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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Modeling of Nonuniform Degradation in Large-Format Li-ion Batteries (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Study of impacts of large-format cell design features on battery useful life to improve battery engineering models, including both realistic geometry and physics.

Smith, K.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Addressing the Impact of Temperature Extremes on Large Format Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicle Applications (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the effects of temperature on large format lithium-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles.

Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Modeling of Nonuniform Degradation in Large-Format Li-ion Batteries (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Shows results of an empirical model capturing effects of both storage and cycling and developed the lithium ion nickel cobalt aluminum advanced battery chemistry.

Smith, K.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Li-ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012... are critical for the development of zero-emission electrical vehicles, large scale smart grid, and energy efficient cargo ships and locomotives.

6

Li-ion Batteries and Beyond  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012 ... Energy Nanomaterials: Li-ion Batteries and Beyond Sponsored by: The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, TMS Materials Processing and ...

7

Nanotechnology in Li-ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the second of three talks on nanostructures for li-ion batteries. The talks provide an up-to-date review of the issues and challenges facing Li-ion battery research with special focus on how nanostructures/ nanotechnology are being applied to this field. Novel materials reported as prospective candidates for anode, cathode and electrolyte will be summarized. The expected role of nanostructures in improving the performance of Li-ion batteries and the actual pros and cons of using such structures in this device will be addressed. Electrochemical experiments used to study Li-ion batteries will also be discussed. This includes the introduction to the standard experimental set-up and how experimental data (from charge-discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, etc) are interpreted.

Mukaibo, Hitomi (University of Florida, Martin Research Group)

2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

8

Vehicle Specifications Battery Type: Li-Ion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 All-Electric Conversion of the USPS Long Life Vehicle (LLV) Vehicle Specifications Battery Type: Li-Ion Pack Locations: Underbody (inboard of frame rails) Nominal System Voltage:...

9

Ion Beam Preparation of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes Li-Ion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One key factor to producing such batteries is the electrode architecture. In order to tune the morphologies of Li-ion battery electrodes, a dual beam Focused Ion ...

10

Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Investigation of particle isolation in Li-ion battery electrodes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of particle isolation in Li-ion battery electrodes using 7Li NMR spectroscopy Title Investigation of particle isolation in Li-ion battery electrodes using 7Li NMR...

12

Mesoscale Phase Distribution in Li-ion Battery Electrode Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Science SSRL Phone List People Search Maps Mesoscale Phase Distribution in Li-ion Battery Electrode Materials Friday, May 31, 2013 Li-ion batteries are regarded as key devices...

13

Li ion Motors Corp formerly EV Innovations Inc | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Li ion Motors Corp formerly EV Innovations Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Li-ion Motors Corp (formerly EV...

14

Impedance studies on Li-ion cathodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the author's 2- and 3-electrode impedance results of metal oxide cathodes. These results were extracted from impedance data on 18650 Li-ion cells. The impedance results indicate that the ohmic resistance of the cell is very nearly constant with state-of-charge (SOC) and temperature. For example, the ohmic resistance of 18650 Li-ion cells is around 60 m{Omega} for different SOCS (4.1V to 3.0V) and temperatures from 35 C to {minus}20 C. However, the interfacial impedance shows a modest increase with SOC and a huge increase of between 10 and 100 times with decreasing temperature. For example, in the temperature regime (35 C down to {minus}20 C) the overall cell impedance has increased from nearly 200 m{Omega} to 8,000 m{Omega}. Most of the increase in cell impedance comes from the metal oxide cathode/electrolyte interface.

NAGASUBRAMANIAN, GANESAN

2000-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

15

Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries: a New ...  

High-energy density Li-ion batteries available in the market today have low power and progressively lose their energy due to voltage fade during ...

16

Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery. Author(s), Donghai Wang, Daiwon Choi, Juan Li, Zhenguo Yang, Zimin Nie, Rong ...

17

A Comparison of Li-Ion Battery Recycling Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 A Comparison of Li-Ion Battery Recycling Options Linda Gaines and Jennifer Dunn Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory SAE World Congress April 2012 PAPER...

18

Ultrathin Surface Coatings for Enhanced Cycleability of Li-Ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of Battery Cycling by In-Situ Microscopy · Chemical ... as Li-ion Battery Electrodes · In Situ and In Operando Studies of High Capacity Cathodes.

19

Recycling of Li-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Linda Gaines Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory Recycling of Li-Ion Batteries Illinois Sustainable Technology Center University of Illinois We don't want to trade one crisis for another!  Battery material shortages are unlikely - We demonstrated that lithium demand can be met - Recycling mitigates potential scarcity  Life-cycle analysis checks for unforeseen impacts  We need to find something to do with the used materials - Safe - Economical 2 We answer these questions to address material supply issues  How many electric-drive vehicles will be sold in the US and world-wide?  What kind of batteries might they use? - How much lithium would each battery use?  How much lithium would be needed each year?

20

Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes  

SciTech Connect

Hollow core-shell structured porous Si-C nanocomposites with void space up to tens of nanometers are designed to accommodate the volume expansion during lithiation for high-performance Li-ion battery anodes. An initial capacity of {approx}760 mAh/g after formation cycles (based on the entire electrode weight) with {approx}86% capacity retention over 100 cycles is achieved at a current density of 1 A/g. Good rate performance is also demonstrated.

Li, Xiaolin; Meduri, Praveen; Chen, Xilin; Qi, Wen N.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xu, Wu; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Electrochemical Experiments Used to Study Li-ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the third of three talks on nanostructures for Li-ion batteries. The talks provide an up-to-date review of the issues and challenges facing Li-ion battery research with special focus on how nanostructures/nanotechnology are being applied to this field. Novel materials reported as prospective candidates for anode, cathode and electrolyte will be summarized. The expected role of nanostructures in improving the performance of Li-ion batteries and the actual pros and cons of using such structures in this device will be addressed. Electrochemical experiments used to study Li-ion batteries will also be discussed. This includes the introduction to the standard experimental set-up and how experimental data (from charge-discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, etc) are interpreted.

Mukaibo, Hitomi (University of Florida, Martin Research Group)

2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

22

Li-Ion Batteries for Transportation Applications II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 27, 2009 ... Energy Storage: Materials, Systems, and Applications: Li-Ion Batteries for ... storage and utilization of renewable energies like solar and wind. Cost ... Rahul Singhal1; Karina Asmar1; Ram Katiyar1; 1University of Puerto Rico

23

Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries Monday, February 13, 2012 - 1:30pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Stephen J. Harris, General Motors R&D While battery performance is well...

24

Thermal Stability of Li-Ion Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial SONY cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity in the open circuit cell condition. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC). Microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of heat generating side reactions also as a function of SOC. Components of cells were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the thermal reactivity of the individual electrodes to determine the temperature regimes and conditions of the major thermal reactions. Thermal decomposition of the SEI layer at the anodes was identified as the initiating source for thermal runaway. The cells with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes showed greater sensitivity to SOC and higher accelerating heating rates than seen for the cells with Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}cathodes. Lower temperature reactions starting as low as 40 C were also observed that were SOC dependent but not accelerating. These reactions were also measured in the microcalorimeter and observed to decay over time with a power-law dependence and are believed to result in irreversible capacity loss in the cells.

ROTH,EMANUEL P.

1999-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

25

Batteries - Next-generation Li-ion batteries Breakout session  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Next-generation Li-ion batteries Next-generation Li-ion batteries EV Everywhere Workshop July 26, 2012 Breakout Session #1 - Discussion of Performance Targets and Barriers Comments on the Achievability of the Targets * Overall, everything is achievable, but, clearly, the cost targets are dramatic, particularly for AEV 300. (I have discussed this with Yet-Ming Chiang, who has a good feel for cost reductions, both their importance and interesting approaches.) * AEV 100 achievable with a good silicon/graphite composite anode and LMRNMC (unsure timeline) * AEV 300 would require cycleable Li-metal anode and UHVHC cathode (can't get there with Li-ion intercalation on both electrodes) (unsure timeline) Barriers Interfering with Reaching the Targets * Pack - too high a fraction of inactive materials/inefficient engineering designs.

26

Review on Current State of Li-ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is an up-to-date review of the issues and challenges facing Li-ion battery research with special focus on how nanostructures/ nanotechnology are being applied to this field. Novel materials reported as prospective candidates for anode, cathode and electrolyte will be summarized. The expected role of nanostructures in improving the performance of Li-ion batteries and the actual pros and cons of using such structures in this device will be addressed. Electrochemical experiments used to study Li-ion batteries will also be discussed. This includes the introduction to the standard experimental set-up and how experimental data (from charge-discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, etc) are interpreted.

Mukaibo, Hitomi (University of Florida, Martin Research Group)

2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

27

Finite volume discretization of equations describing nonlinear diffusion in Li-Ion batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical modeling of electrochemical process in Li-Ion battery is an emerging topic of great practical interest. In this work we present a Finite Volume discretization of electrochemical diffusive processes occurring during the operation of Li-Ion batteries. ...

P. Popov; Y. Vutov; S. Margenov; O. Iliev

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL STABILITY OF LI-ION BATTERIES BY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Commercial Building End-Use Energy Efficiency · Industrial/Agricultural/Water End-Use Energy EfficiencyIMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL STABILITY OF LI-ION BATTERIES BY POLYMER COATING OF LIMN2O4 Prepared For: California Energy Commission Energy Innovations Small Grant Program Prepared By: Pieter Stroeve, UC Davis

29

The effects of silicon doping on the performance of PMAN carbon anodes in Li-ion cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbons derived from polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN) have been studied for use as intercalation anodes in Li-ion cells. The effect of Si doping upon the electrochemical performance of PMAN carbons was studied using tetravinylsilane (TVS) and tetramethysilane (TMS) as sources of Si during the formation of the PMAN precursors. The carbons were characterized by galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and complex impedance. The presence of 9 to 11 w/o Si in the PMAN lattice greatly increased the irreversible capacity of these materials.

Guidotti, R.A.; Johnson, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Even, W. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

New Model Predicts Dendrite Formation in Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 28, 2013 ... The dendrites are lithium deposits that form on electrode surfaces that can potentially cause an internal short circuit, resulting in battery failure ...

31

Li-Ion and Other Advanced Battery Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

scientist viewing computer screen scientist viewing computer screen Li-Ion and Other Advanced Battery Technologies The research aims to overcome the fundamental chemical and mechanical instabilities that have impeded the development of batteries for vehicles with acceptable range, acceleration, costs, lifetime, and safety. Its aim is to identify and better understand cell performance and lifetime limitations. These batteries have many other applications, in mobile electronic devices, for example. The work addresses synthesis of components into battery cells with determination of failure modes, materials synthesis and evaluation, advanced diagnostics, and improved electrochemical model development. This research involves: Battery development and analysis; Mathematical modeling; Sophisticated diagnostics;

32

A Historical-Data-Based Method for Health Assessment of Li-Ion Battery.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Nowadays, rechargeable Li-ion batteries have been widely used in laptops, cell phones and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The health information of battery is very important.… (more)

Dai, Wanchen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Flexible, Thin, and Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Based on Semi ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Storage III: Materials, Systems and Applications Symposium. Presentation Title, Flexible, Thin, and Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Based on ...

34

Why are there no volume Li-ion battery manufacturers in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... There No Volume Lithium-Ion Battery Manufacturers in ... R&D; US Manufacturing of Li-ion Batteries. ... The Innovation Process for Battery Technologies. ...

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

35

Analysis of Heat Dissipation in Li-Ion Cells & Modules for Modeling of Thermal Runaway (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this study are: (1) To develop 3D Li-Ion battery thermal abuse ''reaction'' models for cell and module analysis; (2) To understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-Ion cells and modules; (3) To develop a tool and methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems for PHEVs/HEVs; and (4) To help battery developers accelerate delivery of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems in support of the FreedomCAR's Energy Storage Program.

Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Real Space Mapping of Li-Ion Transport in Amorphous Si Anodes with Nanometer Resolution  

SciTech Connect

The electrical bias driven Li-ion motion in silicon anode materials in thin film battery heterostructures is investigated using electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), which is a newly developed scanning probe microscopy based characterization method. ESM utilizes the intrinsic link between bias-controlled Li-ion concentration and molar volume of electrode materials, providing the capability for studies on the sub-20 nm scale, and allows the relationship between Li-ion flow and microstructure to be established. The evolution of Li-ion transport during the battery charging is directly observed.

Balke, Nina [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kim, Yoongu [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Adamczyk, Leslie A [ORNL; Tselev, Alexander [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Modeling, Simulation & Implementation of Li-ion Battery Powered Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The modeling, simulation and hardware implementation of a Li-ion battery powered electric vehicle are presented in this thesis. The results obtained from simulation and experiments… (more)

Mantravadi, Siva Rama Prasanna

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Thermal Abuse Modeling of Li-Ion Cells and Propagation in Modules (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this paper are: (1) continue to explore thermal abuse behaviors of Li-ion cells and modules that are affected by local conditions of heat and materials; (2) use the 3D Li-ion battery thermal abuse 'reaction' model developed for cells to explore the impact of the location of internal short, its heating rate, and thermal properties of the cell; (3) continue to understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-ion cells and modules; and (4) explore the use of the developed methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-ion battery systems.

Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Comparison of Li-Ion Battery Recycling Processes by Life-Cycle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory Comparison of Li-Ion Battery Recycling Processes by Life-Cycle Analysis Electric Vehicles and the Environment...

40

(V2O5) Films for Li-ion Battery and Supercapacitor Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These binder and carbon free films are characterized electrochemically for Li-ion battery applications with impedance, and galvanostatic charge-discharge cyclic ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Unique Li-ion Batteries for Utility Application...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Unique Li-ion Batteries for Utility Applications Daiwon Choi, Vilayanur V. Viswanathan, Wei Wang, Vincent L. Sprenkle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd., P....

42

Fluoro-Carbonate Solvents for Li-Ion Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of fluoro-carbonate solvents were evaluated as electrolytes for Li-ion cells. These solvents are fluorine analogs of the conventional electrolyte solvents such as dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate in Li-ion cells. Conductivity of single and mixed fluoro carbonate electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF{sub 6} was measured at different temperatures. These electrolytes did not freeze at -40 C. We are evaluating currently, the irreversible 1st cycle capacity loss in carbon anode in these electrolytes and the capacity loss will be compared to that in the conventional electrolytes. Voltage stability windows of the electrolytes were measured at room temperature and compared with that of the conventional electrolytes. The fluoro-carbon electrolytes appear to be more stable than the conventional electrolytes near Li voltage. Few preliminary electrochemical data of the fluoro-carbonate solvents in full cells are reported in the literature. For example, some of the fluorocarbonate solvents appear to have a wider voltage window than the conventional electrolyte solvents. For example, methyl 2,2,2 trifluoro ethyl carbonate containing 1 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte has a decomposition voltage exceeding 6 V vs. Li compared to <5 V for conventional electrolytes. The solvent also appears to be stable in contact with lithium at room temperature.

NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

1999-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

43

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Unique Li-ion Batteries for Utility Applications - Daiwon Choi, PNNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Unique Li-ion Batteries for Utility Unique Li-ion Batteries for Utility Applications Daiwon Choi, Vilayanur V. Viswanathan, Wei Wang, Vincent L. Sprenkle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd., P. O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352, USA DOE Energy Storage Program Review, Washington, DC Sept. 26-28, 2012 Acknowledgment: Dr. Imre Gyuk - Energy Storage Program Manager, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability  Investigate the Li-ion battery for stationary energy storage unit in ~kWh level.  Fabrication and optimization of LiFePO 4 / Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 18650 cell.  Li-ion battery energy storage with effective thermal management.  Improve rate and cycle life of Li-ion battery.  Screen possible new cathode/anode electrode materials and its combinations

44

Oxidation Potentials of Functionalized Sulfone Solvents for High-Voltage Li-Ion Batteries: A Computational Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New electrolytes with large electrochemical windows are needed to meet the challenge for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. Sulfone as an electrolyte solvent boasts of high oxidation potentials. Here we examine the effect of multiple functionalization on sulfone's oxidation potential. We compute oxidation potentials for a series of sulfone-based molecules functionalized with fluorine, cyano, ester, and carbonate groups by using a quantum chemistry method within a continuum solvation model. We find that multifunctionalization is a key to achieving high oxidation potentials. This can be realized through either a fluorether group on a sulfone molecule or sulfonyl fluoride with a cyano or ester group.

Shao, Nan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Low Temperature Electrical Performance Characteristics of Li-Ion Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are presently being developed and commercialized worldwide for use in consumer electronics, military and space applications. The motivation behind these efforts involves, among other things, a favorable combination of energy and power density. For some of the applications the power sources may need to perform at a reasonable rate at subambient temperatures. Given the nature of the lithium-ion cell chemistry the low temperature performance of the cells may not be very good. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have used different electrochemical techniques such as impedance and charge/discharge at ambient and subambient temperatures to probe the various electrochemical processes that are occurring in Li-ion cells. The purpose of this study is to identify the component that reduces the cell performance at subambient temperatures. We carried out 3-electrode impedance measurements on the cells which allowed us to measure the anode and cathode impedances separately. Our impedance data suggests that while the variation in the electrolyte resistance between room temperature and -20"C is negligible, the cathode electrolyte interracial resistance increases substantially in the same temperature span. We believe that the slow interracial charge transfer kinetics at the cathode electrolyte may be responsible for the increase in cell impedance and poor cell performance.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

46

Thermal characterization of Li-ion cells using calorimetric techniques  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial Sony cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC), microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of thermal output, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal reactivity of the individual components. Thermal decomposition of the anode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer occurred at low temperatures and contributes to the initiation of thermal runaway. Low temperature reactions from 40 C--70 C were observed during the ARC runs that were SOC dependent. These reactions measured in the microcalorimeter decayed over time with power-law dependence and were highly sensitive to SOC and temperature. ARC runs of aged and cycled cells showed complete absence of these low-temperature reactions but showed abrupt exothermic spikes between 105--135 C. These results suggest that during aging the anode SEI layer is decomposing from a metastable state to a stable composition that is breaking down at elevated temperatures.

ROTH,EMANUEL P.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Second-Use Li-Ion Batteries to Aid Automotive and Utility Industries (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Repurposing Li-ion batteries at the end of useful life in electric drive vehicles could eliminate owners' disposal concerns and offer low-cost energy storage for certain applications.

Not Available

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Improved Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) Batteries: Innovation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improved Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) Batteries: Innovation Improved Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) Batteries: Innovation and Optimization Speaker(s): Jordi Cabana-Jimenez Date: January 14, 2008 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Venkat Srinivasan The advent of Li-ion batteries has played a central role in the impressive development of portable digital and wireless technology. Such success has triggered further efforts to utilize them as key components in other applications with an even larger impact on society, which include electric vehicles and energy backup for renewable energy sources. However, several challenges need to be met before these expectations can be realized, as Li-ion batteries currently do not meet the power and energy density requirements of these devices. New and better materials for the electrodes

49

Improved Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) Batteries...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improved Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) Batteries: Innovation and Optimization Speaker(s): Jordi Cabana-Jimenez Date: January 14, 2008 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122...

50

Reductive Leaching Behavior of Valuable Metals from Spent Li-Ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Commercial trend of cathode material for Li-ion batteries, LiCoO2, ... The Challenge of Allocation in LCA: The Case of Open-Loop Recycling.

51

An ultra-compact and efficient Li-ion battery charger circuit for biomedical applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an ultra-compact analog lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery charger for wirelessly powered implantable medical devices. The charger presented here takes advantage of the tanh output current profile of an ...

Do Valle, Bruno Guimaraes

52

Comparative Modeling of Li-Ion Cell and LiFePO4 - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Comparative Modeling of Li-Ion Cell and LiFePO4 Cell for Automotive ... The cathode active material of a LiFePO4 cell is assumed to undergo ...

53

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.A. Sutula, F. McLamon, Battery Rsearch Pograms of theof Energy, in Selected Battery Topics. Proceedings of theEthylene Carbonate in Li-Ion Battery Electrolyte Guoying

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Technology Assessment of Li-Ion Energy Storage Technology for Stationary Electric Utility Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emerging Lithium-ion (Li-ion) energy storage technology, which is being developed and applied in the transportation sector, could have a profound impact in the electric sector by serving applications for distributed energy storage (DES). An earlier EPRI Report, Technology Review and Assessment of Distributed Energy Resources: Distributed Energy Storage (1012983, February 2006), identified Li-ion batteries as a potential disruptive technology for the electric power sector. EPRI undertook this project to a...

2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

55

Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Silicon is environmentally benign and ubiquitous. Because of its high specific capacity, it is considered one of the most promising candidates to replace the conventional graphite negative electrode used in today's Li ion batteries. Silicon has a theoretical specific capacity of nearly 4200 mAh/g (Li21Si5), which is 10 times larger than the specific capacity of graphite (LiC6, 372 mAh/g). However, the high capacity of silicon is associated with huge volume changes (more than 300 percent) when alloyed with lithium, which can cause severe cracking and pulverization of the electrode and lead to significant capacity loss. Significant scientific research has been conducted to circumvent the deterioration of silicon based anode materials during cycling. Various strategies, such as reduction of particle size, generation of active/inactive composites, fabrication of silicon based thin films, use of alternative binders, and the synthesis of 1-D silicon nanostructures have been implemented by a number of research groups. Fundamental mechanistic research has also been performed to better understand the electrochemical lithiation and delithiation process during cycling in terms of crystal structure, phase transitions, morphological changes, and reaction kinetics. Although efforts to date have not attained a commercially viable Si anode, further development is expected to produce anodes with three to five times the capacity of graphite. In this chapter, an overview of research on silicon based anodes used for lithium-ion battery applications will be presented. The overview covers electrochemical alloying of the silicon with lithium, mechanisms responsible for capacity fade, and methodologies adapted to overcome capacity degradation observed during cycling. The recent development of silicon nanowires and nanoparticles with significantly improved electrochemical performance will also be discussed relative to the mechanistic understanding. Finally, future directions on the development of silicon based anodes will be considered.

Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu; Liu, Jun

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Na and Li ion diffusion in modified ASTM C 1260 test by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  

SciTech Connect

In the current study, MRI was applied to investigate lithium and sodium ion diffusion in cement paste and mortars containing inert sand and borosilicate glass. Paste and mortars were treated by complying with ASTM C 1260. Lithium and sodium distribution profiles were collected at different ages after different treatments. Results revealed that sodium ions had a greater diffusion rate than lithium ions, suggesting that Na reaches the aggregate particle surface before Li. Results also showed that Na and Li ions had a competitive diffusion process in mortars; soaking in a solution with higher [Li] favored Li diffusion but hindered Na diffusion. In mortars containing glass, a substantial amount of Li was consumed by the formation of ASR products. When [Li] in soaking solution was reduced to 0.37 N, a distinctive Na distribution profile was observed, indicating the free-state Na ions were continuously transformed to solid reaction products by ASR. Hence, in the modified ASTM C 1260 test, [Li] in the storage solution should be controlled at 0.74 N, in order to completely prevent the consumption of Na ions and thus stop ASR.

Feng, X. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada)], E-mail: XFeng@ctlgroup.com; Balcom, B.J. [MRI Center, Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Thomas, M.D.A.; Bremner, T.W. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Program on Technology Innovation: Technology Assessment Presentation on Li-Ion Energy Storage Technology for Stationary Electric Uti lity Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emerging Li-ion (Li-ion) energy storage technology, which is being developed and applied in the transportation sector, could have a profound impact to in the electric sector by serving applications for distributed energy storage (DES). An earlier EPRI Report, Technology Review and Assessment of Distributed Energy ResourcesDistributed Energy Storage (1012983), identified Li-ion batteries as a potential disruptive technology for the electric power sector. This project was undertaken to assess the potential...

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

58

Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries  

NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY! Challenges for Large LIB Systems 2 • Li-ion batteries are flammable, require expensive manufacturing to reduce defects

59

Understanding Li-ion battery processes at the atomic to nano-scale.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reducing battery materials to nano-scale dimensions may improve battery performance while maintaining the use of low-cost materials. However, we need better characterization tools with atomic to nano-scale resolution in order to understand degradation mechanisms and the structural and mechanical changes that occur in these new materials during battery cycling. To meet this need, we have developed a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)-based platform for performing electrochemical measurements using volatile electrolytes inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This platform uses flip-chip assembly with special alignment features and multiple buried electrode configurations. In addition to this platform, we have developed an unsealed platform that permits in situ TEM electrochemistry using ionic liquid electrolytes. As a test of these platform concepts, we have assembled MnO{sub 2} nanowires on to the platform using dielectrophoresis and have examined their electrical and structural changes as a function of lithiation. These results reveal a large irreversible drop in electronic conductance and the creation of a high degree of lattice disorder following lithiation of the nanowires. From these initial results, we conclude that the future full development of in situ TEM characterization tools will enable important mechanistic understanding of Li-ion battery materials.

Zhan, Yongjie (Rice University, Houston, TX); Subramanian, Arunkumar; Hudak, Nicholas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Shaw, Michael J.; Huang, Jian Yu

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

NREL's PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Secondary-Use Project  

SciTech Connect

Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) is restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the Li-ion battery's cost via reuse in other applications after it is retired from service in the vehicle, when the battery may still have sufficient performance to meet the requirements of other energy storage applications.

Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Self-assembled TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures for Enhanced Li-ion Insertion  

SciTech Connect

We used anionic sulfate surfactants to assist the stabilization of graphene in aqueous solutions and facilitate the self-assembly of in-situ grown nanocrystalline TiO2, rutile and anatase, with graphene. These nanostructured TiO2-graphene hybrid materials were used for investigation of Li-ion insertion properties. The hybrid materials showed significantly enhanced Li-ion insertion/extraction in TiO2. The specific capacity was more than doubled at high charge rates, as compared with the pure TiO2 phase. The improved capacity at high charge-discharge rate may be attributed to increased electrode conductivity in presence of a percolated graphene network embedded into the metal oxide electrodes.

Wang, Donghai; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Juan; Yang, Zhenguo; Nie, Zimin; Kou, Rong; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Chong M.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Zhang, Jiguang; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Liu, Jun

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

Au, M.

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

63

Early Cloud Formation by Large Area Fires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fires simultaneously burning in hundreds of square kilometers could result from a nuclear weapon explosion. The strong buoyancy field of such large area fires induces high-velocity fire winds that turn upward in the burning region. This results ...

R. D. Small; K. E. Heikes

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge electrodes fabricated directly on Ni current collector substrates were found to exhibit excellent specific capacities during electrochemical cycling in half-cell configuration with Li metal for a wide range of cycling rates. Structural characterization revealed that the nanostructured electrodes lose porosity during cycling but maintain excellent electrical contact with the metallic current collector substrate. These results suggest that nanostructured Ge electrodes have great promise for use as high performance Li ion battery anodes.

Rudawski, N. G.; Darby, B. L.; Yates, B. R.; Jones, K. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States); Elliman, R. G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Volinsky, A. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa Florida 33620 (United States)

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

66

A Practical Circuit-based Model for State of Health Estimation of Li-ion Battery Cells in Electric Vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis the development of the state of health of Li-ion battery cells under possible real-life operating conditions in electric cars has been characterised.… (more)

Lam, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Selected test results from the neosonic polymer Li-ion battery.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery was measured using a number of tests including capacity, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, hybrid pulsed power test, utility partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycle test, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the polymer Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery technology can provide power levels up to the 10C{sub 1} discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h (1C) discharge rate. Two of the three cells used in the utility PSOC pulsed cycle test completed about 12,000 cycles with only a gradual loss in capacity of 10 and 13%. The third cell experienced a 40% loss in capacity at about 11,000 cycles. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were increases in impedance after cycling, especially for the third cell. Cell No.3 impedance Rs increased significantly along with extensive ballooning of the foil pouch. Finally, at a 1C (10 A) charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test with cell confinement similar to a multi cell string resulted in the cell venting hot gases at about 45 C 45 minutes into the test. At 104 minutes into the test the cell voltage spiked to the 12 volt limit and continued out to the end of the test at 151 minutes. In summary, the Neosonic cells performed as expected with good cycle-life and safety.

Ingersoll, David T.; Hund, Thomas D.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Surface treated natural graphite as anode material for high-power Li-ion battery applications.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High power application of Li-ion battery in hybrid electrical vehicles requires low cost and safe cell materials. Among the various carbon anode materials used in lithium ion batteries, natural graphite shows the most promise with advantages in performance and cost. However, natural graphite is not compatible with propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes, which have a lower melting point and improved safety characteristics. The problem with it is that the molecules of propylene carbonate intercalate with Li+ into graphite, and that frequently leads to the exfoliation of the graphite matrix.

Liu, J.; Vissers, D. R.; Amine, K.; Barsukov, I. V.; Henry, F.; Doniger, J.; Chemical Engineering; Superior Graphite Co.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Two and Three-Electrode Impedance Studies on 18650 Li-Ion Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two and three electrode impedance measurements were made on 18650 Li-ion cells at different QB temperatures ranging from 35 C to {minus}40 C. The ohmic resistance of the cell is nearly constant the temperature range studied although the total cell impedance increases by an order of magnitude in the same temperature range. In contrast to what is commonly believed, we show from our three-electrode impedance results that, the increase in cell impedance comes mostly from the cathode and not from the anode. Further, the anode and cathode contribute to both the impedance loops (in the NyQuist plot).

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

70

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

71

Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

72

Predicted Structure, Thermo-Mechanical Properties and Li Ion Transport in LiAlF4 Glass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials with the LiAlF{sub 4} composition are of interest as protective electrode coatings in Li ion battery applications due to their high cationic conductivity. Here classical molecular dynamics calculations are used to produce amorphous model structures by simulating a quench from the molten state. These are analysed in terms of their individual pair correlation functions and atomic coordination environments. This indicates that amorphous LiAlF{sub 4} is formed of a network of corner sharing AlF{sub 6} octahedra. Li ions are distributed within this network, primarily associated with non-bridging fluorine atoms. The nature of the octahedral network is further analysed through intra- and interpolyhedral bond angle distributions and the relative populations of bridging and non-bridging fluorine ions are calculated. Network topology is considered through the use of ring statistics, which indicates that, although topologically well connected, LiAlF{sub 4} contains an appreciable number of corner-linked branch-like AlF{sub 6} chains. Thermal expansion values are determined above and below the predicted glass transition temperature of 1340 K. Finally, movement of Li ions within the network is examined with predictions of the mean squared displacements, diffusion coefficients and Li ion activation energy. Different regimes for lithium ion movement are identified, with both diffusive and sessile Li ions observed. For migrating ions, a typical trajectory is illustrated and discussed in terms of a hopping mechanism for Li transport.

Stechert, T. R.; Rushton, M. J. D.; Grimes, R. W.; Dillon, A. C.

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Electrical and Electrochemical Performance Characteristics of Small Commercial Li-Ion Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are presently being developed and commercialized worldwide for use in consumer electronics, military and space applications. At Sandia National Laboratories we have used different electrochemical techniques such as impedance and charge/discharge at ambient and subambient temperatures to probe the various electrochemical processes that are occurring in Li-ion cell. The purpose of this study is to identify the component that reduces the cell performance at subambient temperatures. Our impedance data suggest that while the variation in the electrolyte resistance between room temperature and {minus}20 C is negligible the anode electrolyte interfacial resistance increases by an order of magnitude in the same temperature regime. We believe that the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the carbon anode may be responsible for the increase in cell impedance. We have also evaluated the cells in hybrid mode with capacitors. High-current operation in the hybrid mode allowed fill usage of the Li-ion cell capacity at 25 C and showed a factor of 5 improvement in delivered capacity at {minus}20 C.

Ingersoll, D.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Roth, E.P.

1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

75

Demonstration Initiative for a Grid Support Energy Storage System using Li-ion Technology: Phase I Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents a research project to scope and implement an initiative to catalyze the early market deployment of a utility-scale electric energy storage system, a project that leverages Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology being globally scaled to serve emerging electric and hybrid electric vehicle markets. The impressive scale of Li-ion battery production and R&D is driving a trend in cost reduction and performance improvements that make this technology attractive for certain grid storage app...

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Li-Ion Battery Systems  

candidate for energy storage of electric drive vehicles due to their high power and energy density. The total electric vehicle LIB market shipped 2,400 units in 2008 generating over $28 million in revenue and is predicted to be greater than $10 ...

77

Design of composite polymer electrolytes for Li ion batteries based on mechanical stability criteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanical properties and conductivity were computed for several composite polymer electrolyte structures. A multi-phase effective medium approach was used to estimate effective conductivity. The Mori-Tanaka approach was applied for calculating the effective stiffness tensor of the composites. An analysis of effective mechanical properties was performed in order to identify the composite structures, which would be capable of blocking the dendrites forming in Li-ion battery when Li metal is used as anode. The data on conductivity, elastic modulus, and Poisson s ratio can be used to formulate design criteria for solid electrolytes that would exhibit appropriate stiffness and compressibility to suppress lithium dendrite growth while maintaining high effective conductivities.

Kalnaus, Sergiy [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Investigation of induced fission of natPb by accelerated 7Li ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cross-section of the natPb binary fission, induced by 7Li ions at 245 MeV energy, was measured and the fission product cross-sections studied by means of activation analysis in the off-line regimen. The analysis of charge and mass distributions of fission products allows to calculate the fission cross-section. The recoil technique ("thick target- thick catcher"), based on the two step model mathematical formalism, is used for the determination of the kinematical characteristics of reaction products. The data concerning transferred linear momentum provides information on the initial projectile-target interaction, and is compared to measurements of the proton-induced fission.

N. A. Demekhina; G. S. Karapetyan; V. Guimaraes

2013-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

79

A Combustion Chemistry Analysis of Carbonate Solvents in Li-Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under abusive conditions Li-ion batteries can rupture, ejecting electrolyte and other flammable gases. In this paper we consider some of the thermochemical properties of these gases that will determine whether they ignite and how energetically they burn. We show that flames of carbonate solvents are fundamentally less energetic than those of conventional hydrocarbons. An example of this difference is given using a recently developed mechanism for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) combustion, where we show that a diffusion flame burning DMC has only half the peak energy release rate of an analogous propane flame. We find a significant variation among the carbonate solvents in the factors that are important to determining flammability, such as combustion enthalpy and vaporization enthalpy. This result suggests that thermochemical and kinetic factors might well be considered when choosing solvent mixtures.

Harris, S J; Timmons, A; Pitz, W J

2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

80

Modeling of species and charge transport in Li-Ion batteries based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to improve the design of Li ion batteries the complex interplay of various physical phenomena in the active particles of the electrodes and in the electrolyte has to be balanced. The separate transport phenomena in the electrolyte and in the ...

Arnulf Latz; Jochen Zausch; Oleg Iliev

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Selected test results from the LiFeBatt iron phosphate Li-ion battery.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper the performance of the LiFeBatt Li-ion cell was measured using a number of tests including capacity measurements, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, high power partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycling, pulse power measurements, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the iron phosphate Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, and wind farm energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the LiFeBatt battery technology can function up to a 10C{sub 1} discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h discharge rate (1C). The utility PSOC cycle test at up to the 4C{sub 1} pulse rate completed 8,394 PSOC pulsed cycles with a gradual loss in capacity of 10 to 15% depending on how the capacity loss is calculated. The majority of the capacity loss occurred during the initial 2,000 cycles, so it is projected that the LiFeBatt should PSOC cycle well beyond 8,394 cycles with less than 20% capacity loss. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were only very small changes after cycling. Finally, at a 1C charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test resulted in the cell venting electrolyte at 110 C after 30 minutes and then open-circuiting at 120 C with no sparks, fire, or voltage across the cell.

Ingersoll, David T.; Hund, Thomas D.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Organic and Inorganic Solid Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries - Nader Hagh, NEI Corporation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Organic and Inorganic Solid Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Organic and Inorganic Solid Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Background & Objectives * Lithium ion batteries widely used in consumer applications Solvent leakage and flammability of conventional liquid electrolytes * Current solid state electrolytes suffer from low ionic conductivity, inferior rate capability, and interfacial instability * Objective of the program is to develop solid state organic and inorganic electrolyte that has enhanced ionic conductivity * PEO based polymer electrolyte has poor room ionic conductivity due to crystallinity * The current program develops a PEO based hybrid copolymer that disrupts crystallization and at the same time provides mechanical integrity Abstract: The use of a solid polymer electrolyte instead of the conventional liquid or gel electrolyte can drastically improve the safety

83

Electrical Characteristics of 18650 Li-Ion Cells at Low Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Low temperature electrical performance characteristics of A and T, Moli, and Panasonic 18650 Li-ion cells are described. Ragone plots of energy and power data of the cells for different temperatures from 25 C to {minus}40 C are compared. Although the electrical performance of these cells at and around room temperature is respectable, at temperatures below 0 C the performance is poor. For example, the delivered power and energy densities of the Panasonic cells at 25 C are {approximately}800 W/l and {approximately}100 Wh/l respectively and those at {minus}40 C are <10 W/l and {approximately}5 Wh/l. In order to identify the source for this poor performance at subambient temperatures, both 2- and 3-electrode impedance studies were made on these cells. The 2-electrode impedance data suggests that the cell ohmic resistance remains nearly constant from 25 C to {minus}20 C but increases modestly at {minus}40 C while the overall cell impedance increases by an order of magnitude over the same temperature range. The 3-electrode impedance data of the A and T cells show that the increase in cell resistance comes mostly from the cathode electrolyte interface and very little either from the anode electrolyte interface or from the ohmic resistance of the cell. This suggests that the poor performance of the cells comes mainly from the high cathode/electrolyte interfacial impedance.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

1999-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

84

Electrostatic energy harvester and Li-Ion charger circuit for microscale applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—Modern portable micro-systems like biomedical implants and ad-hoc wireless transceiver micro-sensors continue to integrate more functions into smaller devices, which result in low energy levels and short operational lives. Researchers and industry alike are consequently considering harvesting energy from the surrounding environment as a means of offsetting this energy deficit. Even with power efficient designs, low duty-cycle operation, smart power-aware network architectures, and batteries with improved energy density, the stored energy in micro-scale systems is simply not sufficient to sustain extended lifetimes. Fortunately, the surrounding environment is a rich source of energy, from solar and thermal to kinetic, but harnessing it without dissipating much power in the process is challenging. In this paper, an electrostatic vibrational energy harvester circuit is proposed and evaluated. It harnesses energy from inherent vibrations in the system (e.g., engine-powered applications) by modulating the parallelplate distance of a variable capacitor and channeling the resulting change in charge into a secondary Li-Ion micro-battery. The varactor, in essence, behaves like a vibration-dependent current source. Simulations show that a 100-to-1 pF variable plate capacitor subjected to vibrations with a period of 15 µs produces an average harvesting current of 40.8 µA, an energy gain of 569 pJ per cycle, and a net average power gain of 38 µW.

Erick O. Torres; Student Member; Gabriel A. Rincón-mora; Senior Member

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

86

ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0.04Co02O2 electrode containing 5 wt% single-walled carbon nanotubes as the conductive additive and demonstrated both high rate capability as well as the ability to cycle the cathode to 5 V vrs. Li/Li+. Finally, we coated a Celgard (TM) separator and enabled stable cycling in a high dielectric electrolyte. These results will be presented in detail.

Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

Dillon, A. C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The entropy changes (?S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A.; Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Self-Aligned Cu-Si Core-Shell Nanowire Array as a High-Performance Anode for Li-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Silicon nanowires (NWs) have been reported as a promising anode that demonstrated high capacity without pulverization during cycling, however, they present some technical issues that remain to be solved. The high aspect ratio of the NWs and their small contact areas with the current collector cause high electrical resistance, which results in inefficient electron transport. The nano-size interface between a NW and the substrate experiences high shear stress during lithiation, causing the wire to separate from the current collector. In addition, most reported methods for producing silicon NWs involve high-temperature processing and require catalysts that later become contaminants. This study developed a new self-aligned Cu-Si core-shell NW array using a low-temperature, catalyst-free process to address the issues described. The silicon shell is amorphous as synthesized and accommodates Li-ions without phase transformation. The copper core functions as a built-in current collector to provide very short (nm) electron transport pathways as well as backbone to improve mechanical strength. Initial electrochemical evaluation has demonstrated good capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency for this new anode material in a half-cell configuration. No wire fracture or core-shell separation was observed after cycling. However, electrolyte decomposition products largely covered the top surface of the NW array, restricting electrolyte access and causing capacity reduction at high charging rates.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Li, Huaqing [ORNL; Henry Jr, John James [ORNL; Martha, Surendra K [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Battery-level material cost model facilitates high-power li-ion battery cost reductions.  

SciTech Connect

Under the FreedomCAR Partnership, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously enhancing the calendar life and inherent safety of high-power Li-Ion batteries. Material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in batteries designed to meet the requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In order to quantify the material costs, relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared to the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. The most recent freedomCAR cost goals for 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries are $500 and $800, respectively, which is $20/kW in both cases. In 2001, ANL developed a high-power cell chemistry that was incorporated into high-power 18650 cells for use in extensive accelerated aging and thermal abuse characterization studies. This cell chemistry serves as a baseline for this material cost study. It incorporates a LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode, a synthetic graphite anode, and a LiPF6 in EC:EMC electrolyte. Based on volume production cost estimates for these materials-as well as those for binders/solvents, cathode conductive additives, separator, and current collectors--the total cell winding material cost for a 25-kW power-assist HEV battery is estimated to be $399 (based on a 48- cell battery design, each cell having a capacity of 15.4 Ah). This corresponds to {approx}$16/kW. Our goal is to reduce the cell winding material cost to <$10/kW, in order to allow >$10/kW for the cell and battery manufacturing costs, as well as profit for the industrial manufacturer. The material cost information is obtained directly from the industrial material suppliers, based on supplying the material quantities necessary to support an introductory market of 100,000 HEV batteries/year. Using its battery design model, ANL provides the material suppliers with estimates of the material quantities needed to meet this market, for both 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries. Also, ANL has funded a few volume-production material cost analyses, with industrial material suppliers, to obtain needed cost information. In a related project, ANL evaluates and develops low-cost advanced materials for use in high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries. [This work is the subject of one or more separate papers at this conference.] Cell chemistries are developed from the most promising low-cost materials. The performance characteristics of test cells that employ these cell chemistries are used as input to the cost model. Batteries, employing these cell chemistries, are designed to meet the FreedomCAR power, energy, weight, and volume requirements. The cost model then provides a battery-level material cost and material cost breakdown for each battery design. Two of these advanced cell chemistries show promise for significantly reducing the battery-level material costs (see Table 1), as well as enhancing calendar life and inherent safety. It is projected that these two advanced cell chemistries (A and B) could reduce the battery-level material costs by an estimated 24% and 43%, respectively. An additional cost advantage is realized with advanced chemistry B, due to the high rate capability of the 3-dimensional LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel cathode. This means that a greater percentage of the total Ah capacity of the cell is usable and cells with reduced Ah capacity can be used. This allows for a reduction in the quantity of the anode, electrolyte, separator, and current collector materials needed f

Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Thermal Stability of LiPF6 Salt and Li-ion Battery ElectrolytesContaining LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal stability of the neat LiPF6 salt and of 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and on-line FTIR. Pure LiPF6 salt is thermally stable up to 380 K in a dry inert atmosphere, and its decomposition path is a simple dissociation producing LiF as solid and PF5 as gaseous products. In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct thermal reaction between LiPF6 and water vapor to form POF3 and HF. No new products were observed in 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in EC, DMC and EMC by on-line TGA-FTIR analysis. The storage of the same solutions in sealed containers at 358 K for 300 420 hrs. did not produce any significant quantity of new products as well. In particular, noalkylflurophosphates were found in the solutions after storage at elevated temperature. In the absence of either an impurity like alcohol or cathode active material that may (or may not) act as a catalyst, there is no evidence of thermally induced reaction between LiPF6 and the prototypical Li-ion battery solvents EC, PC, DMC or EMC.

Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

92

Li-Ion Batteries from LiFePO4 Cathode and Anatase/Graphene Composite Anode for Stationary Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Li-ion batteries based on LiFePO4 cathode and anatase TiO2/graphene anode were investigated for possible stationary energy storage application. Fine-structured LiFePO4 was synthesized by novel molten surfactant approach. Anatase TiO2/graphene nanocomposite was prepared via self assembly method. The full cell that operated at flat 1.6V demonstrated negligible fade after more than 700 cycles. The LiFePO4/TiO2 combination Li-ion battery is inexpensive, environmentally benign, safe and stable. Therefore, it can be practically applied as stationary energy storage for renewable power sources.

Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Bae, In-Tae; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Duong, Tien Q.

2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

93

Investigation of Path Dependence in Commercial Li-ion Cells Chosen for PHEV Duty Cycle Protocols (paper)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Path dependence is emerging as a premier issue of how electrochemical cells age in conditions that are diverse and variable in the time domain. For example, lithium-ion cells in a vehicle configuration will experience a variable combination of usage and rest periods over a range of temperature and state of charge (SOC). This is complicated by the fact that some aging can actually become worse (or better) when a lithium-ion cell is idle for extended periods under calendar-life (calL) aging, as opposed to cycle-life (cycL) conditions where the cell is used within a predictable schedule. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between highly idealized and controlled laboratory test conditions and actual field conditions regarding PHEV applications, so that field-type aging mechanisms can be mimicked and quantified in a repeatable laboratory setting. The main parameters are the magnitude and frequency of the thermal cycling, looking at isothermal, mild, and severe scenarios. To date, little is known about Li-ion aging effects caused by thermal cycling superimposed onto electrochemical cycling, and related path dependence. This scenario is representative of what Li-ion batteries will experience in vehicle service, where upon the typical start of a HEV/PHEV, the batteries will be cool or cold, will gradually warm up to normal temperature and operate there for a time, then will cool down after the vehicle is turned off. Such thermal cycling will occur thousands of times during the projected life of a HEV/PHEV battery pack. We propose to quantify the effects of thermal cycling on Li-ion batteries using a representative chemistry that is commercially available. The secondary Li-ion cells used in this study are of the 18650 configuration, have a nominal capacity rating of 1.9 Ah, and consist of a {LiMn2O4 + LiMn(1/3)Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)O2} cathode and a graphite anode. Electrochemical cycling is based on PHEV-relevant cycle-life protocols that are a combination of charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes discussed in the Battery Test Manual for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (INL, March 2008, rev0). A realistic duty cycle will involve both CD and CS modes, the proportion of each defined by the severity of the power demands. We assume that the cells will start each cycling day at 90% SOC, and that they will not be allowed to go below 35% SOC, with operation around 70% SOC being a nominal condition. The 35, 70, and 90% SOC conditions are also being used to define critical aspects of the related reference performance test (RPT) for this investigation. There are three primary components to the RPT, all assessed at room temperature: (A) static and residual capacity (SRC) over a matrix of current, (B) kinetics and pulse performance testing (PPT) over current for SOCs of interest, and (C) EIS for SOCs of interest. The RPT is performed on all cells every 30 day test interval, as well as a pulse-per-day to provide a quick diagnostic snapshot. Where feasible, we utilize various elements of Diagnostic Testing (DT) to characterize performance of the cells and to gain mechanistic-level knowledge regarding both performance features and limitations. We will present the rationale behind the experimental design, early data, and discuss the fundamental tools used to elucidate performance degradation mechanisms.

Kevin L. Gering

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

A study of lithium ion intercalation induced fracture of silicon particles used as anode material in Li-ion battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fracture of Si particles due to internal stresses formed during the intercalation of lithium ions was described by means of thermal analogy model and brittle fracture damage parameter. The stresses were calculated following the diffusion equation and equations of elasticity with appropriate volumetric expansion term. The damage parameter takes into account triaxiality of the stress state and change in elasticity upon tension and compression, and represents the probability of fracture under given stress state, - an approach suitable for brittle materials. The results were compared with the acoustic emission data from the experiments on electrochemical cycling of Li ion half-cells with silicon electrodes. A good correlation between experiment and prediction was observed.

Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Kalnaus, Sergiy [ORNL; Rhodes, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Large-Scale Environmental Parameters Associated with Tropical Cyclone Formations in the Western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The local environmental conditions associated with 405 tropical cyclone (TC) formations in the western North Pacific during 1990–2001 are examined in this study. Six large-scale parameters are obtained and computed from the NCEP reanalyses with ...

Kevin K. W. Cheung

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Second-Use Li-Ion Batteries to Aid Automotive and Utility Industries (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Repurposing lithium-ion batteries at the end of useful life Repurposing lithium-ion batteries at the end of useful life in electric drive vehicles could eliminate owners' disposal concerns and offer low-cost energy storage for certain applications. Increasing the number of plug-in electric drive vehicles (PEVs) is one major strategy for reduc- ing the nation's oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the high up-front cost and end-of-service disposal concerns of their lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries could impede the proliferation of such vehicles. Re-using Li-ion batteries after their useful automotive life has been proposed as a way to remedy both matters. In response, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its partners are conducting research to identify, assess, and verify profitable

97

Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Improved performance of Li-ion cells under pulsed load using double-layer capacitors in a hybrid circuit mode  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrical characteristics of hybrid power sources consisting of Li-ion cells and double-layer capacitors were studied at 25 C and {minus}20 C. The cells were initially evaluated for pulse performance and then measured in hybrid modes of operation where they were coupled with the high-power capacitors. Cells manufactured by Panasonic measured at 25 C delivered full capacities of 0.76 Ah for pulses up to 3A and cells from A and T delivered full capacities of 0.73 Ah for pulses up to 4A. Measured cell resistances were 0.15 ohms and 0.12 ohms, respectively. These measurements were repeated at {minus}20 C. Direct coupling of the cells and capacitors (coupled hybrid) using 10F Panasonic capacitors in a 8F series/parallel combination extended the full capacity pulse limits (3.0V threshold) to 5.6A for the Panasonic cells and to 9A for the A and T cells. A similar arrangement using 100F capacitors from Elna in a 60F combination increased the Panasonic cell limit to 10 A. Operation in an uncoupled hybrid mode using uncoupled cell/capacitor discharge allowed fill cell capacity usage at 25 C up to the capacitor discharge limit and showed a factor of 5 improvement in delivered capacity at {minus}20 C.

ROTH,EMANUEL P.; NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

2000-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

99

Sn/SnOx Core-Shell Nanospheres: Synthesis, Anode Performance in Li Ion Batteries, and Superconductivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sn/SnO{sub x} core?shell nanospheres have been synthesized via a modified polyol process. Their size can be readily controlled by tuning the usage of surface stabilizers and the temperature. Anode performance in Li ion batteries and their superconducting properties is detailed. As anode materials, 45 nm nanospheres outperform both larger and smaller ones. Thus, they exhibit a capacity of about 3443 mAh cm{sup -3} and retain about 88% of after 10 cycles. We propose a model based on the microstructural evolution to explain the size impact on nanosphere performance. Magnetic measurements indicate that the nanospheres become superconducting below the transition temperature T{sub C} = 3.7 K, which is similar to the value obtained in bulk tin. Although T{sub C} does not significantly change with the size of the Sn core, we determined that the critical field H{sub C} of nanospheres can be as much as a factor of 30 larger compared to the bulk value. Alternating current measurements demonstrated that a transition from conventional to filamentary superconducting structure occurs in Sn/SnO{sub x} particles as their size increases. The transition is determined by the relationship between the particle size and the magnetic field penetration depth.

Wang, X.L.; Feygenson, M.; Aronson, M.C.; Han, W.-Q.

2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

100

Advanced technology development program for lithium-ion batteries : thermal abuse performance of 18650 Li-ion cells.  

SciTech Connect

Li-ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles currently being designed for the FreedomCAR (Freedom Cooperative Automotive Research) program. These cells offer superior performance in terms of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are the basis of battery systems for both gasoline and fuel cell based hybrids. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial application in hybrid electric vehicles. The thermal behavior of commercial and prototype cells has been measured under varying conditions of cell composition, age and state-of-charge (SOC). The thermal runaway behavior of full cells has been measured along with the thermal properties of the cell components. We have also measured gas generation and gas composition over the temperature range corresponding to the thermal runaway regime. These studies have allowed characterization of cell thermal abuse tolerance and an understanding of the mechanisms that result in cell thermal runaway.

Crafts, Chris C.; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; McBreen, James. (Bookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY); Roth, Emanuel Peter

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A Computational Investigation of Li(subscript 9)M(subscript 3)(P(subscript 2)O(subscript 7))(subscript 3)(PO(subscript 4))(subscript 2) (M = V, Mo) as Cathodes for Li Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cathodes with high energy density and safety are sought to improve the performance of Li ion batteries for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. In this study, we examine the properties of the potential ...

Jain, Anubhav

102

3D Thermal and Electrochemical Model for Spirally Wound Large Format Lithium-ion Batteries (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In many commercial cells, long tabs at both cell sides, leading to uniform potentials along the spiral direction of wound jelly rolls, are rarely seen because of their high manufacturing cost. More often, several metal strips are welded at discrete locations along both current collector foils. With this design, the difference of electrical potentials is easily built up along current collectors in the spiral direction. Hence, the design features of the tabs, such as number, location and size, can be crucial factors for spiral-shaped battery cells. This paper presents a Li-ion battery cell model having a 3-dimensional spiral mesh involving a wound jellyroll structure. Further results and analysis will be given regarding impacts of tab location, number, and size.

Lee, K. J.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

2010-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

103

Structural Complexity of Layered-spinel Composite Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The complexity of layered-spinel yLi{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} {center_dot} (1-y)Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (Li:Mn = 1.2:1; 0 = x = 0.33; y = 0.45) composites synthesized at different temperatures has been investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). While the layered component does not change substantially between samples, an evolution of the spinel component from a high to a low lithium excess phase has been traced with temperature by comparing with data for pure Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4}. The changes that occur to the structure of the spinel component and to the average oxidation state of the manganese ions within the composite structure as lithium is electrochemically removed in a battery have been monitored using these techniques, in some cases in situ. Our 6Li NMR results constitute the first direct observation of lithium removal from Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} and the formation of LiMnO{sub 2} upon lithium reinsertion.

Cabana, J.; Yang, X.; Johnson, C.S., Chung, K.-Y.; Yoon, W.-S.; Kang, S.-H.; Thackeray, M.M., Grey, C.P.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Screening report on cell materials for high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Battery Technology Department at Argonne National Laboratory is a major participant in the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program. This multi-national laboratory program is dedicated to improving lithium-ion batteries for high-power HEV and FCEV applications. As part of the FreedomCAR Partnership, this program is addressing the three key barriers for high-power lithium-ion batteries: calendar life, abuse tolerance, and cost. All three of these barriers can be addressed by the choice of materials used in the cell chemistry. To date, the ATD program has developed two high-power cell chemistries, denoted our Gen 1 and Gen 2 cell chemistries. The selection of materials for use in the Gen 2 cell chemistry was based largely on reducing material cost and extending cell calendar life, relative to our Gen 1 cell chemistry. Table 1 provides a list of the materials used in our Gen 2 cell chemistry and their projected costs, when produced in large-scale quantities. In evaluating advanced materials, we have focused our efforts on materials that are lower cost than those listed in Table 1, while simultaneously offering enhanced chemical, structural, and thermal stability. Therefore, we have focused on natural graphite anode materials (having round-edge particle morphologies), cathode materials that contain more Mn and less Co and Ni (which can be produced via low-cost processes), lower cost electrode binders and/or binders that possess superior bonding properties at lower concentrations, and lower cost salts and solvents (with superior thermal and oxidation/reduction stability) for use in the electrolyte. The purpose of this report is to document the results of screening tests that were performed on a large number of advanced low-cost materials. These materials were screened for their potential to impact positively on the calendar life, safety, and/or cost of high-power lithium-ion cell chemistries, relative to our Gen 2 cell chemistry. As part of this effort, we developed and employed a set of standard test protocols to evaluate all of the materials. After brief descriptions of the screening test methodologies and equipment, relevant data on each material are summarized in the body of this report. We have evaluated five categories of materials, and the report is organized accordingly. Results will be presented on advanced carbons for anodes, improved cathode materials, new salts and solvent systems, alternative binders, and novel separators.

Liu, J.; Kahaian, A.; Belharouak, I.; Kang, S.; Oliver, S.; Henriksen, S.; Amine, K.

2003-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

105

Prediction of Retained Capacity and EODV of Li-ion Batteries in LEO Spacecraft Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In resent years ANN is widely reported for modeling in different areas of science including electro chemistry. This includes modeling of different technological batteries such as lead acid battery, Nickel cadmium batteries etc. Lithium ion batteries are advance battery technology which satisfy most of the space mission requirements. Low earth orbit (LEO)space craft batteries undergo large number of charge discharge cycles (about 25000 cycles)compared to other ground level or space applications. This study is indented to develop ANN model for about 25000 cycles, cycled under various temperature, Depth Of Discharge (DOD) settings with constant charge voltage limit to predict the retained capacity and End of Discharge Voltage (EODV). To extract firm conclusion and distinguish the capability of ANN method, the predicted values are compared with experimental result by statistical method and Bland Altman plot.

Ramakrishnan, S; Jeyakumar, A Ebenezer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Corrosion of current-collector materials in Li-ion cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary current-collector materials being used in lithium-ion cells are susceptible to environmental degradation: aluminum to pitting corrosion and copper to environmentally assisted cracking. Pitting occurs at the highly oxidizing potentials associated with the positive-electrode charge condition. However, the pitting mechanism is more complex than that typically observed in aqueous systems in that the pits are filled with a mixed metal/oxide product and exist as mounds or nodules on the surface. Electrochemical impedance was shown to be an effective analytical tool for quantification and verification of visual observations and trends. Two fluorocarbon-based coatings were shown to improve the resistance of Al to localized pitting. Finally, environmental cracking of copper can occur at or near the lithium potential and only if specific metallurgical conditions exist (work hardening and large grain size).

Braithwaite, J.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Gonzales, A.; Lucero, S.; Cieslak, W.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Electrochemical Windows of Sulfone-Based Electrolytes for High-Voltage Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Further development of high-voltage lithium-ion batteries requires electrolytes with electrochemical windows greater than 5 V. Sulfone-based electrolytes are promising for such a purpose. Here we compute the electrochemical windows for experimentally tested sulfone electrolytes by different levels of theory in combination with various solvation models. The MP2 method combined with the polarizable continuum model is shown to be the most accurate method to predict oxidation potentials of sulfone-based electrolytes with mean deviation less than 0.29 V. Mulliken charge analysis shows that the oxidation happens on the sulfone group for ethylmethyl sulfone and tetramethylene sulfone, and on the ether group for ether functionalized sulfones. Large electrochemical windows of sulfone-based electrolytes are mainly contributed by the sulfone group in the molecules which helps lower the HOMO level. This study can help understand the voltage limits imposed by the sulfone-based electrolytes and aid in designing new electrolytes with greater electrochemical windows.

Shao, Nan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)  

SciTech Connect

Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

109

Reinvestigation on the state-of-the-art nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes for 5 V Li-ion battery applications  

SciTech Connect

The charging voltage limits of mixed carbonate solvents for Li-ion batteries have been systematically investigated from 4.9 to 5.3 V in half cells using Cr-doped spinel cathode material LiNi0.45Cr0.05Mn1.5O4. We found that the stability of conventional carbonate electrolytes is strongly related to the stability and properties of the cathode materials at both lithiated and de-lithiated states. It is the first time to report that the conventional electrolytes based on mixtures of ethylene carbonate (EC) and linear carbonate (dimethyl carbonate - DMC, ethyl methyl carbonate - EMC, and diethyl carbonate - DEC) have shown very similar long-term cycling performance when cycled up to 5.2 V on LiNi0.45Cr0.05Mn1.5O4. The discharge capacity increases with the charge cutoff voltage and reaches the highest discharge capacity at 5.2 V. The capacity retention is about 87% after 500 cycles at 1C rate for all three carbonate mixtures when cycled between 3.0 V and 5.2V. The first-cycle efficiency has a maximum value at 5.1 V, with an average from 83% to 85% at C/10 rate. When cycled to 5.3 V, EC-DMC still shows good cycling performance but EC-EMC and EC-DEC show faster capacity fading. EC-DMC and EC-EMC have much better rate capability than EC-DEC. In addition, the first-cycle irreversible capacity loss increases with the cutoff voltage and the 'inactive' conductive carbon has also been found to be partly associated with the low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency at high voltages due to electrolyte decomposition and probably the PF6- anion irreversible intercalation.

Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Pan, Anqiang; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaohong S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Degradation of the materials of construction in Li-ion batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary current-collector materials being used in lithium-ion cells are susceptible to environmental degradation: aluminum to pitting corrosion and copper to environmentally assisted cracking. Pitting occurs at the highly oxidizing potentials associated with the positive-electrode charge condition. However, the pitting mechanism is more complex than that typically observed in aqueous systems in that the pits are filled with a mixed metal/oxide product and exist as mounds or nodules on the surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was shown to be an effective analytical tool for quantifying and verifying aluminum corrosion behavior. Two fluorocarbon-based coatings were shown to improve the resistance of Al to pitting attack. Detailed x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface analyses showed that there was very little difference in the films observed after simple immersion in either PC:DEC or EC:DMC electrolytes versus those following electrical cycling. Li and P are the predominant surface species. Finally, environmental cracking of copper can occur at or near the lithium potential and only if specific metallurgical conditions exist (work-hardening and large grain size).

Braithwaite, J.W.; Gonzales, A.; Lucero, S.J. [and others

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cost effective and scalable method is developed to prepare a core-shell structured Si/B4C composite with graphite coating with high efficiency, exceptional rate performance and long-term stability. In this material, conductive B4C with high Mohs hardness serves not only as micro-/nano- millers in the ball-milling process to break down micron-sized Si but also as the conductive rigid skeleton to support the in-situ formed sub-10 nm Si particles to alleviate the volume expansion during charge/discharge. The Si/B4C composite is coated with a few graphitic layers to further improve the conductivity and stability of the composite. The Si/B4C/graphite (SBG) composite anode shows excellent cyclability with a specific capacity of ~822 mAh?g-1 (based on the weight of the entire electrode, including binder and conductive carbon) and ~94% capacity retention over 100 cycles at 0.8C rate. This new structure has the potential to provide adequate storage capacity and stability for practical applications, and good opportunity for large scale manufacturing using commercially available materials and technologies.

Chen, Xilin; Li, Xiaolin; Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Cao, Yuliang; Meduri, Praveen; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

112

Low-cost flexible packaging for high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with several industrial partners, is working on low-cost flexible packaging as an alternative to the packaging currently being used for lithium-ion batteries [1,2]. This program is funded by the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. (It was originally funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, or PNGV, Program, which had as one of its mandates to develop a power-assist hybrid electric vehicle with triple the fuel economy of a typical sedan.) The goal in this packaging effort is to reduce the cost associated with the packaging of each cell several-fold to less than $1 per cell ({approx} 50 cells are required per battery, 1 battery per vehicle), while maintaining the integrity of the cell contents for a 15-year lifetime. Even though the battery chemistry of main interest is the lithium-ion system, the methodology used to develop the most appropriate laminate structure will be very similar for other battery chemistries.

Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Henriksen, G. L.

2004-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

113

User boresight calibration precision for large-format head-up displays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The postural sway in 24 subjects performing a boresight calibration task on a large format head-up display is studied to estimate the impact of human limits on boresight calibration precision and ultimately on static registration errors. The dependent ... Keywords: augmented reality, boresight, calibration, line of sight, postural sway

Magnus Axholt; Stephen Peterson; Stephen R. Ellis

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Non-linearity of large-scale structure formation in the Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the standard picture of cosmological structure formation, the Universe we see today is evolved under the gravitational instability from tiny random fluctuations. In this talk I discuss the onset of non-linearity in the large scale structure formation of the Universe when the linear perturbation theory break downs. Using 1D Zel'dovich Approximation which provides an exact solution for density evolution, I illustrate two effects: mode spawning and mode merging and their connection to mode coupling. Those mode couplings (quadratic, cubic >...etc.) from gravitational clustering are in fact what the polyspectra (bispectrum, trispectrum...etc.) are meant to measure.

Lung-Yih Chiang

2005-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

115

Non-linearity of large-scale structure formation in the Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the standard picture of cosmological structure formation, the Universe we see today is evolved under the gravitational instability from tiny random fluctuations. In this talk I discuss the onset of non-linearity in the large scale structure formation of the Universe when the linear perturbation theory break downs. Using 1D Zel'dovich Approximation which provides an exact solution for density evolution, I illustrate two effects: mode spawning and mode merging and their connection to mode coupling. Those mode couplings (quadratic, cubic >...etc.) from gravitational clustering are in fact what the polyspectra (bispectrum, trispectrum...etc.) are meant to measure.

Chiang, L Y

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Program on Technology Innovation: Formation of Large-Particle Ash in Coal-Fired Boilers Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is a follow-on study of large particle ash (LPA) formation mechanisms in combustion systems equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst systems for nitrogen oxide reduction. In an earlier study, the chemical and physical properties of LPA were examined, and potential origins were identified. LPA samples, along with fireside deposits and coals from selected utility boilers, were characterized in order to find the root cause or the origin of the LPA ...

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

117

Program on Technology Innovation: Formation of Large Particle Ash in Coal-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to obtain a better understanding of the process that underlies the formation of large particle ash (LPA) in coal-fired boilers. As an approach, sample sets of coal, fireside ash deposits, and LPA were collected from selected boilers identified by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis techniques. The coals were characterized to determine the abundance, size, and composition of t...

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

118

EXTENDED STAR FORMATION IN THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 2209  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of the 1 Gyr old star cluster NGC 2209 in the Large Magellanic Cloud made with the GMOS imager on the Gemini South Telescope. These observations show that the cluster exhibits a main-sequence turnoff that spans a broader range in luminosity than can be explained by a single-aged stellar population. This places NGC 2209 amongst a growing list of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) clusters that show evidence for extended or multiple epochs of star formation of between 50 and 460 Myr in extent. The extended main-sequence turnoff observed in NGC 2209 is a confirmation of the prediction in Keller et al. made on the basis of the cluster's large core radius. We propose that secondary star formation is a defining feature of the evolution of massive star clusters. Dissolution of lower mass clusters through evaporation results in only clusters that have experienced secondary star formation surviving for a Hubble time, thus providing a natural connection between the extended main-sequence turnoff phenomenon and the ubiquitous light-element abundance ranges seen in the ancient Galactic globular clusters.

Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

119

SUPERGIANT SHELLS AND MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the influence of large-scale stellar feedback on the formation of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Examining the relationship between H I and {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) in supergiant shells (SGSs), we find that the molecular fraction in the total volume occupied by SGSs is not enhanced with respect to the rest of the LMC disk. However, the majority of objects ({approx}70% by mass) are more molecular than their local surroundings, implying that the presence of a supergiant shell does on average have a positive effect on the molecular gas fraction. Averaged over the full SGS sample, our results suggest that {approx}12%-25% of the molecular mass in supergiant shell systems was formed as a direct result of the stellar feedback that created the shells. This corresponds to {approx}4%-11% of the total molecular mass of the galaxy. These figures are an approximate lower limit to the total contribution of stellar feedback to molecular cloud formation in the LMC, and constitute one of the first quantitative measurements of feedback-triggered molecular cloud formation in a galactic system.

Dawson, J. R.; Dickey, John M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Churchill Avenue, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia)] [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Churchill Avenue, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia); McClure-Griffiths, N. M. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield NSW 2122 (Australia)] [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield NSW 2122 (Australia); Wong, T. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hughes, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Fukui, Y. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan)] [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Kawamura, A., E-mail: joanne.dawson@utas.edu.au [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

120

Amorphous Hierarchical Porous GeOx as High-Capacity Anodes for LiIon Batteries with Very Long Cycling Life  

SciTech Connect

Many researchers have focused in recent years on resolving the crucial problem of capacity fading in Li ion batteries when carbon anodes are replaced by other group-IV elements (Si, Ge, Sn) with much higher capacities. Some progress was achieved by using different nanostructures (mainly carbon coatings), with which the cycle numbers reached 100-200. However, obtaining longer stability via a simple process remains challenging. Here we demonstrate that a nanostructure of amorphous hierarchical porous GeO{sub x} whose primary particles are {approx}3.7 nm diameter has a very stable capacity of {approx}1250 mA h g{sup -1} for 600 cycles. Furthermore, we show that a full cell coupled with a Li(NiCoMn){sub 1/3}O{sub 2} cathode exhibits high performance.

Wang, X.L.; Han, W.-Q.; Chen, H.; Bai, J.; Tyson, T.A.; Yu, X.-Q.; Wang, X.-J.; Yang, X.-Q.

2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Li6La3SnMO12 (M = Sb, Nb, Ta), a Family of Lithium Garnets with High Li-Ion Conductivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to investigate the influence of covalent bonding within the garnet framework on the conductivity of Li+ in the interstitial space, the Li+ conductivities in the family of Sn-based compounds Li6La3 SnMO12 (M = Sb, Nb, Ta) have been obtained and are compared with those of Li6La3ZrMO12. Refinement of the neutron diffraction pattern of Li6La3 SnNbO12shows that the interstitial tetrahedral sites (24d ) are about half-occupied and most of the Li in the interstitial bridging octahedral sites are displaced from the center position (48g ). The Sb-based compound has the largest lattice parameter while the Ta-based compound has the highest Li+-ion conductivity of 0.42 10 4 Scm 1.

Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Goodenough, J. B. [University of Texas, Austin; Gupta, Dr Asha [University of Texas, Austin; Nakanishi, Masahiro [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Li, Yutao [University of Texas, Austin; Han, Jiantao [University of Texas, Austin; Dong, Youzhong [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, PR China; Wang, Long [University of Texas, Austin; Xu, Maowen [University of Texas, Austin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Modulational instability, wave breaking and formation of large scale dipoles in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present Letter we use the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equation for a two-phase flow (water and air) to study the dynamics of the modulational instability of free surface waves and its contribution to the interaction between ocean and atmosphere. If the steepness of the initial wave is large enough, we observe a wave breaking and the formation of large scale dipole structures in the air. Because of the multiple steepening and breaking of the waves under unstable wave packets, a train of dipoles is released and propagate in the atmosphere at a height comparable with the wave length. The amount of energy dissipated by the breaker in water and air is considered and, contrary to expectations, we observe that the energy dissipation in air is larger than the one in the water. Possible consequences on the wave modelling and on the exchange of aerosols and gases between air and water are discussed.

Iafrati, A; Onorato, M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Modulational instability, wave breaking and formation of large scale dipoles in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present Letter we use the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equation for a two-phase flow (water and air) to study the dynamics of the modulational instability of free surface waves and its contribution to the interaction between ocean and atmosphere. If the steepness of the initial wave is large enough, we observe a wave breaking and the formation of large scale dipole structures in the air. Because of the multiple steepening and breaking of the waves under unstable wave packets, a train of dipoles is released and propagate in the atmosphere at a height comparable with the wave length. The amount of energy dissipated by the breaker in water and air is considered and, contrary to expectations, we observe that the energy dissipation in air is larger than the one in the water. Possible consequences on the wave modelling and on the exchange of aerosols and gases between air and water are discussed.

A. Iafrati; A. Babanin; M. Onorato

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

124

Formation of large-scale structures in ablative Kelvin-Helmholtz instability  

SciTech Connect

In this research, we studied numerically nonlinear evolutions of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) with and without thermal conduction, aka, the ablative KHI (AKHI) and the classical KHI (CKHI). The second order thermal conduction term with a variable thermal conductivity coefficient is added to the energy equation in the Euler equations in the AKHI to investigate the effect of thermal conduction on the evolution of large and small scale structures within the shear layer which separate the fluids with different velocities. The inviscid hyperbolic flux of Euler equation is computed via the classical fifth order weighted essentially nonoscillatory finite difference scheme and the temperature is solved by an implicit fourth order finite difference scheme with variable coefficients in the second order parabolic term to avoid severe time step restriction imposed by the stability of the numerical scheme. As opposed to the CKHI, fine scale structures such as the vortical structures are suppressed from forming in the AKHI due to the dissipative nature of the second order thermal conduction term. With a single-mode sinusoidal interface perturbation, the results of simulations show that the growth of higher harmonics is effectively suppressed and the flow is stabilized by the thermal conduction. With a two-mode sinusoidal interface perturbation, the vortex pairing is strengthened by the thermal conduction which would allow the formation of large-scale structures and enhance the mixing of materials. In summary, our numerical studies show that thermal conduction can have strong influence on the nonlinear evolutions of the KHI. Thus, it should be included in applications where thermal conduction plays an important role, such as the formation of large-scale structures in the high energy density physics and astrophysics.

Wang, L. F. [SMCE, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Ye, W. H.; He, X. T. [CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Don, Wai-Sun [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Sheng, Z. M. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China) and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Y. J. [SMCE, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

CX-007459: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

12202011 Location(s): California, Michigan, Wisconsin, Oregon Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory Reduce manufactured cost of large format Li-ion cells by 50%...

126

Vessel-Spanning Bubble Formation in K-Basin Sludge Stored in Large-Diameter Containers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The K Basin sludge to be retrieved and stored in the large diameter containers (LDCs) contains some fraction of uranium metal that generates hydrogen gas, which introduces potential upset conditions. One postulated upset condition is a rising plug of sludge supported by a hydrogen bubble that is driven into the vent filters at the top of the container. In laboratory testing with actual K Basin sludge, vessel-spanning bubbles that lifted plugs of sludge were observed in 3-inch-diameter graduated cylinders. This report presents a series of analytical assessments performed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to address the potential for the generation of a vessel spanning bubble in the LDCs. The assessments included the development and evaluation of static and dynamic bubble formation models over the projected range of K Basin sludge physical properties. Additionally, the theory of circular plates was extrapolated to examine conditions under which a plug of sludge would collapse and release a spanning bubble.

Terrones, Guillermo; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

First-principles modeling of thermal stability and morphology control of cathode materials in Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the energy of a large number of oxidation reactions of 3d transition metal oxides using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to density functional theory and GGA+ U method. Two substantial contributions ...

Wang, Lei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

First-Principles Study of Novel Conversion Reactions for High-Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes in the Li-Mg-B-N-H System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anodes for Li-ion batteries are primarily carbon-based due to their low cost and long cycle life. However, improvements to the Li capacity of carbon anodes, LiC{sub 6} in particular, are necessary to obtain a larger energy density. State-of-the-art light-metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications often contain Li and involve reactions requiring Li transport, and light-metal ionic hydrides are candidates for novel conversion materials. Given a set of known solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble, as a function of lithium chemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAh g{sup -1} that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li{sub 4}BN{sub 3}H{sub 10}. While the predicted reactions involve multiple steps, the maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si.

Mason, T.H.; Graetz, J.; Liu, X.; Hong, J.; Majzoub, E.H.

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

129

Nanospheres of a New Intermetalic FeSn5 Phase: Synthesis Magnetic Properties and Anode Performance in Li-ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We synthesized monodisperse nanospheres of an intermetallic FeSn{sub 5} phase via a nanocrystal-conversion protocol using preformed Sn nanospheres as templates. This tetragonal phase in P4/mcc space group, along with the defect structure Fe{sub 0.74}Sn{sub 5} of our nanospheres, has been resolved by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement. Importantly, FeSn{sub 5}, which is not yet established in the Fe-Sn phase diagram, exhibits a quasi-one dimensional crystal structure along the c-axis, thus leading to interesting anisotropic thermal expansion and magnetic properties. Magnetization measurements indicate that nanospheres are superparamagnetic above the blocking temperature T{sub B} = 300 K, which is associated with the higher magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K = 3.33 kJ m{sup -3}. The combination of the magnetization measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations reveals the canted antiferromagnetic nature with significant spin fluctuation in lattice a-b plane. The low Fe concentration also leads Fe{sub 0.74}Sn{sub 5} to enhanced capacity as an anode in Li ion batteries.

X Wang; M Feygenson; H Chen; C Lin; W Ku; J Bai; M Aronson; T Tyson; W Han

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

A 3D Porous Architecture of Si/graphene Nanocomposite as High-performance Anode Materials for Li-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

A 3D porous architecture of Si/graphene nanocomposite has been rationally designed and constructed through a series of controlled chemical processes. In contrast to random mixture of Si nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets, the porous nanoarchitectured composite has superior electrochemical stability because the Si nanoparticles are firmly riveted on the graphene nanosheets through a thin SiO{sub x} layer. The 3D graphene network enhances electrical conductivity, and improves rate performance, demonstrating a superior rate capability over the 2D nanostructure. This 3D porous architecture can deliver a reversible capacity of {approx}900 mA h g{sup -1} with very little fading when the charge rates change from 100 mA g{sup -1} to 1 A g{sup -1}. Furthermore, the 3D nanoarchitechture of Si/graphene can be cycled at extremely high Li{sup +} extraction rates, such as 5 A g{sup -1} and 10 A g{sup -1}, for over than 100 times. Both the highly conductive graphene network and porous architecture are considered to contribute to the remarkable rate capability and cycling stability, thereby pointing to a new synthesis route to improving the electrochemical performances of the Si-based anode materials for advanced Li-ion batteries.

Xin X.; Zhu Y.; Zhou, X.; Wang, F.; Yao, X.; Xu, X.; Liu, Z.

2012-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

131

Enhanced Li+ ion transport in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through Control of Site Disorder  

SciTech Connect

High voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is a very promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries that can be used to power hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). In an effort to maximize the performances of high voltage spinel, it is found that the presence of an appropriate amount of oxygen deficiency and/or Mn3+ is critical to accelerate the transport of Li+ ions within the crystalline structure. Through careful control of the cooling rates after high temperature calcination, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinels with different disordered phase and/or Mn3+ contents have been synthesized. It is revealed that during slow cooling process (<3oC/min), oxygen deficiency is reduced by the oxygen intake, thus residual Mn3+ amount is also decreased in spinels due to charge neutrality. The relative ratio of ordered/disordered phases in high voltage spinels are systematically investigated and finally correlated with Li+ transport phenomena in the lattice through electrochemical evaluation and in-situ XRD technique. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with an appropriate amount of disordered phase or Mn3+ ions offers high rate capability (96 mAh g-1 at 10 C) and excellent cycling performance with 94.8% capacity retention after 300 cycles. The fundamental findings in this work can be widely used to guide the synthesis of other mixed oxides or spinels as high performance electrode materials for lithium ion batteries.

Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Yu, Xiqian; Kovarik, Libor; Gu, Meng; Omenya, Fredrick; Chen, Xilin; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Whittingham, M. S.; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

AlSb thin films as negative electrodes for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical reactions between Li and Na with amorphous/nanocrystalline AlSb thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are reported for the first time. The films are composed of AlSb and Sb nanoparticles embedded into an amorphous matrix with an overall Sb/Al ratio of 1.13. The reaction with Li proceeds with an average reaction potential of 0.65 V, a reversible capacity of 750 mAh g-1, and very fast reaction kinetics. For instance, a storage capacity close to 500 mAh g-1, corresponding to 70% of the maximum capacity, is achieved at 125 C-rate. In addition, there is only a small increase in overpotentials with increasing current: ~0.15 V at 12 C and ~0.7 V at 125 C. In contrast, the reaction with Na results in average reaction potential of 0.5 V and a storage capacity of 500 mAh g-1 obtained at low currents. The capacity retention and reaction kinetics are presently not satisfactory with pronounced capacity losses upon cycling and large overpotentials with increasing current. The capacity retention can be improved by using fluoroethylene carbonate additive in the Na-ion electrolyte, which highlights that the Solid Electrolyte Interphase plays an important role for the electrode cycling stability. The reaction kinetics is relatively poor and an increase in overpotentials of about 0.9 V at 2 C is observed (retained capacity of about 350 mAh g-1 or 66% of the maximum). The study of the reaction mechanism on thick films (3-5 m) by X-ray diffraction reveals that the electrode material remains amorphous at all potentials. The presence of broad humps, located at the positions expected for Li-Al and Li-Sb line compounds, suggests that during the reaction with Li the atomic short range ordering is similar to the expected phases.

Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Marszewski, Michal [Kent State University; Gorka, Joanna [ORNL; Jaroniec, Mietek [Kent State University; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Radar Echo Structure, Air Motion and Hail Formation in a Large Stationary Multicellular Thunderstorm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations from aircraft, Doppler radars, surface mesonetwork, upper air network and surveillance radar are used to describe the structure and evolution of a large rain and hailstorm that occurred on 22 June 1976 in northeastern Colorado. In ...

L. J. Miller; J. C. Fankhauser

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

In-situ raman microscopy of individual LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles in the Li-ion battery composite cathode  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kinetic characteristics of Li{sup +} intercalation/deintercalation into/from individual LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} particles in a composite cathode were studied in-situ using Raman microscopy during electrochemical charge-discharge in 1.2 M LiPF{sub 6}, ethylene carbonate (EC): ethyl-methyl carbonate (EMC), 3:7 by volume. Spectroscopic analysis of a cathode that was removed from a tested high-power Li-ion cell, which suffered substantial power and capacity loss, showed that the state of charge (SOC) of oxide particles on the cathode surface was highly non-uniform despite deep discharge of the Li-ion cell at the end of the test. In-situ monitoring of the SOC of selected oxide particles in the composite cathode in a sealed spectro-electrochemical cell revealed that the rate at which particles charge and discharge varied with time and location. The inconsistent kinetic behavior of individual oxide particles was attributed to degradation of the electronically conducting matrix in the composite cathode upon testing. These local micro-phenomena are responsible for the overall impedance rise of the cathode and contribute to the mechanism of lithium-ion cell failure.

Lei, Jinglei; McLarnon, Frank; Kostecki, Robert

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

LARGE-SCALE STAR-FORMATION-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS AT 1 < z < 2 IN THE 3D-HST SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

We present evidence of large-scale outflows from three low-mass (log(M {sub *}/M {sub Sun }) {approx} 9.75) star-forming (SFR > 4 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) galaxies observed at z = 1.24, z = 1.35, and z = 1.75 in the 3D-HST Survey. Each of these galaxies is located within a projected physical distance of 60 kpc around the sight line to the quasar SDSS J123622.93+621526.6, which exhibits well-separated strong (W {sup {lambda}2796} {sub r} {approx}> 0.8 A) Mg II absorption systems matching precisely to the redshifts of the three galaxies. We derive the star formation surface densities from the H{alpha} emission in the WFC3 G141 grism observations for the galaxies and find that in each case the star formation surface density well exceeds 0.1 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, the typical threshold for starburst galaxies in the local universe. From a small but complete parallel census of the 0.65 < z < 2.6 galaxies with H {sub 140} {approx}< 24 proximate to the quasar sight line, we detect Mg II absorption associated with galaxies extending to physical distances of 130 kpc. We determine that the W{sub r} > 0.8 A Mg II covering fraction of star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 2 may be as large as unity on scales extending to at least 60 kpc, providing early constraints on the typical extent of starburst-driven winds around galaxies at this redshift. Our observations additionally suggest that the azimuthal distribution of W{sub r} > 0.4 A Mg II absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies may evolve from z {approx} 2 to the present, consistent with recent observations of an increasing collimation of star-formation-driven outflows with time from z {approx} 3.

Lundgren, Britt F.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Bezanson, Rachel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbe, Ivo; Patel, Shannon [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Da Cunha, Elizabete; Rix, Hans Walter; Schmidt, Kasper [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Erb, Dawn K. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Physics and Astronomy Department, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); and others

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

136

In situ XRD Studies of Li-ion Cells with Mixed LiMn2O4 and LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 Composite Cathode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structural changes of the composite cathode made by mixing spinel LiMn2O4 and layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 in 1:1 wt% in both Li-half and Li-ion cells during charge/discharge are studied by in situ XRD. During the first charge up to {approx}5.2 V vs. Li/Li+, the in situ XRD spectra for the composite cathode in the Li-half cell track the structural changes of each component. At the early stage of charge, the lithium extraction takes place in the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 component only. When the cell voltage reaches at {approx}4.0 V vs. Li/Li+, lithium extraction from the spinel LiMn2O4 component starts and becomes the major contributor for the cell capacity due to the higher rate capability of LiMn2O4. When the voltage passed 4.3 V, the major structural changes are from the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 component, while the LiMn2O4 component is almost unchanged. In the Li-ion cell using a MCMB anode and a composite cathode cycled between 2.5 V and 4.2 V, the structural changes are dominated by the spinel LiMn2O4 component, with much less changes in the layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 component, comparing with the Li-half cell results. These results give us valuable information about the structural changes relating to the contributions of each individual component to the cell capacity at certain charge/discharge state, which are helpful in designing and optimizing the composite cathode using spinel- and layered-type materials for Li-ion battery research.

Nam, K.; Yoon, W; Shin, H; Chung, K; Choi, S; Yang, X

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Large-Scale Electric-Vehicle Battery Systems: Long-Term . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate long-term metal resource constraints for large-scale EV systems for nine types of batteries: Li-polymer(V), Li-ion(Mn, Ni and Co), NaNiCl, NiMH(AB 2 and AB 5 ), NiCd and PbA, containing seven potentially scarce metals/group of metals: lithium, nickel, cobalt, vanadium, cadmium, lead and rare-earth elements. As a basis for the analysis, we calculate EV fleet size potentials (FSP) from estimated materials requirements: metal intensities (kg/kWh) and battery energy capacities per vehicle (kWh/vehicle); and available materials: reserve base and the amount that corresponds to 100 years of mining at current rates. NiCd, Li-ion(Co) and PbA have the most limited FSP (reserve base) with 20--50 million, 200--500 million and 500--800 million vehicles, respectively. Li-ion(Mn), NaNiCl and Li-ion(Ni) have the least limited FSP (reserve base) with 3--8 billion, 3--5 billion and 2--4 billion vehicles, respectively. However, for several of the batteries, 100 years of mining at current rate is much more limiting. The FSP only indicate magnitudes and it is not hard to reach FSP values ten times lower with additional assumptions. Important factors regarding the potential for higher or lower FSP are discussed, both for materials requirements: materials intensity and energy storage capacity per vehicle; as well as for metals availability: stocks of available resources, constraints on annual mine production and competition for metals. 1.

Björn A. Andersson; Ingrid Råde

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

DOE/EA-1722: Final Environmental Assessment for Toxco, Inc. Electric...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

eq Equivalent Sound Level Li Ion Lithium Ion LIB Li Ion Batteries LQG Large Quantity Generator m Meter U.S. Department of Energy Toxco Li Ion Battery Recycling Facility National...

139

Vehicle Specifications Battery Type: Li-Ion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Under hood above powertrain Under hood above powertrain Nominal System Voltage: 333 V Rated Capacity (C/3): 40 Ah Cooling Method: Glycol / Water mix Powertrain Motor Type: DC Brushless Number of Motors: One Motor Cooling Type: Glycol / Water mix Drive Wheels: Rear Wheel Drive Transmission: None (gear ratio only in rear axle) Charger Location: Underhood Charger Port: Driver's side, front quarter panel Type: Conductive (J1772 connector) Input Voltage(s): 120 or 240 VAC Chassis Aluminum Body on Steel Frame Rear Suspension: Solid Axle with Leaf Springs Front Suspension: Dual A-arm with Coil Springs Weights Design Curb Weight: 3250 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 3310 lbs 7 Distribution F/R: 55.2/44.8% GVWR: 4450 lbs Max Payload: 940 lbs + 200 lbs driver 1 Performance Goal Payload: 1000 lbs + 200 lbs driver

140

Advanced Solid State Li-Ion Battery  

Research on all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries has increased considerably in recent years due to raised concerns relating to safety hazards such as solvent leakage and flammability of liquid electrolytes used for commercial lithium-ion ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The Lady and the Li-ion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laptops desperately need a better Lithium-ion battery. Boston-Power's Christina Lampe-Onnerud says she's got it. Your world increasingly runs on lithium-ion batteries. Chances are good that your phone, laptop, camera, portable music and video players, ...

C. Lampe-Onnerud

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Vehicle Specifications Battery Type: Li-Ion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

267 V Rated Capacity (C3): 80 Ah Cooling Method: Glycol Water mix heat exchanger Powertrain Motor Type: 3 Phase Permanent Magnet Number of Motors: One Motor Cooling Type: Oil to...

143

QUANTIFYING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD FROM LARGE-SCALE CLOUD TO COLLAPSING CORE: SELF-SIMILARITY, MASS-TO-FLUX RATIO, AND STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

Dust polarization observational results are analyzed for the high-mass star formation region W51 from the largest parent cloud ({approx}2 pc, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) to the large-scale envelope ({approx}0.5 pc, BIMA array) down to the collapsing core e2 ({approx}60 mpc, Submillimeter Array). Magnetic field and dust emission gradient orientations reveal a correlation which becomes increasingly more tight with higher resolution. The previously developed polarization-intensity-gradient method is applied in order to quantify the magnetic field significance. This technique provides a way to estimate the local magnetic field force compared to gravity without the need of any mass or field strength measurements, solely making use of measured angles which reflect the geometrical imprint of the various forces. All three data sets clearly show regions with distinct features in the field-to-gravity force ratio. Azimuthally averaged radial profiles of this force ratio reveal a transition from a field dominance at larger distances to a gravity dominance closer to the emission peaks. Normalizing these profiles to a characteristic core scale points toward self-similarity. Furthermore, the polarization-intensity-gradient method is linked to the mass-to-flux ratio, providing a new approach to estimate the latter one without mass and field strength inputs. A transition from a magnetically supercritical to a subcritical state as a function of distance from the emission peak is found for the e2 core. Finally, based on the measured radius-dependent field-to-gravity force ratio we derive a modified star formation efficiency with a diluted gravity force. Compared to a standard (free-fall) efficiency, the observed field is capable of reducing the efficiency down to 10% or less.

Koch, Patrick M.; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tang, Ya-Wen, E-mail: pmkoch@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Observatoire Aquitain des Sciences de l'Univers, Universite de Bordeaux, 2 rue de l'Observatoire, BP 89, F-33271 Floirac Cedex (France)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Investigation of CO2 plume behavior for a large-scale pilot test of geologic carbon storage in a saline formation  

SciTech Connect

The hydrodynamic behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on trapping mechanisms that lead to CO{sub 2} plume stabilization. A numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture is developed to simulate a planned pilot test, in which 1,000,000 metric tons of CO{sub 2} is injected over a four-year period, and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume for hundreds of years. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of the partitioning of CO{sub 2} between dissolved, immobile free-phase, and mobile free-phase forms. Model results indicate that the injected CO{sub 2} plume is effectively immobilized at 25 years. At that time, 38% of the CO{sub 2} is in dissolved form, 59% is immobile free phase, and 3% is mobile free phase. The plume footprint is roughly elliptical, and extends much farther up-dip of the injection well than down-dip. The pressure increase extends far beyond the plume footprint, but the pressure response decreases rapidly with distance from the injection well, and decays rapidly in time once injection ceases. Sensitivity studies that were carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual CO{sub 2} saturation indicate that small changes in properties can have a large impact on plume evolution, causing significant trade-offs between different trapping mechanisms.

Doughty, C.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Gas evolution from cathode materials: A pathway to solvent decomposition concomitant to SEI formation.  

SciTech Connect

This work reports a method to explore the catalytic reactivity of electrode surfaces towards the decomposition of carbonate solvents [ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and EC/DMC]. We show that the decomposition of a 1:1 wt% EC/DMC mixture is accelerated over certain commercially available LiCoO2 materials resulting in the formation of CO2 while over pure EC or DMC the reaction is much slower or negligible. The solubility of the produced CO2 in carbonate solvents is high (0.025 grams/mL) which masks the effect of electrolyte decomposition during storage or use. The origin of this decomposition is not clear but it is expected to be present on other cathode materials and may affect the analysis of SEI products as well as the safety of Li-ion batteries.

Browning, Katie L [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

An Investigation of the Influence of Droplet Number Concentration and Giant Aerosol Particles upon Supercooled Large Drop Formation in Wintertime Stratiform Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supercooled large drops (SLD) can be a significant hazard for aviation. Past studies have shown that warm-rain processes are prevalent, or even dominant, in stratiform clouds containing SLD, but the primary factors that control SLD production are ...

Sonia Lasher-Trapp; Sarah Anderson-Bereznicki; Ashley Shackelford; Cynthia H. Twohy; James G. Hudson

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Separation and Capture of CO2 from Large Stationary Sources and Sequestration in Geological Formations: A Summary of the 2003 Critical Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and the resulting global warming effect, is a major air quality concern. CO2 is the most abundant greenhouse gas emitted by fossil-fuel combustion for power generation, transportation, and heating. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2 will require many mitigation measures, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, renewable energy sources, and carbon sequestration. The feasibility of capturing CO2 from large point sources and subsequent geological sequestration is the subject of this year’s Critical Review.

White, C.M.; Strazisar, B.R.; Granite, E.J.; Hoffman, J.S.; Pennline, H.W.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Safety testing of 18650-style Li-Ion cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To address lithium-ion cell safety issues in demanding power applications, electrical and thermal abuse tests were performed on 18650 sized cells. Video and electrically monitored abuse tests in air included short circuit, forced overcharge, forced reversal, and controlled overheating (thermal) modes. Controlled overheating tests to 200 C were performed in a sealed chamber under a helium atmosphere and the gases released from the cell during thermal runaway were analyzed at regular intervals using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In addition to alkane and alkene solvent breakdown fragments, significant H{sub 2} was detected and evidence that HF was evolved was also found.

CRAFTS,CHRIS C.; BOREK III,THEODORE T.; MOWRY,CURTIS DALE

2000-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

149

Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from conventional petroleum sources, while the dottedline includes non-petroleum sources like ethanol and otherpowered by petroleum-based energy sources, a value that does

Conry, Thomas Edward

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Batteries - Next-generation Li-ion batteries Breakout session  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

power, stability) * Lack of new high-energy intercalation materials * Lack of stable high-voltage electrolytes * Lack of cycleable, high-density anode (e.g. metallic lithium)...

151

ELECTROLYTE MIXTURES USEFUL FOR LI-ION BATTERIES - Energy ...  

Solar Photovoltaic; Solar Thermal; Startup America; Vehicles and Fuels; ... The Regents of the University of California (Oakland CA) Application Number: 12/ 274,012:

152

FREE STANDING NANOSTRUCTURED ANODES FOR LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The free standing nanorodes of aluminum and cobalt oxides were grown on electrode and tested as the anodes directly in the half-cell. The average diameter and length of the nanorods are 80 nm and 200 nm respectively. The aligned nanorods demonstrated high initial capacity from 1200-1400 mAh/g at rate of 0.5C. The gradually decrease of initial capacity was observed. The preliminary characterization shows that the changes of the crystalline structure and morphology during cycling may be responsible for the capacity decay.

Au, M.

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

153

Probing Li-Ion Battery Electrode Architectures with a  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Energy Storage: Materials, Systems, and Applications. Presentation Title ...

154

Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the annual progress report for the Grant DE-FG03-00ER15035. This research is on materials for anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells. The work is a mix of electrochemical measurements and analysis of the materials by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. Our materials studies on electrode materials divide into electronic studies of the valence at and around Li atoms, and the crystal structures of these materials. We are addressing the basic questions of how these change with Li concentration, and what long-term changes take place during charge/discharge cycling of the materials.

B. Fultz

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

155

Graphenic Material for High Performance Li-Ion Battery Electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3D Nanostructured Bicontinuous Electrodes: Path to Ultra-High Power and Energy ... High Energy Density Lithium Capacitors Using Carbon-Carbon Electrodes.

156

Graphene Based Anodes for Li-ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors.

157

Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of US dependence on foreign oil. The United States has morethat US dependence on foreign oil can be decreased by up to

Conry, Thomas Edward

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Polymer electrolytes for a rechargeable li-Ion battery  

SciTech Connect

Lithium-ion polymer electrolyte battery technology is attractive for many consumer and military applications. A Li{sub x}C/Li{sub y}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} battery system incorporating a polymer electrolyte separator base on novel Li-imide salts is being developed under sponsorship of US Army Research Laboratory (Fort Monmouth NJ). This paper reports on work currently in progress on synthesis of Li-imide salts, polymer electrolyte films incorporating these salts, and development of electrodes and cells. A number of Li salts have been synthesized and characterized. These salts appear to have good voltaic stability. PVDF polymer gel electrolytes based on these salts have exhibited conductivities in the range 10{sup -4} to 10{sub -3} S/cm.

Argade, S.D.; Saraswat, A.K.; Rao, B.M.L. [Technochem Co., Greensboro, NC (United States); Lee, H.S.; Xiang, C.L.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Recovery of Metallic Values from Spent Li Ion Secondary Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the first step, 92% of the cobalt was recovered as CoSO4 by the use of ethanol at a volume ratio of 3 : 1. In the second step, the remaining cobalt was ...

160

Berkeley Lab Researchers Evaluate Tin Nanocrystals for Li-ion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with EETD scientists on cooperative research? Get a job in EETD? Make my home more energy-efficient? Find a source within EETD for a news story I'm writing, shooting, or...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research is on materials for anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells. The work is a mix of electrochemical measurements and analysis of the materials by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. At present, our experimental work involves only materials for Li storage, but we have been writing papers from our previous work on hydrogen-storage materials.

Fultz, B.

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

162

Novel Electrode Material Offers Alternative for Li-ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 10, 2013 ... Further increasing the capacity of lithium-ion batteries could enable laptops to work longer and electric cars to drive farther, among many ...

163

Integrating SOC Dependent Material Properties into Li-Ion Battery ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During battery operation, Li flows into and out of electrode particles, causing microstructural changes and deformation-induced degradation. A variety of models ...

164

Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

could double Chevy Volt battery capacity. ” http://could-double-chevy-volt-battery-capacity/chevy-volt3-4/; “Volt’s Battery Capacity Could Double. ” http://

Conry, Thomas Edward

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Direct Observation of Microstructure Evolution in Li-Ion Battery ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic Properties of Ni3Al Foils for Methane Steam Reforming · Characterization of the Crystallographic Textures and Mechanical Anisotropy Factors in Two ...

166

Degradation Reactions in SONY-Type Li-Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal instabilities were identified in SONY-type lithium-ion cells and correlated with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the state of charge (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 100°C involving the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer and the LiPF6 salt in the electrolyte (EC: PC: DEC/LiPF6). These reactions could account for the thermal runaway observed in these cells beginning at 100°C. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200°C-300°C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF6 salt and the PVDF. These reactions were followed by a high- temperature reaction region, 300°C-400°C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. The solvent was not directly involved in these reactions but served as a moderator and transport medhun. Cathode exotherrnic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200oC and increased with the state of charge (decreasing Li content). This offers an explanation for the observed lower thermal runaway temperatures for charged cells.

Nagasubramanian, G.; Roth, E. Peter

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

167

Porous Graphene Nanosheets for Li-ion Battery Anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A21: First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Chemical ... A3: Investigation on Co-combustion Kinetics of Anthracite Coal and Biomass Char by ... Lithium Redox Process for Thermochemical Water-Splitting as Energy Conversion.

168

Categorical Exclusion D  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6) Oak Ridge National Laboratory -Temperature Self-Regulation for Large Format Li-ion Cells 6) Oak Ridge National Laboratory -Temperature Self-Regulation for Large Format Li-ion Cells Program or Field Office:Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy LocationCs) CCity/County/State): Oak Ridge, TN; Hayward, CA Proposed Action Description: Funding will support efforts to develop large format U-ion cells capable of controlling and regulating temperature. Proposed work will consist of: (1) developing and validating models for baseline cells; (2) performing thermal control testing to validate and improve the developed cells in order to achieve established performance and safety metrics; and (3) performing thermal control testing on large- cells to validate and improve the developed cells and in order to achieve established performance and safety metrics.

169

File Formats  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Page Home Page File Formats MODIS Product Subsets Output Data File Format Descriptions The MODIS product subsets for North America and Worldwide are available in several formats, which are described in the following text. MODIS Land Product ASCII Data Image Data Files in ASCII Grid Format QC-Filtered Data and Statistics Generated for this Request Land Cover Data in ASCII Grid Format Statistical Data for MODIS Land Products in Comma Separated Format Underlying BRDF Parameters Used in Generating this Request (available with Albedo MOD43B and MCD43B only) MODIS Land Product ASCII Data Description of File File Content: Data as read from MODIS Land Product HDF-EOS data files. These data are the starting point for deriving the other subset data products. Data Type: As indicated by Land Product Code (e.g., MOD15A2).

170

Microphysical Structure of the Marine Boundary Layer under Strong Wind and Spray Formation as Seen from Simulations Using a 2D Explicit Microphysical Model. Part I: The Impact of Large Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of large eddies (LE) on the marine boundary layer (MBL) microphysics and thermodynamics is investigated using a 2D Lagrangian model with spectral bin microphysics including effects of sea spray. The 600 m × 400 m MBL computational area ...

J. Shpund; M. Pinsky; A. Khain

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Correcting Density Functional Theory for Accurate Predictions of Compound Enthalpies of Formation: Fitted Elemental-Phase Reference Energies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite the great success that theoretical approaches based on density functional theory have in describing properties of solid compounds, accurate predictions of the enthalpies of formation ({Delta}H{sub f}) of insulating and semiconducting solids still remain a challenge. This is mainly due to incomplete error cancellation when computing the total energy differences between the compound total energy and the total energies of its elemental constituents. In this paper we present an approach based on GGA + U calculations, including the spin-orbit coupling, which involves fitted elemental-phase reference energies (FERE) and which significantly improves the error cancellation resulting in accurate values for the compound enthalpies of formation. We use an extensive set of 252 binary compounds with measured {Delta}H{sub f} values (pnictides, chalcogenides, and halides) to obtain FERE energies and show that after the fitting, the 252 enthalpies of formation are reproduced with the mean absolute error MAE = 0.054 eV/atom instead of MAE {approx} 0.250 eV/atom resulting from pure GGA calculations. When applied to a set of 55 ternary compounds that were not part of the fitting set the FERE method reproduces their enthalpies of formation with MAE = 0.048 eV/atom. Furthermore, we find that contributions to the total energy differences coming from the spin-orbit coupling can be, to a good approximation, separated into purely atomic contributions which do not affect {Delta}H{sub f}. The FERE method, hence, represents a simple and general approach, as it is computationally equivalent to the cost of pure GGA calculations and applies to virtually all insulating and semiconducting compounds, for predicting compound {Delta}H{sub f} values with chemical accuracy. We also show that by providing accurate {Delta}H{sub f} the FERE approach can be applied for accurate predictions of the compound thermodynamic stability or for predictions of Li-ion battery voltages.

Stevanovic, V.; Lany, S.; Zhang, X.; Zunger, A.

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5500 5500 Johnson Controls, Inc. EE Multiple PMC/PVT 2011/ 10/1/2011 to 1/31/2015 Chris Johnson Multiple sites, CA, MI, WI, OR Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells (SUMMARY CX) Reduce manufactured cost of large format Li-ion cells by 50% through use of coated separators, dry coated electrodes, and fast formation technologies. Christopher Johnson Digitally signed by Christopher Johnson DN: cn=Christopher Johnson, o=PMC, ou=PVT, email=cjohnson@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2011.12.19 13:35:19 -05'00' 12 19 2011 john ganz Digitally signed by john ganz DN: cn=john ganz, o=netl, ou=environmental compliance division, email=john.ganz@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2011.12.20 11:06:33 -05'00' 12 20 2011 Comprehensive list of subcontractors and five locations covered under this Summary CX has been

173

Formation, characterization and dynamics of onion like carbon structures from nanodiamonds using reactive force-fields for electrical energy storage  

SciTech Connect

We simulate the experimentally observed graphitization of nanodiamonds into multi-shell onion-like carbon nanostructures, also called carbon onions, at different temperatures, using reactive force fields. The simulations include long-range Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. Our results suggest that long-range interactions play a crucial role in the phase-stability and the graphitization process. Graphitization is both enthalpically and entropically driven and can hence be controlled with temperature. The outer layers of the nanodiamond have a lower kinetic barrier toward graphitization irrespective of the size of the nanodiamond and graphitize within a few-hundred picoseconds, with a large volume increase. The inner core of the nanodiamonds displays a large size-dependent kinetic barrier, and graphitizes much more slowly with abrupt jumps in the internal energy. It eventually graphitizes by releasing pressure and expands once the outer shells have graphitized. The degree of transformation at a particular temperature is thereby determined by a delicate balance between the thermal energy, long-range interactions, and the entropic/enthalpic free energy gained by graphitization. Upon full graphitization, a multi-shell carbon nanostructure appears, with a shell-shell spacing of about {approx}3.4 {angstrom} for all sizes. The shells are highly defective with predominantly five- and seven-membered rings to curve space. Larger nanodiamonds with a diameter of 4 nm can graphitize into spiral structures with a large ({approx}29-atom carbon ring) pore opening on the outermost shell. Such a large one-way channel is most attractive for a controlled insertion of molecules/ions such as Li ions, water, or ionic liquids, for increased electrochemical capacitor or battery electrode applications.

Kent, Paul R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Formation of Carbon Dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

175

Large-Format Lithium-Ion Battery Costs Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high cost of lithium ion batteries poses a serious problem for the competitiveness of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). The problem is complicated by the fact that the lithium ion battery cost projections developed by a number of apparently credible organizations over the past 5 years or so differ so much that different conclusions regarding the economic competitiveness of PHEVs (and even more so BEVs) have been stated. This situation creates confusion and...

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

SAR polar format implementation with MATLAB.  

SciTech Connect

Traditional polar format image formation for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) requires a large amount of processing power and memory in order to accomplish in real-time. These requirements can thus eliminate the possible usage of interpreted language environments such as MATLAB. However, with trapezoidal aperture phase history collection and changes to the traditional polar format algorithm, certain optimizations make MATLAB a possible tool for image formation. Thus, this document's purpose is two-fold. The first outlines a change to the existing Polar Format MATLAB implementation utilizing the Chirp Z-Transform that improves performance and memory usage achieving near realtime results for smaller apertures. The second is the addition of two new possible image formation options that perform a more traditional interpolation style image formation. These options allow the continued exploration of possible interpolation methods for image formation and some preliminary results comparing image quality are given.

Martin, Grant D.; Doerry, Armin Walter

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Observational Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Formation Associated with Monsoon Gyres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale monsoon gyres and the involved tropical cyclone formation over the western North Pacific have been documented in previous studies. The aim of this study is to understand how monsoon gyres affect tropical cyclone formation. An ...

Liguang Wu; Huijun Zong; Jia Liang

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

From design experiments to formative interventions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The discussion of design experiments has largely ignored the Vygotskian tradition of formative interventions based on the principle of double stimulation. This tradition offers a radical approach to learning reasearch which focuses on the agency of the ...

Yrjö Engeström

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Large-Eddy Simulation: How Large is Large Enough?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The length scale evolution of various quantities in a clear convective boundary layer (CBL), a stratocumulus-topped boundary layer, and three radiatively cooled (“smoke cloud”) convective boundary layers are studied by means of large-eddy ...

Stephan R. de Roode; Peter G. Duynkerke; Harm J. J. Jonker

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A space-charge-limited beam with current densities (J) exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} have been measured from lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at a temperature of #24;~1275#14;{degrees} C. At higher extraction voltages, the source appears to become emission limited with J #21;{>=} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, and J increases weakly with the applied voltage. A 6.35 mm diameter source with an alumino-silicate coating, {<=}#20;0.25 mm thick, has a measured lifetime of ~#24;40 hours at ~#24;1275#14;{degrees} C, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of #24;~6 ?s each. At this rate, the source lifetime was independent of the actual beam charge extracted due to the loss of neutral atoms at high temperature. The source lifetime increases with the amount of alumino-silicate coated on the emitting surface, and may also be further extended if the temperature is reduced between pulses.

Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W

2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources  

SciTech Connect

A space-charge-limited beam with current densities (J) exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} have been measured from lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at a temperature of #24;~1275#14;{degrees} C. At higher extraction voltages, the source appears to become emission limited with J #21;{>=} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, and J increases weakly with the applied voltage. A 6.35 mm diameter source with an alumino-silicate coating, {<=}#20;0.25 mm thick, has a measured lifetime of ~#24;40 hours at ~#24;1275#14;{degrees} C, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of #24;~6 μs each. At this rate, the source lifetime was independent of the actual beam charge extracted due to the loss of neutral atoms at high temperature. The source lifetime increases with the amount of alumino-silicate coated on the emitting surface, and may also be further extended if the temperature is reduced between pulses.

Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W

2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

182

Challenges in Developing High Energy Density Li-ion Batteries with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The approaches that have been taken recently include the use of high voltage cathodes coupled with graphite or high capacity Li-alloy anodes. In either ...

183

Redox-active Ionic Liquids in Energy Storage: Application to Li-ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric Cell-impedance Spectroscopy at the Biological-inorganic Interface, Shewanella Oneidensis - Gold, for Microbial Fuel Cell Applications · Encapsulating ...

184

Synthesis of LiCoO2 Cathodes for Li–Ion Batteries via Solution ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications. Presentation Title ...

185

Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coating for Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes", Chemistry ofas the cathode of the lithium ion battery by Thackeray et

Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

LI-ION BATTERIESWITH LONGER LIFE, LOWER COST, AND BETTER SAFETY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials that include LiFePO4 for use in, but not limited to, electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries cathode manufacturing processes. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (ANL-IN-11 functionality for high power and high energy lithium batteries. The Invention A family of lithium iron composite

Kemner, Ken

187

Electrochimica Acta 51 (2006) 20122022 A generalized cycle life model of rechargeable Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Gas evolution Cathode Aging Image: Vetter et al., "Ageing mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries," J Battery Robust Design - 13 Cathode Aging Source: Vetter et al., "Ageing mechanisms in lithium-ion., "Ageing mechanisms in lithium- ion batteries," J. Power Sources, 147 (2005) 269-281 ASTR 2010 Oct 6 ­ 8

Popov, Branko N.

188

Battery management system for Li-Ion batteries in hybrid electric vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Battery Management System (BMS) is the component responsible for the effcient and safe usage of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) battery pack. Its main… (more)

Marangoni, Giacomo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Li-Ion Nanobattery: Lessons from In-Situ Electron Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3D Nanostructured Bicontinuous Electrodes: Path to Ultra-High Power and Energy ... High Energy Density Lithium Capacitors Using Carbon-Carbon Electrodes.

190

Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Advanced Solid State Li-Ion Battery Vaccine for Prevention and ...  

not carry the safety burdens of liquid electrolytes and are more ... Glass–ceramic Li2S–P2S5 electrolytes prepared by a single step ball billing process and

192

Thermal/Electrical Modeling for Abuse-Tolerant Design of Li-Ion Modules (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To help design safe, high-performing batteries, NREL and NASA created and verified a new multicell math model capturing electrical-thermal interactions of cells with PTC devices during thermal abuse.

Smith, K.; Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Materials cost evaluation report for high-power Li-ion batteries.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency in the partnership between the U.S. automobile industry and the federal government to develop fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) as part of the FreedomCAR Partnership. DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Office sponsors the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program--involving 5 of its national laboratories--to assist the industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries to overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, and abuse tolerance so that this technology can be rendered practical for use in HEV and FCEV applications under the FreedomCAR Partnership. In the area of cost reduction, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously extending the calendar life and enhancing the inherent safety of this electrochemical system. The material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in the production of batteries that are designed to meet the requirements of a minimum-power-assist HEV battery or a maximum-power-assist HEV battery for the FreedomCAR Partnership. Similar models will be developed for FEV batteries when the requirements for those batteries are finalized. In order to quantify the material costs relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared with the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. As can be seen from the results of this materials cost study, a cell chemistry based on the use of a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode material is lowest-cost and meets our battery-level material cost goal of <$250 for a 25-kW minimum-power-assist HEV battery. A major contributing factor is the high-rate capability of this material, which allows one to design a lower-capacity cell to meet the battery-level power and energy requirements. This reduces the quantities of the other materials needed to produce a 25-kW minimum-power-assist HEV battery. The same is true for the 40-kW maximum-power-assist HEV battery. Additionally, the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode is much more thermally and chemically stable than the LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} type cathode, which should enhance inherent safety and extend calendar life (if the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode can be stabilized against dissolution via HF attack). Therefore, we recommend that the FreedomCAR Partnership focus its research and development efforts on developing this type of low-cost high-power lithium-ion cell chemistry. Details supporting this recommendation are provided in the body of this report.

Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.; Liu, J.

2003-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

194

Sulfone-based electrolytes for high voltage li-ion batteries.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfone-based electrolytes have been investigated as electrolytes for lithium-ion cells using high-voltage positive electrodes, such as LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} spinels, and Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} spinel as negative electrode. In the presence of imide salt (LiTFSI) and ethyl methyl sulfone or tetramethyl sulfone (TMS) electrolytes, the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell exhibited a specific capacity of 80 mAh g{sup -1} with an excellent capacity retention after 100 cycles. In a cell with high-voltage LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} positive electrode and 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in TMS as electrolyte, the capacity reached 110 mAh g{sup -1} at the C/12 rate. When TMS was blended with ethyl methyl carbonate, the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cell delivered an initial capacity of 80 mAh g{sup -1} and cycled fairly well for 1000 cycles under 2C rate. The exceptional electrochemical stability of the sulfone electrolytes and their compatibility with the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} safer and stable anode were the main reason behind the outstanding electrochemical performance observed with high-potential spinel cathode materials. These electrolytes could be promising alternative electrolytes for high-energy density battery applications such as plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles that require a long cycle life.

Abouimrane, A.; Belharouak, I.; Amine, K. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Materials cost evaluation report for high-power Li-ion batteries.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency in the partnership between the U.S. automobile industry and the federal government to develop fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) as part of the FreedomCAR Partnership. DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Office sponsors the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program--involving 5 of its national laboratories--to assist the industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries to overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, and abuse tolerance so that this technology can be rendered practical for use in HEV and FCEV applications under the FreedomCAR Partnership. In the area of cost reduction, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously extending the calendar life and enhancing the inherent safety of this electrochemical system. The material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in the production of batteries that are designed to meet the requirements of a minimum-power-assist HEV battery or a maximum-power-assist HEV battery for the FreedomCAR Partnership. Similar models will be developed for FEV batteries when the requirements for those batteries are finalized. In order to quantify the material costs relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared with the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. As can be seen from the results of this materials cost study, a cell chemistry based on the use of a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode material is lowest-cost and meets our battery-level material cost goal of battery. A major contributing factor is the high-rate capability of this material, which allows one to design a lower-capacity cell to meet the battery-level power and energy requirements. This reduces the quantities of the other materials needed to produce a 25-kW minimum-power-assist HEV battery. The same is true for the 40-kW maximum-power-assist HEV battery. Additionally, the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode is much more thermally and chemically stable than the LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} type cathode, which should enhance inherent safety and extend calendar life (if the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode can be stabilized against dissolution via HF attack). Therefore, we recommend that the FreedomCAR Partnership focus its research and development efforts on developing this type of low-cost high-power lithium-ion cell chemistry. Details supporting this recommendation are provided in the body of this report.

Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.; Liu, J.

2003-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

196

Thin Film Patterned Sandwich Anode Structures for Li-Ion batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors.

197

Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electric vehicle (PEV), performance requirements are raised especially from the aspects of energy/power density, cycling life and safety

Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Experimental design and analysis for accelerated degradation tests with Li-ion cells.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document describes a general protocol (involving both experimental and data analytic aspects) that is designed to be a roadmap for rapidly obtaining a useful assessment of the average lifetime (at some specified use conditions) that might be expected from cells of a particular design. The proposed experimental protocol involves a series of accelerated degradation experiments. Through the acquisition of degradation data over time specified by the experimental protocol, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of accelerating factors (e.g., temperature and state of charge) on various measures of the health of a cell (e.g., power fade and capacity fade) will result. In order to assess cell lifetime, it is necessary to develop a model that accurately predicts degradation over a range of the experimental factors. In general, it is difficult to specify an appropriate model form without some preliminary analysis of the data. Nevertheless, assuming that the aging phenomenon relates to a chemical reaction with simple first-order rate kinetics, a data analysis protocol is also provided to construct a useful model that relates performance degradation to the levels of the accelerating factors. This model can then be used to make an accurate assessment of the average cell lifetime. The proposed experimental and data analysis protocols are illustrated with a case study involving the effects of accelerated aging on the power output from Gen-2 cells. For this case study, inadequacies of the simple first-order kinetics model were observed. However, a more complex model allowing for the effects of two concurrent mechanisms provided an accurate representation of the experimental data.

Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Thomas, Edward Victor; Jungst, Rudolph George; Roth, Emanuel Peter

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

LIFETIME OF THE METASTABLE 23S1 STATE IN STORED Li+ IONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ramped over a range ~ 5 volts through the particular voltagecm r = 3.0 cm Q = 2TT X 1.0 MHz V U D = 250 - 400 volts =0 - 30 volts = 8 - 1 8 volts u) = 2ir x 1 0 0 K H z AU = 10

Knight, R.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Microsoft PowerPoint - NanoAnode for Li-ion Batteries SRNL-L9100...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries at a glance patent pending increase energy density longer cyclic life replaces graphite anodes simple and lower cost...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

LIFETIME OF THE METASTABLE 23S1 STATE IN STORED Li+ IONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with an oven consisting of resistive heating elementsoven is lowered over the main chamber, which is resting on a Maronite base, and heatingand heating coil in order to minimize radiation losses to the walls. This oven,

Knight, R.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Nanostructured 3.9 V Triplite Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructural Evolution of SnS Thin Films Grown by Electrodeposition · Morphology Engineering of 1D, 2D and 3D TiO2 Nanostructures and Their Application ...

203

Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Lightsource (SSRL). We would like to acknowledgeMèhta for the work done at SSRL. REFERENCES [I] Yabuuchi,

Doeff, Marca M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

TransForum v8n1 - Li-Ion Battery Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

material, a key element of the material licensed to NanoeXa. Argonne's Lithium-Ion Battery Technology Offers Reliability, Greater Safety Argonnes an internationally...

205

Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Light-Metal Hydrides as Novel Conversion Mateirals for Li-ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the phase diagram as a function of lithium chemical potential and ... 3D Nanostructured Bicontinuous Electrodes: Path to Ultra-High Power and Energy ... The Electrochemical Flow Capacitor for Efficient Grid-Scale Energy Storage.

207

3D Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) for Li-Ion Battery Anode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , 2012 Functional and Structural Nanomaterials: Fabrication, Properties, ...

208

D4: In-situ Characterisation of Silicon-based Anodes for Li-ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

209

Maximum power point tracking and optimal Li-ion battery charging control for photovoltaic charging system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the severity of the global energy crisis and environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one kind of important renewable energy source. Solar energy has the advantages of maximum reserve, inexhaustibleness, and is free from ... Keywords: Genetic algorithms (GA), Photovoltaic (PV), Variable Step Size Incremental Conductance method

Her-Terng Yau; Qin-Cheng Liang; Chin-Tsung Hsieh

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Layer cathode methods of manufacturing and materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A positive electrode active material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of general formula Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.A.sub..gamma.O.sub.2 and further wherein A is Mg, Zn, Al, Co, Ga, B, Zr, or Ti and 0

Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vehicles (EV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs),or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). To reduce materialsapplications (plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and

Doeff, Marca M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes  

SciTech Connect

Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si electrode must have high capacity, long cycle life, high efficiency, and the fabrication must be industrially scalable. Here, we design and fabricate a yolk-shell structure to meet all these needs. The fabrication is carried out without special equipment and mostly at room temperature. Commercially available Si nanoparticles are completely sealed inside conformal, thin, self-supporting carbon shells, with rationally designed void space in between the particles and the shell. The well-defined void space allows the Si particles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell, therefore stabilizing the solid-electrolyte interphase on the shell surface. High capacity (?2800 mAh/g at C/10), long cycle life (1000 cycles with 74% capacity retention), and high Coulombic efficiency (99.84%) have been realized in this yolk-shell structured Si electrode.

Liu, Nian; Wu, Hui; Mcdowell, Matthew T.; Yao, Yan; Wang, Chong M.; Cui, Yi

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

213

Lipon Coatings for High Voltage and High Temperature Li-Ion ...  

use of high-capacity and high-voltage cathode materials, but charging to voltages approaching 4.5-5V invariably causes rapid loss of capacity with cycling.

214

Large displacement spherical joint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Electrochemically Induced High Capacity Displacement Reaction of PEO/MoS2/Graphene Nanocomposites with Lithium  

SciTech Connect

MoS2/PEO/graphene composite is successfully prepared and the discharge mechanism of MoS2 as an anode material for Li-ion batteries has been investigated systematically in this work. The simultaneous formation of Li2S and Mo at deep discharge depth has been shown for the first time. The deposition of Mo metal with Li residing on the defects after the first discharge increases the intrinsic electronic conductivity of the electrode leading to a superior cycling stability for over 185 cycles. After the first discharge the amorphous Mo matrix allows a large amount of Li+ ions to repeatedly deposit and being oxidized during cycling while the transition between Li2S and S contribute to the capacity above 2.0 V. The interactions between as-formed Mo and S prevents the dissolution of the intermediate polysulfide thus providing clues to immobilize the soluble species in a Li-S battery. Excellent rate performances are achieved in this MoS2/PEO/graphene composite indicating a fast diffusion path of Li+ ions existing not only in the bulk material but also in the interface between the electrode and the electrolyte.

Xiao, Jie; Wang, Xaojian; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Xun, Shidi; Liu, Gao; Koech, Phillip K.; Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P.

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

216

Notices Accessible Format: Individuals with  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

472 Federal Register 472 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 83 / Monday, April 30, 2012 / Notices Accessible Format: Individuals with disabilities can obtain this document in an accessible format (e.g., braille, large print, audiotape, or computer diskette) on request to the program contact person listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. Electronic Access to This Document: The official version of this document is the document published in the Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations is available via the Federal Digital System at: www.gpo.gov/fdsys. At this site you can view this document, as well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document

217

Large scale production of syntactic annotations to move forward  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents the methodology of the PASSAGE project, aiming at syntactically annotating large corpora by composing annotations. It introduces the annotation format and the syntactic annotation specifications. It describes an important component ...

Patrick Paroubek; Anne Vilnat; Sylvain Loiseau; Olivier Hamon; Gil Francopoulo; Eric Villemonte de la Clergerie

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Meet with Large Businesses  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Meet with Large Businesses Meet with Large Businesses and learn about upcoming acquisitions! * Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) * National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) * Small Business Administration (SBA) * U.S. Department of Energy / Energy, Efficiency, and Renewable Energy (EERE) * U.S. Department of Energy / Golden Field Office (GFO) * Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) * Colorado Procurement Technical Assistance Center (PTAC)

219

Large-Scale Hydropower  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Large-scale hydropower plants are generally developed to produce electricity for government or electric utility projects. These plants are more than 30 MW in size, and there is more than 80,000 MW...

220

Tim Fister Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Sciences and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Study of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) Formation on Graphene as a Model Li-ion Battery Anode," accepted, Chemistry of Materials (2012). * B. Ingram et al. "In situ x-ray...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Development of a large scale flexible LED display matrix for the screen industry.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This project addresses the viability of lightweight, low power consumption, flexible, large format LED screens. The investigation encompasses all aspects of the electrical and mechanical… (more)

Xavier, Dominic Michael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Tropical Cyclone Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The physics of tropical cyclone formation is not well understood, and more is known about the mature hurricane than the formative mechanisms that produce it. It is believed part of the reason for this can be traced to insufficient upper-level ...

Michael T. Montgomery; Brian F. Farrell

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Large Occlusion Stereo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for solving the stereo matching problem in the presence of large occlusion is presented. A data structure—the disparity space image—is defined to facilitate the description of the effects of occlusion on the stereo matching process ... Keywords: disparity-space, dynamic-programming stereo, occlusion, stereo

Aaron F. Bobick; Stephen S. Intille

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Composting Large Animal Carcasses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Disposing of large animal carcasses can be a problem for agricultural producers. Composting is a simple, low-cost method that yields a useful product that can be used as fertilizer. In this publication you'll learn the basics of composting, how to build and maintain a compost pile, tools you will need, and how to use the finished compost.

Auvermann, Brent W.; Mukhtar, Saqib; Heflin, Kevin

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

Cryogenic heat pipe for cooling high temperature superconductors with application to Electromagnetic Formation Flight Satellites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An emerging method of propellant-less formation flight propulsion is the use of electromagnets coupled with reaction wheels. This technique is called Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF). In order to create a large ...

Kwon, Daniel W., 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Implicit Large Eddy Simulation  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Implicit Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) for High Reynolds Number Flows Len Margolin Applied Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaborators: 1. Bill Rider (LANL) 2. Piotr Smolarkiewicz (NCAR) 3. Andrzej Wysogrodski (NCAR) 4. Fernando Grinstein (NRL) len@lanl.gov 1 Implicit Large Eddy Simulation Outline: * What is ILES? * What are its advantages? * Historical perspective * Why does it work? * Some examples len@lanl.gov 2 What is ILES ILES is the direct application of a fluid solver to a high Reynolds number fluid flow with no explicit turbulence model. · The truncation terms of the algorithm serve as an effective model of the effects of the unresolved scales. · Fluid solvers based on Nonoscillatory Finite Volume (NFV) approximations work effectively for ILES. · Fluid solvers based on pseudospectral methods, leapfrog methods, advective form methods, etc. do not work

227

DOE Completes Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Awards | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Completes Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Awards DOE Completes Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Awards DOE Completes Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Awards November 17, 2008 - 4:58pm Addthis Regional Partner to Demonstrate Safe and Permanent Storage of 2 Million Tons of CO2 at Wyoming Site WASHINGTON, DC - Completing a series of awards through its Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded $66.9 million to the Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for the Department's seventh large-scale carbon sequestration project. Led by Montana State University-Bozeman, the Partnership will conduct a large-volume test in the Nugget Sandstone formation to demonstrate the ability of a geologic formation to safely, permanently and economically

228

DOE Completes Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Awards | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Completes Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Awards Completes Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Awards DOE Completes Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Awards November 17, 2008 - 4:58pm Addthis Regional Partner to Demonstrate Safe and Permanent Storage of 2 Million Tons of CO2 at Wyoming Site WASHINGTON, DC - Completing a series of awards through its Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded $66.9 million to the Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for the Department's seventh large-scale carbon sequestration project. Led by Montana State University-Bozeman, the Partnership will conduct a large-volume test in the Nugget Sandstone formation to demonstrate the ability of a geologic formation to safely, permanently and economically

229

Primary Radiation Damage Formation  

SciTech Connect

The physical processes that give rise to changes in the microstructure, and the physical and mechanical properties of materials exposed to energetic particles are initiated by essentially elastic collisions between atoms in what has been called an atomic displacement cascade. The formation and evolution of this primary radiation damage mechanism are described to provide an overview of how stable defects are formed by displacement cascades, as well as the nature and morphology of the defects themselves. The impact of the primary variables cascade energy and irradiation temperature are discussed, along with a range of secondary factors that can influence damage formation.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Isocurvature Fluctuations Induce Early Star Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The early reionisation of the Universe inferred from the WMAP polarisation results, if confirmed, poses a problem for the hypothesis that scale-invariant adiabatic density fluctuations account for large-scale structure and galaxy formation. One can only generate the required amount of early star formation if extreme assumptions are made about the efficiency and nature of early reionisation. We develop an alternative hypothesis that invokes an additional component of a non-scale-free isocurvature power spectrum together with the scale-free adiabatic power spectrum for inflation-motivated primordial density fluctuations. Such a component is constrained by the Lyman alpha forest observations, can account for the small-scale power required by spectroscopic gravitational lensing, and yields a source of early star formation that can reionise the universe at z~20 yet becomes an inefficient source of ionizing photons by z~10, thereby allowing the conventional adiabatic fluctuation component to reproduce the late thermal history of the intergalactic medium.

Naoshi Sugiyama; Saleem Zaroubi; Joseph Silk

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

231

String resonances at the Large Hadron Collider  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Large Hadron Collider promises to discover new physics beyond the Standard Model. An exciting possibility is the formation of string resonances at the TeV scale. In this article, we show how string resonances may be detected at the LHC in the $pp\\to\\gamma+jet$ channel. Our study is based on event shape variables, missing energy and momentum, maximum transverse momentum of photons and dijet invariant mass. These observables provide interesting signatures which enable us to discriminate string events from the Standard Model background.

Arunava Roy; Marco Cavaglia

2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

232

Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae  

SciTech Connect

A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

Tornabene, T.G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Warm Water Mass Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poleward heat transport by the own implies warm Water mass formation, i.e., the retention by the tropical and subtropical ocean of some of its net radiant heat gain. Under what condition net heat retention becomes comparable to latent heat ...

G. T. Csanady

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Large forging manufacturing process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for forging large components of Alloy 718 material so that the components do not exhibit abnormal grain growth includes the steps of: a) providing a billet with an average grain size between ASTM 0 and ASTM 3; b) heating the billet to a temperature of between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; c) upsetting the billet to obtain a component part with a minimum strain of 0.125 in at least selected areas of the part; d) reheating the component part to a temperature between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; e) upsetting the component part to a final configuration such that said selected areas receive no strains between 0.01 and 0.125; f) solution treating the component part at a temperature of between 1725.degree. F. and 1750.degree. F.; and g) aging the component part over predetermined times at different temperatures. A modified process achieves abnormal grain growth in selected areas of a component where desirable.

Thamboo, Samuel V. (Latham, NY); Yang, Ling (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Data editing on large data sets  

SciTech Connect

The process of analyzing large data sets often includes an early exploratory stage to first, develop a basic understanding of the data and its interrelationships and second, to prepare and cleanup the data for hypothesis formulation and testing. This preliminary phase of the data analysis process usually requires facilities found in research data management systems, text editors, graphics packages, and statistics packages. Also this process usually requires the analyst to write special programs to cleanup and prepare the data for analysis. This paper describes a technique now implemented as a single computational tool, a data editor, which combines a cross section of facilities from the above systems with emphasis on research data base manipulation and subsetting techniques. The data editor provides an interactive environment to explore and manipulate data sets with particular attention to the implications of large data sets. It utilizes a relational data model and a self describing binary data format which allows data transportability to other data analysis packages. Some impacts of editing large data sets will be discussed. A technique for manipulating portions or subsets of large data sets without physical replication is introduced. Also an experimental command structure and operating environment are presented.

Thomas, J.J.; Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Formation flow channel blocking  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed for selectively blocking high permeability flow channels in an underground hydrocarbon material bearing formation having flow channels of high permeability and having flow channels of lesser permeability. The method includes the following steps: introducing a blocking material fluid comprising a blocking material in a carrier into the flow channels through an injection well in communication with the formation; introducing a buffer fluid into the formation through the injection well for the buffer fluid to displace the blocking material fluid away from the injection well; allowing the blocking material to settle in the channels to resist displacement by fluid flowing through the channels; introducing a quantity of an activating fluid into the channels through the injection well at a sufficient rate for the activating fluid to displace the buffer fluid and finger into the high permeability channels to reach the blocking material in the high permeability channels without reaching the blocking material in the low permeability channels, the activating fluid being adapted to activate the blocking material which it reaches to cause blocking of the high permeability channels.

Kalina, A.I.

1982-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

237

Water Mass Formation in an Isopycnal Model of the North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An isopycnal model coupled with a mixed layer model is used to study transformation and formation rates in the North Pacific. When annual formation rates are averaged over the entire North Pacific, a large peak in water mass formation is found at ...

Carol Ladd; Lu Anne Thompson

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

CALIFORNIA ENERGY Large HVAC Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Large HVAC Building Survey Information Database of Buildings over 100 Design of Large Commercial HVAC Systems research project, one of six research elements in the Integrated Design of Large Commercial HVAC Systems Integrated Design of Small Commercial HVAC Systems Integrated

239

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Tehachapi Wind Energy Storage Project Using Li-Ion Batteries - Christopher Clarke, SCE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tehachapi Storage Project (TSP) Tehachapi Storage Project (TSP) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funded Project Christopher R. Clarke - Southern California Edison (SCE) christopher.r.clarke@sce.com Examples of Wind Generation in the Tehachapi Wind Resource Area August 2012 June 2012 May 2012 February 2012 April 2012 Progress To Date * Facility construction expected to complete in September 2012 * First Power Conversion System installed September 13, 2012 * A123 to ship initial battery equipment for delivery week of September 24, 2012 Future Major Milestones * September 2012 - Completion of BESS facility * October 2012 - Initial installation * November 2012 - Installation of second Power Conversion Subsystem * Q1 2013 - Install balance of equipment and commissioning * Q2 2013 - Start of 2 year M&V testing and reporting

240

In-situ Stress Study of V2O5 Thin Film as Li-ion Battery Electrode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Energy Storage III: Materials, Systems and Applications Symposium.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Sources of variability and uncertainty in LCA of single wall carbon nanotubes for Li-ion batteries in electric vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Production alternatives for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) such as chemical vapor deposition, laser, arc and flame, vary widely in material and energy yields, catalyst requirements and product characteristics. The overall environmental profile ...

Thomas P. Seager; Ryne P. Raffaelle; Brian J. Landi

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

A combined Li-ion & lead-acid battery system for start-stop application: potential & realization.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this master thesis is to investigate the possibility of using lithium-ion batteries as a second battery instead of lead-acid batteries for the… (more)

Taha Mahmoud, Heza

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Li4Ti5O12 as an anode material for Li ion batteries in situ XRD and XPS studies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This thesis examines parts of the kinetics and performance in Li-battery cells using lithium titanate anodes and lithium manganese oxide cathodes. Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12)… (more)

Nordh, Tim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Improvement of Thermal Stability of Li-Ion Batteries by Polymer Coating of LiMn2O4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

capacity fading of a lithium-ion battery cycled at elevatedthe lifetime of the lithium-ion battery by arresting the Mna challenge in the lithium-ion battery field to identifying

Stroeve, Pieter; Vidu, Ruxandra

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Improvement of Thermal Stability of Li-Ion Batteries by Polymer Coating of LiMn2O4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lithium-ion battery by arresting the Mn + dissolution, thereby increasing the battery stability. Key Words: Lithium Battery, Cathode,

Stroeve, Pieter; Vidu, Ruxandra

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

A Quantum Leap Forward for Li-Ion Battery Cathodes GCEP Final Technical Report: August 2007 July 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, nanoscale coating, nanostructures, interface control 1. INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion batteries are one-Induced Damage and Disorder in LiCoO2 Cathodes for Recharge- able Lithium Batteries, J. Electrochem. Soc. 146 Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Chem. Mater. 17, 3695 (2005). 27. J. Cho, Y. J. Kim, and B. Park, Novel

Nur, Amos

247

Development of a Novel Test Method for On-Demand Internal Short Circuit in a Li-Ion Cell (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation describes a cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, produces consistent and reproducible test results, can establish the locations and temperatures/power/SOC conditions where an internal short circuit will result in thermal runaway, and provides relevant data to validate internal short circuit models.

Keyser, M.; Long, D.; Jung, Y. S.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.; McCarthy, B.; Patrick, L.; Kruger, C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Li-Ion Battery Model for Better Design and Management (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The developed model used is to provide a better understanding and help answer engineering questions about improving the design, operational strategy, management, and safety of cells.

Kim, G.-H.; Smith, K.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-407  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Creare was awarded a Phase 1 STTR contract from the US Office of Naval Research, with a seven month period of performance from 6/28/2010 to 1/28/2011. The objectives of the STTR were to determine the feasibility of developing a software package for estimating reliability of battery packs, and develop a user interface to allow the designer to assess the overall impact on battery packs and host platforms for cell-level faults. NREL served as sub-tier partner to Creare, providing battery modeling and battery thermal safety expertise.

Smith, K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

TransForum v8n1 - Argonne/Toda Kogyo Partner on Li-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and nickel-metal hydride battery markets. The company recently acquired a plant in the Detroit area that will help serve U.S. automobile manufacturers. Todas plant in Ontario,...

251

An investigation of the impedance rise and power fade in high-power, Li-ion cells.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two different cell chemistries, Gen 1 and Gen 2, were subjected to accelerated aging experiments. In Gen 1 calendar life experiments, useful cell life was strongly affected by temperature and time. Higher temperature accelerated cell performance degradation. The rates of impedance increase and power fade followed simple laws based on a power of time and Arrhenius kinetics. The data have been modeled using these two concepts, and the calculated data agree well with the experimental values. The Gen 1 calendar life increase and power fade data follow (time){sup 1/2} kinetics. This may be due to solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer growth. From the cycle life experiments, the impedance increase data follow (time){sup 1/2} kinetics also, there is an apparent change in overall power fade mechanism, from 3% to 6% {Delta}SOC. Here, the power of time changes to a value less than 0.5 indicating that the power fade mechanism is due to factors more complex than just SEI layer growth. The Gen 2 calendar and cycle life experiments show the effect of cell chemistry on kinetics. The calendar life impedance data follow either ''linear'' or (time){sup 1/2} plus linear kinetics, depending on time and temperature.

Bloom, I.; Jones, S. A.; Battaglia, V. S.; Polzin, E. G.; Henriksen, G. L.; Motloch, C. G.; Christophersen, J. P.; Belt, J. R.; Ho, C. D.; Wright, R. B.; Jungst, R. G.; Case, H. L.; Doughty, D. H.

2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

252

An investigation of the resistance rise and power fade in high-power Li-ion cells.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two different cell chemistries, Gen 1 and Gen 2, were subjected to accelerated aging experiments. In Gen 1 calendar-life experiments, useful cell life was strongly affected by temperature and time. Higher temperatures accelerated the degradation of cell performance. The rates of resistance increase and power fade followed simple laws based on a power of time and Arrhenius kinetics. The data have been modeled using these two concepts, and the calculated data agree well with the experimental values. The Gen 1 calendar-life resistance increase and power fade data follow (time){sup 1/2} kinetics. This may be due to solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer growth. From the cycle-life experiments, the resistance increase data also follow (time){sup 1/2} kinetics. But there is an apparent change in overall power fade mechanism going from 3% to 6% {Delta}SOC. Here, the power of time changes to a value less than 0.5, indicating that the power fade mechanism is more complex than layer growth. The Gen 2 calendar- and cycle-life experiments show the effect of cell chemistry on kinetics. The calendar-life resistance and power fade follow either linear or linear plus (time){sup 1/2} kinetics, depending on temperature. Temperature dependence for the kinetic law was also found in the cycle-life data. At 25 C, the resistance increase (and power fade) follows linear kinetics, while at 45 C, (time){sup 1/2} kinetics are found.

Bloom, I.; Jones, S. A.; Battaglia, V. S.; Polzin, E. G.; Henriksen, G. L.; Motloch, C. G.; Christophersen, J. P.; Belt, J. R.; Ho, C. D.; Wright, R. B.; Jungst, R. G.; Case, H. L.; Doughty, D. H.

2002-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

253

A new material, Li2Mn2(MoO4)3 for Li-ion batteries: Synthesis and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The demand for electrically operated devices has led to a variety of ... Co-Production of Pure Hydrogen and Electricity from Coal Syngas via the ...

254

In-Situ Stress Study of Porous V2O5 Films as Li-ion Battery Electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon-Sulfur Nanocomposite Cathode Materials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries ... Multinuclear Solid and Liquid State NMR Studies of Battery Materials.

255

PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (Evs) have great potential to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and emissions. Battery costs need to be reduced by ~50% to make PHEVs cost competitive with conventional vehicles. One option to reduce initial costs is to reuse the battery in a second application following its retirement from automotive service and offer a cost credit for its residual value.

Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-01-406  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pressure within a lithium-ion cell changes due to various chemical reactions. When a battery undergoes an unintended short circuit, the pressure changes are drastic - and often lead to uncontrolled failure of the cells. As part of work for others with Oceanit Laboratories Inc. for the NAVY STTR, NREL built Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations that can identify potential weak spots in the battery during such events, as well as propose designs to control violent failure of batteries.

Santhanagopalan, S.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Li-ion Batteries: Challenges and Opportunities  

SciTech Connect

The critical challenge facing the lithium ion battery development is the basic understanding of the structural evolution during the cyclic operation of the battery and the consequence of the structural evolution on the properties of the battery. Although transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopy have been evolved to a stage such that it can be routinely used to probe into both the structural and chemical composition of the materials with a spatial resolution of a single atomic column, a direct in-situ TEM observation of structural evolution of the materials in lithium ion battery during the dynamic operation of the battery has never been reported. This is related to three factors: high vacuum operation of a TEM; electron transparency requirement of the region to be observed, and the difficulties dealing with the liquid electrolyte of lithium ion battery. In this paper, we report the results of exploring the in-situ TEM techniques for observation of the interface in lithium ion battery during the operation of the battery. A miniature battery was fabricated using a nanowire and an ionic liquid electrolyte. The structure and chemical composition of the interface across the anode and the electrolyte was studied using TEM imaging, electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. In addition, we also explored the possibilities of carrying out in-situ TEM studies of lithium ion batteries with a solid state electrolyte.

Wang, Chong M.; Xu, Wu; Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Arey, Bruce W.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Salmon, Norman

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Quadruple Adaptive Observer of the Core Temperature in Cylindrical Li-ion Batteries and their Health Monitoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles@umich.edu, siegeljb@umich.edu and annastef@umich.edu Y. Li and R. D. Anderson are with the Vehicle and Battery Controls De- partment, Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dear- born, MI 48121, USA. E

Stefanopoulou, Anna

259

Ultrathin Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanowires as High Power Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the past few years due to poten- tial applications in both hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and full electric of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305 vehicles (EV).1-3 Although lithium ion batteries can provide higher energy density (W h/kg) than other

Cui, Yi

260

Modeling & Simulation - Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production of Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Production of Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles battery assessment graph Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are currently being implemented in hybrid electric (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV), and electric (EV) vehicles. While nickel metal-hydride will continue to be the battery chemistry of choice for some HEV models, Li-ion will be the dominate battery chemistry of the remaining market share for the near-future. Large government incentives are currently necessary for customer acceptance of the vehicles such as the Chevrolet Volt and Nissan Leaf. Understanding the parameters that control the cost of Li-ion will help researchers and policy makers understand the potential of Li-ion batteries to meet battery energy density and cost goals, thus enabling widespread adoption without incentives.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Hypervelocity impact jet formation  

SciTech Connect

The hypervelocity impact of a particle on a surface generates a jet of shocked material which is thrown from the impact site. A simple analytic model has been developed to obtain expressions for the evolution of this jet of ejecta. The analysis is based on applying the conservation equations of mass and momentum to the problem of a normal impact of a sphere against a semi-infinite flat target. Expressions are developed for the evolution of the jet velocity, jet release point and the locus of points which describe the ejecta envelope. These analytical ejecta profiles are compared with high speed photographs of impact jet formation. 6 refs., 7 figs.

Ang, J.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Self-formation in Microelectronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The external formation of integrated circuits based on lithographic processes is not the only possible method for manufacturing electron devices, either integrated circuits or photovoltaic cells. Planar technology, based on external formation, requires ... Keywords: Artificial Systems, Development, Microelectronics, Reproduction, Self-Formation

Stepas Janušonis

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Optimal reorganization of agent formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we address the problem of determining how a structured formation of autonomous undistinguishable agents can be reorganized into another, eventually non-rigid, formation based on changes in the environment, perhaps unforeseeable. The methodology ... Keywords: combinatorial optimization, dynamic programming, formation reorganization

Dalila B. M. M. Fontes; Fernando A. C. C. Fontes

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Hierarchical Structure Formation and Modes of Star Formation in Hickson Compact Group 31  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The handful of low-mass, late-type galaxies that comprise Hickson Compact Group 31 is in the midst of complex, ongoing gravitational interactions, evocative of the process of hierarchical structure formation at higher redshifts. With sensitive, multicolor Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we characterize the large population of <10 Myr old star clusters that suffuse the system. From the colors and luminosities of the young star clusters, we find that the galaxies in HCG 31 follow the same universal scaling relations as actively star-forming galaxies in the local Universe despite the unusual compact group environment. Furthermore, the specific frequency of the globular cluster system is consistent with the low end of galaxies of comparable masses locally. This, combined with the large mass of neutral hydrogen and tight constraints on the amount of intragroup light, indicate that the group is undergoing its first epoch of interaction-induced star formation. In both the main galaxies and the tidal-dwarf candida...

Gallagher, S C; Elmegreen, D M; Chandar, R; English, J; Charlton, J C; Gronwall, C; Young, J; Tzanavaris, P; Johnson, K E; de Oliveira, C Mendes; Whitmore, B; Hornschemeier, A E; Maybhate, A; Zabludoff, Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

The Uflow Computational Model and Intermediate Format  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report motivates and defines a general-purpose, architecture independent, parallel computational model, which captures the intuitions which underlie the design of the United Functions and Objects programming language. The model has two aspects, which turn out to be a traditional dataflow model and an actor-like model, with a very simple interface between the two. Certain aspects of the model, particularly strictness, maximum parallelism, and lack of suspension are stressed. The implications of introducing stateful objects are carefully spelled out. The model has several purposes, although we largely describe it as it would be used for visualising the execution of programs. The model is embodied in a textual intermediate format, and in a set of UFO data structures. This report also serves as a definition of the intermediate format, and gives a brief overview of the data structures. 1 Introduction This report serves two purposes. Firstly, in sections 1 to 9, the Uflow computational...

John Sargeant; Chris Kirkham; Steve Anderson

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Taking the 'Large' out of Large Hadron Collider: Computational Breakthrough  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home » News & Publications » News » Science News » Taking the 'Large' out of Large Hadron Collider Taking the 'Large' out of Large Hadron Collider Computational breakthrough hastens modeling of 'tabletop accelerators' August 9, 2010 | Tags: Accelerator Science Contact: Margie Wylie | mwylie@lbl.gov | 510-486-7421 mori1 This 3D simulation shows how laser pulses create plasma wakes that propel electrons forward, much as a surfer is propelled forward by an ocean wave. Laser wakefield acceleration promises electron accelerators that are thousands of times more powerful than, yet a fraction the size of, conventional radio frequency devices. Particle accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN are the big rock stars of high-energy physics-really big. The LHC cost nearly

267

Effects of Collagen Gel Stiffness on Cdc42 Activities of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells during Early Vacuole Formation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recent preclinical reports have provided evidence that endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), a subset of endothelial progenitor cells, significantly improve vessel formation, largely due to… (more)

Kim, Seung Joon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

The Large Area Lyman Alpha Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Lyman-$\\alpha$ line is expected to be strong in the presence of active star formation and the absence of dust, making it a good tool for finding chemically primitive galaxies in the early universe. We report on a new survey for high redshift Lyman-$\\alpha$ sources, the Large Area Lyman Alpha (LALA) survey. Our survey achieves an unprecedented combination of volume and sensitivity by using narrow-band filters on the new $8192^2$ pixel CCD Mosaic Camera at the 4 meter Mayall telescope of Kitt Peak National Observatory. Well-detected sources with flux and equivalent width matching known high redshift Lyman-$\\alpha$ galaxies have an observed surface density corresponding to $11000 \\pm 700$ per square degree per unit redshift at $z=4.5$. Early spectroscopic followup from the Keck telescope suggests that $\\sim 1/3$ of these are actually at $z\\approx 4.5$, and has confirmed five $z > 4$ Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitters so far. Combining our photometric survey with spectroscopic results, we estimate a net density of $\\sim 4000 $ Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitters per square degree per unit redshift at $z\\approx 4.5$. The star formation rate density (estimated both from UV continuum and from line emission) is comparable to that of the Lyman break galaxy population within present uncertainties. The most extreme Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitters in our sample have rest frame equivalent widths $> 100\\AA$, consistent with the expectations for the first burst of star formation in a primitive, dust-free galaxy.

James E. Rhoads; Sangeeta Malhotra; Arjun Dey; Buell T. Jannuzi; Daniel Stern; Hyron Spinrad

2001-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

269

Large-Eddy Simulation of Roll Vortices in a Hurricane Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the last decade, horizontal roll vortices have been often observed in hurricane boundary layers (HBLs). In this study, a large-eddy simulation is performed to explore the formation mechanism of the horizontal roll vortices and their ...

Mikio Nakanishi; Hiroshi Niino

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Marked correlations in galaxy formation models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The two-point correlation function has been the standard statistic for quantifying how galaxies are clustered. The statistic uses the positions of galaxies, but not their properties. Clustering as a function of galaxy property, be it type, luminosity, color, etc., is usually studied by analysing a subset of the full population, the galaxies in the subset chosen because they have a similar range of properties. We explore an alternative technique---marked correlations---in which one weights galaxies by some property or `mark' when measuring clustering statistics. Marked correlations are particularly well-suited to quantifying how the properties of galaxies correlate with their environment. Therefore, measurements of marked statistics, with luminosity, stellar mass, color, star-formation rate, etc. as the mark, permit sensitive tests of galaxy formation models. We make measurements of such marked statistics in semi-analytic galaxy formation models to illustrate their utility. These measurements show that close pairs of galaxies are expected to be red, to have larger stellar masses, and to have smaller star formation rates. We also show that the simplest unbiased estimator of the particular marked statistic we use extensively is very simple to measure---it does not require construction of a random catalog---and provide an estimate of its variance. Large wide-field surveys of the sky are revolutionizing our view of galaxies and how they evolve. Our results indicate that application of marked statistics to this high quantity of high-quality data will provide a wealth of information about galaxy formation.

Ravi K. Sheth; Andrew J. Connolly; Ramin Skibba

2005-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

271

Large Consistent Geometric Landmark Maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The autonomous operation of an intelligent service robot in practical applications requires that the robot builds up a map of the environment by itself, even for large environments like supermarkets. This paper presents a solution to the problem of building ...

Wolfgang D. Rencken; Wendelin Feiten; Martin Soika

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Lightning Safety and Large Stadiums  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When lightning threatens an outdoor activity, it is usually postponed so that people may seek a safe location. When lightning threatens a large outdoor stadium, the game or event itself is usually postponed, but it is often difficult to ensure ...

Joel Gratz; Erik Noble

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

The multi-team formation precursor of teamwork  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We formulate the multi-team formation (M-TF) domain-independent problem and describe a generic solution for the problem. We illustrate the M-TF preference relation component in the domain of a large-scale disaster response simulation environment. The ...

Paulo Trigo; Helder Coelho

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Market Structure Across Retail Formats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study how market structure within a product category varies across retail formats. Building on the literature on internal market structure, we estimate a joint store and brand choice model where the loading matrix of brand attributes are allowed to ... Keywords: brand maps, heterogeniety, market structure, retail formats

Karsten Hansen; Vishal Singh

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Mixing device for materials with large density differences  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An auger-tube pump mixing device is disclosed for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided. 2 figs.

Gregg, D.W.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

276

formatting | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

formatting formatting Home Jweers's picture Submitted by Jweers(83) Contributor 7 August, 2013 - 18:23 New Robust References! citation citing developer formatting reference Semantic Mediawiki wiki Check out the new Reference Form. Adding a reference object to OpenEI using this form is the most complete way to cite a reference. After providing the name of your reference, the form will ask for your document type. Rmckeel's picture Submitted by Rmckeel(297) Contributor 25 June, 2013 - 07:39 How to create formatted blocks to hold OpenEI wiki content content formatting user interface wiki The OpenEI wiki frontpage uses "boxes" that help organize content. These boxes are frequently re-used across the site. Syndicate content 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

277

Gravoturbulent formation of planetesimals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the effect of magnetorotational turbulence on the dynamics and concentrations of boulders in local box simulations of a sub-Keplerian protoplanetary disc. The solids are treated as particles each with an independent space coordinate and velocity. We find that the turbulence has two effects on the solids. 1) Meter and decameter bodies are strongly concentrated, locally up to a factor 100 times the average dust density, whereas decimeter bodies only experience a moderate density increase. The concentrations are located in large scale radial gas density enhancements that arise from a combination of turbulence and shear. 2) For meter-sized boulders, the concentrations cause the average radial drift speed to be reduced by 40%. We find that the densest clumps of solids are gravitationally unstable under physically reasonable values for the gas column density and for the dust-to-gas ratio due to sedimentation. We speculate that planetesimals can form in a dust layer that is not in itself dense enough to undergo gravitational fragmentation, and that fragmentation happens in turbulent density fluctuations in this sublayer.

Anders Johansen; Hubert Klahr; Thomas Henning

2005-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

278

A Miocene Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation, Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation, Shimane Peninsula, Sw Japan Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Miocene Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation, Shimane Peninsula, Sw Japan Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: The Miocene volcanic complex of the Takashibiyama Formation consists largely of subalkali, subaqueous basalt to andesite lavas and andesite to dacite subaqueous volcaniclastic flow deposits. Most of subaqueous lavas are moderately to intensely brecciated with rugged rough surfaces and ramp structures similar to subaerial block lava. Volcaniclastic flow deposits commonly include basalt to andesite lava fragments and/or pyroclastic materials, and are similar in internal

279

Structural fatigue assessment and management of large-scale port logistics equipments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the advances of port enterprises, much intensive research has been gradually involved in the structural fatigue assessment and management of port logistics equipments. However, relevant work on large-scale port logistics equipments is still ... Keywords: S-N curve, crack formation, crack propagation life, fatigue assessment, fracture mechanics, gantry cranes, large-scale port logistics equipment, structural safety assessment

Yuan Liu; Weijian Mi; Huiqiang Zheng

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Minimization of Circuitry in Large Format Lithium-ion Battery Management Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lithium-ion based batteries are the most energy and power dense rechargeable batteries currently available. However, to operate within safety limits battery voltages, currents, and temperatures… (more)

Miller, Jerin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Multi-Dimensional Electrochemical-Thermal Coupled Model of Large Format Cylindrical Lithium Ion Cells (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation on 3-D modeling of lithium-ion cells used in plug-in hyybrid electric vehicle batteries. 3-D models provide better understanding of cell design, operation, and management.

Kim, G.-H.; Smith, K.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Formation of isobaric discontinuities in large-scale flute drift motions  

SciTech Connect

The flute drift motion in MHD-stable plasma configurations with closed lines of force is analyzed qualitatively. The onset of this motion can lead to isobaric discontinuities in experimentally observable quantitites: the electric potential and the electron and ion densities and temperatures.

Dreizin, Y.A.; Sokolov, E.P.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Mesoscale Features Associated with Tropical Cyclone Formations in the Western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mesoscale features of 124 tropical cyclone formations in the western North Pacific Ocean during 1999–2004 are investigated through large-scale analyses, satellite infrared brightness temperature (TB), and Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) ...

Cheng-Shang Lee; Kevin K. W. Cheung; Jenny S. N. Hui; Russell L. Elsberry

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Relative Humidity as an Indicator for Cloud Formation over Heterogeneous Land Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of land surface heterogeneity on potential cloud formation is investigated using relative humidity as an indicator. This is done by performing numerical experiments using a large-eddy simulation model (LES). The land surface in the ...

Chiel C. van Heerwaarden; Jordi Vilà Guerau de Arellano

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

New decentralized algorithms for spacecraft formation control based on a cyclic approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When considering the formation control problem for large number of spacecraft, the advantages of implementing control approaches with a centralized coordination mechanism can be outpaced by the risks associated with having ...

Ramirez Riberos, Jaime Luis, 1978-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Forecasting Tropical Cyclone Formation in the Fiji Region: A Probit Regression Approach Using Bayesian Fitting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An objective methodology for forecasting the probability of tropical cyclone (TC) formation in the Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga regions (collectively the FST region) using antecedent large-scale environmental conditions is investigated. Three separate ...

Savin S. Chand; Kevin J. E. Walsh

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Splitting and Confirming Large File  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Splitting and Confirming Large File Splitting and Confirming Large File Name: Bradley C. Status: Student Age: 16 Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: June 2003 Question: I just calculated one billion digits of pi on my PC, how do I confirm them? I cannot access them because the file size is 1.28 GB, my ram is only 512 MB, meaning none of my word processor's will touch it. Is it possible to split the document, somehow? Then how do I confirm the digits? Replies: Checking the correctness of large numbers -- transcendental numbers like 'pi', or a large prime -- is not easy because there are many sources of error that are difficult to detect, or track down. Some, but by no means all are: 1. How "good" (that is convergent) is the algorithm? If, for example the algorithm is some sort of infinite series, there is always a truncation error, because you cannot compute an infinite number of terms in a finite amount of time. The further out you go in the algorithm, the more significant these errors become.

288

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the electronic structure of carbon. In studying the properties of electrons responsible for magnetic order in graphite, researchers found that a very large magnetic moment is essentially switched on when hydrogen atoms are incorporated at the surface of graphite.

289

Fast segmentation of large images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The processing of large images is a generic problem in wide area surveillance. An important difficulty is that many image processing algorithms are global rather than local and hence can be infeasible due to the required computing time or memory resources ... Keywords: algorithm, image, segmentation

David J. Crisp; Peter Perry; Nicholas J. Redding

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Mechanisms of Banner Cloud Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Banner clouds are clouds in the lee of steep mountains or sharp ridges. Their formation has previously been hypothesized as due to three different mechanisms: (i) vertical uplift in a lee vortex (which has a horizontal axis), (ii) adiabatic ...

Matthias Voigt; Volkmar Wirth

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Hail Formation via Microphysical Recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is suggested that alternation of low-density riming and wet growth processes play a role in hailstone formation. Such alternation of growth processes, which has been called microphysical recycling, is envisioned to operate in the following ...

John C. Pflaum

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

DOE Regional Partnership Begins Core Sampling for Large-Volume  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Regional Partnership Begins Core Sampling for Large-Volume Regional Partnership Begins Core Sampling for Large-Volume Sequestration Test DOE Regional Partnership Begins Core Sampling for Large-Volume Sequestration Test May 22, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, one of seven members of the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships program, has begun collecting core samples from a new characterization well near Spectra Energy's Fort Nelson natural gas processing plant in British Columbia, Canada. Core sampling, along with a sophisticated well logging program that the partnership is conducting, is an important step in proving the viability of carbon storage in brine-saturated formations. The Fort Nelson project is on track to become one of the first

293

DOE Regional Partnership Begins Core Sampling for Large-Volume  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Regional Partnership Begins Core Sampling for Large-Volume Regional Partnership Begins Core Sampling for Large-Volume Sequestration Test DOE Regional Partnership Begins Core Sampling for Large-Volume Sequestration Test May 22, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, one of seven members of the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships program, has begun collecting core samples from a new characterization well near Spectra Energy's Fort Nelson natural gas processing plant in British Columbia, Canada. Core sampling, along with a sophisticated well logging program that the partnership is conducting, is an important step in proving the viability of carbon storage in brine-saturated formations. The Fort Nelson project is on track to become one of the first

294

large hydro | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

large hydro large hydro Dataset Summary Description The Planning Database Project provides the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) with regular data to track progress towards achieving EU targets for electricity generation from renewable energy (RE) sources. Extracts from the database are available each month. Information collected in the database includes: name, location and installed capacity of RE projects over 0.1MW; environmental designations; planning status; and construction status. Included here is the October 2010 Progress Datasheet, and an extract from December, 15, 2010 (i.e. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released December 15th, 2010 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords biomass co-firing installed capacity

295

Formation and Stability of Impurity "snakes" in Tokamak Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

New observations of the formation and dynamics of long-lived impurity-induced helical "snake" modes in tokamak plasmas have recently been carried-out on Alcator C-Mod. The snakes form as an asymmetry in the impurity ion density that undergoes a seamless transition from a small helically displaced density to a large crescent-shaped helical structure inside q < 1, with a regularly sawtoothing core. The observations show that the conditions for the formation and persistence of a snake cannot be explained by plasma pressure alone. Instead, many features arise naturally from nonlinear interactions in a 3D MHD model that separately evolves the plasma density and temperature

L. Delgado-Aparicio, et. al.

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

296

Energy Distributions and the Formation Times of Spheroidal Populations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I review recent progress in exploring the formation times of spheroidal stellar populations (elliptical galaxies and large spiral bulges) using spectrophotometric techniques. A quickly growing body of evidence shows that although massive spheroids can form at early times, there are strong environmental dependencies, and major transitions in star formation histories and even morphologies are detectable to surprisingly small redshifts (z ~ 0.2). These features are consistent with neither the strict monolithic collapse nor hierarchical merging scenarios. Restframe UV observations are a promising means of improving our understanding of spheroid evolution.

Robert W. O'Connell

1999-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

297

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the electronic structure of carbon. In studying the properties of electrons responsible for magnetic order in graphite, researchers found that a very large magnetic moment is essentially switched on when hydrogen atoms are incorporated at the surface of graphite.

298

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the electronic structure of carbon. In studying the properties of electrons responsible for magnetic order in graphite, researchers found that a very large magnetic moment is essentially switched on when hydrogen atoms are incorporated at the surface of graphite.

299

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the electronic structure of carbon. In studying the properties of electrons responsible for magnetic order in graphite, researchers found that a very large magnetic moment is essentially switched on when hydrogen atoms are incorporated at the surface of graphite.

300

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the electronic structure of carbon. In studying the properties of electrons responsible for magnetic order in graphite, researchers found that a very large magnetic moment is essentially switched on when hydrogen atoms are incorporated at the surface of graphite.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Large Component Removal/Disposal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

Wheeler, D. M.

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

302

The Large Area Lyman Alpha Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Lyman-$\\alpha$ line is expected to be strong in the presence of active star formation and the absence of dust, making it a good tool for finding chemically primitive galaxies in the early universe. We report on a new survey for high redshift Lyman-$\\alpha$ sources, the Large Area Lyman Alpha (LALA) survey. Our survey achieves an unprecedented combination of volume and sensitivity by using narrow-band filters on the new $8192^2$ pixel CCD Mosaic Camera at the 4 meter Mayall telescope of Kitt Peak National Observatory. Well-detected sources with flux and equivalent width matching known high redshift Lyman-$\\alpha$ galaxies have an observed surface density corresponding to $11000 \\pm 700$ per square degree per unit redshift at $z=4.5$. Early spectroscopic followup from the Keck telescope suggests that $\\sim 1/3$ of these are actually at $z\\approx 4.5$, and has confirmed five $z > 4$ Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitters so far. Combining our photometric survey with spectroscopic results, we estimate a net density of $\\sim...

Rhoads, J E; Dey, A; Jannuzi, B T; Stern, D; Spinrad, H; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Stern, Daniel

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

A SIMPLE LAW OF STAR FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

We show that supersonic MHD turbulence yields a star formation rate (SFR) as low as observed in molecular clouds, for characteristic values of the free-fall time divided by the dynamical time, t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}, the Alfvenic Mach number, M{sub a}, and the sonic Mach number, M{sub s}. Using a very large set of deep adaptive-mesh-refinement simulations, we quantify the dependence of the SFR per free-fall time, {epsilon}{sub ff}, on the above parameters. Our main results are (1) that {epsilon}{sub ff} decreases exponentially with increasing t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}, but is insensitive to changes in M{sub s}, for constant values of t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn} and M{sub a}. (2) Decreasing values of M{sub a} (stronger magnetic fields) reduce {epsilon}{sub ff}, but only to a point, beyond which {epsilon}{sub ff} increases with a further decrease of M{sub a}. (3) For values of M{sub a} characteristic of star-forming regions, {epsilon}{sub ff} varies with M{sub a} by less than a factor of two. We propose a simple star formation law, based on the empirical fit to the minimum {epsilon}{sub ff}, and depending only on t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}: {epsilon}{sub ff} Almost-Equal-To {epsilon}{sub wind}exp (- 1.6 t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}). Because it only depends on the mean gas density and rms velocity, this law is straightforward to implement in simulations and analytical models of galaxy formation and evolution.

Padoan, Paolo [ICREA and ICC, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Haugbolle, Troels [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, University of Copenhagen, Oestervoldgade 5-7., DK-1350, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nordlund, Ake, E-mail: ppadoan@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: haugboel@nbi.dk, E-mail: aake@nbi.dk [Centre for Star and Planet Formation and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

304

From the Office Document Format Battlefield  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two most common XML-based formats for office application suites are now international standards. Unfortunately, the Open Document Format and Office Open XML are similar but imperfectly compatible. Keywords: ODF, OOXML, XML, document format, office application

Jirka Kosek

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

STAR FORMATION IN ATOMIC GAS  

SciTech Connect

Observations of nearby galaxies have firmly established, over a broad range of galactic environments and metallicities, that star formation occurs exclusively in the molecular phase of the interstellar medium (ISM). Theoretical models show that this association results from the correlation between chemical phase, shielding, and temperature. Interstellar gas converts from atomic to molecular only in regions that are well shielded from interstellar ultraviolet (UV) photons, and since UV photons are also the dominant source of interstellar heating, only in these shielded regions does the gas become cold enough to be subject to Jeans instability. However, while the equilibrium temperature and chemical state of interstellar gas are well correlated, the timescale required to reach chemical equilibrium is much longer than that required to reach thermal equilibrium, and both timescales are metallicity-dependent. Here I show that the difference in timescales implies that, at metallicities below a few percent of the solar value, well shielded gas will reach low temperatures and proceed to star formation before the bulk of it is able to convert from atomic to molecular. As a result, at extremely low metallicities, star formation will occur in a cold atomic phase of the ISM rather than a molecular phase. I calculate the observable consequences of this result for star formation in low-metallicity galaxies, and I discuss how some current numerical models for H{sub 2}-regulated star formation may need to be modified.

Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

the Large Aperture GRB Observatory  

SciTech Connect

The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

Bertou, Xavier [Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

Aggregation in Large Dynamic Panels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;, and as = E (w0#8;s#28; ) = E(#21;s). Hence, for su¢ ciently large N and T , the distributed lag coe¢ cients can be consistently estimated by bas = 1N PN i=1 b#21;si , where b#21;i is the least square estimator of #21;i in the autoregressions (30... ). The distribution F#21; is not the same as the distribution of b#21;i when T is ?nite, but bas is consistent at least when T ! 1 followed by N ! 1. Both the aggregate and the disaggregate estimators are biased when T is small. Initially, we also report the estimates...

Pesaran, M. Hashem; Chudik, Alexander

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

The Large Aperture GRB Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) is aiming at the detection of the high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts, using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) in high mountain sites (Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 5300 m a.s.l., Pico Espejo, Venezuela, 4750 m a.s.l., Sierra Negra, Mexico, 4650 m a.s.l). WCD at high altitude offer a unique possibility of detecting low gamma fluxes in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV range. The status of the Observatory and data collected from 2007 to date will be presented.

Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; González, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; López, J A; Martínez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Núñez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Pérez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseñor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

CALIFORNIA ENERGY Large HVAC Energy Impact Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Large HVAC Energy Impact Report Statewide Energy Impact Report are part of the Integrated Design of Large Commercial HVAC Systems research project. The reports: Productivity and Interior Environments Integrated Design of Large Commercial HVAC Systems Integrated Design

310

TESTING HOMOGENEITY WITH GALAXY STAR FORMATION HISTORIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observationally confirming spatial homogeneity on sufficiently large cosmological scales is of importance to test one of the underpinning assumptions of cosmology, and is also imperative for correctly interpreting dark energy. A challenging aspect of this is that homogeneity must be probed inside our past light cone, while observations take place on the light cone. The star formation history (SFH) in the galaxy fossil record provides a novel way to do this. We calculate the SFH of stacked luminous red galaxy (LRG) spectra obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We divide the LRG sample into 12 equal-area contiguous sky patches and 10 redshift slices (0.2 < z < 0.5), which correspond to 120 blocks of volume {approx}0.04 Gpc{sup 3}. Using the SFH in a time period that samples the history of the universe between look-back times 11.5 and 13.4 Gyr as a proxy for homogeneity, we calculate the posterior distribution for the excess large-scale variance due to inhomogeneity, and find that the most likely solution is no extra variance at all. At 95% credibility, there is no evidence of deviations larger than 5.8%.

Hoyle, Ben; Jimenez, Raul [Institut de Ciences del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08024 Barcelona (Spain); Tojeiro, Rita; Maartens, Roy [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Heavens, Alan [Imperial Centre for Inference and Cosmology, Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Chris [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Director's colloquium March 18 large hadron collider  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Director's colloquium large hadron collider Director's colloquium March 18 large hadron collider Lyndon Evans of CERN will talk about the most complex scientific instrument ever...

313

TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853  

SciTech Connect

The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

314

Analysis of large urban fires  

SciTech Connect

Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures.

Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

A LARGE BAKEABLE VACUUM VALVE  

SciTech Connect

The development and design of a large bakeable valve based on a unique seat arrangement and a novel motion seal are described. The seat sealing is accomplished through the use of high pressure fluid actuation of an annular pinch gasket. Experimental data on seat closure performance, and the specific design features to achieve successful closures, are presented. The bakeable motion seal utilizes a stainless steel bellows sleeving over an inner concentric actuating shaft. This shaft is bent at 90 deg to the axis of rotation and is free to rotate relative to the bellows. There is no apparent size limitation to this type of actuation. The design of a 10-inch gate valve utilizing these principles is described. (auth)

Batzer, T.H.

1959-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Method of fracturing a geological formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Molecular hydrogen regulated star formation in cosmological SPH simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been shown observationally that star formation (SF) correlates tightly with the presence of molecular hydrogen (H2). Therefore it would be important to investigate its implication on galaxy formation in a cosmological context. In the present work, we track the H2 mass fraction within our cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-3 using an equilibrium analytic model by Krumholz et al. This model allows us to regulate the star formation in our simulation by the local abundance of H2 rather than the total cold gas density, and naturally introduce the dependence of star formation on metallicity. We investigate implications of the equilibrium H2-based SF model on galaxy population properties, such as the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), baryon fraction, cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD), galaxy specific SFR, galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMF), and Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relationship. The advantage of our work over the previous ones is having a large sample of simulated gala...

Thompson, Robert; Jaacks, Jason; Choi, Jun-Hwan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Molecular Cloud Evolution II. From cloud formation to the early stages of star formation in decaying conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the formation of giant dense cloud complexes and of stars within them by means of SPH numerical simulations of the mildly supersonic collision of gas streams (``inflows'') in the warm neutral medium (WNM). The resulting compressions cause cooling and turbulence generation in the gas, forming a cloud that then becomes self-gravitating and undergoes global collapse. Simultaneously, the turbulent, nonlinear density fluctuations induce fast, local collapse events. The simulations show that: a) The clouds are not in a state of equilibrium. Instead, they undergo secular evolution. Initially, their mass and gravitational energy |Eg| increase steadily, while the turbulent energy Ek reaches a plateau. b) When |Eg| becomes comparable to Ek, global collapse begins, causing a simultaneous increase in both that maintains a near-equipartition condition |Eg| ~ 2 Ek. c) Longer inflow durations delay the onset of global and local collapse, by maintaining a higher turbulent velocity dispersion in the cloud over longer times. d) The star formation rate is large from the beginning, without any period of slow and accelerating star formation. e) The column densities of the local star-forming clumps are very similar to reported values of the column density required for molecule formation, suggesting that locally molecular gas and star formation occur nearly simultaneously. The MC formation mechanism discussed here naturally explains the apparent ``virialized'' state of MCs and the ubiquitous presence of HI halos around them. Within their assumptions, our simulations support the scenario of rapid star formation after MCs are formed, although long (>~ 15 Myr) accumulation periods do occur during which the clouds build up their gravitational energy, and which are expected to be spent in the atomic phase.

E. Vazquez-Semadeni; G. C. Gomez; A. K. Jappsen; J. Ballesteros-Paredes; R. F. Gonzalez; R. S. Klessen

2006-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

319

Help:Formatting | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Formatting Formatting Jump to: navigation, search You can format your text using wiki markup. This consists of normal characters like asterisks, single quotes or equation marks which have a special function in the wiki, sometimes depending on their position. For example, to format a word in italic, you include it in two single quotes like ''this'' Contents 1 Text formatting markup 2 Paragraphs 3 HTML 4 Other formatting Text formatting markup Description You type You get character formatting - applies anywhere Italic text ''italic'' italic Bold text '''bold''' bold Bold and italic '''''bold & italic''''' bold & italic Escape wiki markup no ''markup'' no ''markup'' section formatting - only at the beginning of the line Headings of different levels

320

California Lithium Battery, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

California California Lithium Battery, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 626 likes California Lithium Battery, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory California Lithium Battery ("CALBattery") is a start-up California company established in 2011 to develop and manufacture a breakthrough high energy density and long cycle life lithium battery for utility energy storage, transportation, and defense industries. The company is a joint venture between California-based Ionex Energy Storage Systems and CALiB Power. US production of this advanced Very Large Format (400Ah+) si-graphene LI-ion battery is scheduled to start in California in 2014. Plans are to produce the initial batteries for CALBattery JV partner Ionex Energy Storage Systems for use in 1-100MW grid scale energy storage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

California Lithium Battery, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

California California Lithium Battery, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 626 likes California Lithium Battery, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory California Lithium Battery ("CALBattery") is a start-up California company established in 2011 to develop and manufacture a breakthrough high energy density and long cycle life lithium battery for utility energy storage, transportation, and defense industries. The company is a joint venture between California-based Ionex Energy Storage Systems and CALiB Power. US production of this advanced Very Large Format (400Ah+) si-graphene LI-ion battery is scheduled to start in California in 2014. Plans are to produce the initial batteries for CALBattery JV partner Ionex Energy Storage Systems for use in 1-100MW grid scale energy storage

322

California Lithium Battery, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

California California Lithium Battery, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 626 likes California Lithium Battery, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory California Lithium Battery ("CALBattery") is a start-up California company established in 2011 to develop and manufacture a breakthrough high energy density and long cycle life lithium battery for utility energy storage, transportation, and defense industries. The company is a joint venture between California-based Ionex Energy Storage Systems and CALiB Power. US production of this advanced Very Large Format (400Ah+) si-graphene LI-ion battery is scheduled to start in California in 2014. Plans are to produce the initial batteries for CALBattery JV partner Ionex Energy Storage Systems for use in 1-100MW grid scale energy storage

323

Formation Testing Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Formation Testing Techniques Formation Testing Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Formation Testing Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Formation Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Downhole Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Formation Testing Techniques: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition References No exploration activities found. Print PDF Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Formation_Testing_Techniques&oldid=601973" Categories: Downhole Techniques Exploration Techniques

324

Effective fracture geometry obtained with large water sand ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale gas formation exhibits some unusual reservoir characteristics: nano-darcy matrix permeability, presence of natural fractures and gas storage on the matrix surface that makes it unique in many ways. It’s difficult to design an optimum fracture treatment for such formation and even more difficult is to describe production behavior using a reservoir model. So far homogeneous, two wing fracture, and natural fracture models have been used for this purpose without much success. Micro seismic mapping technique is used to measure the fracture propagation in real time. This measurement in naturally fractured shale formation suggests a growth of fracture network instead of a traditional two wing fractures. There is an industry wise consensus that fracture network plays an important role in determining the well productivity of such formations. A well with high density of fracture networks supposed to have better productivity. Shale formations have also exhibited production pattern which is very different from conventional or tight gas reservoir. Initial flow period is marked by steep decline in production while the late time production exhibits a slow decline. One of the arguments put for this behavior is linear flow from a bi-wing fractured well at early time and contribution of adsorbed gas in production at late time. However, bi-wing fracture geometry is not supported by the micro-seismic observation. A realistic model should include both the fracture network and adsorbed gas property. In this research we have proposed a new Power Law Permability model to simulate fluid flow from hydraulically fractured Shale formation. This model was first described by Valko & Fnu (2002) and used for analyzing acid treatment jobs. The key idea of this model is to use a power law permeability function that varies with the radial distance from well bore. Scaling exponent of this power law function has been named power law index. The permeability function has also been termed as secondary permeability. This work introduces the method of Laplace solution to solve the problem of transient and pseudo steady-state flow in a fracture network. Development and validation of this method and its extension to predict the pressure (and production) behaviour of fracture network were made using a novel technic. Pressure solution was then combined with material balance through productivity index to make production forecast. Reservoir rock volume affected by the fracture stimulation treatment that contributes in the production is called effective stimulated volume. This represents the extent of fracture network in this case. Barnett shale formation is a naturally fractured shale reservoir in Fort Worth basin. Several production wells from this formation was analysed using Power Law Model and it was found that wells productivity are highly dependent on stimulated volume. Apparently the wells flow under pseudo steady state for most part of their producing life and the effect of boundary on production is evident in as soon as one months of production. Due to short period of transient flow production from Barnett formations is expected to be largely independent of the relative distribution of permeability and highly dependent on the stimulated area and induced secondary permeability. However, an indirect relationship between permeability distribution and production rate is observed. A well with low power law index shows a better (more even) secondary permeability distribution in spatial direction, larger stimulated volume and better production. A comparative analysis between the new model and traditional fracture model was made. It was found that both models can be used successfully for history matching and production forecasting from hydraulically fractured shale gas formation.

Kumar, Amrendra

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Wormhole formation in dissolving fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the dissolution of artificial fractures with three-dimensional, pore-scale numerical simulations. The fluid velocity in the fracture space was determined from a lattice-Boltzmann method, and a stochastic solver was used for the transport of dissolved species. Numerical simulations were used to study conditions under which long conduits (wormholes) form in an initially rough but spatially homogeneous fracture. The effects of flow rate, mineral dissolution rate and geometrical properties of the fracture were investigated, and the optimal conditions for wormhole formation determined.

Szymczak, P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Petrophysical evaluation of subterranean formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and systems are provided for evaluating petrophysical properties of subterranean formations and comprehensively evaluating hydrate presence through a combination of computer-implemented log modeling and analysis. Certain embodiments include the steps of running a number of logging tools in a wellbore to obtain a variety of wellbore data and logs, and evaluating and modeling the log data to ascertain various petrophysical properties. Examples of suitable logging techniques that may be used in combination with the present invention include, but are not limited to, sonic logs, electrical resistivity logs, gamma ray logs, neutron porosity logs, density logs, NRM logs, or any combination or subset thereof.

Klein, James D; Schoderbek, David A; Mailloux, Jason M

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

327

GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

328

Help:FormattingResults | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FormattingResults FormattingResults Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 UL 2 Google Pie Charts 3 Outline 4 Calendar 5 Timeline 6 Gallery 7 Google Map 8 Geochart Ask Queries are used to pull results from semantic wiki content and can be displayed in a variety of formats. This page lists examples of the more common formats with the code used to generate them and when applicable, links to eternal help documents describing the options available for each format. When writing an ask query, one specifies the format with |format=. The examples below contain the ask query code used to generate them, including the format declaration. UL BioPower Atlas and BioFuels Atlas Biomass Energy Data Book CLIMWAT 2.0 CROPWAT 8.0 {{#ask:[[Category:Tools]] [[ProgramTopics::Resource assessment]] [[ProgramResources::Dataset]]

329

The Formation of Hurricane Frederic of 1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-resolution global model forecast of the formation of Hurricane Frederic of 1979 is analyzed by means of several diagnostic computations on the model's output history. The formation is addressed from an analysis of limited-area energetics ...

T. N. Krishnamurthi; H. S. Bedi; Darlene Oosterhof; Vivek Hardiker

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Western North Pacific Monsoon Depression Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relatively few studies have been carried out as to the conditions leading to the formation of monsoon depressions in the western North Pacific. Two monsoon depression formations during July 2007 were analyzed using ECMWF analyses and satellite ...

Jodi C. Beattie; Russell L. Elsberry

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Dynamics and control of electromagnetic satellite formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Satellite formation flying is an enabling technology for many space missions, especially for space-based telescopes. Usually there is a tight formation-keeping requirement that may need constant expenditure of fuel or at ...

Ahsun, Umair, 1972-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Negative ion formation processes: A general review  

SciTech Connect

The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs.

Alton, G.D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Energy Basics: Large-Scale Hydropower  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Large-Scale Hydropower Microhydropower Hydropower Resources...

334

Novel Lamination Method for Large Armor Panels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Saccharification Process of Cellulosic Biomass by Microwave Irradiation · Novel Lamination Method for Large Armor Panels · Raman Spectroscopy for ...

335

Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

Vinegar, Harold J

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

336

Unifying biological image formats with HDF5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The biosciences need an image format capable of high performance and long-term maintenance. Is HDF5 the answer?

Matthew T. Dougherty; Michael J. Folk; Erez Zadok; Herbert J. Bernstein; Frances C. Bernstein; Kevin W. Eliceiri; Werner Benger; Christoph Best

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Virtual screening on large scale grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large scale grids for in silico drug discovery open opportunities of particular interest to neglected and emerging diseases. In 2005 and 2006, we have been able to deploy large scale virtual docking within the framework of the WISDOM initiative against ... Keywords: Avian influenza, Large scale grids, Malaria, Virtual screening

Nicolas Jacq; Vincent Breton; Hsin-Yen Chen; Li-Yung Ho; Martin Hofmann; Vinod Kasam; Hurng-Chun Lee; Yannick Legré; Simon C. Lin; Astrid Maaí; Emmanuel Medernach; Ivan Merelli; Luciano Milanesi; Giulio Rastelli; Matthieu Reichstadt; Jean Salzemann; Horst Schwichtenberg; Ying-Ta Wu; Marc Zimmermann

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A metrics framework for evaluating group formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many approaches to learning and teaching rely upon students working in groups. So far, many Computer-Supported Group Formation systems have been designed to facilitate the formation of optimal groups in learning. However, evaluating the quality of automated ... Keywords: efficiency, group formation, optimization

Asma Ounnas; David E. Millard; Hugh C. Davis

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Coring in deep hardrock formations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Drumheller, D.S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Carrier Localization, Metal-Insulator Transitions and Stripe Formation in Inhomogeneous Hole-Doped Cuprates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a unified approach for describing the carrier localization, metal-insulator transitions (MITs) and stripe formation in high-$T_c$ cuprates. The ground-state energy of a carrier interacting with a defect and with lattice vibrations is calculated within the continuum model and adiabatic approximation. At low doping levels, hole carriers in $\\rm{La}$-based systems with large-radius dopants are localized near the dopants with the formation of hydrogenic impurity centers.

S. Dzhumanov; O. K. Ganiev; Z. S. Khudayberdiev

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes  

SciTech Connect

The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

Doeff, Marca M

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

342

Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes  

SciTech Connect

The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this

Doeff, Marca M

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

343

Modeling the Sequestration of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Sequestration of CO the Sequestration of CO 2 in Deep Geological Formations K. Prasad Saripalli, B. Peter McGrail, and Mark D. White Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 corresponding author Prasad Saripalli Senior Research Scientist Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 1313 Sigma V Complex (K6-81) Richland, WA 99352 ph: (509) 376-1667 fax: (509) 376-5368 prasad.saripalli@pnl.gov 2 Modeling the Sequestration of CO 2 in Deep Geological Formations K. Prasad Saripalli, B. Peter McGrail, and Mark D. White Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 Modeling the injection of CO 2 and its sequestration will require simulations of a multi- well injection system in a large reservoir field. However, modeling at the injection well

344

Conventional Positron Target for a Tesla Formatted Beam  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 SLAC-TN-03-072 November 2003 Abstract This note documents a set of expressions used to explore the issue of whether or not it is reasonable to consider a conventional positron source for a Tesla formatted beam. The critical issue is that of energy deposition in the conversion target and the comparison of the induced stress with the ultimate tensile strength of the target material. Since the length of the incident beam pulse is large in comparison to the ratio of beam size to the speed of sound, the concurrent pressure pulse dissipates in a time short compared to the overall pulse duration and one is left with only the Conventional Positron Target for a Tesla Formatted Beam John C. Sheppard Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

345

The Formation of the First Stars in the Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this review, I survey our current understanding of how the very first stars in the universe formed, with a focus on three main areas of interest: the formation of the first protogalaxies and the cooling of gas within them, the nature and extent of fragmentation within the cool gas, and the physics -- in particular the interplay between protostellar accretion and protostellar feedback -- that serves to determine the final stellar mass. In each of these areas, I have attempted to show how our thinking has developed over recent years, aided in large part by the increasing ease with which we can now perform detailed numerical simulations of primordial star formation. I have also tried to indicate the areas where our understanding remains incomplete, and to identify some of the most important unsolved problems.

Simon C. O. Glover

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

346

The Formation of the First Stars in the Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this review, I survey our current understanding of how the very first stars in the universe formed, with a focus on three main areas of interest: the formation of the first protogalaxies and the cooling of gas within them, the nature and extent of fragmentation within the cool gas, and the physics -- in particular the interplay between protostellar accretion and protostellar feedback -- that serves to determine the final stellar mass. In each of these areas, I have attempted to show how our thinking has developed over recent years, aided in large part by the increasing ease with which we can now perform detailed numerical simulations of primordial star formation. I have also tried to indicate the areas where our understanding remains incomplete, and to identify some of the most important unsolved problems.

Glover, S C O

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Gas generation and bubble formation model for crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange columns  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed a transient model to describe the process of gas generation due to radiolysis and bubble formation in crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange (IX) columns using the Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) software package. The model calculates gas concentrations and onset of bubble formation for large CST IX columns. The calculations include cesium loading as a function of time, gas generation as a function of cesium loading, and bubble formation as a function of gas solubility. This report summarizes the model development and predictions.

Hang, T.

2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

348

ORNL DAAC, global climate data, GIS formats  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data in GIS Formats Data in GIS Formats ORNL DAAC has re-released a key climatology data set in two additional formats especially suitable for geographic information system (GIS) users. Version 2.1 of "Global 30-Year Mean Monthly Climatology, 1930-1960 (Cramer and Leemans)" now offers the data in ASCII GRID format and binary format. These formats can be read directly into software packages such as ESRI's ARC/INFO and ERDAS' IMAGINE. The Cramer and Leemans climatology data set contains monthly averages of mean temperature, temperature range, precipitation, rain days, and sunshine hours for the terrestrial surface of the globe. It is gridded at a 0.5-degree longitude/latitude resolution. The Cramer and Leemans data are also available in the original ASCII format, which can be read in FORTRAN or with programs such as SAS.

349

A study of coal formation  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a solid, brittle, more or less distinctly stratified, combustible, carbonaceous rock. It is being rediscovered as a reliable energy source, which, historically provided the resource base for the industrialization of the United States economy. A firm understanding of growth in coal development is important to the national energy scene so that the implications of factors influencing coal growth upon the industry`s ability to realize national energy objectives may be determined. As a result, the future of coal development will be facilitated by compiling basic facts on coal reserves, production, and utilization. In view of this, a review and assessment of facts pertaining to the nature and origin of coal is presented. The various properties and uses of coal are then described, followed by a discussion of the process of coal formation.

Jubert, K.; Stevens, G.; Masudi, H.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Innovative Design Approaches for Large Wind Turbine Blades  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of the WindPACT Blade System Design Study (BSDS) was investigation and evaluation of design and manufacturing issues for wind turbine blades in the one to ten megawatt size range. The initial project task was to assess the fundamental physical and manufacturing issues that govern and constrain large blades and entails three basic elements: (1) a parametric scaling study to assess blade structure using current technology, (2) an economic study of the cost to manufacture, transport, and install large blades, and (3) identification of promising innovative design approaches that show potential for overcoming fundamental physical and manufacturing constraints. This report discusses several innovative design approaches and their potential for blade cost reduction. During this effort we reviewed methods for optimizing the blade cross-section to improve structural and manufacturing characteristics. We also analyzed and compared a number of composite materials and evaluated their relative merits for use in large wind turbine blades in the range from 30 meters to 70 meters. The results have been summarized in dimensional and non-dimensional format to aid in interpretation. These results build upon earlier parametric and blade cost studies, which were used as a guide for the innovative design approaches explored here.

ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery Hessam August 2011; accepted 29 August 2011; published online 22 September 2011) Formation of lithium dendrite to observe the real-time nucleation and growth of the lithium fibers inside a nanoscale Li-ion battery. Our

Endres. William J.

352

Batteries - Materials Processing and Manufacturing Breakout session  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Processing and Manufacturing Materials Processing and Manufacturing Breakout Session #1 - Discussion of Performance Targets and Barriers Comments on the Achievability of the Targets * PHEV40 and AEV 100 possible with success in current R&D * Achievable with Li-ion manufacturing improvements and advanced chemistries in current Li-ion R&D * AEV300 more challenging * Requires manufacturing improvements and materials and chemistry improvements * Quantify benefits/ drawbacks of fast charging vs. increased electrode cost Barriers Interfering with Reaching the Targets * Materials cost * Need: Material synthesis in large quantities/ with increased impurities and broader size distributions or advanced manufacturing * Electrode thickness - manufacturing and performance * Separator cost/ performance/ safety

353

A new battery-charging method suggested by molecular dynamics simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a new charging method that should be capable of charging a Lithium-ion battery in a fraction of the time needed when using traditional methods. This charging method uses an additional applied oscillatory electric field. Our simulation results show that this charging method offers a great reduction in the average intercalation time for Li+ ions, which dominates the charging time. The oscillating field not only increases the diffusion rate of Li+ ions in the electrolyte but, more importantly, also enhances intercalation by lowering the corresponding overall energy barrier.

Hamad, Ibrahim Abou; Wipf, D; Rikvold, P A; 10.1039/b920970k

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Energy Department Awards $66.7 Million for Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

66.7 Million for Large-Scale Carbon 66.7 Million for Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project Energy Department Awards $66.7 Million for Large-Scale Carbon Sequestration Project December 18, 2007 - 4:58pm Addthis Regional Partner to Demonstrate Safe and Permanent Storage of One Million Tons of CO2 at Illinois Site WASHINGTON, DC - Following closely on the heels of three recent awards through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program, DOE today awarded $66.7 million to the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) for the Department's fourth large-scale carbon sequestration project. The Partnership led by the Illinois State Geological Survey will conduct large volume tests in the Illinois Basin to demonstrate the ability of a geologic formation to

355

First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances April 6, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Drilling nears completion for the first large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection well in the United States for CO2 sequestration. This project will be used to demonstrate that CO2 emitted from industrial sources - such as coal-fired power plants - can be stored in deep geologic formations to mitigate large quantities of greenhouse gas emissions. The Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) hosted an event April 6 for a CO2 injection test at their Decatur, Ill. ethanol facility. The injection well is being drilled into the Mount Simon Sandstone to a depth more than a mile beneath the surface. This is the first drilling into the sandstone geology

356

and Large Sized Chinese Steel Enterprises  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of the Past and Future Trends of Energy Use in Key Medium and Large Sized Chinese Steel Enterprises year month institution Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory abstract p...

357

NREL: Wind Research - Large Wind Turbine Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wind Research Search More Search Options Site Map Printable Version Large Wind Turbine Research NREL's utility scale wind system research addresses performance and...

358

Large Neighborhood Search for LNG Inventory Routing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 3, 2012 ... Large Neighborhood Search for LNG Inventory Routing. Vikas Goel (vikas.goel ** *at*** exxonmobil.com) Kevin Furman (kevin.c.furman ***at*** ...

359

International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems Covering control system topics for accelerators, telescopes, fusion, physics detectors, space exploration, and more Proceedings...

360

NETL: NATCARB - CO2 Storage Formations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Formations Storage Formations NATCARB CO2 Storage Formations CO2 Storage Resource Methodology NATCARB Viewer The NATCARB Viewer is available at: http://www.natcarbviewer.com. 2012 Atlas IV DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) were charged with providing a high-level, quantitative estimate of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resource available in subsurface environments of their regions. Environments considered for CO2 storage were categorized into five major geologic systems: oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal areas, saline formations, shale, and basalt formations. Where possible, CO2 storage resource estimates have been quantified for oil and gas reservoirs, saline formations, and unmineable coal in the fourth edition of the United States Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas (Atlas IV). Shale and basalt

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361

Minimizing formation damage during gravel pack operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for minimizing formation damage caused by intrusive fluids prior to a gravel packing operation in loosely consolidated formations penetrated by at least one well. The method comprises: filling the casing of the well with an underbalanced completion fluid; placing within the well a removable packer capable of isolating the space between the casing and the formation from the downhole well pressure; setting through the packer a first tubing suitable for perforating and stabilizing the flow of fluids into the well; perforating the casing; and introducing a blocking agent into the formation via the perforations which agent upon solidification is sufficient to minimize formation damage by avoiding the introduction of formation fluids.

Jennings, A.R. Jr.

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

362

Microsoft PowerPoint - NanoAnode for Li-ion Batteries SRNL-L9100-2009-00153p1.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries at a glance  patent pending  increase energy density  longer cyclic life  replaces graphite anodes  simple and lower cost manufacturing Current carbon-based anodes are fabricated through a series of processes of mixing carbon, binder and conductive additives in organic solution, pasting the slurry on current collector and baking to remove solvent. It involves intensive labor, fire safety and environment emission control resulting in high cost. Background Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), managing contractor of the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy, has developed new anodes for lithium-ion batteries that are reported to increase the energy density four-fold. It is

363

Electrochemical characterization of Li4Ti5O12/C anode material prepared by starch-sol-assisted rheological phase method for Li-ion battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Li4Ti5O12/C composite was synthesized by starch-sol-assisted rheological phase method using inexpensive raw material starch as carbon coating precursor. The Li4Ti5O12/C powder was characterized ...

Zhenpo Wang, Guowei Xie, Lijun Gao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Synthesis and characterization of stable and binder-free electrodes of TiO2 nanofibers for li-ion batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrospinning technique was used to fabricate TiO2 nanofibers for use as binder-free electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The as-electrospun nanofibers were calcined at 400-1,000°C and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ...

Phontip Tammawat, Nonglak Meethong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This 2012 Annual Merit Review presentation gives an overview of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) project and introduces the Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional model for modeling lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Lee, K. J.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion Battery Cathode  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrochemically active LiMnPO4 nanoplates have been synthesized via novel single step solid state reaction in molten hydrocarbon. The LiMnPO4 prepared show unique porous nanoplate shape ~50nm in thickness with highly preferred crystallographic orientation. The reversible cycling of carbon coated LiMnPO4 show flat potential at 4.1 V vs. Li with specific capacity reaching up to 168mAh/g and excellent cycling performance using only galvanostatic charging / discharging mode.

Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Bae, In-Tae; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Lee, Yun Jung; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun

2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

367

Stability and Rate Capability of Al Substituted Lithium-Rich High-Manganese Content Oxide Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The structures, electrochemical properties and thermal stability of Al-substituted lithium-excess oxides, Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.16} Mn{sub 0.56}Co{sub 0.08-y}Al{sub y}O{sub 2} (y = 0, 0.024, 0.048, 0.08), are reported, and compared to the stoichiometric compounds, LiNi{sub z}Mn{sub z}Co{sub 1-2z}O{sub 2}. A solid solution was found up to at least y = 0.06. Aluminum substitution improves the poor thermal stability while preserving the high energy density of lithium-excess oxides. However, these high manganese compositions are inferior to the lithium stoichiometric materials, LiNi{sub z}Mn{sub z}Co{sub 1-2z}O{sub 2} (z = 0.333, 0.4), in terms of both power and thermal stability.

Li, Zheng; Chernova, Natasha A.; Feng, Jijun; Upreti, Shailesh; Omenya, Fredrick; Whittingham, M. Stanley (SUNY-Binghamton)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Lisburne Formation fracture characterization and flow modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of fractured reservoirs for fluid flow and optimal well placement is often very complicated. In general, fractures enhance permeability and increase access to matrix surface, but their random aspects create difficulties for analysis and performance prediction. Each reservoir has unique aspects which require individual assessment. This study examined fracture properties in a part of the Carboniferous Lisburne Formation. Field study of outcrops yielded information on two sets of large-scale fractures (NNW and ENE orientations) from the lower Wahoo Limestone in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. Several statistical methods were used on these data to find appropriate models describing the megafracture properties. For NNW fracture height and ENE fracture spacing, the gamma model appears to adequately describe the distribution. NNW fracture spacing and ENE fracture height are lognormally distributed. Results of the statistical analyses were used as input for fracture set generation and modeling using "FracMan". Modeling different borehole orientations in the fractured domain revealed that horizontal wells with 60? azimuth have an optimal trajectory, resulting in the maximum number and area of fracture connections. The orientation maximizing the number of fracture connections did not necessarily give the maximum area. Conductivity analysis showed that the fracture network is weakly anisotropic and above the percolation threshold. The fracture conductance is strongly dependent on the NNW fracture set; larger fractures influence fluid flow more than smaller fractures. Fracture strike and dip variability increased the system interconnectivity, but did not affect the optimal wellbore orientation. Incorporating ENE fracture termination against the NNW fractures decreased the system conductance and shifted the optimal wellbore trajectory towards the direction perpendicular to the NNW set. Reservoir engineering implications of this study include: guidelines for optimal wellbore orientations, the relative placement of injectors and producers along the bisectors between the two fracture sets, and the importance of including fracture terminations. Further work should investigate the influence of variations in fracture aperture and transmissivities, and drainage area, and extend the analysis to additional units of the Lisburne Group.

Karpov, Alexandre Valerievich

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically {approx}1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of {approx}2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

370

SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF DUST ABUNDANCES ACROSS THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

Using the data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) legacy survey, we have studied the variations of the dust composition and abundance across the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Such variations are expected, as the explosive events which have lead to the formation of the many H I shells observed should have affected the dust properties. Using a model and comparing with a reference spectral energy distribution from our Galaxy, we deduce the relative abundance variations of small dust grains across the LMC. We examined the infrared color ratios as well as the relative abundances of very small grains (VSGs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relative to the big grain abundance. Results show that each dust component could have different origins or evolution in the interstellar medium (ISM). The VSG abundance traces the star formation activity and could result from shattering of larger grains, whereas the PAH abundance increases around molecular clouds as well as in the stellar bar, where they could have been injected into the ISM during mass loss from old stars.

Paradis, Deborah; Reach, William T. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CESR, 9 av. du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Chad W.; Gordon, Karl [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hora, Joseph L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-65, Cambridge, MA, 02138-1516 (United States); Indebetouw, Remy [7 National Radio Astronomy Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903-0818 (United States); Kawamura, Akiko [Nagoya University, Department of Astrophysics, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya, 464-01 (Japan); Meade, Marilyn [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vijh, Uma P. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Volk, Kevin [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. Aohuku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Monitoring Large Systems Via Statistical Sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the trend in parallel systems scales toward petaflop performance tapped by advances in circuit density and by an increasingly available computational Grid, the development of efficient mechanisms for monitoring large systems becomes imperative. When ... Keywords: Large systems, performance monitoring, statistical sampling

Celso L. Mendes; Daniel A. Reed

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Conformal Blocks in the Large D Limit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive conformal blocks in an inverse spacetime dimension expansion. In this large D limit, the blocks are naturally written in terms of a new combination of conformal cross-ratios. We comment on the implications for the conformal bootstrap at large D.

A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Jared Kaplan; David Poland

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Efficient spatial sampling of large geographical tables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale map visualization systems play an increasingly important role in presenting geographic datasets to end users. Since these datasets can be extremely large, a map rendering system often needs to select a small fraction of the data to visualize ... Keywords: data visualization, geographical databases, indexing, maps, query processing, spatial sampling

Anish Das Sarma; Hongrae Lee; Hector Gonzalez; Jayant Madhavan; Alon Halevy

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

ICE 62755 Standard N42 Data Format  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IEC 62755 Standard N42 Data Format. Summary: The purpose ... The structure of the data is described by an XML schema. The schema ...

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

375

result formats | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

result formats Home Jweers's picture Submitted by Jweers(83) Contributor 16 May, 2013 - 14:22 Multicolor Maps from Compound Queries ask queries compound queries developer Google...

376

Simplified Electrode Formation using Stabilized Lithium Metal ...  

A team of Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu has developed a doping process for lithium ion battery electrode formation that can boost a cell’s ...

377

Nanocrystal Formation in Glasses - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Nanocrystal Formation in Glasses ... copper have been treated in hydrogen atmospheres to form nanocrystals imbedded in a glassy matrix.

378

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

379

Simultaneous Planet and Sun Formation Evidence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simultaneous Planet and Sun Formation Evidence Name: Christie Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: SC Country: USA Date: May 2, 2011 Question: What specific evidence indicates...

380

FORMATTING GUIDELINES FOR SUBMISSIONS OF  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

0: Computational Physics-Computer Science and Methods 0: Computational Physics-Computer Science and Methods A Phenomenological Model of Solid Fracture Kinetics under Pulsed Loading S. S. Sokolov Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), 607190 Sarov, Mira- 37, Russia Summary: This paper describes a phenomenological model of dynamic fracture kinetics including plastic pore growth and plastic fracture damage. Introduction The problem of fracture is critical for the development of structures that undergo intense pulsed loading during operation. Dynamic strain of elastoplastic materials may cause a large number of microdefects of different types. Separate numerical description of each microdefect when considering pulsed loading of a real full-size structure is quite a complex problem. The complexity of the problem is that fracture

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Hydraulic fracturing of jointed formations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measured by volume, North America's largest hydraulic fracturing operations have been conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico to create geothermal energy reservoirs. In the largest operation 21,000 m/sup 3/ of water were injected into jointed granitic rock at a depth of 3.5 km. Microearthquakes induced by this injection were measured with geophones placed in five wells drilled into, or very close, to the reservoir, as well as 11 surface seismometers. The large volume of rock over which the microearthquakes were distributed indicates a mechanism of hydraulic stimulation which is at odds with conventional fracturing theory, which predicts failure along a plane which is perpendicular to the least compressive earth stress. A coupled rock mechanics/fluid flow model provides much of the explanation. Shear slippage along pre-existing joints in the rock is more easily induced than conventional tensile failure, particularly when the difference between minimum and maximum earth stresses is large and the joints are oriented at angles between 30 and 60 degrees to the principal earth stresses, and a low viscosity fluid like water is injected. Shear slippage results in local redistribution of stresses, which allows a branching, or dendritic, stimulation pattern to evolve, in agreement with the patterns of microearthquake locations. These results are qualitatively similar to the controversial process known as ''Kiel'' fracturing, in which sequential injections and shut-ins are repeated to create dendritic fractures for enhanced oil and gas recovery. However, we believe that the explanation is shear slippage of pre-existing joints and stress redistribution, not proppant bridging and fluid blocking as suggested by Kiel. 15 refs., 10 figs.

Murphy, H.D.; Fehler, M.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwaterresources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact ongroundwater systems  

SciTech Connect

If carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies areimplemented on a large scale, the amounts of CO2 injected and sequesteredunderground could be extremely large. The stored CO2 then replaces largevolumes of native brine, which can cause considerable pressureperturbation and brine migration in the deep saline formations. Ifhydraulically communicating, either directly via updipping formations orthrough interlayer pathways such as faults or imperfect seals, theseperturbations may impact shallow groundwater or even surface waterresources used for domestic or commercial water supply. Possibleenvironmental concerns include changes in pressure and water table,changes in discharge and recharge zones, as well as changes in waterquality. In compartmentalized formations, issues related to large-scalepressure buildup and brine displacement may also cause storage capacityproblems, because significant pressure buildup can be produced. Toaddress these issues, a three-year research project was initiated inOctober 2006, the first part of which is summarized in this annualreport.

Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan,Preston; Zhang,K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

383

The Very Large Hadron Collider: The farthest energy frontier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE VERY LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: THE FARTHEST ENERGY FRONTIERAbstract The Very Large Hadron Collider (or Eloisatron)

Barletta, William A.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L., E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: isabelle.kleiner@lisa.u-pec.fr, E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, CNRS/IPSL UMR7583 et Universites Paris Diderot et Paris Est, 61 av. General de Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil (France)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

385

TMS Proceedings Manuscript Instructions: One-Column Format  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS ENERGY INITIATIVES · KNOWLEDGE RESOURCE CENTER · MATERIALS ... Formatting Guide (PDF) This file contains basic formatting instructions for ...

386

THE FORMATION OF YOUNG DENSE STAR CLUSTERS THROUGH MERGERS  

SciTech Connect

Young star clusters such as NGC 3603 and Westerlund 1 and 2 in the Milky Way and R136 in the Large Magellanic Cloud are dynamically more evolved than expected based on their current relaxation times. In particular, the combination of a high degree of mass segregation, a relatively low central density, and the large number of massive runaway stars in their vicinity are hard to explain with the monolithic formation of these clusters. Young star clusters can achieve such a mature dynamical state if they formed through the mergers of a number of less massive clusters. The shorter relaxation times of less massive clusters cause them to dynamically evolve further by the time they merge, and the merger product preserves the memory of the dynamical evolution of its constituent clusters. With a series of N-body simulations, we study the dynamical evolution of single massive clusters and those that are assembled through merging smaller clusters together. We find that the formation of massive star clusters through the mergers of smaller clusters can reproduce the currently observed spatial distribution of massive stars, the density, and the characteristics (number and mass distribution) of the stars ejected as runaways from young dense clusters. We therefore conclude that these clusters and possibly other young massive star clusters formed through the mergers of smaller clusters.

Fujii, M. S.; Portegies Zwart, S. F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Saitoh, T. R. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Formation of ice lenses and frost heave A. W. Rempel1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are promoted by the influence of mineral surfaces on the phase behavior of ice. A large body of experimental, but nevertheless ad hoc parameterizations for the ice particle interactions, the choice of functional form beingFormation of ice lenses and frost heave A. W. Rempel1 Received 13 April 2006; revised 26 January

Rempel, Alan W.

388

E21: Cast Iron Casing Cracking Due to Chunky Graphite Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, In the recent years quality inspection of large turbomachinery casings made of ductile cast ... of chunky graphite formation, methods detection and acceptance criteria. ... A2: Fabrication of Bio-Structures Via Microbubbling ..... Cyclic Sintered Nd-Fe-B Magnets by Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis.

389

Prevention of PCDD/PCDF Formation by Coal Co-Firing K. Raghunathan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.. Prevention of PCDD/PCDF Formation by Coal Co-Firing K. Raghunathan Acurex Environmental, and suggested co-firing high-sulfur coal with refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to reduce the emissions. This work describes research in a large scale combustor which shows that coal/RDF co-firing can significantly lower

Columbia University

390

Large Energy Users Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Large Energy Users Program Large Energy Users Program Large Energy Users Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Other Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Prescriptive: Varies by equipment type Custom: $200,000 or 30% per project Total Prescriptive and Custom combined: $400,000 per calendar year Program Info Funding Source Focus On Energy Start Date 04/01/2012 Expiration Date 12/31/2013 State Wisconsin Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Prescriptive: Varies by equipment type

391

Very Large System Dynamics Models - Lessons Learned  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides lessons learned from developing several large system dynamics (SD) models. System dynamics modeling practice emphasize the need to keep models small so that they are manageable and understandable. This practice is generally reasonable and prudent; however, there are times that large SD models are necessary. This paper outlines two large SD projects that were done at two Department of Energy National Laboratories, the Idaho National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper summarizes the models and then discusses some of the valuable lessons learned during these two modeling efforts.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Leonard Malczynski

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Deep Space Formation Flying Spacecraft Path Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficient algorithms for collision-free energy sub-optimal path planning for formations of spacecraft flying in deep space are presented. The idea is to introduce a set of way-points through which the spacecraft are required to pass, combined with ... Keywords: formation flying spacecraft, path planning for multiple mobile robot systems, trajectory generation

Cornel Sultan; Sanjeev Seereram; Raman K. Mehra

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

394

Concept formation using incremental Gaussian mixture models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new algorithm for incremental concept formation based on a Bayesian framework. The algorithm, called IGMM (for Incremental Gaussian Mixture Model), uses a probabilistic approach for modeling the environment, and so, it can rely ... Keywords: Bayesian methods, EM algorithm, clustering, concept formation, finite mixtures, incremental learning, unsupervised learning

Paulo Martins Engel; Milton Roberto Heinen

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Field Development Strategies for Bakken Shale Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

July 2010 Field Development Strategies for Bakken Shale Formation SPE 139032 S.Zargari, S Bakken Formation is comprised of 3 Members: · Upper Shale Member­ Source & Seal · Middle "Siltstone" Member­ Reservoir & Migration Conduit · Lower Shale Member- Source & Seal #12;July 2010 Reservoir

Mohaghegh, Shahab

396

Planning and implementing a large-scale polymer flood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The motive for the Eliasville polymerflood originated while planning a waterflood in this light oil, limestone reservoir. Adverse reservoir waterflood characteristics were identified prior to unitization and laboratory work was undertaken to demonstrate the benefits of reducing water mobility by increasing water vicosity with several different polyacrylamides. Computer simulations incorporating polymer properties from laboratory work and known Caddo waterflood performance were used to design the polymerflood. Three injection tests were conducted to determine polymer injectivity. Pressure transient tests were used to measure the in-situ polymer viscosity. One of the injection tests included an off-pattern producing well which permitted an estimation of polymer retention and incremental oil recovery in a short time. Based on the injection tests and simulation work a large scale polymer project was implemented. The optimum slug size required 30,000,000 lb of emulsion polymer. Facilities used to mix and feed this large amount of polymer are described. A low-shear polymer flow control method was developed to insure maximum fluid viscosity at the formation perforations. Product specifications were verified prior to accepting delivery and injection fluid quality was monitored in laboratories constructed for the project. Early production response to field wide polymer injection is comparable to that observed at the off-pattern producing well during the injection test. While the early field response is encouraging, the effects of salt water injection on slug integrity and increased pattern size on oil recovery are still to be determined.

Weiss, W.W.; Baldwin, R.W.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

I/O Formats at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I/O Formats I/O Formats I/O Formats Software I/O continues to be one of the main bottlenecks for scientific applications. Here are two software packages that many application developers use to manage input/output of heterogeneous types of binary application data used on many different platforms. HDF5 and NETCDF are both implemented on top of MPI-IO and have gained popularity as alternatives to basic POSIX API. HDF5 is a machine-independent and self-documenting file format. Each HDF5 file "looks" like a directory tree, with subdirectories, and leaf nodes that contain the actual data. This means that data can be found in a file by referring to its name, rather than its location in the file. NetCDF is a file format and support library developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).

398

Method for laser drilling subterranean earth formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser drilling of subterranean earth formations is efficiently accomplished by directing a collimated laser beam into a bore hole in registry with the earth formation and transversely directing the laser beam into the earth formation with a suitable reflector. In accordance with the present invention, the bore hole is highly pressurized with a gas so that as the laser beam penetrates the earth formation the high pressure gas forces the fluids resulting from the drilling operation into fissures and pores surrounding the laser-drilled bore so as to inhibit deleterious occlusion of the laser beam. Also, the laser beam may be dynamically programmed with some time dependent wave form, e.g., pulsed, to thermally shock the earth formation for forming or enlarging fluid-receiving fissures in the bore.

Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV)

1976-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

CO2 Sequestration in Basalt Formations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 SequeStratiOn in BaSalt FOrmatiOnS Background There is growing concern that buildup of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere is contributing to global climate change. One option for mitigating this effect is to sequester CO 2 in geologic formations. Numerous site assessments for geologic sequestration of CO 2 have been conducted in virtually every region of the United States. For the most part, these studies have involved storing CO 2 in saline formation, deep coal seams, and depleted oil and gas reservoirs. Another option, however, is basalt formations. Basalt is a dark-colored, silica-rich, volcanic rock that contains cations-such as calcium, magnesium, and iron-that can combine with CO 2 to form carbonate minerals. Basalt formations have not received much

400

Large-Eddy Boundary Layer Entrainment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of large-eddy simulations have been performed to explore boundary layer entrainment under conditions of a strongly capped inversion layer with the boundary layer dynamics driven dominantly by buoyant forcing. Different conditions ...

D. C. Lewellen; W. S. Lewellen

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Large Wind Technology | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Large Wind Technology Large Wind Technology Large Wind Technology The Wind Program works with industry partners to increase the performance and reliability of large wind technologies while lowering the cost of wind energy. The program's research efforts have helped to increase the average capacity factor (a measure of power plant productivity) from 22% for wind turbines installed before 1998 to 35% for turbines installed between 2004 and 2007. Wind energy costs have been reduced from over 55 cents (current dollars) per kilowatt-hour (kWh) in 1980 to under six cents/kWh today. To ensure future industry growth, the technology must continue to evolve, building on earlier successes to further improve reliability, increase capacity factors, and reduce costs. This page describes the goal of the

402

Carderock Large Cavitation Tunnel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Large Cavitation Tunnel Large Cavitation Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock Large Cavitation Tunnel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Length(m) 13.1 Beam(m) 3.0 Depth(m) 3.0 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The Large Cavitation Channel was designed as a variable pressure, recirculating, cavitation tunnel with a very low acoustic background level; test section pressure: 3.5-414 kPa (0.03 to 4 atmospheres, 0.5 to 60 psia); air content: 10% to 100% saturation Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Velocity(m/s) 18 Recirculating Yes Wind Capabilities

403

Nanophosphors for Large Area Radiation Detectors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Homeland Security & Defense » Homeland Security & Defense » Nanophosphors for Large Area Radiation Detectors Nanophosphors for Large Area Radiation Detectors The present invention includes a composition comprising nanophosphor particles capped with a ligand. June 25, 2013 Nanophosphors for Large Area Radiation Detectors The present invention includes a composition comprising nanophosphor particles capped with a ligand. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Nanophosphors for Large Area Radiation Detectors The present invention includes a composition comprising nanophosphor particles capped with a ligand. The nanophosphor particles have are less than or equal to 20 nanometers. The composition has at least one lanthanide and at least one halide. The weight percent of lanthanide

404

California Initiative for Large Molecule Sustainable Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California Initiative for Large Molecule Sustainable Fuels Transportation Energy Research PIER these fuels stands in the way of California's energy independence. Liquid fuels produced from biomass have California's preeminence in this field of technology, creating green jobs through these technologies

405

Occlusion Culling in Large Virtual Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, occlusion testing in very large virtual environments is discussed from two perspectives: a theoretical one, discussing occlusion culling in relation to detail elision (level of detail), and a practical one, relating to an adaptive occlusion-culling ...

Karsten Bormann

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Energy Basics: Large-Scale Hydropower  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

These plants are more than 30 MW in size, and there is more than 80,000 MW of installed generation capacity in the United States today. Most large-scale hydropower projects use a...

407

Decontamination of large components-test case  

SciTech Connect

The rising per-cubic-foot burial costs, together with the trend toward standardized above-ground burial sites, provides the basis for seeking an alternative to direct burial of large components. Large contaminated components such as steam generators can be safely dismantled and decontaminated for free release, metals recycle, and volume reduction. This grand-scale disposal technology will prove to be an economical and ecological alternative to direct burial or interim storage. Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in Bolton, operators and decommissioners of the Yankee Nuclear Power Station in Rowe, Massachusetts, has teamed with Frank W Hake Associates in Memphis, TN, to decontaminate a large component as a test case. The large component is YAEC`s reactor pressure vessel head (RPVH). The 79 100 lb RPVH is surface contaminated with 0.7 Ci (1500 mR/h contact) resulting from 32 yr of operating in a 2000 psi, 530{degrees}F pressurized water reactor environment.

Mancini, A. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States); Bosco, B. [Frank W. Hake Associates, Memphis, TN (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Program Management for Large Scale Engineering Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this whitepaper is to summarize the LAI research that applies to program management. The context of most of the research discussed in this whitepaper are large-scale engineering programs, particularly in the ...

Oehmen, Josef

409

Large-Eddy Simulation of Contrails  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of contrails have been performed to investigate the role of various external parameters and physical processes in the life cycle of contrails. The general idea underlying the model is that of a large-eddy model. The model ...

Andreas Chlond

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Fermilab Now - LHC Large Hadron Collider  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Over the next few months, a 12,500-ton detector will be lowered almost 300 feet below ground near the French-Swiss border. Dubbed "CMS," this detector...

411

Aircraft Icing Caused by Large Supercooled Droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characteristic of aircraft icing environments containing large supercooled droplets are described. Substantial loss in rate of climb capability can result from less than 10 minutes duration in conditions where fewer than 0.1–1 cm?3 of ...

Marcia K. Politovich

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States EXECUTIVE SUMMARY September 2010 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United...

413

Large-Scale Hydrogen Combustion Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale combustion experiments show that deliberate ignition can limit hydrogen accumulation in reactor containments. The collected data allow accurate evaluation of containment pressures and temperatures associated with hydrogen combustion.

1988-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

414

Large-Scale Dynamics and Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Predictions of future climate change raise a variety of issues in large-scale atmospheric and oceanic dynamics. Several of these are reviewed in this essay, including the sensitivity of the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean to increasing ...

Isaac M. Held

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Very Large Hailstones From Aurora, Nebraska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Aurora, Nebraska, hailstorm of 22 June 2003 produced some exceptionally large hailstones, and was widely publicized. Nineteen hailstones obtained from local people have been sectioned and photographed and eight are illustrated here, recording ...

Charles A. Knight; Nancy C. Knight

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Lithium Salt-doped, Gelled Polymer Electrolyte with a Nanoporous, Bicontinuous Cubic Architecture and High Room-temparature Ion Conductivity  

Li ion batteries have high energy density, high power delivery, and the ability to be recharged over a large number of cycles. One component that needs to be improved to make them suitable for high performance applications is the electrolyte material ...

417

Trojan PWR Decommissioning: Large Component Removal Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the decommissioning of large commercial nuclear plants in the United States is in its infancy, the technical challenges with associated radioactive waste management are clear. This report describes the removal and disposal of four steam generators and one pressurizer from the Trojan nuclear power plant, the first large PWR to be decommissioned in the United States. The report chronicles the problems, successes, and lessons learned in this project, which was completed on schedule and under budget in...

1997-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

418

3D Technologies for Large Area Trackers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe technologies which can be developed to produce large area, low cost pixelated tracking detec- tors. These utilize wafer-scale 3D electronics and sensor technologies currently being developed in industry. This can result in fully active sensor/readout chip tiles which can be assembled into large area arrays with good yield and minimal dead area. The ability to connect though the bulk of the device can also provide better electrical performance and lower mass.

Deptuch, G; Johnson, M; Kenney, C; Lipton, R; Narian, M; Parker, S; Shenai, A; Spiegel, L; Thom, J; Ye, Z

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

3D Technologies for Large Area Trackers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe technologies which can be developed to produce large area, low cost pixelated tracking detec- tors. These utilize wafer-scale 3D electronics and sensor technologies currently being developed in industry. This can result in fully active sensor/readout chip tiles which can be assembled into large area arrays with good yield and minimal dead area. The ability to connect though the bulk of the device can also provide better electrical performance and lower mass.

G. Deptuch; U. Heintz; M. Johnson; C. Kenney; R. Lipton; M. Narian; S. Parker; A. Shenai; L. Spiegel; J. Thom; Z. Ye

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

420

STAR FORMATION RATES IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND THE NATURE OF THE EXTRAGALACTIC SCALING RELATIONS  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we investigate scaling relations between star formation rates and molecular gas masses for both local Galactic clouds and a sample of external galaxies. We specifically consider relations between the star formation rates and measurements of dense, as well as total, molecular gas masses. We argue that there is a fundamental empirical scaling relation that directly connects the local star formation process with that operating globally within galaxies. Specifically, the total star formation rate in a molecular cloud or galaxy is linearly proportional to the mass of dense gas within the cloud or galaxy. This simple relation, first documented in previous studies, holds over a span of mass covering nearly nine orders of magnitude and indicates that the rate of star formation is directly controlled by the amount of dense molecular gas that can be assembled within a star formation complex. We further show that the star formation rates and total molecular masses, characterizing both local clouds and galaxies, are correlated over similarly large scales of mass and can be described by a family of linear star formation scaling laws, parameterized by f{sub DG}, the fraction of dense gas contained within the clouds or galaxies. That is, the underlying star formation scaling law is always linear for clouds and galaxies with the same dense gas fraction. These considerations provide a single unified framework for understanding the relation between the standard (nonlinear) extragalactic Schmidt-Kennicutt scaling law, that is typically derived from CO observations of the gas, and the linear star formation scaling law derived from HCN observations of the dense gas.

Lada, Charles J.; Forbrich, Jan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lombardi, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Milan, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Alves, Joao F., E-mail: clada@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jforbrich@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: marco.lombardi@gmail.com, E-mail: joao.alves@univie.ac.at [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Large Scale Soft X-ray Loops And Their Magnetic Chirality In Both Hemispheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The magnetic chirality in solar atmosphere has been studied based on the soft X-ray and magnetic field observations. It is found that some of large-scale twisted soft X-ray loop systems occur for several months in the solar atmosphere, before the disappearance of the corresponding background large-scale magnetic field. It provides the observational evidence of the helicity of the large-scale magnetic field in the solar atmosphere and the reverse one relative to the helicity rule in both hemispheres with solar cycles. The transfer of the magnetic helicity from the subatmosphere is consistent with the formation of large-scale twisted soft X-ray loops in the both solar hemispheres.

Zhang, Hongqi; Gao, Yu; Su, Jiangtao; Sokoloff, D D; Kuzanyan, K

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Design and Formation of a Large, Tetrahedral, Metal-ligand Cluster Using 1,1'-Binaphthyl Ligands  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many chemists have been fascinated with the development of discrete supramolecular structures that encapsulate guest molecules. These structures can be assembled through covalent or hydrogen bonds, electrostatic or metal-ligand interactions. These host structures have provided valuable insight into the forces involved in small molecule recognition. Our work has focused on the design and study of metal-ligand clusters of varying sizes. The naphthalene [M{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} cluster 1, shown in Figure 1, has demonstrated diastereoselective guest binding and chiral induction properties as well as the ability to catalyze reactions carried out inside the cavity in an enzyme-like manner. However, the size of the cavity (ca. 300-500 {angstrom}{sup 3}) has often limited the scope of substrates for these transformations.

Biros, Shannon M.; Yeh, Robert M.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

423

Large hadron collider (LHC) project quality assurance plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PUB-5478-Rev.B Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Project Qualityobjectives of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Project in aparticipation in the Large Hadron Collider Project. The LHC/

Gullo, Lisa; Karpenko, Victor; Robinson, Kem; Turner, William; Wong, Otis

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Table 8: Water Consumption Information for Large Hospitals  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Water Consumption Information for Large Hospitals, 2007 Table H8. RSEs for Water Consumption Information for Large Hospitals, 2007 Number of Large Hospital Buildings

425

Brookhaven and the Large Hadron Collider  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brookhaven & the Large Hadron Collider Brookhaven & the Large Hadron Collider Home News Brookhaven & ATLAS ATLAS ATLAS Calorimeter ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Construction Computing Upgrades RHIC & LHC Education LHC tunnel ATLAS detector ATLAS detector RACF BNL built superconducting magnets Brookhaven & the LHC The world's most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Switzerland, powers unprecedented explorations of the deepest mysteries of the universe. In addition to serving as the U.S. host laboratory for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, Brookhaven National Lab plays multiple roles in this international collaboration, from construction and project management to data storage and distribution. ATLAS rendering Brookhaven and ATLAS Brookhaven physicists and engineers are participating in one of the most

426

BNL | Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Large Synoptic Survey Telescope About LSST Digital Sensor Array Brookhaven & Physics of the Universe LSST Project Website LSST: Providing an Unprecedented View of the Cosmos rendering of the LSST site in Chile A revolutionary 3.2 gigapixel camera mounted in a massive ground-based telescope will produce unprecedented views of the cosmos, driving discoveries with the widest, densest, and most complete images of our universe ever captured. New Visions The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will peer into space as no other telescope can. This new facility will create an unparalleled wide-field astronomical survey of our universe - wider and deeper in volume than all previous telescopes combined. The combination of a 3200 megapixel camera sensor array, a powerful supercomputer, a cutting-edge data processing and

427

Category:LargeHotel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LargeHotel LargeHotel Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Building Type Media in category "LargeHotel" The following 77 files are in this category, out of 77 total. SVLargeHotel Bismarck ND Montana-Dakota Utilities Co (North Dakota).png SVLargeHotel Bismarck ... 70 KB SVLargeHotel International Falls MN Northern States Power Co (Minnesota) Excel Energy.png SVLargeHotel Internati... 85 KB SVLargeHotel LA CA City of Los Angeles California (Utility Company).png SVLargeHotel LA CA Cit... 88 KB SVLargeHotel Memphis TN City of Memphis Tennessee (Utility Company).png SVLargeHotel Memphis T... 67 KB SVLargeHotel Minneapolis MN Northern States Power Co (Minnesota) Excel Energy.png SVLargeHotel Minneapol... 85 KB SVLargeHotel Minot ND Montana-Dakota Utilities Co (North Dakota).png

428

Category:LargeOffice | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LargeOffice LargeOffice Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Building Type Media in category "LargeOffice" The following 77 files are in this category, out of 77 total. SVLargeOffice Bismarck ND Montana-Dakota Utilities Co (North Dakota).png SVLargeOffice Bismarck... 69 KB SVLargeOffice Cedar City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png SVLargeOffice Cedar Ci... 57 KB SVLargeOffice International Falls MN Northern States Power Co (Minnesota) Excel Energy.png SVLargeOffice Internat... 83 KB SVLargeOffice LA CA City of Los Angeles California (Utility Company).png SVLargeOffice LA CA Ci... 92 KB SVLargeOffice Memphis TN City of Memphis Tennessee (Utility Company).png SVLargeOffice Memphis ... 70 KB SVLargeOffice Minneapolis MN Northern States Power Co (Minnesota) Excel Energy.png

429

Stimulated Raman scattering in large plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stimulated Raman scattering is of concern to laser fusion since it can create a hot electron environment which can increase the difficulty of achieving high final fuel densities. In earlier experiments with one micron laser light, the energy measured in Raman-scattered light has been insignificant. But these experiments were done with, at most, about 100 joules of laser energy. The Raman instability has a high threshold which also requires a large plasma to be irradiated with a large diameter spot. Only with a long interaction length can the Raman-scattered light wave convectively grow to a large amplitude, and only in recent long pulse, high energy experiments (4000 joules in 2 ns) at the Shiva laser facility have we observed as much as several percent of the laser light to be Raman-scattered. We find that the Raman instability has a much lower intensity threshold for longer laser pulselength and larger laser spot size on a solid target.

Phillion, D.W.; Banner, D.L.

1980-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

430

Penn Large Water Tunnel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Penn Large Water Tunnel Penn Large Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Penn Large Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization Pennsylvania State University Hydrodynamics Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Length(m) 4.3 Beam(m) 1.2 Depth(m) 1.2 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features Closed loop; Turbulence level = 0.1%; Pressure range = 3-60psi; Controlled cavitation = # >0.1; Control Air content = >1ppm per mole Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 16.8 Recirculating Yes Pressure Range(Psi) 3 - 60 Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Description National Instruments steady 24 bit

431

Electromagnetic formation flight of satellite arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposed methods of actuating spacecraft in sparse aperture arrays use propellant as a reaction mass. For formation flying systems, propellant becomes a critical consumable which can be quickly exhausted while maintaining ...

Kwon, Daniel W., 1980-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Hydrate Formation Process Gas Hydrate Formation Process Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking collaborative research and licensing partners interested in implementing United States Non-provisional Patent Application entitled "Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process." Disclosed in this application is a method and device for producing gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas such as methane (CH 4 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone, which may be contained within the body of the spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction vessel, under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for gas hydrate formation. The reaction

433

Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of California. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers Thomasconditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of areaction of reactant gases (1). A number of strategies exist

Dursch, Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Thermodynamic Aspects of Tropical Cyclone Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermodynamic aspects of tropical cyclone (TC) formation near the center of the wave pouch, a region of approximately closed Lagrangian circulation within the wave critical layer, are examined through diagnoses of a high-resolution numerical ...

Zhuo Wang

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Eddy Formation in 2½-Layer, Quasigeostrophic Jets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of nonlinear eddies in unstable 2½-layer, quasigeostrophic jets is investigated using a piecewise constant potential vorticity, “contour dynamical” model. Both infinite and semi-infinite jet dynamics are explored, considering a ...

Ilson C. A. da Silveira; Glenn R. Flierl

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Essential Dynamics of Secondary Eyewall Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors conduct an analysis of the dynamics of secondary eyewall formation in two modeling frameworks to obtain a more complete understanding of the phenomenon. The first is a full-physics, three-dimensional mesoscale model in which the ...

Sergio F. Abarca; Michael T. Montgomery

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Numerical Simulation of Macrosegregation Formation during ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct Numerical Simulation of Inclusion Turbulent Deposition at Liquid ... Flow and Shrinkage Pipe Formation on Macrosegregation of Investment Cast -TiAl Alloys ... Numerical Modeling of the Interaction between a Foreign Particle an ...

438

Interactive Cloud Formation and Climatic Temperature Perturbations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional climate model with an interactive cloud formation program is developed to investigate its effects on temperature perturbations due to various radiative forcings including doubling of CO2, a 2% increase of the solar constant and ...

Kuo-Nan Liou; S. C. S. Ou; P. J. Lu

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Does Format of Pricing Contract Matter?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Working Paper No. XL05-002 Does Format of Pricing Contractquantity discount contract does not include a fixed fee andtariff. Also, division equivalence does not hold because the

Ho, Teck H; Zhang, Juanjuan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Predicting Nepheline Formation with Artificial Neural Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... model has been developed to predict nepheline (NaAlSiO4) formation in compositions of interest for waste glasses projected to be formed at the Hanford Site.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Fuzzy coalition formation among rational cooperative agents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Formation of coalitions in multi-agent systems (MAS) enables the development of efficient organizations. In the article, a model of fuzzy cooperative game with coalitions is described. It extends the model of the fuzzy coalition game with associated ...

Leonid B. Sheremetov; José C. Romero Cortés

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Modeling deposit formation in diesel injector nozzle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation of deposit in the diesel injector nozzle affects the injection behavior and hinders performance. Under running condition, deposit precursors are washed away by the ensuing injection. However, during the cool down ...

Sudhiesh Kumar, Chintoo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

The Formation of New England Coastal Fronts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coastal fronts are a frequent late fall and early winter feature of eastern New England weather. Data from a mesoscale observing network is used to describe the process of coastal frontogenesis and to determine the causes of formation. Three ...

John W. Nielsen

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Process Energy Audit for Large Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the author's approach to energy audits of large industries. Five large industrial segments, with energy intensive processes have been selected as examples. Items include: 1) the general methodology of conducting comprehensive industrial energy audit, 2) how one can identify energy efficiency opportunities, and 3) illustrate a few case study examples of energy conservation measures implemented in some of the industries, and 4) the importance of quality assurance/quality control in an energy audit. I will restrict this discussion to only electrical energy audit.

Chari, S.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Large volume flow-through scintillating detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A large volume flow through radiation detector for use in large air flow situations such as incinerator stacks or building air systems comprises a plurality of flat plates made of a scintillating material arranged parallel to the air flow. Each scintillating plate has a light guide attached which transfers light generated inside the scintillating plate to an associated photomultiplier tube. The output of the photomultiplier tubes are connected to electronics which can record any radiation and provide an alarm if appropriate for the application.

Gritzo, Russ E. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Disk formation and the origin of clumpy galaxies at high redshift  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations of high redshift galaxies have revealed a multitude of large clumpy rapidly star-forming galaxies. Their formation scenario and their link to present day spirals is still unknown. In this Letter we perform AMR simulations of disk formation in a cosmological context that are unrivaled in terms of mass and spatial resolution. We find that the so called "chain-galaxies" and "clump-clusters" are a natural outcome of early epochs of enhanced gas accretion from cold dense streams as well as tidally and ram-pressured stripped material from minor mergers and satellites. Through interaction with the hot halo gas, this freshly accreted cold gas settles into a large disk-like system, not necessarily aligned to an older stellar component, that undergoes fragmentation and subsequent star formation, forming large clumps in the mass range 10^7-10^9 M_sun. Galaxy formation is a complex process at this important epoch when most of the central baryons are being acquired through a range of different mechanisms - we...

Agertz, Oscar; Moore, Ben

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

RPF: An Extensible, Cross-Platform, Binary File Format for Radiation Physics Data  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Radiation Technology Group (RTG) uses a number of computer codes for simulation and analysis of radiation data. The number of incompatible data formats that these data presented themselves in have continued to multiply. In the 1980's a Common Data Format (CDF, see Appendix A) was devised for internal use by the RTG. This format represented a single gamma-ray spectrum as ASCII energy/count pairs preceded by an ASCII header. The ASCII representation of the data assured that it was compatible on any computing platform and this format is still in use. In the mid 1990's it became apparent that instrument systems of greater complexity would demand a file format of larger capacity to support systems then on the drawing board, including networks of sensors collecting time series of gamma-ray spectra. These systems were in the planning stage and defined data structures were not available. It became apparent that a new storage format for nuclear measurements data would be needed and it would have to be flexible and extensible to accommodate the requirements of systems of the future. As part of an LDRD, we began to investigate what others were doing, especially in the high-energy physics community, to deal with the large volumes of data being generated. Of particular interest was the very general Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), developed and maintained by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), that we ultimately used to develop the Radiation Physics Format (RPF). The HDF subroutine library provides users with the ability to customize a data file format based on standard calls to the HDF subroutine library. The RPF was developed and deployed on Sun and Hewlett-Packard workstations running their proprietary versions of UNIX.

Ham, C L

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

448

2007 CBECS Large Hospital Building List of Tables  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

End Uses in Large Hospitals Table H3: End Use Equipment in Large Hospitals Table H4: Lighting and Window Features in Large Hospitals Table H5: Major Fuels Usage for Large...

449

Intelligent Power Management Over Large Clusters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a growing tension within large organisations such as universities between the desire to perform vast amounts of computational processing and the desire to reduce power consumption by switching off computers. This situation will only worsen as ... Keywords: power management, condor, green computing

A. Stephen McGough; Clive Gerrard; Paul Haldane; Dave Sharples; Dan Swan; Paul Robinson; Sindre Hamlander; Stuart Wheater

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Gravitating Dyons with Large Electric Charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider non-Abelian dyons in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory. The dyons are spherically symmetric with unit magnetic charge. For large values of the electric charge the dyons approach limiting solutions, related to the Penney solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory.

Rustam Ibadov; Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz; Ulrike Neemann

2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

451

Distributed large-scale natural graph factorization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural graphs, such as social networks, email graphs, or instant messaging patterns, have become pervasive through the internet. These graphs are massive, often containing hundreds of millions of nodes and billions of edges. While some theoretical models ... Keywords: asynchronous algorithms, distributed optimization, graph algorithms, graph factorization, large-scale machine learning, matrix factorization

Amr Ahmed, Nino Shervashidze, Shravan Narayanamurthy, Vanja Josifovski, Alexander J. Smola

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Reuse and variability in large software applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reuse has always been a major goal in software engineering, since it promises large gains in productivity, quality and time to market reduction. Practical experience has shown that substantial reuse has only successfully happened in two cases: libraries, ... Keywords: AOP, COTS, EAI, MDA, interoperability, model driven software engineering, process driven application, product families, product line, reuse, variability, workflow

Jacky Estublier; German Vega

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Modeling needs for very large systems.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most system performance models assume a point measurement for irradiance and that, except for the impact of shading from nearby obstacles, incident irradiance is uniform across the array. Module temperature is also assumed to be uniform across the array. For small arrays and hourly-averaged simulations, this may be a reasonable assumption. Stein is conducting research to characterize variability in large systems and to develop models that can better accommodate large system factors. In large, multi-MW arrays, passing clouds may block sunlight from a portion of the array but never affect another portion. Figure 22 shows that two irradiance measurements at opposite ends of a multi-MW PV plant appear to have similar irradiance (left), but in fact the irradiance is not always the same (right). Module temperature may also vary across the array, with modules on the edges being cooler because they have greater wind exposure. Large arrays will also have long wire runs and will be subject to associated losses. Soiling patterns may also vary, with modules closer to the source of soiling, such as an agricultural field, receiving more dust load. One of the primary concerns associated with this effort is how to work with integrators to gain access to better and more comprehensive data for model development and validation.

Stein, Joshua S.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Large Lenses of Highly Saline Mediterranean Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isolated compact anticyclonic eddies or salt lenses were found in the Canary Basin. Hydrographic surveys of three such lenses show large anomalies of salinity and temperature (0.8, 2.5°C). They are centered at 1100 m, have a vertical extent of ...

Laurence Armi; Walter Zenk

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Scaling Issues for Large-Scale Grids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· ESNet Can Play a Very Important Role in the Science Grid � Security Aspects of Grids · ESNet Can Provide will be important and very useful for managing large-scale virtual org. structures #12;·ESNet Can Play a Very Important Role in the Science Grid · ESNet can provide a rooted and managed namespace, and a place to home

456

Microsoft Project: Essentials for Beginners This course aims to help you manage projects, both small and large, by introducing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials Costs Constraints and deadlines Project monitoring Printing Course Format: This is a oneMicrosoft Project: Essentials for Beginners Overview: This course aims to help you manage projects, both small and large, by introducing you to Microsoft Project 2007. The course covers the important

Frean, Marcus

457

Numerical study of black-hole formation in Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates  

SciTech Connect

We study numerically black-hole formation from a collapsing massless scalar field. The use of Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates allows the evolution to proceed until singularity formation. We generate spacetime maps of the collapse, illustrating the evolution of apparent horizons for various initial data. A study of the Choptuik scaling reveals the expected universal values for the critical exponent and echoing period. The periodic oscillations in the supercritical horizon scaling relation, while universal with respect to initial Painleve-Gullstrand data, show unexpected structure with large amplitude cusps.

Ziprick, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Winnipeg Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Kunstatter, Gabor [Department of Physics and Winnipeg Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Metallization of large silicon wafers. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A metallization scheme has been developed which allows selective plating of silicon solar cell surfaces. The system is comprised of three layers. Palladium, through the formation of palladium silicide at 300/sup 0/C in nitrogen, makes ohmic contact to the silicon surface. Nickel, plated on top of the palladium silicide layer, forms a solderable interface. Lead-tin solder on the nickel provides conductivity and allows a convenient means for interconnection of cells. To apply this metallization, three chemical plating baths are employed. Palladium is deposited with an immersion palladium solution and an electroless palladium solution, and nickel is deposited with an electroless nickel solution. Solder is applied with a molten solder dip. Extensive development work has been performed to achieve an effective immersion palladium solution formulation, leading to reproducible formation of the palladium silicide contact layer. This metallization system has been repeatedly demonstrated to be extremely effective. Current-voltage characteristic curve fill factors of 78% are easily achieved. This has been done while maintaining metal contact adhesion at such a strength as to fail by fracturing silicon upon perpendicular pull testing rather than be delaminating the metal system. Process specifications and procedures have been prepared.

Pryor, R.A.

459

Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation is exposed to a series of fluids and operations that can reduce its productive capacity. Any process that causes a loss in the productivity of an oil-, gas-, or water-saturated formation has a damaging effect on the reservoir. These damage mechanisms predominantly fall into three major classifications: mechanical, chemical, and biological. Underbalanced drilling operations involve drilling a portion of the wellbore at fluid pressures less than that of the target formation. This technology has been used to prevent or minimize problems associated with invasive formation damage, which often greatly reduces the productivity of oil and gas reservoirs, mainly in openhole horizontal-well applications. Underbalanced drilling is not a solution for all formation-damage problems. Damage caused by poorly designed and/or executed underbalanced drilling programs can equal or exceed that which may occur with a well-designed conventional overbalanced drilling program. Four techniques are currently available to achieve underbalanced conditions while drilling. These include using lightweight drilling fluids, injecting gas down the drillpipe, injecting gas into a parasite string, and using foam. This study provides an analysis of a number of potential damage mechanisms present when drilling underbalanced. It describes each one and its influence on the productivity of a well. Additionally it presents a general description of the different techniques that can be applied to carry out successful, cost-effective UBD operations, and discusses how these techniques may be used to reduce or eliminate formation damage.

Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Portola Valley, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Livermore, CA)

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "large format li-ion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Galaxy Formation and the Cosmological Angular Momentum Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of angular momentum in regulating the sizes of galactic disks and by this their star formation history is highlighted. Tidal torques and accretion of satellites in principle provide enough angular momentum to form disks with sizes that are in agreement with observations. However three major problems have been identified that challenge cold dark matter theory and affect models of galaxy evolution: (1) too much angular momentum is transferred from the gas to the dark halos during infall, leading to disks with scale lengths that are too small, (2) bulgeless disks require more specific angular momentum than is generated cosmologically even if gas would not lose angular momentum during infall, (3) gravitational torques and hierarchical merging produce a specific angular momentum distribution that does not match the distribution required to form exponential disks naturally; some gas has exceptionally high angular momentum, leading to extended outer disks while another large gas fraction will contain ...

Burkert, A; Burkert, Andreas

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Formation of Cold Filamentary Structure from Wind Blown Superbubbles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The expansion and collision of two wind-blown superbubbles is investigated numerically. Our models go beyond previous simulations of molecular cloud formation from converging gas flows by exploring this process with realistic flow parameters, sizes and timescales. The superbubbles are blown by time-dependent winds and supernova explosions, calculated from population synthesis models. They expand into a uniform or turbulent diffuse medium. We find that dense, cold gas clumps and filaments form naturally in the compressed collision zone of the two superbubbles. Their shapes resemble the elongated, irregular structure of observed cold, molecular gas filaments and clumps. At the end of the simulations, between 65 and 80 percent of the total gas mass in our simulation box is contained in these structures. The clumps are found in a variety of physical states, ranging from pressure equilibrium with the surrounding medium to highly under-pressured clumps with large irregular internal motions and structures which are ...

Ntormousi, Evangelia; Fierlinger, Katharina; Heitsch, Fabian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The employment of a large area Phase Fresnel Lens (PFL) in a gamma-ray telescope offers the potential to image astrophysical phenomena with micro-arcsecond angular resolution. In order to assess the feasibility of this concept, two detailed studies have been conducted of formation flying missions in which a Fresnel lens capable of focussing gamma-rays and the associated detector are carried on two spacecraft separated by up to 10$^6$ km. These studies were performed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC) which developed spacecraft, orbital dynamics, and mission profiles. The results of the studies indicated that the missions are challenging but could be accomplished with technologies available currently or in the near term. The findings of the original studies have been updated taking account of recent advances in ion thruster propulsion technology.

Krizmanic, J; Gehrels, N; Krizmanic, John; Skinner, Gerry; Gehrels, Neil

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The employment of a large area Phase Fresnel Lens (PFL) in a gamma-ray telescope offers the potential to image astrophysical phenomena with micro-arcsecond angular resolution. In order to assess the feasibility of this concept, two detailed studies have been conducted of formation flying missions in which a Fresnel lens capable of focussing gamma-rays and the associated detector are carried on two spacecraft separated by up to 10$^6$ km. These studies were performed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC) which developed spacecraft, orbital dynamics, and mission profiles. The results of the studies indicated that the missions are challenging but could be accomplished with technologies available currently or in the near term. The findings of the original studies have been updated taking account of recent advances in ion thruster propulsion technology.

John Krizmanic; Gerry Skinner; Neil Gehrels

2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

465

Training a Large Scale Classifier with the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a previous publication we proposed discrete global optimization as a method to train a strong binary classifier constructed as a thresholded sum over weak classifiers. Our motivation was to cast the training of a classifier into a format amenable to solution by the quantum adiabatic algorithm. Applying adiabatic quantum computing (AQC) promises to yield solutions that are superior to those which can be achieved with classical heuristic solvers. Interestingly we found that by using heuristic solvers to obtain approximate solutions we could already gain an advantage over the standard method AdaBoost. In this communication we generalize the baseline method to large scale classifier training. By large scale we mean that either the cardinality of the dictionary of candidate weak classifiers or the number of weak learners used in the strong classifier exceed the number of variables that can be handled effectively in a single global optimization. For such situations we propose an iterative and piecewise approach in which a subset of weak classifiers is selected in each iteration via global optimization. The strong classifier is then constructed by concatenating the subsets of weak classifiers. We show in numerical studies that the generalized method again successfully competes with AdaBoost. We also provide theoretical arguments as to why the proposed optimization method, which does not only minimize the empirical loss but also adds L0-norm regularization, is superior to versions of boosting that only minimize the empirical loss. By conducting a Quantum Monte Carlo simulation we gather evidence that the quantum adiabatic algorithm is able to handle a generic training problem efficiently.

Hartmut Neven; Vasil S. Denchev; Geordie Rose; William G. Macready

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

466

Early Formation and Late Merging of the Giant Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The most luminous galaxies in the present Universe are found at the centers of the most massive dark matter haloes, rich galaxy clusters. In the LCDM cosmology, such massive halo cores are present at redshift z=6 with a comoving number density (as a function of mass interior to ~10 kpc) that is comparable to today's value. The identity of the matter in these central regions is, however, predicted to change as major mergers bring together stars and dark matter from initially well separated sub-units. We use N-body simulations to investigate how these mergers push pre-existing matter outwards in the dominant galaxy while preserving the inner density profile of collisionless matter. It appears that the central regions of large galaxies end up dominated by stars formed in a number of dense cores, well before the last major mergers. The density profile of collisionless matter (stars and dark matter combined) in these central regions appears to be stable and to have attractor-like behavior under merging. This suggests that the baryon loading associated with dissipative contraction and star formation may be erased as subsequent mergers drive the mass distribution back to a universal profile. Such suppression of the effects of baryon loading, along with the early assembly of mass concentrations, may help resolve some apparent challenges to the CDM model for structure formation.

Liang Gao; Abraham Loeb; P. J. E. Peebles; Simon D. M. White; Adrian Jenkins

2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

467

Nucleosome interactions in chromatin: fiber stiffening and hairpin formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use Monte Carlo simulations to study attractive and excluded volume interactions between nucleosome core particles in 30 nm-chromatin fibers. The nucleosomes are treated as disk-like objects having an excluded volume and short range attraction modelled by a variant of the Gay-Berne potential. The nucleosomes are connected via bendable and twistable linker DNA in the crossed linker fashion. We investigate the influence of the nucleosomal excluded volume on the stiffness of the fiber. For parameter values that correspond to chicken erythrocyte chromatin we find that the persistence length is governed to a large extent by that excluded volume whereas the soft linker backbone elasticity plays only a minor role. We further find that internucleosomal attraction can induce the formation of hairpin configurations. Tension-induced opening of such configurations into straight fibers manifests itself in a quasi-plateau in the force-extension curve that resembles results from recent micromanipulation experiments. Such hairpins may play a role in the formation of higher order structures in chromosomes like chromonema fibers.

Boris Mergell; Ralf Everaers; Helmut Schiessel

2004-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

468

Stochastic opinion formation in scale-free networks  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of opinion formation in large groups of people is a complex nonlinear phenomenon whose investigation is just beginning. Both collective behavior and personal views play an important role in this mechanism. In the present work we mimic the dynamics of opinion formation of a group of agents, represented by two states 1, as a stochastic response of each agent to the opinion of his/her neighbors in the social network and to feedback from the average opinion of the whole. In the light of recent studies, a scale-free Barabsi-Albert network has been selected to simulate the topology of the interactions. A turbulent-like dynamics, characterized by an intermittent behavior, is observed for a certain range of the model parameters. The problem of uncertainty in decision taking is also addressed both from a topological point of view, using random and targeted removal of agents from the network, and by implementing a three-state model, where the third state, zero, is related to the information available to each agent. Finally, the results of the model are tested against the best known network of social interactions: the stock market. A time series of daily closures of the Dow-Jones index has been used as an indicator of the possible applicability of our model in the financial context. Good qualitative agreement is found.

M. Bartolozzi; D. B. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Galaxy Formation and the Cosmological Angular Momentum Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of angular momentum in regulating the sizes of galactic disks and by this their star formation history is highlighted. Tidal torques and accretion of satellites in principle provide enough angular momentum to form disks with sizes that are in agreement with observations. However three major problems have been identified that challenge cold dark matter theory and affect models of galaxy evolution: (1) too much angular momentum is transferred from the gas to the dark halos during infall, leading to disks with scale lengths that are too small, (2) bulgeless disks require more specific angular momentum than is generated cosmologically even if gas would not lose angular momentum during infall, (3) gravitational torques and hierarchical merging produce a specific angular momentum distribution that does not match the distribution required to form exponential disks naturally; some gas has exceptionally high angular momentum, leading to extended outer disks while another large gas fraction will contain very little specific angular momentum and is expected to fall into the galactic center, forming a massive and dominant bulge component. Any self-consistent theory of galaxy formation will require to provide solutions to these questions. Selective mass loss of low-angular-momentum gas in an early phase of galaxy evolution currently seems to be the most promising scenario. Such a process would have a strong affect on the early protogalactic evolution phase, the origin and evolution of galactic morphologies and link central properties of galaxies like the origin of central massive black holes with their global structure.

Andreas Burkert; Elena D'Onghia

2004-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

470

CHONDRULE FORMATION IN BOW SHOCKS AROUND ECCENTRIC PLANETARY EMBRYOS  

SciTech Connect

Recent isotopic studies of Martian meteorites by Dauphas and Pourmand have established that large ({approx}3000 km radius) planetary embryos existed in the solar nebula at the same time that chondrules-millimeter-sized igneous inclusions found in meteorites-were forming. We model the formation of chondrules by passage through bow shocks around such a planetary embryo on an eccentric orbit. We numerically model the hydrodynamics of the flow and find that such large bodies retain an atmosphere with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities allowing mixing of this atmosphere with the gas and particles flowing past the embryo. We calculate the trajectories of chondrules flowing past the body and find that they are not accreted by the protoplanet, but may instead flow through volatiles outgassed from the planet's magma ocean. In contrast, chondrules are accreted onto smaller planetesimals. We calculate the thermal histories of chondrules passing through the bow shock. We find that peak temperatures and cooling rates are consistent with the formation of the dominant, porphyritic texture of most chondrules, assuming a modest enhancement above the likely solar nebula average value of chondrule densities (by a factor of 10), attributable to settling of chondrule precursors to the midplane of the disk or turbulent concentration. We calculate the rate at which a planetary embryo's eccentricity is damped and conclude that a single planetary embryo scattered into an eccentric orbit can, over {approx}10{sup 5} years, produce {approx}10{sup 24} g of chondrules. In principle, a small number (1-10) of eccentric planetary embryos can melt the observed mass of chondrules in a manner consistent with all known constraints.

Morris, Melissa A.; Desch, Steven J.; Athanassiadou, Themis [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Boley, Aaron C., E-mail: melissa.a.morris@asu.edu [Department of Astronomy University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

2012-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

471

NETL: News Release - First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 6, 2009 April 6, 2009 First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances One Million Metric Tons of Carbon to be Injected at Illinois Site Washington, DC -Drilling nears completion for the first large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection well in the United States for CO2 sequestration. This project will be used to demonstrate that CO2 emitted from industrial sources - such as coal-fired power plants - can be stored in deep geologic formations to mitigate large quantities of greenhouse gas emissions. MORE INFO Link to the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium web site The Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) hosted an event April 6 for a CO2 injection test at their Decatur, Ill. ethanol facility. The injection well is being drilled into the Mount Simon Sandstone to a depth more than a mile

472

Conte Large Flume | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conte Large Flume Conte Large Flume Overseeing Organization United States Geological Survey, LSC Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Flume Length(m) 38.1 Beam(m) 6.1 Depth(m) 5.2 Cost(per day) Contact POC Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Recirculating No Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Description National Instruments LabView and other data acquisition systems Number of channels 12 Bandwidth(kHz) 44 Cameras Yes Number of Color Cameras 5 Description of Camera Types Conventional underwater video, 4; high speed (1000 fps), 1 Available Sensors Displacement, Flow, Pressure Range(psi), Thermal, Turbulence, Velocity Data Generation Capability

473

Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Renewable Energy Guide Renewable Energy Guide Brad Gustafson, FEMP 2 Large-scale RE Guide Large-scale RE Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities Introduction and Overview Federal Utility Partnership Working Group May 22, 2013 Federal Energy Management Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy 3 Federal Energy Management Program FEMP works with key individuals to accomplish energy change within organizations by bringing expertise from all levels of project and policy implementation to enable Federal Agencies to meet energy related goals and to provide energy leadership to the country. 4 FEMP Renewable Energy * Works to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the Federal government's energy mix.

474

New England Wind Forum: Large Wind  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Small Wind Small Wind Large Wind Newsletter Perspectives Events Quick Links to States CT MA ME NH RI VT Bookmark and Share Large Wind When establishing wind farms, wind energy developers generally approach landowners where they want to build. Interest in wind farms is frequently spurred by external pressures such as tax and other financial incentives and legislative mandates. Since each situation is influenced by local policies and permitting, we can only provide general guidance to help you learn about the process of installing wind turbines. Publications Wind Project Development Process Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities: A Handbook. (August 2002). National Wind Coordinating Collaborative. Landowner Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. (August 2003). "State Wind Working Group Handbook." pp. 130-133.

475

2007 CBECS Large Hospital Building FAQs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

FAQs Main Report | Methodology | FAQ | FAQs Main Report | Methodology | FAQ | List of Tables CBECS 2007 - Release date: August 17, 2012 How were the data collected for this study? These data were collected with the 2007 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). See the 2007 CBECS Large Hospital Building Methodology Report for details. Why are you publishing estimates only for large hospitals and not the rest of the commercial building population? A majority of the 2007 CBECS buildings were sampled from a frame that used a less expensive experimental method to update the 2003 frame for new construction. After careful analysis, EIA determined that the buildings sampled from this experimental frame were not representative of the commercial building population and therefore the 2007 CBECS sample as a

476

Passive load control for large wind turbines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

Ashwill, Thomas D.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Entanglement Entropy at Large Central Charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-dimensional conformal field theories with a large central charge and a small number of low-dimension operators are studied using the conformal block expansion. A universal formula is derived for the Renyi entropies of N disjoint intervals in the ground state, valid to all orders in a series expansion. This is possible because the full perturbative answer in this regime comes from the exchange of the stress tensor and other descendants of the vacuum state. Therefore, the Renyi entropy is related to the Virasoro vacuum block at large central charge. The entanglement entropy, computed from the Renyi entropy by an analytic continuation, decouples into a sum of single-interval entanglements. This field theory result agrees with the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for the holographic entanglement entropy of a 2d CFT, applied to any number of intervals, and thus can be interpreted as a microscopic calculation of the area of minimal surfaces in 3d gravity.

Hartman, Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Entanglement Entropy at Large Central Charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-dimensional conformal field theories with a large central charge and a small number of low-dimension operators are studied using the conformal block expansion. A universal formula is derived for the Renyi entropies of N disjoint intervals in the ground state, valid to all orders in a series expansion. This is possible because the full perturbative answer in this regime comes from the exchange of the stress tensor and other descendants of the vacuum state. Therefore, the Renyi entropy is related to the Virasoro vacuum block at large central charge. The entanglement entropy, computed from the Renyi entropy by an analytic continuation, decouples into a sum of single-interval entanglements. This field theory result agrees with the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for the holographic entanglement entropy of a 2d CFT, applied to any number of intervals, and thus can be interpreted as a microscopic calculation of the area of minimal surfaces in 3d gravity.

Thomas Hartman

2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

479

Big Science and the Large Hadron Collider  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the particle accelerator operating at CERN, is probably the most complex and ambitious scientific project ever accomplished by humanity. The sheer size of the enterprise, in terms of financial and human resources, naturally raises the question whether society should support such costly basic-research programs. I address this question here by first reviewing the process that led to the emergence of Big Science and the role of large projects in the development of science and technology. I then compare the methodologies of Small and Big Science, emphasizing their mutual linkage. Finally, after examining the cost of Big Science projects, I highlight several general aspects of their beneficial implications for society.

Gian Francesco Giudice

2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

480

Siting technologies for large wind turbine clusters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Site selection for large wind turbine clusters requires thorough documentation of the wind characteristics at the site, because of the influence these characteristics will have on the economics, operations, and service life of the wind turbines. The wind prospecting strategy can be used by a utility to determine specific locations for each wind turbine in a cluster of 10 to 50 or more machines. The key to site selection is knowing what and where to measure. Siting techniques to be used at the various stages of the wind-prospecting strategy are discussed. These techniques help determine where to measure. What to measure at a site is still a moot question. Suggestions are made on what data are needed at what sampling rates. These are based on the assumption that until further experience in siting large clusters of wind turbines is in hand, thorough documentation of wind characteristics affecting machine and cluster output characteristics, operation strategies, and service life are necessary.

Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Large Scale Weather Control Using Nuclear Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is pointed out that controlled release of thermal energy from fission type nuclear reactors can be used to alter weather patterns over significantly large geographical regions. (1) Nuclear heat creates a low pressure region, which can be used to draw moist air from oceans, onto deserts. (2) Creation of low pressure zones over oceans using Nuclear heat can lead to Controlled Cyclone Creation (CCC).(3) Nuclear heat can also be used to melt glaciers and control water flow in rivers.

Moninder Singh Modgil

2002-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

482

Higgs Physics at the Large Hadron Collider  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A major goal of the future Large Hadron Collider will be the Higgs boson search. In this paper the discovery In this paper the discovery potential is described as a function of the Higgs mass showing that a Standard Model Higgs boson can be discovered after less than two years of running of the collider. The MSSM Higgs searches and the precision achievable on the measurement of the Higgs boson parameters are also discussed.

Davide Costanzo

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

483

Warped Views on the Large Hadron Collider  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Models with warped extra dimensions, and their strongly coupled duals, offer a nice solution to the hierarchy problem and a very appealing realisation of flavour. Compatibility with the very stringent electroweak and flavour tests have made a generic picture emerge, with a composite Higgs, partial compositeness and custodial symmetry as the main ingredients. We review the main features of this picture and discuss how -and when- models with warped extra dimensions could be discovered at the Large Hadron Collider.

Jose Santiago

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

484

The promise of the large collider  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"In 2007, the most powerful particle accelerator ever built, CERN's new Large hadron Collider, will probe the secrets of matter in the energy states prevailing in the moments after the Big Bang. By colliding particles together when they are moving at close to the speed of ight, physicists hope to find out about matter in its earliest forms, using the energy produced by the collisions." (2 pages)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

White dwarf cooling and large extra dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theories of fundamental interactions with large extra dimensions have recently become very popular. Astrophysical bounds from the Sun, red-giants and SN1987a have already been derived by other authors for the theory proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali. In this paper we consider G117-B15A pulsating white dwarf (ZZ Ceti star) for which the secular rate at which the period of its fundamental mode increases has been accurately measured and claimed that this mode of G117-B15A is perhaps the most stable oscillation ever recorded in the optical band. Because an additional channel of energy loss (Kaluza-Klein gravitons) would speed up the cooling rate, one is able to use the aforementioned stability to derive a bound on theories with large extra dimensions. Within the framework of the theory with large extra dimensions proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali we find the lower bound on string comapctification scale which is more stringent than solar or red-giant bounds.

Marek Biesiada; Beata Malec

2001-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

486

The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs,sedimentary formations, including oil and gas reservoirs andassociated with enh