the validity of our design. Then, high power microwave experiment is carried out on a Marx-driven Blumlein water line pulsed power accelerator. Microwave frequency, radiated pattern and power are measured in the far-field region and the results agree well with simulation results. The experiment also reveals that no microwave breakdown or pulse shortening took place in the experimental setup.

  9. Cree's High-Power White LED Delivers 121 lm/W

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cree's commercial high-power white LEDs can now deliver 121 lm/W at 35A/cm2 current density. These particular Cree XLamp® XP-G LEDs deliver 267 lumens at a drive current of 700 mA and an operating...

  10. Plasma physics and related challenges of millimeter-wave-to-terahertz and high power microwave generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booske, John H.

    2008-05-15

    Homeland security and military defense technology considerations have stimulated intense interest in mobile, high power sources of millimeter-wave (mmw) to terahertz (THz) regime electromagnetic radiation, from 0.1 to 10 THz. While vacuum electronic sources are a natural choice for high power, the challenges have yet to be completely met for applications including noninvasive sensing of concealed weapons and dangerous agents, high-data-rate communications, high resolution radar, next generation acceleration drivers, and analysis of fluids and condensed matter. The compact size requirements for many of these high frequency sources require miniscule, microfabricated slow wave circuits. This necessitates electron beams with tiny transverse dimensions and potentially very high current densities for adequate gain. Thus, an emerging family of microfabricated, vacuum electronic devices share many of the same plasma physics challenges that are currently confronting 'classic' high power microwave (HPM) generators including long-life bright electron beam sources, intense beam transport, parasitic mode excitation, energetic electron interaction with surfaces, and rf air breakdown at output windows. The contemporary plasma physics and other related issues of compact, high power mmw-to-THz sources are compared and contrasted to those of HPM generation, and future research challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  11. High Power Electric Propulsion System for NEP: Propulsion and Trajectory Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koppel, Christophe R.; Duchemin, Olivier; Valentian, Dominique

    2006-01-20

    Recent US initiatives in Nuclear Propulsion lend themselves naturally to raising the question of the assessment of various options and particularly to propose the High Power Electric Propulsion Subsystem (HPEPS) for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). The purpose of this paper is to present the guidelines for the HPEPS with respect to the mission to Mars, for automatic probes as well as for manned missions. Among the various options, the technological options and the trajectory options are pointed out. The consequences of the increase of the electrical power of a thruster are first an increase of the thrust itself, but also, as a general rule, an increase of the thruster performance due to its higher efficiency, particularly its specific impulse increase. The drawback is as a first parameter, the increase of the thruster's size, hence the so-called 'thrust density' shall be high enough or shall be drastically increased for ions thrusters. Due to the large mass of gas needed to perform the foreseen missions, the classical xenon rare gas is no more in competition, the total world production being limited to 20 -40 tons per year. Thus, the right selection of the propellant feeding the thruster is of prime importance. When choosing a propellant with lower molecular mass, the consequences at thruster level are an increase once more of the specific impulse, but at system level the dead mass may increase too, mainly because the increase of the mass of the propellant system tanks. Other alternatives, in rupture with respect to the current technologies, are presented in order to make the whole system more attractive. The paper presents a discussion on the thruster specific impulse increase that is sometime considered an increase of the main system performances parameter, but that induces for all electric propulsion systems drawbacks in the system power and mass design that are proportional to the thruster specific power increase (kW/N). The electric thruster specific

  12. Third user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bolme, Cynthia Anne; Glenzer, Sigfried; Fry, Alan

    2016-03-24

    On October 5–6, 2015, the third international user workshop focusing on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was held in Menlo Park, CA, USA [1 R. Falcone, S. Glenzer, and S. Hau-Riege, Synchrotron Radiation News 27(2), 56–58 (2014)., 2 P. Heimann and S. Glenzer, Synchrotron Radiation News 28(3), 54–56 (2015).]. Here, the workshop was co-organized by Los Alamos National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. More than 110 scientists attended from North America, Europe, and Asia to discuss high-energy-density (HED) science that is enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the LCLS X-rays at themore » LCLS-Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation.« less

  13. High-Power Plasma Switch for 11.4 GHz Microwave Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2010-03-04

    Results obtained in several experiments on active RF pulse compression at X-band using a magnicon as the high-power RF source are presented. In these experiments, microwave energy was stored in high-Q TE01 and TE02 modes of two parallel-fed resonators, and then discharged using switches activated with rapidly fired plasma discharge tubes. Designs and high-power tests of several versions of the compressor are described. In these experiments, coherent pulse superposition was demonstrated at a 59 MW level of incident power. The compressed pulses observed had powers of 5070 MW and durations of 4070 ns. Peak power gains were measured to be in the range of 7:111:1 with efficiency in the range of 5063%.

  14. High-power beam injectors for 100 KW free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, A. M.; Wood R. L.; Bluem, H.; Young, L. M.; Wiseman, M.; Schultheiss, T.; Schrage, D. L.; Russell, S. J.; Rode, C. H.; Rimmer, R.; Nguyen, D. C.; Kelley, J. P.; Kurennoy, S.; wood, r

    2003-01-01

    A key technology issue on the path to high-power FEL operation is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation. We describe two ongoing programs to produce 100 mA injectors as drivers for 100 kW free-electron lasers. In one approach, in collaboration with the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, we are fabricating a 750 MHz superconducting RF cryomodule that will be integrated with a room-temperature DC photocathode gun and tested at the Laboratory. In the other approach, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, a high-current 700 MHz, normal-conducting, RF photoinjector is being designed and will undergo thermal management testing at the Laboratory. We describe the design, the projected performance and the status of both injectors.

  15. Design of pulsed guiding magnetic field for high power microwave generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, J.-C. Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Shu, T.; Zhong, H.-H.

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on designing solenoid together with the corresponding power supply system to excite pulsed magnetic field required for high power microwave generators. Particularly, a solenoid is designed and the excited magnetic field is applied to a Ku-band overmoded Cerenkov generator. It is found in experiment that the electron beam is properly guided by the magnetic field and a 1.1 GW high power microwave is achieved at a central frequency of 13.76 GHz. Pulsed solenoid system has the advantages of compactness and low energy consumption, which are of great interest for repetitive operation. The reported studies and results can be generalized to other applications which require magnetic fields.

  16. Observation of Ti{sup 4+} ions in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Joakim; Anders, Andre; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.

    2008-08-18

    Multiply charged titanium ions including Ti{sup 4+} were observed in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges. Mass/charge spectrometry was used to identify metal ion species. Quadruply charged titanium ions were identified by isotope-induced broadening at mass/charge 12. Due to their high potential energy, Ti{sup 4+} ions give a high yield of secondary electrons, which in turn are likely to be responsible for the generation of multiply charged states.

  17. AN ASSESSMENT OF FLYWHEEL HIGH POWER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR HYBRID VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, James Gerald

    2012-02-01

    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  18. MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable batteries presently provide limited energy density and cyclical lifetime for portable power applications, with only incremental improvements forecasted in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, recharging requires access to electrical outlets via a tethered charger. The

  19. AlGaAs/GaAs photovoltaic converters for high power narrowband radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khvostikov, Vladimir; Kalyuzhnyy, Nikolay; Mintairov, Sergey; Potapovich, Nataliia; Shvarts, Maxim; Sorokina, Svetlana; Andreev, Viacheslav; Luque, Antonio

    2014-09-26

    AlGaAs/GaAs-based laser power PV converters intended for operation with high-power (up to 100 W/cm{sup 2}) radiation were fabricated by LPE and MOCVD techniques. Monochromatic (? = 809 nm) conversion efficiency up to 60% was measured at cells with back surface field and low (x = 0.2) Al concentration 'window'. Modules with a voltage of 4 V and the efficiency of 56% were designed and fabricated.

  20. High-power RF window and coupler development for the PEP-II B Factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, M.; Fant, K.; Hodgson, J.; Judkins, J.; Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and testing of the RF windows designed to transmit power to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. Design choices to maximize the reliability of the window are discussed. Fabrication technologies for the window are described and finite-element analysis of the assembly process is presented. Conditioning and high-power testing of the window are discussed. Design of the coupler assembly including the integration of the window and other components is reported.

  1. Photoionization of optically trapped ultracold atoms with a high-power light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetz, Simone; Hoeltkemeier, Bastian; Amthor, Thomas; Weidemueller, Matthias [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Photoionization of laser-cooled atoms using short pulses of a high-power light-emitting diode (LED) is demonstrated. Light pulses as short as 30 ns have been realized with the simple LED driver circuit. We measure the ionization cross section of {sup 85}Rb atoms in the first excited state, and show how this technique can be used for calibrating efficiencies of ion detector assemblies.

  2. Advanced concepts for high power RF generation using solid state materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fazio, M.V.; Erickson, G.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Traditionally, high power radio frequency and microwave energy have been generated using electron beam driven hard-vacuum tubes such as klystrons and magnetrons. High-power solid-state sources of RF have not been available. It is well known that a non-linear, dispersive system can convert a pulse into an array of solitons. Although this effect has been exploited in the optical field, using non-linear optical materials, little work has been done in the field of high voltage electronics. It is the goal of this work, which is just beginning, to develop sources of RF in the few hundreds of megahertz to gigahertz range with power levels in the hundreds of megawatts to the gigawatt level. To generate solitons a high voltage pulse is fed onto a transmission line that is periodically loaded with a non-linear ceramic dielectric in the paraelectric phase. The combination of the non-linearity and dispersion causes the pulse to break up into an array of solitons. A soliton-based system has several components: the solid state, high voltage, high current switch to provide the initial high voltage pulse; a shock line to decrease the rise time of the initial pulse to less than a few nanoseconds; and the soliton generating transmission line where the high power RF is generated when driven by the fast rising pulse from the shock line. The approach and progress to date will be described. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. The suppression effect of external magnetic field on the high-power microwave window multipactor phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xue Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie

    2015-02-15

    To suppress the surface multipactor phenomenon and improve the transmitting power of the high-power microwave window, the application of external magnetic fields is theoretically analyzed and simulated. A Monte Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and study the multipactor scenario on the surface of a cylinder window. It is confirmed that over-resonant magnetic fields (an external magnetic field whose magnitude is slightly greater than that of a resonant magnetic field) will generate a compensating trajectory and collision, which can suppress the secondary electron avalanche. The optimal value of this external magnetic field that will avoid the multipactor phenomenon on cylinder windows is discussed.

  4. Spectroscopic imaging of self-organization in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore, Singapore; Andersson, Joakim; Ni, Pavel; Anders, Andre

    2013-07-17

    Excitation and ionization conditions in traveling ionization zones of high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas were investigated using fast camera imaging through interference filters. The images, taken in end-on and side on views using light of selected gas and target atom and ion spectral lines, suggest that ionization zones are regions of enhanced densities of electrons, and excited atoms and ions. Excited atoms and ions of the target material (Al) are strongly concentrated near the target surface. Images from the highest excitation energies exhibit the most localized regions, suggesting localized Ohmic heating consistent with double layer formation.

  5. Spectroscopic imaging of self-organization in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Joakim; Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore ; Ni, Pavel; Anders, Andr

    2013-07-29

    Excitation and ionization conditions in traveling ionization zones of high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas were investigated using fast camera imaging through interference filters. The images, taken in end-on and side-on views using light of selected gas and target atom and ion spectral lines, suggest that ionization zones are regions of enhanced densities of electrons, and excited atoms and ions. Excited atoms and ions of the target material (Al) are strongly concentrated near the target surface. Images from the highest excitation energies exhibit the most localized regions, suggesting localized Ohmic heating consistent with double layer formation.

  6. Drifting potential humps in ionization zones: The propeller blades of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andr; Ni, Pavel; Panjan, Matja; Joef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana ; Franz, Robert; Montanuniversitt Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben ; Andersson, Joakim; Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore

    2013-09-30

    Ion energy distribution functions measured for high power impulse magnetron sputtering show features, such as a broad peak at several 10 eV with an extended tail, as well as asymmetry with respect to EB, where E and B are the local electric and magnetic field vectors, respectively. Here it is proposed that those features are due to the formation of a potential hump of several 10 V in each of the traveling ionization zones. Potential hump formation is associated with a negative-positive-negative space charge that naturally forms in ionization zones driven by energetic drifting electrons.

  7. Method and apparatus for reducing coherence of high-power laser beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moncur, Norman K.; Mayer, Frederick J.

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus for reducing the coherence and for smoothing the power density profile of a collimated high-power laser beam in which the beam is focused at a point on the surface of a target fabricated of material having a low atomic number. The initial portion of the focused beam heats the material to form a hot reflective plasma at the material surface. The remaining, major portion of the focused beam is reflected by the plasma and recollected to form a collimated beam having reduced beam coherence.

  8. Peculiarities of the spatial focusing of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A

    2008-12-31

    The propagation of focused high-power femtosecond laser pulses in air is numerically simulated. The dependences of the effective average size of a focal spot and the maximum achievable radiation intensity in the focal beam waist on the peak power of incident radiation are studied. It is shown that in the regime of nonstationary self-action of radiation, due to photoionisation of the medium and formation of plasma, it becomes impossible to focus radiation into a spot of diffraction-limited size predicted by a linear theory. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  9. Note: A new regulation method of stable operation of high power cathode ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. C.; Xie, Y. H. Hu, C. D.; Xie, Y. L.; Liu, S.; Liang, L. Z.; Liu, Z. M.

    2015-05-15

    The hot cathode ion source will tend to be unstable when operated with high power and long pulse. In order to achieve stable operation, a new regulation method based on the arc power (discharge power) feedback control was designed and tested on the hot cathode ion source test bed with arc discharge and beam extraction. The results show that the new regulation method can achieve stable arc discharge and beam extraction. It verifies the success of feedback control of arc source with arc power.

  10. Heating efficiency of high-power perpendicular neutral-beam injection in PDX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, M.

    1982-03-01

    The heating efficiency of high power (up to 7.2 MW) near-perpendicular neutral beam injection in the PDX tokamak is comparable to that of tangential injection in PLT. Collisionless plasmas with central ion temperatures up to 6.5 keV and central electron temperatures greater than 2.5 keV have been obtained. The plasma pressure, including the contribution from the beam particles, increases with increasing beam power and does not appear to saturate, although the parametric dependence of the energy confinement time is different from that observed in ohmic discharges.

  11. PPPL delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam pulses in a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new Berkeley Lab accelerator | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam pulses in a new Berkeley Lab accelerator March 19, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Erik Gilson with a copper-clad module and chamber for testing the units. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) Erik Gilson with a copper-clad module and chamber for testing the units. Gallery: Interior views of a plasma-source module. (Photo by Elle

  12. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-11-04

    We report the results of ongoing high power tests of single-cell standing wave structures. These tests are part of an experimental and theoretical study of rf breakdown in normal conducting structures at 11.4 GHz. The goal of this study is to determine the maximum gradient possibilities for normal-conducting rf powered particle beam accelerators. The test setup consists of reusable mode launchers and short test structures powered by SLACs XL-4 klystron. The mode launchers and structures were manufactured at SLAC and KEK and tested at the SLAC klystron test laboratory.

  13. High-power laser interaction with low-density C–Cu foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pérez, F.; Colvin, J. D.; May, M. J.; Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Fournier, K. B.; Felter, T. E.

    2015-11-15

    We study the propagation of high-power laser beams in micro-structured carbon foams by monitoring the x-ray output from deliberately introduced Cu content. In particular, we characterize this phenomenon measuring absolute time-resolved x-ray yields, time-resolved x-ray imaging, and x-ray spectroscopy. New experimental results for C–Cu foams show a faster heat front velocity than simulation that assumed homogeneous plasma. We suggest the foam micro-structure may explain this trend.

  14. FERROELECTRIC SWITCH FOR A HIGH-POWER Ka-BAND ACTIVE PULSE COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-12-18

    Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW μs-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.

  15. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use inhybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostecki, R.; Zhang, X.; Ross Jr., P.N.; Kong, F.; Sloop, S.; Kerr, J.B.; Striebel, K.; Cairns, E.; McLarnon, F.

    2001-06-22

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program seeks to aid the development of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Nine 18650-size ATD baseline cells were tested under a variety of conditions. The cells consisted of a carbon anode, LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode and DEC-EC-LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte, and they were engineered for high-power applications. Selected instrumental techniques such as synchrotron IR microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc. were used to characterize the anode, cathode, current collectors and electrolyte from these cells. The goal was to identify detrimental processes which lead to battery failure under a high-current cycling regime as well as during storage at elevated temperatures. The diagnostic results suggest that the following factors contribute to the cell power loss: (a) SEI deterioration and non-uniformity on the anode, (b) morphology changes, increase of impedance and phase separation on the cathode, (c) pitting corrosion on the cathode Al current collector, and (d) decomposition of the LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte at elevated temperature.

  16. System efficiency analysis for high power solid state radio frequency transmitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Akhilesh, E-mail: ajain@rrcat.gov.in; Sharma, D. K.; Gupta, A. K.; Lad, M. R.; Hannurkar, P. R. [RF Systems Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)] [RF Systems Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Pathak, S. K. [Electromagnetics and Microwave Engineering, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)] [Electromagnetics and Microwave Engineering, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-02-15

    This paper examines some important relationships, related with the system efficiency, for very high power, radio frequency solid-state transmitter; incorporating multiple solid-state power amplifier modules, power combiners, dividers, couplers, and control/interlock hardware. In particular, the characterization of such transmitters, at the component as well as the system level, is discussed. The analysis for studying the influence of the amplitude and phase imbalance, on useful performance parameters like system efficiency and power distribution is performed. This analysis is based on a scattering parameter model. This model serves as a template for fine-tuning the results, with the help of a system level simulator. For experimental study, this approach is applied to a recently designed modular and scalable solid-state transmitter, operating at the centre frequency of 505.8?MHz and capable of delivering a continuous power of 75 kW. Such first time presented, system level study and experimental characterization for the real time operation will be useful for the high power solid-state amplifier designs, deployed in particle accelerators.

  17. Experimental investigation of factors limiting slow axis beam quality in 9xx nm high power broad area diode lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterfeldt, M. Crump, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.; Trnkle, G.

    2014-08-14

    GaAs-based broad-area diode lasers are needed with improved lateral beam parameter product (BPP{sub lat}) at high power. An experimental study of the factors limiting BPP{sub lat} is therefore presented, using extreme double-asymmetric (EDAS) vertical structures emitting at 910?nm. Continuous wave, pulsed and polarization-resolved measurements are presented and compared to thermal simulation. The importance of thermal and packaging-induced effects is determined by comparing junction -up and -down devices. Process factors are clarified by comparing diodes with and without index-guiding trenches. We show that in all cases studied, BPP{sub lat} is limited by a non-thermal BPP ground-level and a thermal BPP, which depends linearly on self-heating. Measurements as a function of pulse width confirm that self-heating rather than bias-level dominates. Diodes without trenches show low BPP ground-level, and a thermal BPP which depends strongly on mounting, due to changes in the temperature profile. The additional lateral guiding in diodes with trenches strongly increases the BPP ground-level, but optically isolates the stripe from the device edges, suppressing the influence of the thermal profile, leading to a BPP-slope that is low and independent of mounting. Trenches are also shown to initiate strain fields that cause parasitic TM-polarized emission with large BPP{sub lat}, whose influence on total BPP{sub lat} remains small, provided the overall polarization purity is >95%.

  18. High power impulse magnetron sputtering: Current-voltage-timecharacteristics indicate the onset of sustained self-sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim; Ehiasarian, Arutiun

    2007-08-03

    The commonly used current-voltage characteristics are foundinadequate for describing the pulsed nature of the high power impulsemagnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge, rather, the description needs tobe expanded to current-voltage-time characteristics for each initial gaspressure. Using different target materials (Cu, Ti, Nb, C, W, Al, Cr) anda pulsed constant-voltage supply it is shown that the HIPIMS dischargestypically exhibit an initial pressure dependent current peak followed bya second phase that is power and material dependent. This suggests thatthe initial phase of a HIPIMS discharge pulse is dominated by gas ionswhereas the later phase has a strong contribution from self-sputtering.For some materials the discharge switches into a mode of sustainedself-sputtering. The very large differences between materials cannot beascribed to the different sputter yields but they indicate thatgeneration and trapping ofsecondary electrons plays a major role forcurrent-voltage-time characteristics. In particular, it is argued thatthe sustained self-sputtering phase is associated with thegeneration ofmultiply charged ions because only they can cause potential emission ofsecondary electrons whereas the yield caused by singly charged metal ionsis negligibly small.

  19. Philips Lumileds Develops a Low-Cost, High-Power, Warm-White LED Package

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Philips Lumileds has developed a low-cost, high-power, warm-white LED package for general illumination. During the course of the two-year project, this package was used to commercialize a series of products with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) ranging from 2700 to 5700 K, under the product name LUXEON M. A record efficacy of nearly 125 lm/W was demonstrated at a flux of 1023 lumens, a CCT of 3435 K, and a color rendering index (CRI) of more than 80 at room temperature in the productized package. In an R&D package, a record efficacy of more than 133 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lumens, a CCT of 3475 K, and a CRI greater than 80 at room temperature were demonstrated.

  20. Target isolation system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Harris, Fritz

    2007-11-06

    A system for applying a laser beam to work pieces, includes a laser system producing a high power output beam. Target delivery optics are arranged to deliver the output beam to a target work piece. A relay telescope having a telescope focal point is placed in the beam path between the laser system and the target delivery optics. The relay telescope relays an image between an image location near the output of the laser system and an image location near the target delivery optics. A baffle is placed at the telescope focal point between the target delivery optics and the laser system to block reflections from the target in the target delivery optics from returning to the laser system and causing damage.

  1. High power thermoacoustic refrigeration. Annual summary report, 1 June 1995-31 May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, S.L.

    1996-06-15

    The purpose of this research project is to study the fundamental physical processes which are involved in production of high cooling powers from electrically driven thermoacoustic refrigeration. The results of these experimental investigations are then utilized to produce improved designs for the next generation of high power thermoacoustic refrigerators, chillers, and air conditioners. These research objectives are achieved by an integrated combination of experimental measurements on thermoacoustic components and subsystems, as well as complete refrigeration systems. Comparison of the measured performance to analytic models based on differential equations (low amplitude) and similitude (high amplitude) and to numerical models based on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Design Environment for Low-Amplitude ThermoAcoustic Engines (DELTA-E), are then made.

  2. High-power targets: experience and R&D for 2 MW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurh, P.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Loveridge, P.; Simos, N.; /Brookhaven

    2011-03-01

    High-power particle production targets are crucial elements of future neutrino and other rare particle beams. Fermilab plans to produce a beam of neutrinos (LBNE) with a 2.3 MW proton beam (Project X). Any solid target is unlikely to survive for an extended period in such an environment - many materials would not survive a single beam pulse. We are using our experience with previous neutrino and antiproton production targets, along with a new series of R&D tests, to design a target that has adequate survivability for this beamline. The issues considered are thermal shock (stress waves), heat removal, radiation damage, radiation accelerated corrosion effects, physics/geometry optimization and residual radiation.

  3. Are the argon metastables important in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Lundin, D.; Minea, T. M.; Stancu, G. D.; Brenning, N.

    2015-11-15

    We use an ionization region model to explore the ionization processes in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge in argon with a titanium target. In conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS), stepwise ionization can be an important route for ionization of the argon gas. However, in the HiPIMS discharge stepwise ionization is found to be negligible during the breakdown phase of the HiPIMS pulse and becomes significant (but never dominating) only later in the pulse. For the sputtered species, Penning ionization can be a significant ionization mechanism in the dcMS discharges, while in the HiPIMS discharge Penning ionization is always negligible as compared to electron impact ionization. The main reasons for these differences are a higher plasma density in the HiPIMS discharge, and a higher electron temperature. Furthermore, we explore the ionization fraction and the ionized flux fraction of the sputtered vapor and compare with recent experimental work.

  4. Second user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heimann, Phil; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-05-28

    The second international workshop on the physics enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the world-class Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron X-ray laser beam was held in Stanford, CA, on October 7–8, 2014. The workshop was co-organized by UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratories. More than 120 scientists, including 40 students and postdoctoral scientists who are working in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, fusion research, and dynamic high-pressure science came together from North America, Europe, and Asia. The focus of the second workshop was on scientific highlights and the lessons learned from 16 new experiments that were performed on the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument since the first workshop was held one year ago.

  5. Interfacial electron and phonon scattering processes in high-powered nanoscale applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2011-10-01

    The overarching goal of this Truman LDRD project was to explore mechanisms of thermal transport at interfaces of nanomaterials, specifically linking the thermal conductivity and thermal boundary conductance to the structures and geometries of interfaces and boundaries. Deposition, fabrication, and post possessing procedures of nanocomposites and devices can give rise to interatomic mixing around interfaces of materials leading to stresses and imperfections that could affect heat transfer. An understanding of the physics of energy carrier scattering processes and their response to interfacial disorder will elucidate the potentials of applying these novel materials to next-generation high powered nanodevices and energy conversion applications. An additional goal of this project was to use the knowledge gained from linking interfacial structure to thermal transport in order to develop avenues to control, or 'tune' the thermal transport in nanosystems.

  6. Grating formation by a high power radio wave in near-equator ionosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Rohtash; Sharma, A. K.; Tripathi, V. K.

    2011-11-15

    The formation of a volume grating in the near-equator regions of ionosphere due to a high power radio wave is investigated. The radio wave, launched from a ground based transmitter, forms a standing wave pattern below the critical layer, heating the electrons in a space periodic manner. The thermal conduction along the magnetic lines of force inhibits the rise in electron temperature, limiting the efficacy of heating to within a latitude of few degrees around the equator. The space periodic electron partial pressure leads to ambipolar diffusion creating a space periodic density ripple with wave vector along the vertical. Such a volume grating is effective to cause strong reflection of radio waves at a frequency one order of magnitude higher than the maximum plasma frequency in the ionosphere. Linearly mode converted plasma wave could scatter even higher frequency radio waves.

  7. Review of recent theories and experiments for improving high-power microwave window breakdown thresholds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Chao; Liu Guozhi; Tang Chuanxiang; Chen Changhua; Fang Jinyong

    2011-05-15

    Dielectric window breakdown is a serious challenge in high-power microwave (HPM) transmission and radiation. Breakdown at the vacuum/dielectric interface is triggered by multipactor and finally realized by plasma avalanche in the ambient desorbed or evaporated gas layer above the dielectric. Methods of improving breakdown thresholds are key challenges in HPM systems. First, the main theoretical and experimental progress is reviewed. Next, the mechanisms of multipactor suppression for periodic rectangular and triangular surface profiles by dynamic analysis and particle-in-cell simulations are surveyed. Improved HPM breakdown thresholds are demonstrated by proof-of-principle and multigigawatt experiments. The current theories and experiments of using dc magnetic field to resonantly accelerate electrons to suppress multipactor are also synthesized. These methods of periodic profiles and magnetic field may solve the key issues of HPM vacuum dielectric breakdown.

  8. Single and repetitive short-pulse high-power microwave window breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.; Tang, C. X.; Shao, H.; Chen, C. H.; Huang, W. H.

    2010-05-15

    The mechanisms of high-power microwave breakdown for single and repetitive short pulses are analyzed. By calculation, multipactor saturation with electron density much higher than the critical plasma density is found not to result in microwave cutoff. It is local high pressure about Torr class that rapid plasma avalanche and final breakdown are realized in a 10-20 ns short pulse. It is found by calculation that the power deposited by saturated multipactor and the rf loss of protrusions are sufficient to induce vaporizing surface material and enhancing the ambient pressure in a single short pulse. For repetitive pulses, the accumulation of heat and plasma may respectively carbonize the surface material and lower the repetitive breakdown threshold.

  9. Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2008-09-09

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  10. High-Power Solid-State Lasers from a Laser Glass Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J H; Hayden, J S; Marker, A J

    2010-12-17

    Advances in laser glass compositions and manufacturing have enabled a new class of high-energy/high-power (HEHP), petawatt (PW) and high-average-power (HAP) laser systems that are being used for fusion energy ignition demonstration, fundamental physics research and materials processing, respectively. The requirements for these three laser systems are different necessitating different glasses or groups of glasses. The manufacturing technology is now mature for melting, annealing, fabricating and finishing of laser glasses for all three applications. The laser glass properties of major importance for HEHP, PW and HAP applications are briefly reviewed and the compositions and properties of the most widely used commercial laser glasses summarized. Proposed advances in these three laser systems will require new glasses and new melting methods which are briefly discussed. The challenges presented by these laser systems will likely dominate the field of laser glass development over the next several decades.

  11. Compression and strong rarefaction in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2010-11-11

    Gas compression and strong rarefaction have been observed for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges using a copper target in argon. Time-resolved ion saturation currents of 35 probes were simultaneously recorded for HIPIMS discharges operating far above the self-sputtering runaway threshold. The argon background pressure was a parameter for the evaluation of the spatial and temporal development of the plasma density distribution. The data can be interpreted by a massive onset of the sputtering flux (sputter wind) that causes a transient densification of the gas, followed by rarefaction and the replacement of gas plasma by the metal plasma of sustained self-sputtering. The plasma density pulse follows closely the power pulse at low pressure. At high pressure, the relatively remote probes recorded a density peak only after the discharge pulse, indicative for slow, diffusive ion transport.

  12. Prospects for using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, R.A.; Farrell, W.; Ma, Q.

    1997-09-01

    Third-generation, high-intensity, x-ray synchrotron radiation sources are capable of producing high heat-flux x-ray beams. In many applications finding ways to handle these powers is viewed as a burden. However, there are some technological applications where the deep penetration length of the x-rays may find beneficial uses as a volumetric heat source. In this paper the authors discuss the prospects for using high power x-rays for volumetric heating and report some recent experimental results. The particular applications they focus on are welding and surface heat treatment. The radiation source is an undulator at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Results of preliminary tests on aluminum, aluminum metal matrix composites, and steel will be presented.

  13. High power water load for microwave and millimeter-wave radio frequency sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.; Schumacher, Richard V.; Pendleton, Rand P.

    1999-01-01

    A high power water load for microwave and millimeter wave radio frequency sources has a front wall including an input port for the application of RF power, a cylindrical dissipation cavity lined with a dissipating material having a thickness which varies with depth, and a rear wall including a rotating reflector for the reflection of wave energy inside the cylindrical cavity. The dissipation cavity includes a water jacket for removal of heat generated by the absorptive material coating the dissipation cavity, and this absorptive material has a thickness which is greater near the front wall than near the rear wall. Waves entering the cavity reflect from the rotating reflector, impinging and reflecting multiple times on the absorptive coating of the dissipation cavity, dissipating equal amounts of power on each internal reflection.

  14. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. II. Absolute density dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. The present, second, paper of the study is related to the discharge characterization in terms of the absolute density of species using resonant absorption spectroscopy. The results on the time-resolved density evolution of the neutral and singly-ionized Ti ground state atoms as well as the metastable Ti and Ar atoms during the discharge on- and off-time are presented. Among the others, the questions related to the inversion of population of the Ti energy sublevels, as well as to re-normalization of the two-dimensional density maps in terms of the absolute density of species, are stressed.

  15. A review comparing cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anders, André

    2014-09-02

    In this study, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in thismore » review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.« less

  16. High power 325 MHz vector modulators for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Wildman, David; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    One of the goals of the low energy 60 MeV section of the HINS H{sup -} linac [1] is to demonstrate that a total of {approx}40 RF cavities can be powered by a single 2.5 MW, 325 MHz klystron. This requires individual vector modulators at the input of each RF cavity to independently adjust the amplitude and phase of the RF input signal during the 3.5 ms RF pulse. Two versions of vector modulators have been developed; a 500 kW device for the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a 75 kW modulator for the RF cavities. High power tests showing the vector modulator phase and amplitude responses will be presented.

  17. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering: A method to increase deposition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, Priya McLain, Jake; Ruzic, David N; Shchelkanov, Ivan A.

    2015-05-15

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is a state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition technique with several industrial applications. One of the main disadvantages of this process is its low deposition rate. In this work, the authors report a new magnetic field configuration, which produces deposition rates twice that of conventional magnetron's dipole magnetic field configuration. Three different magnet pack configurations are discussed in this paper, and an optimized magnet pack configuration for HPPMS that leads to a higher deposition rate and nearly full-face target erosion is presented. The discussed magnetic field produced by a specially designed magnet assembly is of the same size as the conventional magnet assembly and requires no external fields. Comparison of deposition rates with different power supplies and the electron trapping efficiency in complex magnetic field arrangements are discussed.

  18. A compact ultranarrow high-power laser system for experiments with 578 nm ytterbium clock transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappellini, G.; Lombardi, P.; Mancini, M.; Pagano, G.; Pizzocaro, M.; Fallani, L.; Catani, J.

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we present the realization of a compact, high-power laser system able to excite the ytterbium clock transition at 578 nm. Starting from an external-cavity laser based on a quantum dot chip at 1156 nm with an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator, we were able to obtain up to 60 mW of visible light at 578 nm via frequency doubling. The laser is locked with a 500 kHz bandwidth to an ultra-low-expansion glass cavity stabilized at its zero coefficient of thermal expansion temperature through an original thermal insulation and correction system. This laser allowed the observation of the clock transition in fermionic {sup 173}Y b with a <50 Hz linewidth over 5 min, limited only by a residual frequency drift of some 0.1 Hz/s.

  19. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. I. 2D density mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. This paper deals with two-dimensional density mapping in the discharge volume obtained by laser-induced fluorescence imaging. The time-resolved density evolution of Ti neutrals, singly ionized Ti atoms (Ti{sup +}), and Ar metastable atoms (Ar{sup met}) in the area above the sputtered cathode is mapped for the first time in this type of discharges. The energetic characteristics of the discharge species are additionally studied by Doppler-shift laser-induced fluorescence imaging. The questions related to the propagation of both the neutral and ionized discharge particles, as well as to their spatial density distributions, are discussed.

  20. Development of a high-power and high-energy thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; SCHARRER,GREGORY L.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    2000-04-18

    The Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} and Li(Si)/CoS{sub 2} couples were evaluated with a low-melting LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic and all-Li LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte for a battery application that required both high energy and high power for short duration. Screening studies were carried out with 1.25 inch-dia. triple cells and with 10-cell batteries. The Li(Si)/LiCl-LiBr-LiF/CoS{sub 2} couple performed the best under the power load and the Li(Si)/LiCl-LiBr-LiF/FeS{sub 2} was better under the energy load. The former system was selected as the best overall performer for the wide range of temperatures for both loads, because of the higher thermal stability of CoS{sub 2}.

  1. Second user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heimann, Phil; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-05-28

    The second international workshop on the physics enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the world-class Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron X-ray laser beam was held in Stanford, CA, on October 7–8, 2014. The workshop was co-organized by UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratories. More than 120 scientists, including 40 students and postdoctoral scientists who are working in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, fusion research, and dynamic high-pressure science came together from North America, Europe, and Asia. The focus of the second workshop was on scientific highlights and the lessons learned from 16 newmore » experiments that were performed on the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument since the first workshop was held one year ago.« less

  2. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

    2007-04-17

    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  3. LEDA - A HIGH-POWER TEST BED OF INNOVATION AND OPPORTUNITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. SCHNEIDER; R. SHEFFIELD

    2000-08-01

    The low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) is an operational 6.7-MeV. 100-mA proton accelerator consisting of an injector, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and all associated integration equipment. In order to achieve this unprecedented level of performance (670-kW of beam power) from an RFQ, a number of design innovations were required. They will highlight a number of those more significant technical advances, including those in the proton injector, the RFQ configuration, the RF klystrons, the beam stop, and the challenges of beam measurements. In addition to identifying the importance of these innovations to LEDA performance, they will summarize the plans for further testing, and the possibilities for addition of more accelerating structures, including the planned use of very-low-beta super-conducting structures. LEDA's current and upgradable configuration is appropriate for several future high-power accelerators, including those for the transmutation of radioactive waste.

  4. An innovative demonstration of high power density in a compact MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, H.J.; Lineberry, J.T.; Chapman, J.N.

    1990-06-01

    The present program was conducted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). It was by its nature a high risk experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of high power density operation in a laboratory scale combustion driven MHD generator. Maximization of specific energy was not a consideration for the present program, but the results have implications in this regard by virtue of high energy fuel used. The power density is the ratio of the electrical energy output to the internal volume of the generator channel. The MHD process is a volumetric process and the power density is therefore a direct measure of the compactness of the system. Specific energy, is the ratio of the electrical energy output to consumable energy used for its production. The two parameters are conceptually interrelated. To achieve high power density and implied commensurate low system volume and weight, it was necessary to use an energetic fuel. The high energy fuel of choice was a mixture of powdered aluminum and carbon seeded with potassium carbonate and burned with gaseous oxygen. The solid fuel was burned in a hybrid combustion scheme wherein the fuel was cast within a cylindrical combustor in analogy with a solid propellant rocket motor. Experimental data is limited to gross channel output current and voltage, magnetic field strength, fuel and oxidizer flow rates, flow train external temperatures and combustor pressure. Similarly, while instantaneous oxidizer flow rates were measured, only average fuel consumption based on pre and post test component weights and dimensions was possible. 4 refs., 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Gas breakdown driven by L band short-pulse high-power microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yiming; Yuan Chengwei; Qian Baoliang

    2012-12-15

    High power microwave (HPM) driven gas breakdown is a major factor in limiting the radiation and transmission of HPM. A method that HPM driven gas breakdown could be obtained by changing the aperture of horn antenna is studied in this paper. Changing the effective aperture of horn antenna can adjust the electric field in near field zone, leading to gas breakdown. With this method, measurements of air and SF{sub 6} breakdowns are carried out on a magnetically insulated transmission-line oscillators, which is capable of generating HPM with pulse duration of 30 ns, and frequency of 1.74 GHz. The typical breakdown waveforms of air and SF{sub 6} are presented. Besides, the breakdown field strengths of the two gases are derived at different pressures. It is found that the effects of air and SF{sub 6} breakdown on the transmission of HPM are different: air breakdown mainly shortens the pulse width of HPM while SF{sub 6} breakdown mainly reduces the peak output power of HPM. The electric field threshold of SF{sub 6} is about 2.4 times larger than that of air. These differences suggest that gas properties have a great effect on the transmission characteristic of HPM in gases.

  6. Novel high-power subterahertz-range radial surface wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yue; Wang, Guangqiang; Li, Shuang; Cheng, Guoxin

    2015-06-15

    A novel high-power subterahertz-range radial surface wave oscillator (SWO), in which the electron beam is emitted radially and interacts with the slow wave structure (SWS) machined on a planar plate, is presented in this paper. Compared to the axial SWO where the electron beam is emitted axially and interacts with the SWS machined on the inner wall of a cylindrical waveguide, the radial SWO has two advantages. One is that fabrication of the radial SWS is much easier than that of the axial SWO. The other is that the radial SWO is a low-impedance device, it can produce much higher current than the axial SWO when they are driven by the same driven voltage, and hence, it may generate much higher output power. Particle-in-cell simulation results demonstrate that the proposed radial SWO driven by the voltage of 312 kV can produce the terahertz wave with the mean output power of 680 MW at the frequency of 0.142 THz, it has a very pure TM{sub 01} mode and the higher modes can be effectively suppressed.

  7. Distance-dependent plasma composition and ion energy in high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehiasarian, Arutiun P; Andersson, Joakim; Anders, Andr

    2010-04-18

    The plasma composition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) has been studied for titanium and chromium targets using a combined energy analyser and quadrupole mass spectrometer. Measurements were done at distances from 50 to 300 mm from the sputtering target. Ti and Cr are similar in atomic mass but have significantly different sputter yields, which gives interesting clues on the effect of the target on plasma generation and transport of atoms. The Ti and Cr HIPIMS plasmas operated at a peak target current density of ~;;0.5 A cm-2. The measurements of the argon and metal ion content as well as the ion energy distribution functions showed that (1) singly and doubly charged ions were found for argon as well as for the target metal, (2) the majority of ions were singly charged argon for both metals at all distances investigated, (3) the Cr ion density was maintained to distances further from the target than Ti. Gas rarefaction was identified as a main factor promoting transport of metal ions, with the stronger effect observed for Cr, the material with higher sputter yield. Cr ions were found to displace a significant portion of the gas ions, whereas this was less evident in the Ti case. The observations indicate that the presence of metal vapour promotes charge exchange and reduces the electron temperature and thereby practically prevents the production of Ar2+ ions near the target. The content of higher charge states of metal ions depends on the probability of charge exchange with argon.

  8. Investigation of ionized metal flux in enhanced high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stranak, Vitezslav; Hubicka, Zdenek; Cada, Martin; Drache, Steffen; Hippler, Rainer; Tichy, Milan

    2014-04-21

    The metal ionized flux fraction and production of double charged metal ions Me{sup 2+} of different materials (Al, Cu, Fe, Ti) by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) operated with and without a pre-ionization assistance is compared in the paper. The Electron Cyclotron Wave Resonance (ECWR) discharge was employed as the pre-ionization agent providing a seed of charge in the idle time of HiPIMS pulses. A modified grid-free biased quartz crystal microbalance was used to estimate the metal ionized flux fraction ξ. The energy-resolved mass spectrometry served as a complementary method to distinguish particular ion contributions to the total ionized flux onto the substrate. The ratio between densities of doubly Me{sup 2+} and singly Me{sup +} charged metal ions was determined. It is shown that ECWR assistance enhances Me{sup 2+} production with respect of absorbed rf-power. The ECWR discharge also increases the metal ionized flux fraction of about 30% especially in the region of lower pressures. Further, the suppression of the gas rarefaction effect due to enhanced secondary electron emission of Me{sup 2+} was observed.

  9. High-Power Electrostatic Discharges in PETN: Threshold and Scaling Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, W; McCarrick, J F; Hodgin, R L; Phillips, D F

    2010-03-05

    There is a considerable set of data establishing the safety of PETN-based detonators that are insulted by electrostatic discharge (ESD) from a human body. However, the subject of ESD safety has garnered renewed interest because of the sparse data on high-power, low-impedance discharges that result when the source is a metallic object such as a tool. Experiments on as-built components, using pin-to-cap fault circuits through PETN-based detonators, showed significant evidence of a power dependence but with a very broad energy threshold and some uncertainty in the breakdown path. We have performed a series of experiments using a well-defined arc discharge path and a well-characterized source that is capable of independent variation of energy and power. Studies include threshold variation with power, arc length, powder surface area, and surface vs. bulk discharge paths. We find that an energy threshold variation with power does not appear to exist in the tested range of fractions to tens of MW, and that there are many subtleties to proper energy and power bookkeeping. We also present some test results for PBX 9407.

  10. Performance of improved magnetostrictive vibrational power generator, simple and high power output for practical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki

    2015-05-07

    Vibration based power generation technology is utilized effectively in various fields. Author has invented novel vibrational power generation device using magnetostrictive material. The device is based on parallel beam structure consisting of a rod of iron-gallium alloy wound with coil and yoke accompanied with permanent magnet. When bending force is applied on the tip of the device, the magnetization inside the rod varies with induced stress due to the inverse magnetostrictive effect. In vibration, the time variation of the magnetization generates voltage on the wound coil. The magnetostrictive type is advantageous over conventional such using piezoelectric or moving magnet types in high efficiency and high robustness, and low electrical impedance. Here, author has established device configuration, simple, rigid, and high power output endurable for practical applications. In addition, the improved device is lower cost using less volume of Fe-Ga and permanent magnet compared to our conventional, and its assembly by soldering is easy and fast suitable for mass production. Average power of 3 mW/cm{sup 3} under resonant vibration of 212 Hz and 1.2 G was obtained in miniature prototype using Fe-Ga rod of 2 × 0.5× 7 mm{sup 3}. Furthermore, the damping effect was observed, which demonstrates high energy conversion of the generator.

  11. High-power linac for a US spallation-neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangler, T.P.; Billen, J.; Jason, A. Krawczyk, F.; Nath, S.; Shafer, R.; Staples, J.; Takeda, H.; Tallerico, P.

    1996-09-01

    We present status of high-power linac design studies for a proposed National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS), based on a linac/accumulator-ring accelerator system. Overall project is a collaboration involving 5 national laboratories. ORNL will be responsible for the target, facilities, and conceptual design; BNL will be responsible for the ring; LBNL will be responsible for the injector, including the RFQ and a low-energy chopper in front of the RFQ; LANL will be responsible for the main linac; and ANL will be responsible for the instrumentation. The facility will be built at Oak Ridge. In the first phase, the dual-frequency linac with 402.5 and 805 MHz frequencies must deliver to the accumulator ring an H{sup -} beam near 1 GeV, with about 1 ms pulse length, a repetition rate 60 Hz, and average beam power {ge} 1 MW. The linac can be upgraded by a factor of 4 in beam power by increasing the dc injector current, and by funneling the beams from two 402.5 MHz low-energy linacs into the 805-MHz high-energy linac. Requirements for low beam loss in both linac and ring have important implications for linac design, including the requirement to provide efficient beam chopping to provide low-loss extraction for the ring. Linac design options and initial parameters are presented together with initial beam-dynamics simulation results.

  12. Rarefaction windows in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmucci, Maria; Britun, Nikolay; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony; Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons

    2013-09-21

    The velocity distribution function of the sputtered particles in the direction parallel to the planar magnetron cathode is studied by spatially- and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a short-duration (20 ?s) high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge. The experimental evidence for the neutral and ionized sputtered particles to have a constant (saturated) velocity at the end of the plasma on-time is demonstrated. The velocity component parallel to the target surface reaches the values of about 5 km/s for Ti atoms and ions, which is higher that the values typically measured in the direct current sputtering discharges before. The results point out on the presence of a strong gas rarefaction significantly reducing the sputtered particles energy dissipation during a certain time interval at the end of the plasma pulse, referred to as rarefaction window in this work. The obtained results agree with and essentially clarify the dynamics of HiPIMS discharge studied during the plasma off-time previously in the work: N. Britun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131504 (2011)

  13. APEX and ALPS, high power density technology programs in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, C.; Berk, S.; Abdou, M.; Mattas, R.

    1999-02-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1998 two new fusion technology programs were initiated in the US, with the goal of making marked progress in the scientific understanding of technologies and materials required to withstand high plasma heat flux and neutron wall loads. APEX is exploring new and revolutionary concepts that can provide the capability to extract heat efficiently from a system with high neutron and surface heat loads while satisfying all the fusion power technology requirements and achieving maximum reliability, maintainability, safety, and environmental acceptability. ALPS program is evaluating advanced concepts including liquid surface limiters and divertors on the basis of such factors as their compatibility with fusion plasma, high power density handling capabilities, engineering feasibility, lifetime, safety and R and D requirements. The APEX and ALPS are three-year programs to specify requirements and evaluate criteria for revolutionary approaches in first wall, blanket and high heat flux component applications. Conceptual design and analysis of candidate concepts are being performed with the goal of selecting the most promising first wall, blanket and high heat flux component designs that will provide the technical basis for the initiation of a significant R and D effort beginning in FY2001. These programs are also considering opportunities for international collaborations.

  14. ZrN coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purandare, Yashodhan Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken; Santana, Antonio

    2014-05-15

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on 1??m finish high speed steel and 316L stainless steel test coupons. Cathodic Arc (CA) and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) + Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (UBM) techniques were utilized to deposit coatings. CA plasmas are known to be rich in metal and gas ions of the depositing species as well as macroparticles (droplets) emitted from the arc sports. Combining HIPIMS technique with UBM in the same deposition process facilitated increased ion bombardment on the depositing species during coating growth maintaining high deposition rate. Prior to coating deposition, substrates were pretreated with Zr{sup +} rich plasma, for both arc deposited and HIPIMS deposited coatings, which led to a very high scratch adhesion value (L{sub C2}) of 100 N. Characterization results revealed the overall thickness of the coatings in the range of 2.5??m with hardness in the range of 3040?GPa depending on the deposition technique. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and tribological experiments such as dry sliding wear tests and corrosion studies have been utilized to study the effects of ion bombardment on the structure and properties of these coatings. In all the cases, HIPIMS assisted UBM deposited coating fared equal or better than the arc deposited coatings, the reasons being discussed in this paper. Thus H+U coatings provide a good alternative to arc deposited where smooth, dense coatings are required and macrodroplets cannot be tolerated.

  15. High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vodopyanov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Khizhnyak, V. I.; Mansfeld, D. A.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2008-02-15

    A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 {mu}s, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed.

  16. Simulative research on the anode plasma dynamics in the high-power electron beam diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Dan; Liu, Lie; Ju, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Zhao, Xue-Long; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2015-07-15

    Anode plasma generated by electron beams could limit the electrical pulse-length, modify the impedance and stability of diode, and affect the generator to diode power coupling. In this paper, a particle-in-cell code is used to study the dynamics of anode plasma in the high-power electron beam diode. The effect of gas type, dynamic characteristic of ions on the diode operation with bipolar flow model are presented. With anode plasma appearing, the amplitude of diode current is increased due to charge neutralizations of electron flow. The lever of neutralization can be expressed using saturation factor. At same pressure of the anode gas layer, the saturation factor of CO{sub 2} is bigger than the H{sub 2}O vapor, namely, the generation rate of C{sup +} ions is larger than the H{sup +} ions at the same pressure. The transition time of ions in the anode-cathode gap could be used to estimate the time of diode current maximum.

  17. A source of high-power pulses of elliptically polarized ultrawideband radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, Yu. A. Efremov, A. M.; Koshelev, V. I.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Petkun, A. A.; Sukhushin, K. N.; Zorkaltseva, M. Yu.

    2014-10-01

    Here, we describe a source of high-power ultrawideband radiation with elliptical polarization. The source consisting of a monopolar pulse generator, a bipolar pulse former, and a helical antenna placed into a radioparent container may be used in tests for electromagnetic compatibility. In the source, the helical antenna with the number of turns N = 4 is excited with a high-voltage bipolar pulse. Preliminary, we examined helical antennas at a low-voltage source aiming to select an optimal N and to estimate a radiation center position and boundary of a far-field zone. Finally, characteristics of the source in the operating mode at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz are presented in the paper as well. Energy efficiency of the antenna is 0.75 at the axial ratio equal to 1.3. The effective potential of radiation of the source at the voltage amplitudes of the bipolar pulse generator equal to -175/+200 kV reaches 280 kV.

  18. Relativistic electron motion in cylindrical waveguide with strong guiding magnetic field and high power microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Cao, Yibing

    2015-06-15

    In O-type high power microwave (HPM) devices, the annular relativistic electron beam is constrained by a strong guiding magnetic field and propagates through an interaction region to generate HPM. Some papers believe that the E × B drift of electrons may lead to beam breakup. This paper simplifies the interaction region with a smooth cylindrical waveguide to research the radial motion of electrons under conditions of strong guiding magnetic field and TM{sub 01} mode HPM. The single-particle trajectory shows that the radial electron motion presents the characteristic of radial guiding-center drift carrying cyclotron motion. The radial guiding-center drift is spatially periodic and is dominated by the polarization drift, not the E × B drift. Furthermore, the self fields of the beam space charge can provide a radial force which may pull electrons outward to some extent but will not affect the radial polarization drift. Despite the radial drift, the strong guiding magnetic field limits the drift amplitude to a small value and prevents beam breakup from happening due to this cause.

  19. High power microwave beam steering based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanchenko, I. V. Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Konev, V. Yu.

    2015-06-07

    We demonstrate electronically controlled beam steering by high power RF pulses produced by two gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) connected to a one high voltage driver. Each NLTL is capable of producing several ns RF pulses with peak power from 50 to 700 MW (6% standard deviation) at frequencies from 0.5 to 1.7 GHz (1% standard deviation) with 100 Hz repetition rate. Using a helix antenna allows irradiating of RF pulses with almost circular polarization and 350 MW maximum peak power, which corresponds to 350 kV effective potential of radiation. At the installation of two identical channels, we demonstrate the possibility of beam steering within ±15° in the horizontal plane by coherent RF pulses with circular polarization at 1.0 GHz center frequency. Fourfold increase in the power flux density for in-phase irradiation of RF pulses is confirmed by comparison with one-channel operation.

  20. Development of a high-voltage, high-power thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Scharrer, G.L.; Binasiewicz, E.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    The power requirements for an inverter application were specified to be 500 V at 360 A, or 180 kW per each of six 1-s pulses delivered over a period of 10 minutes. Conventional high-power sources (e.g., flywheels) could not meet these requirements and the use of a thermal battery was considered. The final design involved four, 125-cell, 50-kW modules connected in series. A module using the LiSi/CoS{sub 2} couple and all-Li (LiCI-LiBr-LiF minimum-melting) electrolyte was successfully developed and tested. A power level of over 40 kW was delivered during a 0.5-s pulse. This translates into a specific power level of over 9 kW/kg or 19.2 kW/L delivered from a module. The module was still able to deliver over 30 kW during a 1-s pulse after 10 minutes.

  1. Chemical Kinetic Modelling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kinetic Modelling for Combustion Prof. Henry Curran 1 Copyright ©2016 by Prof Henry Curran. This material is not to be sold, reproduced or distributed without prior written permission of the owner, Prof Henry Curran. 2 Overview/Aims 5 days / 15 lectures Day 1 (1-3) Basic thermodynamic principles Day 2 (4) Basic kinetic principles (5,6) Experimental JSR, FR, RCM & ST contribution to kinetics Day 3 (7-9) Small species mechanism development 3 Overview/Aims 5 days /

  2. Eco Kinetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kinetics Jump to: navigation, search Name: eco-Kinetics Place: Stapylton, Queensland, Australia Zip: 4207 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Queensland-based renewable energy...

  3. Materials cost evaluation report for high-power Li-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.; Liu, J.

    2003-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency in the partnership between the U.S. automobile industry and the federal government to develop fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) as part of the FreedomCAR Partnership. DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Office sponsors the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program--involving 5 of its national laboratories--to assist the industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries to overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, and abuse tolerance so that this technology can be rendered practical for use in HEV and FCEV applications under the FreedomCAR Partnership. In the area of cost reduction, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously extending the calendar life and enhancing the inherent safety of this electrochemical system. The material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in the production of batteries that are designed to meet the requirements of a minimum-power-assist HEV battery or a maximum-power-assist HEV battery for the FreedomCAR Partnership. Similar models will be developed for FEV batteries when the requirements for those batteries are finalized. In order to quantify the material costs relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared with the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. As can be

  4. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Silverman, I.; Paul, M.; Friedman, M.; Tessler, M.

    2013-12-15

    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm{sup 3}) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ∼200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm{sup 2} and volume power density of ∼2 MW/cm{sup 3} at a lithium flow of ∼4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91–2.5 MeV, 1–2 mA) at SARAF.

  5. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang

    2015-10-15

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO.

  6. A high power beam-on-target test of liquid lithium target for RIA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Novick, V.; Specht, J.; Plotkin, P.; Momozaki,Y.; Gomes, I.

    2005-08-29

    Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the stable operation of a windowless liquid lithium target under extreme thermal loads that are equivalent to uranium beams from the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The engineering and safety issues accompanying liquid lithium systems are first discussed. The liquid metal technology knowledge base generated primarily for fast reactors, and liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, was applied to the development of these systems in a nuclear physics laboratory setting. The use of a high energy electron beam for simulating a high power uranium beam produced by the RIA driver linac is also described. Calculations were performed to obtain energy deposition profiles produced by electron beams at up to a few MeV to compare with expected uranium beam energy deposition profiles. It was concluded that an experimental simulation using a 1-MeV electron beam would be a valuable tool to assess beam-jet interaction. In the experiments, the cross section of the windowless liquid lithium target was 5 mm x 10 mm, which is a 1/3rd scale prototype target, and the velocity of the liquid lithium was varied up to 6 m/s. Thermal loads up to 20 kW within a beam spot diameter of 1mm were applied on the windowless liquid lithium target by the 1-MeV electron beam. The calculations showed that the maximum power density and total power deposited within the target, from the electron beam, was equivalent to that of a 200-kW, 400-MeV/u uranium beam. It was demonstrated that the windowless liquid lithium target flowing at velocities as low as 1.8 m/s stably operated under beam powers up to 20 kW without disruption or excessive vaporization.

  7. 2. Chemical Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Lecture) Chung K. Law Robert H. Goddard Professor Princeton University Princeton-CEFRC-Combustion Institute Summer School on Combustion June 20-24, 2016 1 Day 1: Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics 1. Chemical Thermodynamics * Chemical equilibrium * Energy conservation & adiabatic flame temp., T ad 2. Chemical Kinetics * Reaction rates and approximations * Theories of reaction rates * Straight and branched chain reactions 3. Oxidation Mechanisms of Fuels * Hydrogen, CO, hydrocarbons 2 1.

  8. HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

    2008-03-31

    Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole coiled tube

  9. High-Power Zinc-Air Energy Storage: Enhanced Metal-Air Energy Storage System with Advanced Grid-Interoperable Power Electronics Enabling Scalability and Ultra-Low Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: Fluidic is developing a low-cost, rechargeable, high-power module for Zinc-air batteries that will be used to store renewable energy. Zinc-air batteries are traditionally found in small, non-rechargeable devices like hearing aids because they are well-suited to delivering low levels of power for long periods of time. Historically, Zinc-air batteries have not been as useful for applications which require periodic bursts of power, like on the electrical grid. Fluidic hopes to fill this need by combining the high energy, low cost, and long run-time of a Zinc-air battery with new chemistry providing high power, high efficiency, and fast response. The battery module could allow large grid-storage batteries to provide much more power on very short demandthe most costly kind of power for utilitiesand with much more versatile performance.

  10. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  11. Generation of high power pulsed terahertz radiation using a plasmonic photoconductive emitter array with logarithmic spiral antennas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Christopher W.; Hashemi, Mohammad R.; Jarrahi, Mona

    2014-02-24

    An array of 3 × 3 plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitters with logarithmic spiral antennas is fabricated on a low temperature (LT) grown GaAs substrate and characterized in response to a 200 fs optical pump from a Ti:sapphire mode-locked laser at 800 nm wavelength. A microlens array is used to split and focus the optical pump beam onto the active area of each plasmonic photoconductive emitter element. Pulsed terahertz radiation with record high power levels up to 1.9 mW in the 0.1–2 THz frequency range is measured at an optical pump power of 320 mW. The record high power pulsed terahertz radiation is enabled by the use of plasmonic contact electrodes, enhancing the photoconductor quantum efficiencies, and by increasing the overall device active area, mitigating the carrier screening effect and thermal breakdown at high optical pump power levels.

  12. High power test results of the first SRRC/ANL high current L-band RF gun.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. H.

    1998-09-11

    A joint program is underway between the SRRC (Synchrotrons Radiation Research Center, Taiwan) and ANL (Argonne National Laboratory, USA) for developing a high current L-band photocathode rf guns. We have constructed an L-Band (1.3 Ghz), single cell rf photocathode gun and conducted low power tests at SRRC. High power rf conditioning of the cavity has been completed at ANL. In this paper we report on the construction and high power test results. So far we have been able to achieve > 120 MV/m axial electric field with minimal dark current. This gun will be used to replace the AWA (Argonne Wakefield Accelerator)[l] high current gun.

  13. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hänninen, Tuomas Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  14. Paint decontamination kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, E.W.

    1984-04-01

    Decontamination kinetics of a high-gloss polyurethane paint have been investigated using a novel flow cell experiment where the sample was counted in situ during decontamination. The /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 90/Y decontaminations follow a rate law that can be predicted theoretically for contaminant ion desorption from weakly heterogeneous random surface adsorption sites. Paint surfaces show the same decontamination kinetics after damage by abrasion or ultraviolet irradiation prior to contamination. The systems investigated exhibit Freundlich adsorption isotherm behavior during contamination; this is also characteristic of weakly heterogeneous random surfaces and is very commonly observed in ion adsorption studies at low concentrations.

  15. Long-term research in Japan: amorphous metals, metal oxide varistors, high-power semiconductors and superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hane, G.J.; Yorozu, M.; Sogabe, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The review revealed that significant activity is under way in the research of amorphous metals, but that little fundamental work is being pursued on metal oxide varistors and high-power semiconductors. Also, the investigation of long-term research program plans for superconducting generators reveals that activity is at a low level, pending the recommendations of a study currently being conducted through Japan's Central Electric Power Council.

  16. The development of a one microsecond pulse length, repetitively pulsed, high power modulator and a long-pulse electron beam diode for the production of intense microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfield, R.M.; Faehl, R.J.; Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Kwan, T.J.T.; Rickel, D.G.; VanHaaften, F.; Wasierski, R.F.; Erickson, A.; Rust, K.

    1992-07-01

    This paper discusses the pulse power and explosive emission electron beam diode development effort we have undertaken to power a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) microwave source. The pulsed power and electron beam must enable the RKA to Produce one kilojoule of 13 GHz radiation per pulse at a 5 Hz repetition frequency. These efforts include tests and improvements of a 1 {mu}s pulse length thyratron switched modulator, and the computational and experimental design of a 1-{mu}s-pulse-length explosive emission electron gun. The one microsecond pulse length is almost an order of magnitude beyond what has been achieved heretofore with an RKA. Achieving a peak power approaching 1 GW for 1 {mu}s requires a well behaved electron beam on that time scale. An electron beam diode has been developed that delivers a peak current of 4 to 5 kA for a pulse duration exceeding 1 {mu}s, at a beam kinetic energy above 600 keV. BANSHEE is the high voltage modulator designed for use as an electron beam driver for high power microwave tube development. The BANSHEE output pulse design parameters are 1 MV and 10 kA, with a 1 {mu}s pulse width at a repetition rate of 3--5 Hz, driving a load of impedance of 100 ohms. BANSHEE is a thyratron-switched line-type modular with a pulse transformer output stage. The modulator design is pushing the state of the art in thyratron technology and capacitor lifetime. The results of the BANSHEE modulator testing are described.

  17. Research and Development of High-Power and High-Energy Electrochemical Storage Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2014-04-30

    validation, implementation, and cost reduction. 2. Identification of the next viable technology with emphasis on the potential to meet USABC cost and operating temperature range goals. 3. Support high-risk, high-reward battery technology R&D. Specific to the Cooperative Agreement DE- FC26-05NT42403, addressing High-Energy and High Power Energy Storage Technologies, the USABC focus was on understanding and addressing the following factors (listed in priority of effort): • Cost: Reducing the current cost of lithium- ion batteries (currently about 2-3 times the FreedomCAR target ($20/kW). • Low Temperature Performance: Improving the discharge power and removing lithium plating during regenerative braking. • Calendar Life: Achieving 15-year life and getting accurate life prediction. • Abuse Tolerance: Developing a system level tolerance to overcharge, crush, and high temperature exposure. This Final Technical Report compilation is submitted in fulfillment of the subject Cooperative Agreement, and is intended to serve as a ready-reference for the outcomes of following eight categories of projects conducted by the USABC under award from the DOE’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ) Vehicle Technologies Program: USABC DoE Final Report – DoE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-95EE50425 8 Protected Information 1. Electric Vehicle (EV) (Section A of this report) 2. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) (Section B 3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) (Section C) 4. Low-Energy Energy Storage Systems (LEESS) (Section D) 5. Technology Assessment Program (TAP) (Section E) 6. Ultracapacitors (Section F) 7. 12 Volt Start-Stop (Section G) 8. Separators (Section H) The report summarizes the main areas of activity undertaken in collaboration with the supplier community and the National Laboratories. Copies of the individual supplier final reports are available upon request. Using project gap analysis versus defined USABC goals in each area, the report documents known technology limits

  18. System using a megawatt class millimeter wave source and a high-power rectenna to beam power to a suspended platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caplan, Malcolm; Friedman, Herbert W.

    2005-07-19

    A system for beaming power to a high altitude platform is based upon a high power millimeter gyrotron source, optical transmission components, and a high-power receiving antenna (i.e., a rectenna) capable of rectifying received millimeter energy and converting such energy into useable electrical power.

  19. Power and polarization monitor development for high power millimeter-wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makino, R. Kobayashi, K.; Kubo, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Mutoh, T.

    2014-11-15

    A new type monitor of power and polarization states of millimeter-waves has been developed to be installed at a miter-bend, which is a part of transmission lines of millimeter-waves, for electron cyclotron resonance heating on the Large Helical Device. The monitor measures amplitudes and phase difference of the electric field of the two orthogonal polarizations which are needed for calculation of the power and polarization states of waves. The power and phase differences of two orthogonal polarizations were successfully detected simultaneously.

  20. Silicon nitride swirl lower-chamber for high power turbocharged diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, S.; Murachi, M.; Kawamoto, H.; Kato, S.; Kawakami, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes application of sintered silicon nitride to the swirl lower-chamber in order to improve performance of turbocharged diesel engines. Various stress analyses by finite element method and stress measurements have been applied to determine the design specifications for the component, which compromise brittleness of ceramic materials. Material development was conducted to evaluate strength, fracture toughness, and thermal properties for the sintered bodies. Ceramic injection molding has been employed to fabricate components with large quantities. In the present work. Quality assurance for the components can be made by reliability evaluation methods as well as non-destructive and stress loading inspections. It is found that the engine performance with ceramic component has been increased in the power out put of 9ps as compared to that of conventional engines.

  1. Suppression of beam induced pulse shortening modes in high power RF generator TW output structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    1992-12-31

    Several different style 11.4 GHz relativistic klystrons, operating with beam pulse widths of 50 ns and using large aperture, tapered phase-velocity TW structures,` have recently demonstrated output RF power levels in the range of 100 to 300 MW without breakdown or pulse shortening. To extend this performance into the long pulse regime (1 {mu}s) or to demonstrate a threefold increase in output power by using higher currents, the existing TW circuit designs must be modified (a) to reduce the cavity maximum surface E-fields by a factor of 2 to 3, and (b) to elevate the current threshold values of the beam induced higher order modes (HOM) to ensure avoidance of RF pulse shortening and associated instabilities. A technique for substantially elevating this threshold current is described, and microwave data and photographs are presented showing the degree of HOM damping achieved in a recently constructed 11.4 GHz TW structure.

  2. 2. Chemical Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chung K. Law Robert H. Goddard Professor Princeton University Princeton-CEFRC-Combustion Institute Summer School on Combustion June 20-24, 2016 1 What is Combustion? * Study of chemically reacting flows with highly exothermic, temperature-sensitive reactions A Laminar Bunsen Flame A Turbulent Jet Flame Combustion is A Multi-physics & Multi-scale Science * Combustion is a multi- physics science, embodying two major branches of nonlinear science: - Chemical kinetics - Fluid mechanics *

  3. Feasibility of High-Power Diode Laser Array Surrogate to Support Development of Predictive Laser Lethality Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowdermilk, W H; Rubenchik, A M; Springer, H K

    2011-01-13

    Predictive modeling and simulation of high power laser-target interactions is sufficiently undeveloped that full-scale, field testing is required to assess lethality of military directed-energy (DE) systems. The cost and complexity of such testing programs severely limit the ability to vary and optimize parameters of the interaction. Thus development of advanced simulation tools, validated by experiments under well-controlled and diagnosed laboratory conditions that are able to provide detailed physics insight into the laser-target interaction and reduce requirements for full-scale testing will accelerate development of DE weapon systems. The ultimate goal is a comprehensive end-to-end simulation capability, from targeting and firing the laser system through laser-target interaction and dispersal of target debris; a 'Stockpile Science' - like capability for DE weapon systems. To support development of advanced modeling and simulation tools requires laboratory experiments to generate laser-target interaction data. Until now, to make relevant measurements required construction and operation of very high power and complex lasers, which are themselves costly and often unique devices, operating in dedicated facilities that don't permit experiments on targets containing energetic materials. High power diode laser arrays, pioneered by LLNL, provide a way to circumvent this limitation, as such arrays capable of delivering irradiances characteristic of De weapon requires are self-contained, compact, light weight and thus easily transportable to facilities, such as the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where testing with energetic materials can be performed. The purpose of this study was to establish the feasibility of using such arrays to support future development of advanced laser lethality and vulnerability simulation codes through providing data for materials characterization and laser-material interaction

  4. Characterization of plasma expansion dynamics in a high power diode with a carbon-fiber-aluminum cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, J.-C.; Liu, L.; Cai, D.

    2014-06-09

    Thermal plasma expansion is characterised during the operation of a high power diode with an explosive emission carbon-fiber-aluminum cathode driven by a 250 kV, 150 ns accelerating pulse. It is found that a quasi-stationary state of plasma expansion is obtained during the main part of the accelerating pulse and the whole plasma expansion exhibits an “U”-shape velocity evolution. A theoretical model describing the dynamics of plasma expansion is developed, which indicates that the plasma expansion velocity is determined by equilibrium between the diode current density and plasma thermal electron current density.

  5. Experimental investigation of a Ka band high power millimeter wave generator operated at low guiding magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Jun; Shu Ting; Zhang Jun; Li Guolin; Zhang Zehai; Fan Yuwei

    2011-05-15

    An overmoded slow wave type Ka band generator is investigated experimentally to produce high power millimeter waves in this paper. The experiments were carried out at the TORCH-01 accelerator. The produced microwave frequency was measured by dispersive line method, and the power was estimated by integrating over the radiation pattern at far field. With relatively low guiding magnetic field of 0.8 T and diode voltage and beam current of 590 kV and 5.2 kA, respectively, a 33.56 GHz millimeter wave with an output power of 320 MW was generated, and the microwave mode was quasi-TM{sub 01} mode.

  6. Power Beamed Photon Sails: New Capabilities Resulting From Recent Maturation Of Key Solar Sail And High Power Laser Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, Edward E. IV

    2010-05-06

    This paper revisits some content in the First International Symposium on Beamed Energy Propulsion in 2002 related to the concept of propellantless in-space propulsion utilizing an external high energy laser to provide momentum to an ultralightweight (gossamer) spacecraft. The design and construction of the NanoSail-D solar sail demonstration spacecraft has demonstrated in space flight hardware the concept of small, very light--yet capable--spacecraft. The results of the Joint High Power Solid State Laser (JHPSSL) have also increased the effectiveness and reduced the cost of an entry level laser source. This paper identifies the impact from improved system parameters on current mission applications.

  7. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M.; Welch, D.; Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C.

    2014-10-15

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

  8. Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development for high efficiency clean combustion engines Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development for high ...

  9. CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...

  10. Long pulse acceleration of MeV class high power density negative H{sup −} ion beam for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umeda, N. Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Hiratsuka, J.; Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Hanada, M.

    2015-04-08

    R and D of high power density negative ion beam acceleration has been carried out at MeV test facility in JAEA to realize ITER neutral beam accelerator. The main target is H{sup −} ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV with 200 A/m{sup 2} for 60 s whose pulse length is the present facility limit. For long pulse acceleration at high power density, new extraction grid (EXG) has been developed with high cooling capability, which electron suppression magnet is placed under cooling channel similar to ITER. In addition, aperture size of electron suppression grid (ESG) is enlarged from 14 mm to 16 mm to reduce direct interception on the ESG and emission of secondary electron which leads to high heat load on the upstream acceleration grid. By enlarging ESG aperture, beam current increased 10 % at high current beam and total acceleration grid heat load reduced from 13 % to 10 % of input power at long pulse beam. In addition, heat load by back stream positive ion into the EXG is measured for the first time and is estimated as 0.3 % of beam power, while heat load by back stream ion into the source chamber is estimated as 3.5 ~ 4.0 % of beam power. Beam acceleration up to 60 s which is the facility limit, has achieved at 683 keV, 100 A/m{sup 2} of negative ion beam, whose energy density increases two orders of magnitude since 2011.