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Sample records for large format li-ion

  1. Addressing the Impact of Temperature Extremes on Large Format Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicle Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation discusses the effects of temperature on large format lithium-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles.

  2. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries...

  3. Statistical Design of Experiment for Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gen3Ž Electrode Materials: Final Summary | Department of Energy Design of Experiment for Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using Gen3Ž Electrode Materials: Final Summary Statistical Design of Experiment for Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using Gen3Ž Electrode Materials: Final Summary 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esp_03_gering.pdf More Documents &

  4. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Li-Ion Battery Systems - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Find More Like This Return to Search Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Li-Ion Battery Systems National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries.pdf (2,324 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are a promising candidate for energy storage of electric drive vehicles due to their high power and energy density. The total electric

  5. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP ...

  6. Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

  7. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  8. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es008_pekala_2012

  9. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es008_pekala_2011

  10. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies | Department of Energy Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon

  11. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Christoph J. Geiger, Sigrid; Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael

    2014-06-16

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m{sup 2} mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  12. Enabling Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling Title Enabling Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2014 Authors Gaines, LL Abstract Presentation made...

  13. Batteries - Next-generation Li-ion batteries Breakout session

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Other Technical Areas Being Discussed * Main point: we should consider next-gen Li-ion and beyond Li-ion together as a single portfolio of work, in which risk and...

  14. Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt001_es_eun_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria, Ohio Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

  15. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from the High...

  16. Li ion Motors Corp formerly EV Innovations Inc | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vegas, Nevada Zip: 89110 Sector: Vehicles Product: Las Vegas - based manufacturer of lithium-powered plug-in vehicles. References: Li-ion Motors Corp (formerly EV Innovations...

  17. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) Smith...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A. 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION...

  18. Enabling the Future of Li-Ion Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling the Future of Li-Ion Batteries Title Enabling the Future of Li-Ion Batteries Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2015 Authors Gaines, LL Abstract...

  19. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Li-ion Batteries Monday, February 13, 2012 - 1:30pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Stephen J. Harris, General Motors R&D While battery performance is well predicted by the...

  20. Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es070_cabana_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy

  1. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A

  2. Automotive Li-ion Battery Cooling Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-ion Battery Cooling Requirements Automotive Li-ion Battery Cooling Requirements Presents thermal management of lithium-ion battery packs for electric vehicles PDF icon cunningham.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Design and Analysis Activity Overview of Battery R&D Activities

  3. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation Development of CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental...

  4. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  5. Influence of Li ions on the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum electrocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H; Xing, YC

    2011-06-01

    A Li-air battery can provide a much higher theoretical energy density than a Li-ion battery. The use of aqueous acidic electrolytes may prevent lithium oxide deposition from aprotic electrolytes and lithium carbonate precipitation from alkaline electrolytes. The present communication reports a study on the effect of Li ions on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in sulfuric acid electrolytes. It was found that the Li ions have negligible interactions with the active surface of Pt catalysts. However, significantly lower ORR activities were found when Li ions are present in the sulfuric acid. The intrinsic kinetic activities were found to decrease with the increase of Li ion concentrations, but level off when the Li ion concentrations are larger than 1.0 M. The low activities of Pt catalysts in Li ion containing electrolytes were attributed to a constraining effect of Li ions on the diffusion of oxygen in the electrolyte solution. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The significance of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle life...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The significance of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle life-cycle energy and emissions and recycling's role in its reduction Title The significance of Li-ion batteries in...

  7. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt001_es_koo_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing

  8. Electrolytes in Support of 5 V Li-ion Chemistries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Support of 5 V Li-ion Chemistries Electrolytes in Support of 5 V Li-ion Chemistries 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es024_jow_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

  9. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Kim, Gi-heon; Shi, Ying; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-06-15

    It remains an open question how best to predict real-world battery lifetime based on accelerated calendar and cycle aging data from the laboratory. Multiple degradation mechanisms due to (electro)chemical, thermal, and mechanical coupled phenomena influence Li-ion battery lifetime, each with different dependence on time, cycling and thermal environment. The standardization of life predictive models would benefit the industry by reducing test time and streamlining development of system controls.

  10. 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esarravt001_eun_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications USABC Program Highlights Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

  11. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es140_kepler_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials

  12. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esp_20_jow.pdf More Documents & Publications Electrolytes in Support of 5 V Li-ion Chemistries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

  13. Study of novel nonflammable electrolytes in Sandia-built Li-ion cells.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Study of novel nonflammable electrolytes in Sandia-built Li-ion cells. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of novel nonflammable electrolytes in Sandia-built Li-ion cells. Even after decades of research, Li-ion cells still lack thermal stability. A number of approaches, including adding fire retardants or fluoro compounds to the electrolyte to mitigate fire, have been investigated. These additives improved the thermal stability of the cells (only

  14. Analysis of Heat Dissipation in Li-Ion Cells & Modules for Modeling of Thermal Runaway (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-05-15

    The objectives of this study are: (1) To develop 3D Li-Ion battery thermal abuse ''reaction'' models for cell and module analysis; (2) To understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-Ion cells and modules; (3) To develop a tool and methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems for PHEVs/HEVs; and (4) To help battery developers accelerate delivery of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems in support of the FreedomCAR's Energy Storage Program.

  15. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes Citation Details In-Document...

  16. Miniature All-solid-state Heterostructure Nanowire Li-ion Batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    All-solid-state Heterostructure Nanowire Li-ion Batteries as a Toll for Engineering and Structural Diagnostics of Nanoscale Electrochemical Processes Citation Details In-Document...

  17. Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of Li-ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of...

  18. Accurate static and dynamic properties of liquid electrolytes for Li-ion batteries from ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, P.; Jiang, D.; Kent, P.R.C.

    2011-03-31

    Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to revolutionize the transportation industry, as they did for wireless communication. A judicious choice of the liquid electrolytes used in these systems is required to achieve a good balance among high-energy storage, long cycle life and stability, and fast charging. Ethylene-carbonate (EC) and propylene-carbonate (PC) are popular electrolytes. However, to date, almost all molecular-dynamics simulations of these fluids rely on classical force fields, while a complete description of the functionality of Li-ion batteries will eventually require quantum mechanics. We perform accurate ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations of ethylene- and propylene-carbonate with LiPF6 at experimental concentrations to build solvation models which explain available neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results and to compute Li-ion solvation energies and diffusion constants. Our results suggest some similarities between the two liquids as well as some important differences. Simulations also provide useful insights into formation of solid-electrolyte interphases in the presence of electrodes in conventional Li-ion batteries.

  19. Accurate static and dynamic properties of liquid-electrolytes for Li-ion batteries from ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Jiang, Deen; Kent, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to revolutionize the transportation industry, as they did for wireless communication. A judicious choice of the liquid electrolytes used in these systems is required to achieve a good balance among high-energy storage, long cycle life and stability, and fast charging. Ethylene-carbonate (EC) and propylene-carbonate (PC) are popular electrolytes. However, to date, almost all molecular-dynamics simulations of these fluids rely on classical force fields, while a complete description of the functionality of Li-ion batteries will eventually require quantum mechanics. We perform accurate ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations of ethylene- and propylene-carbonate with LiPF6 at experimental concentrations to build solvation models which explain available neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results and to compute Li-ion solvation energies and diffusion constants. Our results suggest some similarities between the two liquids as well as some important differences. Simulations also provide useful insights into formation of solid-electrolyte interphases in the presence of electrodes in conventional Li-ion batteries.

  20. Green synthesis of boron doped graphene and its application as high performance anode material in Li ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sreena, K.P.; Vinayan, B.P.; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Boron doped graphene (B-G), synthesized by simple hydrogen induced reduction technique using boric acid as boron precursor, have more uneven surface as a result of smaller bonding distance of boron compared to carbon, showed high capacity and high rate capability compared to pristine graphene as an anode material for Li ion battery application. - Abstract: The present work demonstrates a facile route for the large-scale, catalyst free, and green synthesis approach of boron doped graphene (B-G) and its use as high performance anode material for Li ion battery (LIB) application. Boron atoms were doped into graphene framework with an atomic percentage of 5.93% via hydrogen induced thermal reduction technique using graphite oxide and boric acid as precursors. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm the boron doping in graphene sheets. B-G as anode material shows a discharge capacity of 548 mAh g{sup ?1} at 100 mA g{sup ?1} after 30th cycles. At high current density value of 1 A g{sup ?1}, B-G as anode material enhances the specific capacity by about 1.7 times compared to pristine graphene. The present study shows a simplistic way of boron doping in graphene leading to an enhanced Li ion adsorption due to the change in electronic states.

  1. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es024_jow_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Progress in Electrolyte Component R&D within the ABR Program, 2009 thru 2013

  2. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es024_jow_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes and electrolyte/electrode interfaces

  3. Second-Use Li-Ion Batteries to Aid Automotive and Utility Industries (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Repurposing Li-ion batteries at the end of useful life in electric drive vehicles could eliminate owners' disposal concerns and offer low-cost energy storage for certain applications.

  4. Insights into capacity loss mechanisms in Li-ion all-solid-state...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Insights into capacity loss mechanisms in Li-ion all-solid-state batteries with Al anodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Insights into capacity loss mechanisms in...

  5. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes.

  6. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Imaging Techniques | Department of Energy Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon lm044_wang_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML User

  7. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program | Department of Energy Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon

  8. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Experimental Validation | Department of Energy Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es120_shaffer_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Cell/Pack

  9. Development of High Energy Cathode for Li-ion Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy for Li-ion Batteries Development of High Energy Cathode for Li-ion Batteries 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es056_zhang_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Phase Behavior and Solid State Chemistry in Olivines Development of High Energy Cathode Materials Interfacial Processes - Diagnostics

  10. Thermally Stable Electrolyte For Li-ion Cells. (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Thermally Stable Electrolyte For Li-ion Cells. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermally Stable Electrolyte For Li-ion Cells. Abstract not provided. Authors: Nagasubramanian, Ganesan ; Orendorff, Christopher J. Publication Date: 2011-09-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106400 Report Number(s): SAND2011-7083C 464734 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: The Knowledge Foundation's 2nd Annual International Conference held November

  11. Streamlining the Optimization of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Streamlining the Optimization of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes Streamlining the Optimization of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esp_12_lu.pdf More Documents & Publications Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode Screen Electrode Materials and Cell Chemistries FY 2011 Annual Progress Report

  12. Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es065_zhang_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Hybrid Nano Carbon

  13. Hard Carbon Materials for High-Capacity Li-ion Battery Anodes | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Hard Carbon Materials for High-Capacity Li-ion Battery Anodes Hard Carbon Materials for High-Capacity Li-ion Battery Anodes 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es104_dai_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A Combined Experimental and Modeling Approach for the Design of High Coulombic Efficiency Si Electrodes In situ Characterizations of New

  14. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es100_angell_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

  15. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE ...

  16. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Au, M.

    2009-12-04

    The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

  17. Antiperovskite Li 3 OCl superionic conductor films for solid-state Li-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lü, Xujie; Howard, John W.; Chen, Aiping; Zhu, Jinlong; Li, Shuai; Wu, Gang; Dowden, Paul; Xu, Hongwu; Zhao, Yusheng; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-02-02

    We prepared antiperovskite Li3OCl superionic conductor films via pulsed laser deposition using a composite target. A significantly enhanced ionic conductivity of 2.0 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature is achieved, and this value is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of its bulk counterpart. Moreover, the applicability of Li3OCl as a solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries is demonstrated.

  18. A Safer Replacement for Highly Flammable Liquids Currently Used in Li-ion

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Batteries | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) A Safer Replacement for Highly Flammable Liquids Currently Used in Li-ion Batteries Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) SBIR/STTR Home About Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) Applicant and Awardee Resources Commercialization Assistance Other Resources Awards SBIR/STTR Highlights Reporting Fraud Contact Information Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer

  19. Effect of an Ultrathin Coating on Stabilizing Li-ion Battery Cathodes |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Effect of an Ultrathin Coating on Stabilizing Li-ion Battery Cathodes Sunday, January 31, 2016 Improvements in the high-voltage cycling stability of lithium ion battery cathode materials are needed to enable the wide-spread adoption of renewable energy technologies such as electric vehicles. One cathode material which exhibits significant advantages over the commonly-used commercial material LiCoO2 in terms of higher capacity, increased thermal

  20. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ohio | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt008_es_dicarlo_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria, Ohio

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 3M at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced high energy Li-ion cell for PHEV...

  2. Enhanced autonomic shutdown of Li-ion batteries by polydopamine coated polyethylene microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baginska, Marta; Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Rajh, Tijana; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.

    2014-07-17

    Thermally triggered autonomic shutdown of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is demonstrated using polydopamine (PDA)-coated polyethylene microspheres applied onto a battery anode. The microspheres are dispersed in a buffered 10 mM dopamine salt solution and the pH is raised to initiate the polymerization and coat the microspheres. Coated microspheres are then mixed with an aqueous binder, applied onto a battery anode surface, dried, and incorporated into Li-ion coin cells. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy are used to verify the presence of the polydopamine on the surface of the microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy is used to examine microsphere surface morphology and resulting anodemore » coating quality. Charge and discharge capacity, as well as impedance, are measured for Li-ion coin cells as a function of microsphere content. Autonomous shutdown is achieved by applying 1.7 mg cm–2 of PDA-coated microspheres to the electrode. Furthermore, the PDA coating significantly reduces the mass of microspheres for effective shutdown compared to our prior work with uncoated microspheres.« less

  3. Enhanced autonomic shutdown of Li-ion batteries by polydopamine coated polyethylene microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baginska, Marta; Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Rajh, Tijana; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.

    2014-07-17

    Thermally triggered autonomic shutdown of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is demonstrated using polydopamine (PDA)-coated polyethylene microspheres applied onto a battery anode. The microspheres are dispersed in a buffered 10 mM dopamine salt solution and the pH is raised to initiate the polymerization and coat the microspheres. Coated microspheres are then mixed with an aqueous binder, applied onto a battery anode surface, dried, and incorporated into Li-ion coin cells. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy are used to verify the presence of the polydopamine on the surface of the microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy is used to examine microsphere surface morphology and resulting anode coating quality. Charge and discharge capacity, as well as impedance, are measured for Li-ion coin cells as a function of microsphere content. Autonomous shutdown is achieved by applying 1.7 mg cm2 of PDA-coated microspheres to the electrode. Furthermore, the PDA coating significantly reduces the mass of microspheres for effective shutdown compared to our prior work with uncoated microspheres.

  4. Selected test results from the neosonic polymer Li-ion battery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingersoll, David T.; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-07-01

    The performance of the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery was measured using a number of tests including capacity, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, hybrid pulsed power test, utility partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycle test, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the polymer Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery technology can provide power levels up to the 10C{sub 1} discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h (1C) discharge rate. Two of the three cells used in the utility PSOC pulsed cycle test completed about 12,000 cycles with only a gradual loss in capacity of 10 and 13%. The third cell experienced a 40% loss in capacity at about 11,000 cycles. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were increases in impedance after cycling, especially for the third cell. Cell No.3 impedance Rs increased significantly along with extensive ballooning of the foil pouch. Finally, at a 1C (10 A) charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test with cell confinement similar to a multi cell string resulted in the cell venting hot gases at about 45 C 45 minutes into the test. At 104 minutes into the test the cell voltage spiked to the 12 volt limit and continued out to the end of the test at 151 minutes. In summary, the Neosonic cells performed as expected with good cycle-life and safety.

  5. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lightsource Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries Monday, February 13, 2012 - 1:30pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Stephen J. Harris, General Motors R&D While battery performance is well predicted by the macrohomogeneous model of Newman and co-workers, predicting degradation and failure remains a challenge. It may be that, like most materials, failure depends on local imperfections and inhomogeneities. We use tomographic data to evaluate the homogeneity of the tortuosity of the

  6. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries: a New Synthetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Approach (ANL-IN-10-031) - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries: a New Synthetic Approach (ANL-IN-10-031) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> This figure shows the high-rate performance of the new class of cathode materials featuring bi-layered structures.&nbsp; The highest current rate of 1500

  7. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gmez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation Li-ion rechargeable battery and LiCoO2 cathode is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  8. STAR FORMATION AROUND SUPERGIANT SHELLS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Book, Laura G.; Chu Youhua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Fukui, Yasuo

    2009-03-15

    We examine the recent star formation associated with four supergiant shells in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC): LMC 1, 4, 5, and 6, which have been shown to have simple expanding-shell structures. H II regions and OB associations are used to infer star formation in the last few Myr, while massive young stellar objects reveal the current ongoing star formation. Distributions of ionized H I and molecular components of the interstellar gas are compared with the sites of recent and current star formation to determine whether triggering has taken place. We find that a great majority of the current star formation has occurred in gravitationally unstable regions, and that evidence of triggered star formation is prevalent at both large and local scales.

  9. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

  10. Thermal Stability of LiPF 6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes Containing LiPF

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal Stability of LiPF 6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes Containing LiPF 6 Hui Yang a, *, Guorong V. Zhuang b, * ,z and Philip N. Ross, Jr. b, * Environmental Energy Technologies Division a and Materials Sciences Division b Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract The thermal stability of the neat LiPF 6 salt and of 1 molal solutions of LiPF 6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and

  11. Model-Based Design and Integration of Large Li-ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kandler; Kim, Gi-Heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Shi, Ying; Pesaran, Ahmad; Mukherjee, Partha; Barai, Pallab; Maute, Kurt; Behrou, Reza; Patil, Chinmaya

    2015-11-17

    This presentation introduces physics-based models of batteries and software toolsets, including those developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries Program (CAEBAT). The presentation highlights achievements and gaps in model-based tools for materials-to-systems design, lifetime prediction and control.

  12. A Combustion Chemistry Analysis of Carbonate Solvents in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S J; Timmons, A; Pitz, W J

    2008-11-13

    Under abusive conditions Li-ion batteries can rupture, ejecting electrolyte and other flammable gases. In this paper we consider some of the thermochemical properties of these gases that will determine whether they ignite and how energetically they burn. We show that flames of carbonate solvents are fundamentally less energetic than those of conventional hydrocarbons. An example of this difference is given using a recently developed mechanism for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) combustion, where we show that a diffusion flame burning DMC has only half the peak energy release rate of an analogous propane flame. We find a significant variation among the carbonate solvents in the factors that are important to determining flammability, such as combustion enthalpy and vaporization enthalpy. This result suggests that thermochemical and kinetic factors might well be considered when choosing solvent mixtures.

  13. Statistical Design of Experiment for Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esp03gering.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Energy ...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li-ion cells for...

  15. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  16. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leung, Kevin; Lin, Yu -Xiao; Liu, Zhe; Chen, Long -Qing; Lu, Peng; Qi, Yue

    2016-02-05

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression.more » A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. As a result, the agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.« less

  17. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0.04Co02O2 electrode containing 5 wt% single-walled carbon nanotubes as the conductive additive and demonstrated both high rate capability as well as the ability to cycle the cathode to 5 V vrs. Li/Li+. Finally, we coated a Celgard (TM) separator and enabled stable cycling in a high dielectric electrolyte. These results will be presented in detail.

  18. High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

  19. Study of novel nonflammable electrolytes in Sandia-built Li-ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sandia made 18650 cells successfully completed the formational cycle. The impedance ... CHEMISTRY; ADDITIVES; ELECTROLYTES; IMPEDANCE; IONIC CONDUCTIVITY; SOLVENTS; STABILITY

  20. Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A; Williford, Ralph E; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-06-01

    The entropy changes (ΔS) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

  1. Recent advances on the understanding of structural and composition evolution of LMR cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-06-08

    Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been regarded as one of the very promising cathodes for Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several challenges, especially by their limited electrochemical stability rate capability. In this work, we present recent progresses on the understanding of the structural and composition evolution of LMR cathode materials with emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li [Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of the pristine materials and their dependence on the materials processing history, cycling induced structuralmore » degradation/chemical partition and their correlation with degradation of electrochemical performance. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on ternary system of transitional metal oxide.« less

  2. Recent advances on the understanding of structural and composition evolution of LMR cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-06-08

    Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been regarded as one of the very promising cathodes for Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several challenges, especially by their limited electrochemical stability rate capability. In this work, we present recent progresses on the understanding of the structural and composition evolution of LMR cathode materials with emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li [Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of the pristine materials and their dependence on the materials processing history, cycling induced structural degradation/chemical partition and their correlation with degradation of electrochemical performance. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on ternary system of transitional metal oxide.

  3. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exceeding 500Wh/L | Department of Energy Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500Wh/L Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500Wh/L 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es127_kim_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Vehicle Technologies Office

  4. 3D Thermal and Electrochemical Model for Spirally Wound Large Format Lithium-ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-10-14

    In many commercial cells, long tabs at both cell sides, leading to uniform potentials along the spiral direction of wound jelly rolls, are rarely seen because of their high manufacturing cost. More often, several metal strips are welded at discrete locations along both current collector foils. With this design, the difference of electrical potentials is easily built up along current collectors in the spiral direction. Hence, the design features of the tabs, such as number, location and size, can be crucial factors for spiral-shaped battery cells. This paper presents a Li-ion battery cell model having a 3-dimensional spiral mesh involving a wound jellyroll structure. Further results and analysis will be given regarding impacts of tab location, number, and size.

  5. Low-cost flexible packaging for high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Henriksen, G. L.

    2004-06-18

    Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with several industrial partners, is working on low-cost flexible packaging as an alternative to the packaging currently being used for lithium-ion batteries [1,2]. This program is funded by the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. (It was originally funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, or PNGV, Program, which had as one of its mandates to develop a power-assist hybrid electric vehicle with triple the fuel economy of a typical sedan.) The goal in this packaging effort is to reduce the cost associated with the packaging of each cell several-fold to less than $1 per cell ({approx} 50 cells are required per battery, 1 battery per vehicle), while maintaining the integrity of the cell contents for a 15-year lifetime. Even though the battery chemistry of main interest is the lithium-ion system, the methodology used to develop the most appropriate laminate structure will be very similar for other battery chemistries.

  6. Chemical Heterogeneity of a Large Cluster CP IDP: Clues to its Formation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    History Using X-ray Fluoresence Mapping and Cr and Fe XANES Spectroscopy (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Chemical Heterogeneity of a Large Cluster CP IDP: Clues to its Formation History Using X-ray Fluoresence Mapping and Cr and Fe XANES Spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical Heterogeneity of a Large Cluster CP IDP: Clues to its Formation History Using X-ray Fluoresence Mapping and Cr and Fe XANES Spectroscopy Authors:

  7. Second-Use Li-Ion Batteries to Aid Automotive and Utility Industries (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repurposing lithium-ion batteries at the end of useful life in electric drive vehicles could eliminate owners' disposal concerns and offer low-cost energy storage for certain applications. Increasing the number of plug-in electric drive vehicles (PEVs) is one major strategy for reduc- ing the nation's oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the high up-front cost and end-of-service disposal concerns of their lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries could impede the proliferation of such

  8. Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen Chemistry in Pristine Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Genc, Arda; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Browning, Nigel D.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.

    2013-05-14

    Li-rich layered material Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 possesses high voltage and high specific capacity, which makes it an attractive candidate for the transportation industry and sustainable energy storage systems. The rechargeable capacity of the Li-ion battery is linked largely to the structural stability of the cathode materials during the charge-discharge cycles. However, the structure and cation distribution in pristine (un-cycled) Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 have not yet been fully characterized. Using a combination of aberration-corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (XEDS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and complementary multislice image simulation, we have probed the crystal structure, cation/anion distribution, and electronic structure of Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 nanoparticle. We discovered that the electronic structure and valence state of transition metal ions show significant variations, which have been identified to be attributed to the oxygen deficiency near the particle surfaces. Characterization of the nanoscale phase separation and cation ordering in the pristine material are critical for understanding the capacity and voltage fading of this material for battery application.

  9. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  10. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore » around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  11. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  12. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues In a Densified Large Square Bale Format

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration of Advanced Logistical Systems and Focused Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues and Energy Crops in a Densified Large Square Bale Format OBP WBS: 1.2.1.4 Principal Investigator: Maynard Herron Co-Principal Investigator: Bob Matousek Performing Organization: AGCO Sub-Recipients: INL, Stinger Inc., OSU, ISU, TAMU, Noble Foundation Project objectives support the adoption and production goals of the Office of Biomass Programs for feedstock adoption and cost

  13. Induced core formation time in subcritical magnetic clouds by large-scale trans-Alfvnic flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudoh, Takahiro; Basu, Shantanu E-mail: basu@uwo.ca

    2014-10-20

    We clarify the mechanism of accelerated core formation by large-scale nonlinear flows in subcritical magnetic clouds by finding a semi-analytical formula for the core formation time and describing the physical processes that lead to them. Recent numerical simulations show that nonlinear flows induce rapid ambipolar diffusion that leads to localized supercritical regions that can collapse. Here, we employ non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including ambipolar diffusion for gravitationally stratified sheets threaded by vertical magnetic fields. One of the horizontal dimensions is eliminated, resulting in a simpler two-dimensional simulation that can clarify the basic process of accelerated core formation. A parameter study of simulations shows that the core formation time is inversely proportional to the square of the flow speed when the flow speed is greater than the Alfvn speed. We find a semi-analytical formula that explains this numerical result. The formula also predicts that the core formation time is about three times shorter than that with no turbulence, when the turbulent speed is comparable to the Alfvn speed.

  14. SUPERGIANT SHELLS AND MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, J. R.; Dickey, John M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Wong, T.; Hughes, A.; Fukui, Y.; Kawamura, A.

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the influence of large-scale stellar feedback on the formation of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Examining the relationship between H I and {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) in supergiant shells (SGSs), we find that the molecular fraction in the total volume occupied by SGSs is not enhanced with respect to the rest of the LMC disk. However, the majority of objects ({approx}70% by mass) are more molecular than their local surroundings, implying that the presence of a supergiant shell does on average have a positive effect on the molecular gas fraction. Averaged over the full SGS sample, our results suggest that {approx}12%-25% of the molecular mass in supergiant shell systems was formed as a direct result of the stellar feedback that created the shells. This corresponds to {approx}4%-11% of the total molecular mass of the galaxy. These figures are an approximate lower limit to the total contribution of stellar feedback to molecular cloud formation in the LMC, and constitute one of the first quantitative measurements of feedback-triggered molecular cloud formation in a galactic system.

  15. Optimized Operating Range for Large-Format LiFePO4/Graphite Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Jiuchun; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Zuo, Pengjian; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Xilin; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-06-01

    e investigated the long-term cycling performance of large format 20Ah LiFePO4/graphite batteries when they are cycled in various state-of-charge (SOC) ranges. It is found that batteries cycled in the medium SOC range (ca. 20~80% SOC) exhibit superior cycling stability than batteries cycled at both ends (0-20% or 80-100%) of the SOC even though the capcity utilized in the medium SOC range is three times as large as those cycled at both ends of the SOC. Several non-destructive techniques, including a voltage interruption approach, model-based parameter identification, electrode impedance spectra analysis, ?Q/?V analysis, and entropy change test, were used to investigate the performance of LiFePO4/graphite batteries within different SOC ranges. The results reveal that batteries at the ends of SOC exhibit much higher polarization impedance than those at the medium SOC range. These results can be attributed to the significant structural change of cathode and anode materials as revealed by the large entropy change within these ranges. The direct correlation between the polarization impedance and the cycle life of the batteries provides an effective methodology for battery management systems to control and prolong the cycle life of LiFePO4/graphite and other batteries.

  16. Formation of Large Polysulfide Complexes during the Lithium-Sulfur Battery Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bin; Alhassan, Saeed M.; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur cathodes have much larger capacities than transition-metal-oxide cathodes used in commercial lithium-ion batteries but suffer from unsatisfactory capacity retention and long-term cyclability. Capacity degradation originates from soluble lithium polysulfides gradually diffusing into the electrolyte. Understanding of the formation and dynamics of soluble polysulfides during the discharging process at the atomic level remains elusive, which limits further development of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Here we report first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and density functional calculations, through which the discharging products of Li-S batteries are studied. We find that, in addition to simple Li2Sn (1 n 8) clusters generated from single cyclooctasulfur (S8) rings, large Li-S clusters form by collectively coupling several different rings to minimize the total energy. At high lithium concentration, a Li-S network forms at the sulfur surfaces. The results can explain the formation of the soluble Li-S complex, such as Li2S8, Li2S6, and Li2S4, and the insoluble Li2S2 and Li2S structures. In addition, we show that the presence of oxygen impurities in graphene, particularly oxygen atoms bonded to vacancies and edges, may stabilize the lithium polysulfides that may otherwise diffuse into the electrolyte.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XALT Energy LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development of large format...

  18. Nanoporous Metals for Prevention of Helium Bubble Formation in Pd Tritides

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Nanoporous Metals for Prevention of Helium Bubble Formation in Pd Tritides Nanoporous Metals for Prevention of Helium Bubble Formation in Pd Tritides Presentation from the 32nd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Germantown, Maryland on April 23-25, 2013. PDF icon Nanoporous Metals for Prevention of Helium Bubble Formation in Pd Tritides More Documents & Publications Hard Carbon Materials for High-Capacity Li-ion Battery Anodes Tritium Aging Studies of

  19. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF FILAMENTS IN THE SERPENS SOUTH MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernndez-Lpez, M.; Looney, L.; Lee, K.; Segura-Cox, D.; Arce, H. G.; Plunkett, A.; Mundy, L. G.; Storm, S.; Teuben, P. J.; Pound, M.; Isella, A.; Kauffmann, J.; Tobin, J. J.; Rosolowsky, E.; Kwon, W.; Ostriker, E.; Tassis, K.; Shirley, Y. L.

    2014-08-01

    We present the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 ? 0) map of the Serpens South molecular cloud obtained as part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey. The observations cover 250 arcmin{sup 2} and fully sample structures from 3000 AU to 3pc with a velocity resolution of 0.16kms{sup 1}, and they can be used to constrain the origin and evolution of molecular cloud filaments. The spatial distribution of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is characterized by long filaments that resemble those observed in the dust continuum emission by Herschel. However, the gas filaments are typically narrower such that, in some cases, two or three quasi-parallel N{sub 2}H{sup +} filaments comprise a single observed dust continuum filament. The difference between the dust and gas filament widths casts doubt on Herschel ability to resolve the Serpens South filaments. Some molecular filaments show velocity gradients along their major axis, and two are characterized by a steep velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the filament axis. The observed velocity gradient along one of these filaments was previously postulated as evidence for mass infall toward the central cluster, but these kind of gradients can be interpreted as projection of large-scale turbulence.

  20. First-Principles Study of Novel Conversion Reactions for High-Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes in the Li-Mg-B-N-H System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, T.H.; Graetz, J.; Liu, X.; Hong, J.; Majzoub, E.H.

    2011-07-28

    Anodes for Li-ion batteries are primarily carbon-based due to their low cost and long cycle life. However, improvements to the Li capacity of carbon anodes, LiC{sub 6} in particular, are necessary to obtain a larger energy density. State-of-the-art light-metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications often contain Li and involve reactions requiring Li transport, and light-metal ionic hydrides are candidates for novel conversion materials. Given a set of known solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble, as a function of lithium chemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAh g{sup -1} that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li{sub 4}BN{sub 3}H{sub 10}. While the predicted reactions involve multiple steps, the maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si.

  1. A Novel In-situ Electrochemical Cell for Neutron Diffraction Studies of Phase Transitions in Small Volume Electrodes of Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vadlamani, Bhaskar S; An, Ke; Jagannathan, M.; Ravi Chandran, K.

    2014-01-01

    The design and performance of a novel in-situ electrochemical cell that greatly facilitates the neutron diffraction study of complex phase transitions in small volume electrodes of Li-ion cells, is presented in this work. Diffraction patterns that are Rietveld-refinable could be obtained simultaneously for all the electrodes, which demonstrates that the cell is best suited to explore electrode phase transitions driven by the lithiation and delithiation processes. This has been facilitated by the use of single crystal (100) Si sheets as casing material and the planar cell configuration, giving improved signal-to-noise ratio relative to other casing materials. The in-situ cell has also been designed for easy assembly and to facilitate rapid experiments. The effectiveness of cell is demonstrated by tracking the neutron diffraction patterns during the charging of graphite/LiCoO2 and graphite/LiMn2O4 cells. It is shown that good quality neutron diffraction data can be obtained and that most of the finer details of the phase transitions, and the associated changes in crystallographic parameters in these electrodes, can be captured.

  2. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Johnson Controls at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about significant cost improvement...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Significant Cost Improvement of Li-ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Johnson Controls at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about significant cost improvement...

  5. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF DENSE GAS IN SERPENS MAIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Katherine I.; Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Teuben, Peter; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Chen, Che-Yu; Fernndez-Lpez, Manuel; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Hctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Kwon, Woojin; Kauffmann, Jens; Tobin, John J.; Volgenau, N. H.; Tassis, Konstantinos; and others

    2014-12-20

    We present observations of N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 ? 0), HCO{sup +} (J = 1 ? 0), and HCN (J = 1 ? 0) toward the Serpens Main molecular cloud from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy). We mapped 150 arcmin{sup 2} of Serpens Main with an angular resolution of ?7''. The gas emission is concentrated in two subclusters (the NW and SE subclusters). The SE subcluster has more prominent filamentary structures and more complicated kinematics compared to the NW subcluster. The majority of gas in the two subclusters has subsonic to sonic velocity dispersions. We applied a dendrogram technique with N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) to study the gas structures; the SE subcluster has a higher degree of hierarchy than the NW subcluster. Combining the dendrogram and line fitting analyses reveals two distinct relations: a flat relation between nonthermal velocity dispersion and size, and a positive correlation between variation in velocity centroids and size. The two relations imply a characteristic depth of 0.15 pc for the cloud. Furthermore, we have identified six filaments in the SE subcluster. These filaments have lengths of ?0.2 pc and widths of ?0.03 pc, which is smaller than a characteristic width of 0.1 pc suggested by Herschel observations. The filaments can be classified into two types based on their properties. The first type, located in the northeast of the SE subcluster, has larger velocity gradients, smaller masses, and nearly critical mass-per-unit-length ratios. The other type, located in the southwest of the SE subcluster, has the opposite properties. Several YSOs are formed along two filaments which have supercritical mass per unit length ratios, while filaments with nearly critical mass-per-unit-length ratios are not associated with YSOs, suggesting that stars are formed on gravitationally unstable filaments.

  6. Large

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large area avalanche photodiode detector array upgrade for a ruby-laser Thomson scattering system T. M. Biewer, a) D. J. Den Hartog, and D. J. Holly Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 M. R. Stoneking Physics Department, Lawrence University, Appleton, Wisconsin 54912 ͑Presented on 8 July 2002͒ A low-cost upgrade has been implemented on the Madison Symmetric Torus ͑MST͒ ruby-laser Thomson scattering ͑TS͒ system to increase spectral coverage and

  7. Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries NREL Commercialization & Tech Transfer Webinar March 27, 2011 Gi-Heon Kim gi-heon.kim@nrel.gov John Ireland, Kyu-Jin Lee, Ahmad Pesaran Kandler Smith kandler.smith@nrel.gov Source: A123 Source: GM NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Challenges for Large LIB Systems 2 * Li-ion batteries are flammable, require expensive manufacturing to reduce defects * Small-cell protection devices do not work for large systems * Difficult to detect

  8. Large Area Microcorrals and Cavity Formation on Cantilevers using a Focused Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Britt, David W.

    2011-09-14

    We utilize focused ion beam (FIB) to explore various sputtering parameters to form large area microcorrals and cavities on cantilevers. Microcorrals were rapidly created by modifying ion beam blur and overlaps. Modification in FIB sputtering parameters affects the periodicity and shape of corral microstructure. Cantilever deflections show ion beam amorphization effects as a function of sputtered area and cantilever base cavities with or without side walls. The FIB sputtering parameters address a method for rapid creation of a cantilever tensiometer with integrated fluid storage and delivery.

  9. An Efficient Format for Nearly Constant-Time Access to Arbitrary Time Intervals in Large Trace Files

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chan, Anthony; Gropp, William; Lusk, Ewing

    2008-01-01

    A powerful method to aid in understanding the performance of parallel applications uses log or trace files containing time-stamped events and states (pairs of events). These trace files can be very large, often hundreds or even thousands of megabytes. Because of the cost of accessing and displaying such files, other methods are often used that reduce the size of the tracefiles at the cost of sacrificing detail or other information. This paper describes a hierarchical trace file format that provides for display of an arbitrary time window in a time independent of the total size of the file andmore » roughly proportional to the number of events within the time window. This format eliminates the need to sacrifice data to achieve a smaller trace file size (since storage is inexpensive, it is necessary only to make efficient use of bandwidth to that storage). The format can be used to organize a trace file or to create a separate file of annotations that may be used with conventional trace files. We present an analysis of the time to access all of the events relevant to an interval of time and we describe experiments demonstrating the performance of this file format.« less

  10. Large-diameter coiled tubing completions decrease risk of formation damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, V. ); Edens, F. ); Coker, G. ); King, G. )

    1992-07-20

    Amoco Production Co. has used large-diameter coiled tubing strings to avoid damaging gas wells with kill fluids. The coiled tubing is stripped in the gas well under pressure. In Amoco's case, the gas flows up the tubing/casing annulus. The coiled tubing string provides a way to blow down the well whenever the well loads up with liquids from completion, workover, or naturally produced fluids. This paper reports that to date, Amoco has installed coiled tubing in four wells. The oldest has 18 months of service. Although some turbine longevity questions must be answered, the first four completions have proven fast and trouble free. The basic equipment for handling coil tubing is shown. The transport trailer and tubing injector head are similar to standard servicing equipment and not considered experimental. The production tubing reel is capable of carrying 14,000 ft of 2-in tubing or 18,000 ft of 1 3/4-in. tubing. For shallower wells, multiple tubing strings can be would on the same spool. Because of handling difficulties of large tubing, spools must be wound at the factory. Most of the largest sizes are made to order, making lead time a necessary consideration.

  11. STAR FORMATION AT 4 < z < 6 FROM THE SPITZER LARGE AREA SURVEY WITH HYPER-SUPRIME-CAM (SPLASH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.; Capak, Peter; Masters, Dan; Petric, Andreea; Speagle, Josh S.; Silverman, John D.; Carollo, Marcella; Dunlop, James; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Yen-Ting; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, Dave; McCracken, Henry J.; Nagao, Tohru; Salvato, Mara; and others

    2014-08-20

    Using the first 50% of data collected for the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam observations on the 1.8deg{sup 2} Cosmological Evolution Survey we estimate the masses and star formation rates of 3398 M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ?} star-forming galaxies at 4 < z < 6 with a substantial population up to M {sub *} ? 10{sup 11.5} M {sub ?}. We find that the strong correlation between stellar mass and star formation rate seen at lower redshift (the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies) extends to z ? 6. The observed relation and scatter is consistent with a continued increase in star formation rate at fixed mass in line with extrapolations from lower-redshift observations. It is difficult to explain this continued correlation, especially for the most massive systems, unless the most massive galaxies are forming stars near their Eddington-limited rate from their first collapse. Furthermore, we find no evidence for moderate quenching at higher masses, indicating quenching either has not occurred prior to z ? 6 or else occurs rapidly, so that few galaxies are visible in transition between star-forming and quenched.

  12. Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Sacci, Robert L; Adamczyk, Leslie A; Alsem, Daan Hein; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.

  13. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: project overview with analysis of dense gas structure and kinematics in Barnard 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Lee, Katherine I.; Teuben, Peter; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao; Fernndez-Lpez, Manuel; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Hctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Tobin, John J.; Kwon, Woojin; Isella, Andrea; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, and HCN (J = 1 ? 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s{sup 1}. We imaged ?150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N{sub 2}H{sup +} shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO{sup +} and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N{sub 2}H{sup +} velocity dispersions ranging from ?0.05 to 0.50 km s{sup 1} across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N{sub 2}H{sup +} position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc; this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  14. The fabrication of foam-like 3D mesoporous NiO-Ni as anode for high performance Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Xin; Wei, Jumeng; Pan, Jiaqi; Sheng, Yingzhou; Feng, Boxue

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Foam-like 3 dimensional (3D) mesoporous NiO on 3D micro-porous Ni was fabricated. - Highlights: We prepare NiO-Ni foam composite via hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing. The NiO exhibits novel foam-like 3D mesoporous architecture. The NiO-Ni anode shows good cycle stability. - Abstract: Foam-like three dimensional mesoporous NiO on Ni foam was fabricated via facile hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing treatment. The porous NiO consists of a large number of nanosheets with mean thickness about 50 nm, among which a large number of mesoscopic pores with size ranges from 100 nm to 1 ?m distribute. The electrochemical performance of the as-prepared NiO-Ni as anode for lithium ion battery was studied by conventional charge/discharge test, which shows excellent cycle stability and rate capability. It exhibits initial discharge and charge capacities of 979 and 707 mA h g{sup ?1} at a charge/discharge rate of 0.7 C, which maintain of 747 and 738 mA h g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles. Even after 60 cycles at various rates from 0.06 to 14 C, the 10th discharge and charge capacities of the NiO-Ni electrode can revert to 699 and 683 mA h g{sup ?1} when lowering the charge/discharge rate to 0.06 C.

  15. Effect of fuel rate and annealing process of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material for Li-ion batteries synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim, Abdul; Setyawan, Heru; Machmudah, Siti; Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng

    2014-02-24

    In this study the effect of fuel rate and annealing on particle formation of LiFePO{sub 4} as battery cathode using flame spray pyrolysis method was investigated numerically and experimentally. Numerical study was done using ANSYS FLUENT program. In experimentally, LiFePO{sub 4} was synthesized from inorganic aqueous solution followed by annealing. LPG was used as fuel and air was used as oxidizer and carrier gas. Annealing process attempted in inert atmosphere at 700C for 240 min. Numerical result showed that the increase of fuel rate caused the increase of flame temperature. Microscopic observation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that all particles have sphere and polydisperse. Increasing fuel rate caused decreasing particle size and increasing particles crystallinity. This phenomenon attributed to the flame temperature. However, all produced particles still have more amorphous phase. Therefore, annealing needed to increase particles crystallinity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that all particles have PO4 function group. Increasing fuel rate led to the increase of infrared spectrum absorption corresponding to the increase of particles crystallinity. This result indicated that phosphate group vibrated easily in crystalline phase. From Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, annealing can cause the increase of Li{sup +} diffusivity. The diffusivity coefficient of without and with annealing particles were 6.8439910{sup ?10} and 8.5988810{sup ?10} cm{sup 2} s{sup ?1}, respectively.

  16. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.; Imhoff, Carl H.; Graff, Gordon L.; Li, Liyu; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Xia, Guanguang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Baskaran, Suresh; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2013-02-15

    Large-scale electrical energy storage has become more important than ever for reducing fossil energy consumption in transportation and for the widespread deployment of intermittent renewable energy in electric grid. However, significant challenges exist for its applications. Here, the status and challenges are reviewed from the perspective of materials science and materials chemistry in electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, sodium (sulfur and metal halide) batteries, Pb-acid battery, redox flow batteries, and supercapacitors. Perspectives and approaches are introduced for emerging battery designs and new chemistry combinations to reduce the cost of energy storage devices.

  17. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  18. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  19. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lee Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  1. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M; Wisinger, Nina; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquid cell.

  2. Coagulation calculations of icy planet formation around 0.1-0.5 M {sub ?} stars: Super-Earths from large planetesimals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C. E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate formation mechanisms for icy super-Earth-mass planets orbiting at 2-20 AU around 0.1-0.5 M {sub ?} stars. A large ensemble of coagulation calculations demonstrates a new formation channel: disks composed of large planetesimals with radii of 30-300 km form super-Earths on timescales of ?1 Gyr. In other gas-poor disks, a collisional cascade grinds planetesimals to dust before the largest planets reach super-Earth masses. Once icy Earth-mass planets form, they migrate through the leftover swarm of planetesimals at rates of 0.01-1 AU Myr{sup 1}. On timescales of 10 Myr to 1 Gyr, many of these planets migrate through the disk of leftover planetesimals from semimajor axes of 5-10 AU to 1-2 AU. A few percent of super-Earths might migrate to semimajor axes of 0.1-0.2 AU. When the disk has an initial mass comparable with the minimum-mass solar nebula, scaled to the mass of the central star, the predicted frequency of super-Earths matches the observed frequency.

  3. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Calzetti, Daniela; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F. Peter; Yun, Min S.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Montaa, Alfredo; Vega, Olga; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Shi, Yong

    2014-12-01

    The molecular gas, H{sub 2}, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L {sub IR} to L{sub CO}{sup ?} is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ?} in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to L{sub IR}{sup tot} results in a mean L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ?} for our entire sample consistent with the mean L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ?} derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ? 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L{sub 6.2}/L{sub IR}{sup SF} and L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ?}, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ?} for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  4. Characterization of Pliocene and Miocene Formations in the Wilmington Graben, Offshore Los Angeles, for Large-Scale Geologic Storage of CO₂

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Michael

    2014-12-08

    Geomechanics Technologies has completed a detailed characterization study of the Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California area for large-scale CO₂ storage. This effort has included: an evaluation of existing wells in both State and Federal waters, field acquisition of about 175 km (109 mi) of new seismic data, new well drilling, development of integrated 3D geologic, geomechanics, and fluid flow models for the area. The geologic analysis indicates that more than 796 MMt of storage capacity is available within the Pliocene and Miocene formations in the Graben for midrange geologic estimates (P50). Geomechanical analyses indicate that injection can be conducted without significant risk for surface deformation, induced stresses or fault activation. Numerical analysis of fluid migration indicates that injection into the Pliocene Formation at depths of 1525 m (5000 ft) would lead to undesirable vertical migration of the CO₂ plume. Recent well drilling however, indicates that deeper sand is present at depths exceeding 2135 m (7000 ft), which could be viable for large volume storage. For vertical containment, injection would need to be limited to about 250,000 metric tons per year per well, would need to be placed at depths greater than 7000ft, and would need to be placed in new wells located at least 1 mile from any existing offset wells. As a practical matter, this would likely limit storage operations in the Wilmington Graben to about 1 million tons per year or less. A quantitative risk analysis for the Wilmington Graben indicate that such large scale CO₂ storage in the area would represent higher risk than other similar size projects in the US and overseas.

  5. Airbrushed Nickel Nanoparticles for Large-Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarac, Mehmet; ANDERSON, BRYAN; Pearce, Ryan; Railsback, Justin; Oni, Adedapo; White, Ryan M.; Hensley, Dale K; Lebeau, James M; Melechko, Anatoli; Tracy, Joseph B

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) were grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using Ni nanoparticle (NP) catalysts that were deposited by airbrushing onto Si, Al, Cu, and Ti substrates. Airbrushing is a simple method for depositing catalyst NPs over large areas that is compatible with roll-to-roll processing. The distribution and morphology of VACNFs are affected by the airbrushing parameters and the composition of the metal foil. Highly concentrated Ni NPs in heptane give more uniform distributions than pentane and hexanes, resulting in more uniform coverage of VACNFs. For VACNF growth on metal foils, Si micropowder was added as a precursor for Si-enriched coatings formed in situ on the VACNFs that impart mechanical rigidity. Interactions between the catalyst NPs and the metal substrates impart control over the VACNF morphology. Growth of carbon nanostructures on Cu is particularly noteworthy because the miscibility of Ni with Cu poses challenges for VACNF growth, and carbon nanostructures anchored to Cu substrates are desired as anode materials for Li-ion batteries and for thermal interface materials.

  6. Observation of Electron-Beam-Induced Phase Evolution Mimicking the Effect of the Charge–Discharge Cycle in Li-Rich Layered Cathode Materials Used for Li Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Ping; Yan, Pengfei; Romero, Eric; Spoerke, Erik David; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Chong-Min

    2015-01-27

    Capacity loss, and voltage decrease upon electrochemical charge-discharge cycling observed in lithium-rich layered cathode oxides (Li[LixMnyTM1-x-y]O2, TM = Ni, Co or Fe) have recently been attributed to the formation of a surface reconstructed layer (SRL) that evolves from a thin (<2 nm), defect spinel layer upon the first charge, to a relatively thick (~5nm), spinel or rock-salt layer upon continuous charge-discharge cycling. Here we report observations of a SRL and structural evolution of the SRL on the Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LNMO) particles, which are identical to those reported due to the charge-discharge cycle but are a result of electron-beam irradiation during scanningmore » transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging. Sensitivity of the lithium-rich layered oxides to high-energy electrons leads to the formation of thin, defect spinel layer on surfaces of the particles when exposed to a 200kV electron beam for as little as 30 seconds under normal high-resolution STEM imaging conditions. Further electron irradiation produces a thicker layer of the spinel phase, ultimately producing a rock-salt layer at a higher electron exposure. Atomic-scale chemical mapping by electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in STEM indicates the electron-beam-induced SRL formation on LNMO is accomplished by migration of the transition metal ions to the Li sites without breaking down the lattice. The observation through this study provides an insight for understanding the mechanism of forming the SRL and also possibly a mean to study structural evolution in the Li-rich layered oxides without involving the electrochemistry.« less

  7. Observation of Electron-Beam-Induced Phase Evolution Mimicking the Effect of the ChargeDischarge Cycle in Li-Rich Layered Cathode Materials Used for Li Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ping; Yan, Pengfei; Romero, Eric; Spoerke, Erik David; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Chong-Min

    2015-01-27

    Capacity loss, and voltage decrease upon electrochemical charge-discharge cycling observed in lithium-rich layered cathode oxides (Li[LixMnyTM1-x-y]O2, TM = Ni, Co or Fe) have recently been attributed to the formation of a surface reconstructed layer (SRL) that evolves from a thin (<2 nm), defect spinel layer upon the first charge, to a relatively thick (~5nm), spinel or rock-salt layer upon continuous charge-discharge cycling. Here we report observations of a SRL and structural evolution of the SRL on the Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LNMO) particles, which are identical to those reported due to the charge-discharge cycle but are a result of electron-beam irradiation during scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging. Sensitivity of the lithium-rich layered oxides to high-energy electrons leads to the formation of thin, defect spinel layer on surfaces of the particles when exposed to a 200kV electron beam for as little as 30 seconds under normal high-resolution STEM imaging conditions. Further electron irradiation produces a thicker layer of the spinel phase, ultimately producing a rock-salt layer at a higher electron exposure. Atomic-scale chemical mapping by electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in STEM indicates the electron-beam-induced SRL formation on LNMO is accomplished by migration of the transition metal ions to the Li sites without breaking down the lattice. The observation through this study provides an insight for understanding the mechanism of forming the SRL and also possibly a mean to study structural evolution in the Li-rich layered oxides without involving the electrochemistry.

  8. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M; Wisinger, Nina Balke; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquidmore » cell.« less

  9. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  10. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon lm044wang2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and...

  11. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt007esconner2012p.pdf More Documents &...

  13. 3D Printing of Interdigitated Li-Ion Microbattery Architectures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: solar (photovoltaic), solid state lighting, phonons, thermal conductivity, electrodes - solar, materials and chemistry...

  14. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ravt008esdicarlo2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB...

  15. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  16. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt005_es_trumm_2012

  17. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC36-08GO28308 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at IEEE Conference on Reliability Science for Advanced Materials and Devices, ...

  18. Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fultz, B.

    2001-01-12

    This research is on materials for anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells. The work is a mix of electrochemical measurements and analysis of the materials by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. At present, our experimental work involves only materials for Li storage, but we have been writing papers from our previous work on hydrogen-storage materials.

  19. Searching for Sustainable and "Greener" Li-ion Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie [University of Picardie at Aimens, France

    2010-01-08

    Lithium-ion batteries are strong candidates for powering upcoming generations of hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. But improvements in safety must be achieved while keeping track of materials resources and abundances, as well as materials synthesis and recycling processes, all of which could inflict a heavy energy cost. Thus, electrode materials that have a minimum footprint in nature and are made via eco-efficient processes are sorely needed. The arrival of electrode materials based on minerals such as LiFePO4 (tryphilite) is a significant, but not sufficient, step toward the long-term demand for materials sustainability. The eco-efficient synthesis of LiFePO4 nanopowders via hydrothermal/ solvo-thermal processes using latent bases, structure directing templates, or other bio-related approaches will be presented in this talk. However, to secure sustainability and greeness, organic electrodes appear to be ideal candidates.... We took a fresh look at organic based electrodes; the results of this research into sequentially metal-organic-framework electrodes and Li-based organic electrodes (LixCyOz) will be reported and discussed.

  20. Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D...

  1. First-Principles Calculations, Electrochemical and X-ray Absorption Studies of Li-Ni-PO4 Surface-Treated xLi2MnO3 (1 x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co) Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolverton, Christopher; Croy, J R; Balasubramanian, M; Kang, Sun-Ho; Lopez-Rivera, C. M.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been previously hypothesized that the enhanced rate capability of Li-Ni-PO{sub 4}-treated xLi{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} {center_dot} (1-x)LiMO{sub 2} positive electrodes (M = Mn, Ni, Co) in Li-ion batteries might be associated with a defect Ni-doped Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} surface structure [i.e., Li{sub 3-2y}Ni{sub y}PO{sub 4} (0 < y < 1)], thereby promoting fast Li{sup +}-ion conduction at the xLi{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} {center_dot} (1-x)LiMO{sub 2} particle surface. In this paper, the solubility of divalent metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Mg) in {gamma}-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is predicted with the first-principles GGA+U method in an effort to understand the enhanced rate capability. The predicted solubility (x) is extremely small; this finding is consistent with experimental evidence: 1) X-ray diffraction data obtained from Li-Ni-PO{sub 4}-treated xLi{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} {center_dot} (1-x)LiMO{sub 2} electrodes that show that, after annealing at 550 C, a Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-like structure forms as a second phase at the electrode particle surface, and 2) X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which indicate that the nickel ions are accommodated in the transition metal layers of the Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} component during the annealing process. However, electrochemical studies of Li{sub 3-2y}Ni{sub y}PO{sub 4}-treated xLi{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} {center_dot} (1-x)LiMO{sub 2} electrodes indicate that their rate capability increases as a function of y over the range y = 0 (Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) to y = 1 (LiNiPO{sub 4}), strongly suggesting that, at some level, the nickel ions play a role in reducing electrochemical impedance and increasing electrode stability at the electrode particle surface.

  2. CX-009182: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    (0675-1536) Oak Ridge National Laboratory -Temperature Self-Regulation for Large Format Li-ion Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/29/2012 Location(s): Tennessee, California Offices(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

  3. Sparse Image Format

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-12

    The Sparse Image Format (SIF) is a file format for storing spare raster images. It works by breaking an image down into tiles. Space is savid by only storing non-uniform tiles, i.e. tiles with at least two different pixel values. If a tile is completely uniform, its common pixel value is stored instead of the complete tile raster. The software is a library in the C language used for manipulating files in SIF format. Itmore » supports large files (> 2GB) and is designed to build in Windows and Linux environments.« less

  4. Kent_AIMD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partial radial-distribution of Li- ion with the carbonyl oxygen of ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) from AIMD simulations. In both cases the first solvation shell of the Li-ion has 4 EC or PC molecules, consistent with experiment. Figure from Ref. 1. FIRST Center Research Perspective: AIMD Simulations of Li-ion Battery Electrolytes and Incipient SEI formation Paul R. C. Kent, P. Ganesh, D. Jiang Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Summary: Using ab initio molecular

  5. Abuse Testing of High Power Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing of High Power Batteries Abuse Testing of High Power Batteries 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es_11_roth.pdf More Documents & Publications Abuse Tolerance Improvement Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Battery Safety Testing

  6. Celgard and Entek - Battery Separator Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Entek - Battery Separator Development Celgard and Entek - Battery Separator Development 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es_08_tataria.pdf More Documents & Publications USABC Battery Separator Development Overview and Progress of United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Activity Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Bat

  7. Particulate Formation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  8. Formation, characterization and dynamics of onion like carbon structures from nanodiamonds using reactive force-fields for electrical energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Kent, Paul R; Mochalin, Vadym N

    2011-01-01

    We simulate the experimentally observed graphitization of nanodiamonds into multi-shell onion-like carbon nanostructures, also called carbon onions, at different temperatures, using reactive force fields. The simulations include long-range Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. Our results suggest that long-range interactions play a crucial role in the phase-stability and the graphitization process. Graphitization is both enthalpically and entropically driven and can hence be controlled with temperature. The outer layers of the nanodiamond have a lower kinetic barrier toward graphitization irrespective of the size of the nanodiamond and graphitize within a few-hundred picoseconds, with a large volume increase. The inner core of the nanodiamonds displays a large size-dependent kinetic barrier, and graphitizes much more slowly with abrupt jumps in the internal energy. It eventually graphitizes by releasing pressure and expands once the outer shells have graphitized. The degree of transformation at a particular temperature is thereby determined by a delicate balance between the thermal energy, long-range interactions, and the entropic/enthalpic free energy gained by graphitization. Upon full graphitization, a multi-shell carbon nanostructure appears, with a shell-shell spacing of about {approx}3.4 {angstrom} for all sizes. The shells are highly defective with predominantly five- and seven-membered rings to curve space. Larger nanodiamonds with a diameter of 4 nm can graphitize into spiral structures with a large ({approx}29-atom carbon ring) pore opening on the outermost shell. Such a large one-way channel is most attractive for a controlled insertion of molecules/ions such as Li ions, water, or ionic liquids, for increased electrochemical capacitor or battery electrode applications.

  9. Formation, characterization, and dynamics of onion-like carbon structures for electrical energy storage from nanodiamonds using reactive force fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, P.; Kent, P. R. C.; Mochalin, V.

    2011-10-01

    We simulate the experimentally observed graphitization of nanodiamonds into multi-shell onion-like carbonnanostructures, also called carbon onions, at different temperatures, using reactive force fields. The simulations include long-range Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. Our results suggest that long-range interactions play a crucial role in the phase-stability and the graphitization process. Graphitization is both enthalpically and entropically driven and can hence be controlled with temperature. The outer layers of the nanodiamond have a lower kinetic barrier toward graphitization irrespective of the size of the nanodiamond and graphitize within a few-hundred picoseconds, with a large volume increase. The inner core of the nanodiamonds displays a large size-dependent kinetic barrier, and graphitizes much more slowly with abrupt jumps in the internal energy. It eventually graphitizes by releasing pressure and expands once the outer shells have graphitized. The degree of transformation at a particular temperature is thereby determined by a delicate balance between the thermal energy, long-range interactions, and the entropic/enthalpic free energy gained by graphitization. Upon full graphitization, a multi-shell carbonnanostructure appears, with a shell-shell spacing of about ~3.4 for all sizes. The shells are highly defective with predominantly five- and seven-membered rings to curve space. Larger nanodiamonds with a diameter of 4 nm can graphitize into spiral structures with a large (~29-atom carbon ring) pore opening on the outermost shell. Such a large one-way channel is most attractive for a controlled insertion of molecules/ions such as Li ions, water, or ionic liquids, for increased electrochemical capacitor or battery electrode applications.

  10. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es008pekala2012...

  11. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es008pekala2011...

  12. Chemical Heterogeneity of a Large Cluster CP IDP: Clues to its...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of a Large Cluster CP IDP: Clues to its Formation History Using X-ray Fluoresence ... Title: Chemical Heterogeneity of a Large Cluster CP IDP: Clues to its Formation History ...

  13. Probing the failure mechanism of nanoscale LiFePO₄ for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Ji-guang; Wang, Chongmin

    2015-05-18

    LiFePO4 is a high power rate cathode material for lithium ion battery and shows remarkable capacity retention, featuring a 91% capacity retention after 3300 cycles. In this work, we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the gradual capacity fading mechanism of LiFePO4 materials. We found that upon prolonged electrochemical cycling of the battery, the LiFePO4 cathode shows surface amorphization and loss of oxygen species, which directly contribute to the gradual capacity fading of the battery. The finding is of great importance for the design and improvement of new LiFePO4 cathode for high-energy and high-power rechargeable battery for electric transportation.

  14. Studies on the thermal breakdown of common Li-ion battery electrolyte components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, Emanuel Peter; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2015-08-06

    While much attention is paid to the impact of the active materials on the catastrophic failure of lithium ion batteries, much of the severity of a battery failure is also governed by the electrolytes used, which are typically flammable themselves and can decompose during battery failure. The use of LiPF6 salt can be problematic as well, not only catalyzing electrolyte decomposition, but also providing a mechanism for HF production. This work evaluates the safety performance of the common components ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) in the context of the gasses produced during thermal decomposition, looking at both the quantity and composition of the vapor produced. EC and DEC were found to be the largest contributors to gas production, both producing upwards of 1.5 moles of gas/mole of electrolyte. DMC was found to be relatively stable, producing very little gas regardless of the presence of LiPF6. EMC was stable on its own, but the addition of LiPF6 catalyzed decomposition of the solvent. As a result, while gas analysis did not show evidence of significant quantities of any acutely toxic materials, the gasses themselves all contained enough flammable components to potentially ignite in air.

  15. Studies on the thermal breakdown of common Li-ion battery electrolyte components

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, Emanuel Peter; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2015-08-06

    While much attention is paid to the impact of the active materials on the catastrophic failure of lithium ion batteries, much of the severity of a battery failure is also governed by the electrolytes used, which are typically flammable themselves and can decompose during battery failure. The use of LiPF6 salt can be problematic as well, not only catalyzing electrolyte decomposition, but also providing a mechanism for HF production. This work evaluates the safety performance of the common components ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) in the context of the gasses producedmore » during thermal decomposition, looking at both the quantity and composition of the vapor produced. EC and DEC were found to be the largest contributors to gas production, both producing upwards of 1.5 moles of gas/mole of electrolyte. DMC was found to be relatively stable, producing very little gas regardless of the presence of LiPF6. EMC was stable on its own, but the addition of LiPF6 catalyzed decomposition of the solvent. As a result, while gas analysis did not show evidence of significant quantities of any acutely toxic materials, the gasses themselves all contained enough flammable components to potentially ignite in air.« less

  16. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W

    2012-03-05

    A space-charge-limited beam with current densities (J) exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} have been measured from lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at a temperature of #24;~1275#14;{degrees} C. At higher extraction voltages, the source appears to become emission limited with J #21;{>=} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, and J increases weakly with the applied voltage. A 6.35 mm diameter source with an alumino-silicate coating, {<=}#20;0.25 mm thick, has a measured lifetime of ~#24;40 hours at ~#24;1275#14;{degrees} C, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of #24;~6 μs each. At this rate, the source lifetime was independent of the actual beam charge extracted due to the loss of neutral atoms at high temperature. The source lifetime increases with the amount of alumino-silicate coated on the emitting surface, and may also be further extended if the temperature is reduced between pulses.

  17. Layer cathode methods of manufacturing and materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2008-01-01

    A positive electrode active material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of general formula Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.A.sub..gamma.O.sub.2 and further wherein A is Mg, Zn, Al, Co, Ga, B, Zr, or Ti and 0

  18. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Anode Material Development for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sinode Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy anode material...

  1. The Relationship of the Nail Penetration Test to Safety of Li-Ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Metal-Based High Capacity Li-Ion Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Binghamton University-SUNY at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal-based high...

  3. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es086srinivasan2010p.pdf More...

  4. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es34srinivasan.pdf More...

  5. Biphasic Electrode Suspensions for Li-Ion Semi-solid Flow Cells...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Low-Dissipation Flow Authors: Wei, Teng-Sing ; Fan, Frank Y. ; Helal, Ahmed ; Smith, Kyle C. ; McKinley, Gareth H. ; Chiang, Yet-Ming ; Lewis, Jennifer A. 1 ; MIT) 2...

  6. Electrochemical and physical analysis of a Li-ion cell cycled at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Joongpyo; Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Song, Xiangyun; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2002-06-21

    Laboratory-size LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/graphite lithium-ion pouch cells were cycled over 100 percent DOD at room temperature and 60 degrees C in order to investigate high-temperature degradation mechanisms of this important technology. Capacity fade for the cell was correlated with that for the individual components, using electrochemical analysis of the electrodes and other diagnostic techniques. The high-temperature cell lost 65 percent of its initial capacity after 140 cycles at 60 degrees C compared to only 4 percent loss for the cell cycled at room temperature. Cell ohmic impedance increased significantly with the elevated temperature cycling, resulting in some of loss of capacity at the C/2 rate. However, as determined with slow rate testing of the individual electrodes, the anode retained most of its original capacity, while the cathode lost 65 percent, even when cycled with a fresh source of lithium. Diagnostic evaluation of cell components including XRD, Raman, CSAFM and suggest capacity loss occurs primarily due to a rise in the impedance of the cathode, especially at the end-of-charge. The impedance rise may be caused in part by a loss of the conductive carbon at the surface of the cathode and/or by an organic film on the surface of the cathode that becomes non-ionically conductive at low lithium content.

  7. Thermal/Electrical Modeling for Abuse-Tolerant Design of Li-Ion Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2008-11-01

    To help design safe, high-performing batteries, NREL and NASA created and verified a new multicell math model capturing electrical-thermal interactions of cells with PTC devices during thermal abuse.

  8. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  9. Role of Surface Structure on Li-ion Energy Storage Capacity of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: catalysis (heterogeneous), solar (fuels), energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel...

  10. Eddy current sensor for in-situ monitoring of swelling of Li-ion prismatic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotnikov, Yuri Karp, Jason Knobloch, Aaron Kapusta, Chris Lin, David

    2015-03-31

    In-situ monitoring an on-board rechargeable battery in hybrid cars can be used to ensure a long operating life of the battery and safe operation of the vehicle. Intercalations of ions in the electrode material during charge and discharge of a Lithium Ion battery cause periodic stress and strain of the electrode materials that can ultimately lead to fatigue resulting in capacity loss and potential battery failure. Currently this process is not monitored directly on the cells. This work is focused on development technologies that would quantify battery swelling and provide in-situ monitoring for onboard vehicle applications. Several rounds of tests have been performed to spatially characterize cell expansion of a 5 Ah cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode (Sanyo, Japan) used by Ford in their Fusion HEV battery pack. A collaborative team of researchers from GE and the University of Michigan has characterized the free expansion of these cells to be in the range of 100125 microns (1% of total cell thickness) at the center point of the cell. GE proposed to use a thin eddy current (EC) coil to monitor these expansions on the cells while inside the package. The photolithography manufacturing process previously developed for EC arrays for detecting cracks in aircraft engine components was used to build test coils for gap monitoring. These sensors are thin enough to be placed safely between neighboring cells and capable of monitoring small variations in the gap between the cells. Preliminary investigations showed that these coils can be less than 100 micron thick and have sufficient sensitivity in a range from 0 to 2 mm. Laboratory tests revealed good correlation between EC and optical gap measurements in the desired range. Further technology development could lead to establishing a sensor network for a low cost solution for the in-situ monitoring of cell swelling during battery operation.

  11. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of Li-ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electron Transmission X-ray Microscopies. Abstract not provided. Authors: Sullivan, John P ; Bartelt, Norman C. ; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid ; Fenton, Kyle R 1 ;...

  13. Multi-physics Modeling for Improving Li-Ion Battery Safety; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Yang, C.

    2015-04-21

    Battery performance, cost, and safety must be further improved for larger market share of HEVs/PEVs and penetration into the grid. Significant investment is being made to develop new materials, fine tune existing ones, improve cell and pack designs, and enhance manufacturing processes to increase performance, reduce cost, and make batteries safer. Modeling, simulation, and design tools can play an important role by providing insight on how to address issues, reducing the number of build-test-break prototypes, and accelerating the development cycle of generating products.

  14. Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-02-01

    This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  16. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  17. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ohio | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt007_es_conner_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Saft Factory of the Future Saft Factory of the Future Saft Factory of the Future

  18. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es034_yang_2012_o

  19. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es034_yang_2011_p

  20. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es100_angell_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2013: Abuse Tolerance Improvements track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

  1. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Nian; Wu, Hui; Mcdowell, Matthew T.; Yao, Yan; Wang, Chong M.; Cui, Yi

    2012-05-02

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si electrode must have high capacity, long cycle life, high efficiency, and the fabrication must be industrially scalable. Here, we design and fabricate a yolk-shell structure to meet all these needs. The fabrication is carried out without special equipment and mostly at room temperature. Commercially available Si nanoparticles are completely sealed inside conformal, thin, self-supporting carbon shells, with rationally designed void space in between the particles and the shell. The well-defined void space allows the Si particles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell, therefore stabilizing the solid-electrolyte interphase on the shell surface. High capacity (?2800 mAh/g at C/10), long cycle life (1000 cycles with 74% capacity retention), and high Coulombic efficiency (99.84%) have been realized in this yolk-shell structured Si electrode.

  2. Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  3. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  4. Li-Ion polymer cells thermal property changes as a function of cycle-life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maleki, Hossein; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Hallmark, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The impact of elevated temperature chargeedischarge cycling on thermal conductivity (K-value) of Lithium Ion Polymer (LIP) cells of various chemistries from three different manufacturers was investigated. These included high voltage (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.35 V), wide voltage (Si:C/LiCoO2:2.7e4.35 V) and conventional (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.2 V) chemistries. Investigation results show limited variability within the in-plane and through-plane K-values for the fresh cells with graphite-based anodes from all three suppliers. After 500 cycles at 45 C, in-plane and through-plane K-values of the high voltage cells reduced less vs. those for the wide voltage cells. Such results suggest that high temperature cycling could have a greater impact on thermal properties of Si:C cells than on the LIP cells with graphite (Gr) anode cells we tested. This difference is due to the excess swelling of Si:C-anode based cells vs. Gr-anode cells during cycling, especially at elevated temperatures. Thermal modeling is used to evaluate the impact of K-value changes, due to cycles at 45 C, on the cells internal heat propagation under internal short circuit condition that leads to localized meltdown of the separator.

  5. Large displacement spherical joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

  6. Running Large Scale Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Running Large Scale Jobs Running Large Scale Jobs Users face various challenges with running and scaling large scale jobs on peta-scale production systems. For example, certain applications may not have enough memory per core, the default environment variables may need to be adjusted, or I/O dominates run time. This page lists some available programming and run time tuning options and tips users can try on their large scale applications on Hopper for better performance. Try different compilers

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - Sacci_2015_UserProjectHighlight_NanoLett.pptx [Read-Only]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium dendrite formation is a major safety concern existing in Li-ion and Li-metal batteries. In situ ec-S/TEM (a liquid cell electron microscopy based characterization method) is used to perform linear sweep voltammetry to induce solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and stimulate lithium electrodeposition from a standard, aprotic organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We directly observe the formation of the SEI and preferential nucleation and growth of Li metal dendrites (on the surface

  8. Running Large Scale Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    try on their large scale applications on Hopper for better performance. Try different compilers and compiler options The available compilers on Hopper are PGI, Cray, Intel, GNU,...

  9. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccot, Sila

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  10. I/O Formats

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formats I/O Formats Software I/O continues to be one of the main bottlenecks for scientific applications. Here are two software packages that many application developers use to manage input/output of heterogeneous types of binary application data used on many different platforms. HDF5 and NETCDF are both implemented on top of MPI-IO and have gained popularity as alternatives to basic POSIX API. HDF5 is a machine-independent and self-documenting file format. Each HDF5 file "looks" like

  11. Level Diagram Format Choice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Which format should I use? There is no clear-cut answer to this question -- different solutions work better in different situations. In an effort to help you decide which will work best for you, we provide a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the three available formats. GIF: GIF stands for Graphic Interchange Format. It was developed by CompuServe as a device-independent way to store pictures. The files are well-compressed, so download time is relatively short. Most web browsers

  12. Extra-Large Memory Nodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extra-Large Memory Nodes Extra-Large Memory Nodes Extra-Large Memory Nodes Overview Carver has two "extra-large" memory nodes; each node has four 8-core Intel X7550 ("Nehalem EX")...

  13. large-scale conveyance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large-scale conveyance - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  14. Using PHP format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... k e O(1) between cyclotron harmonics; k becomes large for frequencies just ... is strong at all harmonics and therefore the wave will not propagate beyond this point. ...

  15. formatting | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    formatting Home Jweers's picture Submitted by Jweers(88) Contributor 7 August, 2013 - 18:23 New Robust References citation citing developer formatting reference Semantic Mediawiki...

  16. Sean Large | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sean Large Sean Large Sean Large - Intern with the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Most Recent Be Part of the Solution! June 22 What's Up With Fuel Cells? June 8

  17. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  18. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  19. Large forging manufacturing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thamboo, Samuel V.; Yang, Ling

    2002-01-01

    A process for forging large components of Alloy 718 material so that the components do not exhibit abnormal grain growth includes the steps of: a) providing a billet with an average grain size between ASTM 0 and ASTM 3; b) heating the billet to a temperature of between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; c) upsetting the billet to obtain a component part with a minimum strain of 0.125 in at least selected areas of the part; d) reheating the component part to a temperature between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; e) upsetting the component part to a final configuration such that said selected areas receive no strains between 0.01 and 0.125; f) solution treating the component part at a temperature of between 1725.degree. F. and 1750.degree. F.; and g) aging the component part over predetermined times at different temperatures. A modified process achieves abnormal grain growth in selected areas of a component where desirable.

  20. Using PHP format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... long passage of a magnetic cloud event on January 1415, 1988 in which a coherent, slowly rotating, large 10-20 nT interplanetary magnetic field IMF passed over the Earth. ...

  1. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation The molecular gas,

  2. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  3. TEMPORAL SELF-ORGANIZATION IN GALAXY FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-04-20

    We report on the discovery of a relation between the number of star formation (SF) peaks per unit time, ?{sub peak}, and the size of the temporal smoothing window function, ?t, used to define the peaks: ?{sub peak}??t {sup 1} {sup } {sup ?} (? ? 1.618). This relation holds over the range of ?t = 10-1000Myr that can be reliably computed here, using a large sample of galaxies obtained from a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. This means that the temporal distribution of SF peaks in galaxies as a population is fractal with a Hausdorff fractal dimension equal to ? 1. This finding reveals, for the first time, that the superficially chaotic process of galaxy formation is underlined by temporal self-organization up to at least one gigayear. It is tempting to suggest that, given the known existence of spatial fractals (such as the power-law two-point function of galaxies), there is a joint spatio-temporal self-organization in galaxy formation. From an observational perspective, it will be urgent to devise diagnostics to probe the SF histories of galaxies with good temporal resolution to facilitate a test of this prediction. If confirmed, it would provide unambiguous evidence for a new picture of galaxy formation that is interaction driven, cooperative, and coherent in and between time and space. Unravelling its origin may hold the key to understanding galaxy formation.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Efficient Safety and Degradation Modeling of Automotive Li-ion Cells and Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by EC-Power at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about efficient safety and degradation...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Efficient Safety and Degradation Modeling of Automotive Li-ion Cells and Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by EC Power at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about efficient safety and degradation...

  6. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, A.; Horne, C.R.; Chang, O.; Zhang, W.; Kong, W.; Wang, E.; Chern, T.; Doeff, M. M.

    2009-08-04

    The electrochemical performances of nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 materials are described in this communication. The nanomaterials were synthesized by pyrolysis of an aerosol precursor. Both compositions required moderate heat-treatment to become electrochemically active. LiFePO4 nanoparticles were coated with a uniform, 2-4 nm thick carbon-coating using an organic precursor in the heat treatment step and showed high tap density of 1.24 g/cm3, in spite of 50-100 nm particle size and 2.9 wtpercent carbon content. Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles were between 50-200 nm in size and showed tap density of 0.8 g/cm3. The nanomaterials were tested both in half cell configurations against Li-metal and also in LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells. Nano-LiFePO4 showed high discharge rate capability with values of 150 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 charges. Nano-Li4Ti5O12 also showed high charge capability with values of 148 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 discharges; the discharge (lithiation) capability was comparatively slower. LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells deliver charge/discharge capacity values of 150 and 122 mAh/g at C/5 and 5C, respectively.

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-cost, High Energy Si/Graphene Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XG Sciences at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-cost, high energy Si/graphene...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Giga Life Cycle: Manufacture of Cells from Recycled EV Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by OnTo Technology at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Giga Life Cycle: manufacture...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Real-time Metrology for Li-ion Battery R&D and Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Applied Spectra, Inc at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about real-time metrology for...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Real-time Metrology for Li-ion Battery R&D and Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Applied Spectra at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about real-time metrology for Li...

  11. Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-01-406

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-07-01

    The pressure within a lithium-ion cell changes due to various chemical reactions. When a battery undergoes an unintended short circuit, the pressure changes are drastic - and often lead to uncontrolled failure of the cells. As part of work for others with Oceanit Laboratories Inc. for the NAVY STTR, NREL built Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations that can identify potential weak spots in the battery during such events, as well as propose designs to control violent failure of batteries.

  12. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-05-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (Evs) have great potential to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and emissions. Battery costs need to be reduced by ~50% to make PHEVs cost competitive with conventional vehicles. One option to reduce initial costs is to reuse the battery in a second application following its retirement from automotive service and offer a cost credit for its residual value.

  13. Development of a Novel Test Method for On-Demand Internal Short Circuit in a Li-Ion Cell (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, M.; Long, D.; Jung, Y. S.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.; McCarthy, B.; Patrick, L.; Kruger, C.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation describes a cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, produces consistent and reproducible test results, can establish the locations and temperatures/power/SOC conditions where an internal short circuit will result in thermal runaway, and provides relevant data to validate internal short circuit models.

  14. Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-407

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2012-01-01

    Creare was awarded a Phase 1 STTR contract from the US Office of Naval Research, with a seven month period of performance from 6/28/2010 to 1/28/2011. The objectives of the STTR were to determine the feasibility of developing a software package for estimating reliability of battery packs, and develop a user interface to allow the designer to assess the overall impact on battery packs and host platforms for cell-level faults. NREL served as sub-tier partner to Creare, providing battery modeling and battery thermal safety expertise.

  15. Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive Polymer Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-01-14

    Electrode used in lithium-ion battery is invariably a composite of multifunctional components. The performance of the electrode is controlled by the interactive function of all components at mesoscale. Fundamental understanding of mesoscale phenomenon sets the basis for innovative designing of new materials. Here we report the achievement and origin of a significant performance enhancement of electrode for lithium ion batteries based on Si nanoparticles wrapped with conductive polymer. This new material is in marked contrast with conventional material, which exhibit fast capacity fade. In-situ TEM unveils that the enhanced cycling stability of the conductive polymer-Si composite is associated with mesoscale concordant function of Si nanoparticles and the conductive polymer. Reversible accommodation of the volume changes of Si by the conductive polymer allows good electrical contact between all the particles during the cycling process. In contrast, the failure of the conventional Si-electrode is probed to be the inadequate electrical contact.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Li-ion Anode Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Pittsburgh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about nanoscale...

  17. Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Li-Ion Battery Model for Better Design and Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Smith, K.

    2008-10-01

    The developed model used is to provide a better understanding and help answer engineering questions about improving the design, operational strategy, management, and safety of cells.

  18. Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Title: Operon Formation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Operon Formation is Driven by Co-Regulation and Not by Horizontal Gene Transfer Authors: Morgan N. Price, Katherine H. Huang, Eric Alm, and Adam P. Arkin Author affiliation: Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley CA, USA. A.P.A. is also affiliated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the UC Berkeley Dept. of Bioengineering. Corresponding author: Eric Alm, ejalm@lbl.gov, phone 510-843-1794, fax 510-486-6059, address Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 939R704, Berkeley, CA

  1. Tribal Utility Formation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Tribal Utility Formation in the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory Ken Johnston Acting Tribal Affairs Manager BPA TRIBAL AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT JULY 2015 B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N 2 The Basics  BPA markets power from 31 Federal dams, the Columbia Generating Station Nuclear Plant, and several small non- Federal power plants  About 80% of the power BPA sells is hydroelectric  BPA accounts for about

  2. Look At (Search) Large Files

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-07-13

    Scanning large files for information can be time consuming and expensive when using edit utilities on large mainframe computers. The reason is that editors must usually load the file into a buffer.

  3. Extra-Large Memory Nodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extra-Large Memory Nodes Extra-Large Memory Nodes Extra-Large Memory Nodes Overview Carver has two "extra-large" memory nodes; each node has four 8-core Intel X7550 ("Nehalem EX") 2.0 GHz processors (32 cores total) and 1TB memory. These nodes are available through the queue "reg_xlmem". They can be used for interactive and batch jobs that require large amount of memory (16GB per core or more). reg_xlmem queue Please refer to the "Queues and Policies" page

  4. Help:Formatting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it in two single quotes like ''this'' Contents 1 Text formatting markup 2 Paragraphs 3 HTML 4 Other formatting Text formatting markup Description You type You get character...

  5. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-12-20

    We adopt a new chemical evolution model for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and thereby investigate its past star formation and chemical enrichment histories. The delay time distribution of Type Ia supernovae recently revealed by Type Ia supernova surveys is incorporated self-consistently into the new model. The principle results are summarized as follows. The present gas mass fraction and stellar metallicity as well as the higher [Ba/Fe] in metal-poor stars at [Fe/H] < -1.5 can be more self-consistently explained by models with steeper initial mass functions. The observed higher [Mg/Fe] ({>=}0.3) at [Fe/H] {approx} -0.6 and higher [Ba/Fe] (>0.5) at [Fe/H] {approx} -0.3 could be due to significantly enhanced star formation about 2 Gyr ago. The observed overall [Ca/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation and remarkably low [Ca/Fe] (< - 0.2) at [Fe/H] > -0.6 are consistent with models with short-delay supernova Ia and with the more efficient loss of Ca possibly caused by an explosion mechanism of Type II supernovae. Although the metallicity distribution functions do not show double peaks in the models with a starburst about 2 Gyr ago, they show characteristic double peaks in the models with double starbursts {approx}200 Myr and {approx}2 Gyr ago. The observed apparent dip of [Fe/H] around {approx}1.5 Gyr ago in the age-metallicity relation can be reproduced by models in which a large amount ({approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) of metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) gas can be accreted onto the LMC.

  6. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  7. Large Truck Crash Facts 2007

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Analysis Division Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration January 2009 LARGE TRUCK AND BUS CRASH FACTS 2007 Analysis Division Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration January 2009 LARGE TRUCK AND BUS CRASH FACTS 2007 FMCSA-RRA-09-029 LARGE TRUCK AND BUS CRASH FACTS 2007 January 2009 Analysis Division Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration For more information, contact the Analysis Division at (202) 366-1861, or visit our web sites at www.fmcsa.dot.gov and ai.volpe.dot.gov. Contents

  8. EM Active Sites (large) | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EM Active Sites (large) EM Active Sites (large) Center Map View All Maps Addthis

  9. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  10. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  11. Formation of Thick, Large-Area Nanoparticle Superlatices in Lithographically Defined Geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akey, A.; Yang, L.; Lu, C.; Herman, I.P.

    2010-03-31

    Superlattices of colloidal nanocrystals hold the promise of new nanomaterials with tunable properties. The positioning and size of these structures are often poorly controlled after self-assembly from the solution phase, making studies of their properties difficult. We report the fabrication of {approx}100 layer thick, three-dimensional superlattices on a substrate with controlled lateral placement. This novel fabrication technique generates long-range order over the micrometer scale and controlled placement by employing lithographic patterning and microfluidic flow. Keywords: Nanoparticles; superlattice; self assembly; microfluidics; ordered array.

  12. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Collisionless Weibel shocks: Full formation mechanism and timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Stockem, A. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Institut fr Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitt Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Narayan, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Silva, L. O. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    Collisionless shocks in plasmas play an important role in space physics (Earth's bow shock) and astrophysics (supernova remnants, relativistic jets, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays). While the formation of a fluid shock through the steepening of a large amplitude sound wave has been understood for long, there is currently no detailed picture of the mechanism responsible for the formation of a collisionless shock. We unravel the physical mechanism at work and show that an electromagnetic Weibel shock always forms when two relativistic collisionless, initially unmagnetized, plasma shells encounter. The predicted shock formation time is in good agreement with 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of counterstreaming pair plasmas. By predicting the shock formation time, experimental setups aiming at producing such shocks can be optimised to favourable conditions.

  14. Mixing device for materials with large density differences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1994-08-16

    An auger-tube pump mixing device is disclosed for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided. 2 figs.

  15. Mixing device for materials with large density differences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An auger-tube pump mixing device for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided.

  16. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the

  17. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  18. Chunking of Large Multidimensional Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotem, Doron; Otoo, Ekow J.; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2007-02-28

    Data intensive scientific computations as well on-lineanalytical processing applications as are done on very large datasetsthat are modeled as k-dimensional arrays. The storage organization ofsuch arrays on disks is done by partitioning the large global array intofixed size hyper-rectangular sub-arrays called chunks or tiles that formthe units of data transfer between disk and memory. Typical queriesinvolve the retrieval of sub-arrays in a manner that accesses all chunksthat overlap the query results. An important metric of the storageefficiency is the expected number of chunks retrieved over all suchqueries. The question that immediately arises is "what shapes of arraychunks give the minimum expected number of chunks over a query workload?"In this paper we develop two probabilistic mathematical models of theproblem and provide exact solutions using steepest descent and geometricprogramming methods. Experimental results, using synthetic workloads onreal life data sets, show that our chunking is much more efficient thanthe existing approximate solutions.

  19. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  20. SW New Mexico Oil Well Formation Tops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Rock formation top picks from oil wells from southwestern New Mexico from scout cards and other sources. There are differing formation tops interpretations for some wells, so for those wells duplicate formation top data are presented in this file.

  1. Observations of solute effects on bubble formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmeier, U.; Yaminsky, V.V.; Christenson, H.K.

    1995-09-01

    The authors have studied the effects of solute, in particular aqueous electrolyte, on bubble formation at capillary orifices and frits at varying gas flow rates. Using a stroboscope, video microscope, and rotating mirror, they have obtained pictures which show how bubble formation involves the interaction of bubbles at the orifice. These interactions depend on the value of the surface elasticity E due to positively (ethanol) or negatively (NaCl) adsorbed solute. At low flow rates consecutive bubbles do not interact. Each bubble detaches and leaves the orifice region before the next one starts forming. A intermediate flow rates the more closely spaced, consecutive bubbles begin to interact. In pure liquids there is no barrier to bubble coalescence and the detached bubble is fed by the subsequent bubble as this starts to grow. The process may be repeated several times before the original bubble has risen out of range. In solutions where E is large enough bubble coalescence is inhibited. Instead of feeding into the detached bubble the following bubble pushes it aside, and the bubbles appear to bounce off each other. Bouncing may give rise to a characteristic sequence of larger and smaller bubbles if the emerging bubbles break off prematurely from the orifice due to the inertia of the original bubble. The transition from feeding to bouncing depends critically on E of the solution and leads to a smaller average bubble size for large E values. At high flow rates detached bubbles are invariably fed by several subsequent ones. At very high flow rates the bubbling becomes chaotic, but the interaction of bubbles after leaving the orifice area produces smaller bubbles in solutions. Bouncing is more likely to occur with narrow and irregular capillaries. The dramatically different appearance of gas-sparged columns in salt water and freshwater has its origin in the difference between assemblies of pores showing mainly feeding (freshwater) or bouncing (salt water).

  2. Macroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Macroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formation Title Macroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formation Publication Type Journal Article Year of...

  3. Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation via Liquid Cell TEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation...

  4. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  5. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  6. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  7. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  8. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  9. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  10. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  11. LHC: The Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-03-04

    The Large Hadron Collider (or LHC) is the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. In 2012, scientists used data taken by it to discover the Higgs boson, before pausing operations for upgrades and improvements. In the spring of 2015, the LHC will return to operations with 163% the energy it had before and with three times as many collisions per second. It’s essentially a new and improved version of itself. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains both some of the absolutely amazing scientific and engineering properties of this modern scientific wonder.

  12. The EPRDATA Format: A Dialogue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, III, Henry Grady

    2015-08-18

    Recently the Los Alamos Nuclear Data Team has communicated certain issues of concern in relation to the new electron/photon/relaxation ACE data format as released in the eprdata12 library. In this document those issues are parsed, analyzed, and answered.

  13. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, Roderick A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  14. STAR FORMATION IN NUCLEAR RINGS OF BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear rings in barred galaxies are sites of active star formation. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the temporal and spatial behavior of star formation occurring in nuclear rings of barred galaxies where radial gas inflows are triggered solely by a bar potential. The star formation recipes include a density threshold, an efficiency, conversion of gas to star particles, and delayed momentum feedback via supernova explosions. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is roughly equal to the mass inflow rate to the ring, while it has a weak dependence on the total gas mass in the ring. The SFR typically exhibits a strong primary burst followed by weak secondary bursts before declining to very small values. The primary burst is associated with the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth, while the secondary bursts are caused by re-infall of the ejected gas from the primary burst. While star formation in observed rings persists episodically over a few Gyr, the duration of active star formation in our models lasts for only about half of the bar growth time, suggesting that the bar potential alone is unlikely to be responsible for gas supply to the rings. When the SFR is low, most star formation occurs at the contact points between the ring and the dust lanes, leading to an azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters. When the SFR is large, on the other hand, star formation is randomly distributed over the whole circumference of the ring, resulting in no apparent azimuthal age gradient. Since the ring shrinks in size with time, star clusters also exhibit a radial age gradient, with younger clusters found closer to the ring. The cluster mass function is well described by a power law, with a slope depending on the SFR. Giant gas clouds in the rings have supersonic internal velocity dispersions and are gravitationally bound.

  15. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  16. Laser scattered images observed from carbon plasma stagnation and following molecular formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, K.; Shibata, R.; Yabuuchi, T.; Tanaka, K. A.; Sunahara, A.

    2014-06-16

    Two carbon targets were irradiated to create plasma plumes to collide at right angle with two UV laser pulses each other at 10?J/cm{sup 2}/pulse. The collision results in carbon plasma stagnation. Laser scattered imaging indicates that the carbon large molecular formation takes place much later in time after the laser irradiation and stagnation. Compared with the temporal history of electron density (n{sub e}), ion density (n{sub i}), and plasma self-emission dominated by carbon Swan band, it is estimated that the carbon large molecular formation has been initiated with the ion collision followed by the C{sub 2} formation.

  17. Bump formation in a binary attractor neural network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koroutchev, Kostadin; Korutcheva, Elka

    2006-02-15

    The conditions for the formation of local bumps in the activity of binary attractor neural networks with spatially dependent connectivity are investigated. We show that these formations are observed when asymmetry between the activity during the retrieval and learning is imposed. An analytical approximation for the order parameters is derived. The corresponding phase diagram shows a relatively large and stable region where this effect is observed, although critical storage and information capacities drastically decrease inside that region. We demonstrate that the stability of the network, when starting from the bump formation, is larger than the stability when starting even from the whole pattern. Finally, we show a very good agreement between the analytical results and the simulations performed for different topologies of the network.

  18. Large-Scale Information Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Nicol; H. R. Ammerlahn; M. E. Goldsby; M. M. Johnson; D. E. Rhodes; A. S. Yoshimura

    2000-12-01

    Large enterprises are ever more dependent on their Large-Scale Information Systems (LSLS), computer systems that are distinguished architecturally by distributed components--data sources, networks, computing engines, simulations, human-in-the-loop control and remote access stations. These systems provide such capabilities as workflow, data fusion and distributed database access. The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) contains many examples of LSIS components, a fact that motivates this research. However, most LSIS in use grew up from collections of separate subsystems that were not designed to be components of an integrated system. For this reason, they are often difficult to analyze and control. The problem is made more difficult by the size of a typical system, its diversity of information sources, and the institutional complexities associated with its geographic distribution across the enterprise. Moreover, there is no integrated approach for analyzing or managing such systems. Indeed, integrated development of LSIS is an active area of academic research. This work developed such an approach by simulating the various components of the LSIS and allowing the simulated components to interact with real LSIS subsystems. This research demonstrated two benefits. First, applying it to a particular LSIS provided a thorough understanding of the interfaces between the system's components. Second, it demonstrated how more rapid and detailed answers could be obtained to questions significant to the enterprise by interacting with the relevant LSIS subsystems through simulated components designed with those questions in mind. In a final, added phase of the project, investigations were made on extending this research to wireless communication networks in support of telemetry applications.

  19. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1990-01-01

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  20. Final Report: Mechanisms of sputter ripple formation: coupling among energetic ions, surface kinetics, stress and composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chason, Eric; Shenoy, Vivek

    2013-01-22

    Self-organized pattern formation enables the creation of nanoscale surface structures over large areas based on fundamental physical processes rather than an applied template. Low energy ion bombardment is one such method that induces the spontaneous formation of a wide variety of interesting morphological features (e.g., sputter ripples and/or quantum dots). This program focused on the processes controlling sputter ripple formation and the kinetics controlling the evolution of surfaces and nanostructures in high flux environments. This was done by using systematic, quantitative experiments to measure ripple formation under a variety of processing conditions coupled with modeling to interpret the results.

  1. FILAMENTARY STAR FORMATION: OBSERVING THE EVOLUTION TOWARD FLATTENED ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Katherine; Looney, Leslie; Johnstone, Doug; Tobin, John E-mail: lwl@illinois.edu E-mail: jtobin@nrao.edu

    2012-12-20

    Filamentary structures are ubiquitous from large-scale molecular clouds (a few parsecs) to small-scale circumstellar envelopes around Class 0 sources ({approx}1000 AU to {approx}0.1 pc). In particular, recent observations with the Herschel Space Observatory emphasize the importance of large-scale filaments (a few parsecs) and star formation. The small-scale flattened envelopes around Class 0 sources are reminiscent of the large-scale filaments. We propose an observationally derived scenario for filamentary star formation that describes the evolution of filaments as part of the process for formation of cores and circumstellar envelopes. If such a scenario is correct, small-scale filamentary structures (0.1 pc in length) with higher densities embedded in starless cores should exist, although to date almost all the interferometers have failed to observe such structures. We perform synthetic observations of filaments at the prestellar stage by modeling the known Class 0 flattened envelope in L1157 using both the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We show that with reasonable estimates for the column density through the flattened envelope, the CARMA D array at 3 mm wavelengths is not able to detect such filamentary structure, so previous studies would not have detected them. However, the substructures may be detected with the CARMA D+E array at 3 mm and the CARMA E array at 1 mm as a result of more appropriate resolution and sensitivity. ALMA is also capable of detecting the substructures and showing the structures in detail compared to the CARMA results with its unprecedented sensitivity. Such detection will confirm the new proposed paradigm of non-spherical star formation.

  2. Director's colloquium March 18 large hadron collider

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Director's colloquium large hadron collider Director's colloquium March 18 large hadron collider Lyndon Evans of CERN will talk about the most complex scientific instrument ever ...

  3. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  4. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P. (Livermore, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Livermore, CA); Patterson, Ralph W. (Livermore, CA); Sawicki, Richard H. (Danville, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse (20) using one or more delay loops (10). The delay loops (10) have a partially reflective beam splitter (12) and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors (14) arranged such that the laser beam pulse (20) enters into the delay loop (10) through the beam splitter (12) and circulates therein along a delay loop length (24) defined by the mirrors (14). As the laser beam pulse (20) circulates within the delay loop (10) a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse (20) strikes the beam splitter (12). The laser beam pulse (20) is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56). The delay loops (10) are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56) using additive waveform synthesis.

  5. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  6. EINSTEIN'S SIGNATURE IN COSMOLOGICAL LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruni, Marco; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Wands, David

    2014-10-10

    We show how the nonlinearity of general relativity generates a characteristic nonGaussian signal in cosmological large-scale structure that we calculate at all perturbative orders in a large-scale limit. Newtonian gravity and general relativity provide complementary theoretical frameworks for modeling large-scale structure in ?CDM cosmology; a relativistic approach is essential to determine initial conditions, which can then be used in Newtonian simulations studying the nonlinear evolution of the matter density. Most inflationary models in the very early universe predict an almost Gaussian distribution for the primordial metric perturbation, ?. However, we argue that it is the Ricci curvature of comoving-orthogonal spatial hypersurfaces, R, that drives structure formation at large scales. We show how the nonlinear relation between the spatial curvature, R, and the metric perturbation, ?, translates into a specific nonGaussian contribution to the initial comoving matter density that we calculate for the simple case of an initially Gaussian ?. Our analysis shows the nonlinear signature of Einstein's gravity in large-scale structure.

  7. The Mechanism of First Raindrops Formation in Deep Convective Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khain, Alexander; Prabha, Thara; Benmoshe, Nir; Pandithurai, G.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail

    2013-08-22

    The formation of first raindrops in deep convective clouds is investigated. A combination of observational data analysis and 2-D and 3-D numerical bin microphysical simulations of deep convective clouds suggests that the first raindrops form at the top of undiluted or slightly diluted cores. It is shown that droplet size distributions in these regions are wider and contain more large droplets than in diluted volumes. The results of the study indicate that the initial raindrop formation is determined by the basic microphysical processes within ascending adiabatic volumes. It allows one to predict the height of the formation of first raindrops considering the processes of nucleation, diffusion growth and collisions. The results obtained in the study explain observational results reported by Freud and Rosenfeld (2012) according to which the height of first raindrop formation depends linearly on the droplet number concentration at cloud base. The results also explain why a simple adiabatic parcel model can reproduce this dependence. The present study provides a physical basis for retrieval algorithms of cloud microphysical properties and aerosol properties using satellites proposed by Rosenfeld et al. ( 2012). The study indicates that the role of mixing and entrainment in the formation of the first raindrops is not of crucial importance. It is also shown that low variability of effective and mean volume radii along horizontal traverses, as regularly observed by in situ measurements, can be simulated by high-resolution cloud models, in which mixing is parameterized by a traditional 1.5 order turbulence closure scheme.

  8. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2012-10-09

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  9. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay (Brentwood, CA); Ayers, Shannon Lee (Brentwood, CA)

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  10. First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances April 6, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Drilling nears completion for the first large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection well in the United States for CO2 sequestration. This project will be used to demonstrate that CO2 emitted from industrial sources - such as coal-fired power plants - can be stored in deep geologic formations to mitigate large quantities of greenhouse gas

  11. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

  12. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-11

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  13. Petrophysical evaluation of subterranean formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klein, James D; Schoderbek, David A; Mailloux, Jason M

    2013-05-28

    Methods and systems are provided for evaluating petrophysical properties of subterranean formations and comprehensively evaluating hydrate presence through a combination of computer-implemented log modeling and analysis. Certain embodiments include the steps of running a number of logging tools in a wellbore to obtain a variety of wellbore data and logs, and evaluating and modeling the log data to ascertain various petrophysical properties. Examples of suitable logging techniques that may be used in combination with the present invention include, but are not limited to, sonic logs, electrical resistivity logs, gamma ray logs, neutron porosity logs, density logs, NRM logs, or any combination or subset thereof.

  14. Format for Federal Register Notice

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Format for Federal Register Notice Billing Code must appear at the top of the document. This code (6450-01-P) is the same for all Departmental submissions. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW SYSTEM OF RECORDS AGENCY United States Department of Energy. ACTION Proposed Establishment a New Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY The summary paragraph should state briefly what action is being proposed in the notice, why the action is necessary, and the intended

  15. Star formation histories across the interacting galaxy NGC 6872, the largest-known spiral

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; De Mello, Duilia F.; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; De Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2014-11-01

    NGC 6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 ?m) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  16. XML Format for SESAME and LEOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durrenberger, J K; Neely, J R; Sterne, P A

    2009-04-29

    The objective of this document is to describe the XML format used by LLNL and LANL to represent the equation-of-state and related material information in the LEOS and SESAME data libraries. The primary purpose of this document is to describe a specific XML format for representing EOS data that is tailored to the nature of the underlying data and is amenable to conversion to both legacy SESAME and LEOS binary formats. The secondary purpose is to describe an XML format that lends itself to a 'natural' representation in a binary file format of the SESAME, pdb or hdf5 form so that this format and related tools can be used for the rapid and efficient development and implementation of prototype data structures. This document describes the XML format only. A working knowledge of LEOS and SESAME formats is assumed.

  17. BAR FORMATION FROM GALAXY FLYBYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, Meagan; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sinha, Manodeep E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2014-08-01

    Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybysfast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halosare surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities ? 0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ?5Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with interactions than previously thought.

  18. Coring in deep hardrock formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Coke formation in visbreaking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y. )

    1987-04-01

    Visbreaking is a mild cracking process primarily used to reduce residual oil viscosity and thus decrease the amount of cutter stock required for blending to heavy fuels specification. It can also be used to produce incremental quantities of gasoline, middle distillates and catalytic cracker feeds. This process was widely used in the 1930s and 1940s and became obsolete until a few years ago. When the need for increased conversion of residues to light products became desirable, visbreaking offered economic advantages to many refining schemes - especially in Western Europe. Between 1978-1981, Exxon brought on stream seven visbreakers ranging from 1900 to 9100 tons/SD capacity. In January 1983, the world-wide visbreaking capacity was over 2 MM B/SD. The visbreaking process and its application in refinery operations have been well described. In general, the process economics improve as the process severity is increased but it is limited by coke formation in the process. For this reason, they have studied the kinetics of coke formation in the visbreaking process.

  20. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  1. Porosity reduction in Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Porosity and grain density were determined for different lithologies from throughout a 1.2-km thick section of the Monterey and Sisquoc formations in the Santa Maria basin area, California. Porosity reduction by physical and chemical compaction in the predominantly siliceous sediment is controlled largely by the bulk sediment composition and silica phase transformations. Physical compaction of sediment grains from increasing overburden pressure is responsible for most of the gradual porosity reduction with increasing burial depth in opal-A siliceous ooze and diatomite. The porous, incompressible diatom frustule maintains a high porosity relative to clayey and calcareous sediment. Therefore, a positive correlation exists between porosity and biogenic silica (diatom) content of the sediment. During the opal-A to opal-CT silica phase transformation, solution of the porous diatom frustule and precipitation of cryptocrystalline opal-CT results in a porosity reduction that roughly correlates with the biogenic silica content of the sediment. Local porosity reduction occurs in pore-filling dolomite and chert nodules. Dry bulk density as well as porosity reduction tend to increase with sediment depth. Dolomite and organic matter have the most significant influence on the bulk density because of their respective high and low density. The maximum burial depth of the uplifted and eroded section is estimated by overlapping the porosity-depth relation of average deep-sea siliceous ooze.

  2. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

  3. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  4. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1999-03-16

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays is disclosed. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area. 12 figs.

  5. Engineering Model for Ash Formation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-02

    Ash deposition is controlled by the impaction and sticking of individual ash particles to heat transfer surfaces. Prediction of deposition therefore requires that the important factors in this process be predictable from coal and operational parameters. Coal combustion, boiler heat transfer, ash formation, ash particle aerodynamic, and ash particle sticking models are all essential steps in this process. The model described herein addresses the prediction of ash particle size and composition distributions based upon combustionmore » conditions and coal parameters. Key features of the model include a mineral redistribution routine to invert CCSEM mineralogical data, and a mineral interaction routine that simulates the conversion of mineral matter into ash during coal burning and yields ash particle size and composition distributions.« less

  6. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  7. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar introduces the Large Scale Renewable Energy Guide." The webinar will provide an overview of this important FEMP guide, which describes FEMP's approach to large-scale renewable energy projects and provides guidance to Federal agencies and the private sector on how to develop a common process for large-scale renewable projects.

  8. Managing Large Capital Projects | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Managing Large Capital Projects Managing Large Capital Projects Presentation from the 2015 DOE National Cleanup Workshop by Ken Picha, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Tank Waste and Nuclear Material, Office of Environmental Management. PDF icon Managing Large Capital Projects More Documents & Publications Waste Treatment Plant Project Construction of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) 2013 Congressional Nuclear Cleanup Caucus Briefings

  9. PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY WEAK, MISALIGNED MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Hull, Charles L. H.

    2013-04-10

    The gas from which stars form is magnetized, and strong magnetic fields can efficiently transport angular momentum. Most theoretical models of this phenomenon find that it should prevent formation of large (>100 AU), rotationally supported disks around most protostars, even when non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects that allow the field and gas to decouple are taken into account. Using recent observations of magnetic field strengths and orientations in protostellar cores, we show that this conclusion is incorrect. The distribution of magnetic field strengths is very broad, and alignments between fields and angular momentum vectors within protostellar cores are essentially random. By combining the field strength and misalignment data with MHD simulations showing that disk formation is expected for both weak and misaligned fields, we show that these observations imply that we should expect disk fractions of {approx}10%-50% even when protostars are still deeply embedded in their parent cores, and even if the gas is governed by ideal MHD.

  10. FORMATION OF FULLERENES IN H-CONTAINING PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GarcIa-Hernandez, D. A.; Manchado, A.; Stanghellini, L.; Shaw, R. A.; Villaver, E.; Szczerba, R.; Perea-Calderon, J. V. E-mail: amt@iac.e E-mail: shaw@noao.ed E-mail: eva.villaver@uam.e E-mail: Jose.Perea@sciops.esa.in

    2010-11-20

    Hydrogen depleted environments are considered an essential requirement for the formation of fullerenes. The recent detection of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} fullerenes in what was interpreted as the hydrogen-poor inner region of a post-final helium shell flash planetary nebula (PN) seemed to confirm this picture. Here, we present strong evidence that challenges the current paradigm regarding fullerene formation, showing that it can take place in circumstellar environments containing hydrogen. We report the simultaneous detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fullerenes toward C-rich and H-containing PNe belonging to environments with very different chemical histories such as our own Galaxy and the Small Magellanic Cloud. We suggest that PAHs and fullerenes may be formed by the photochemical processing of hydrogenated amorphous carbon. These observations suggest that modifications may be needed to our current understanding of the chemistry of large organic molecules as well as the chemical processing in space.

  11. Solution-processable glass LiI-Li4SnS4 superionic conductors for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kern Ho Park; Oh, Dae Yang; Choi, Young Eun; Nam, Young Jin; Han, Lili; Kim, Ju -Young; Xin, Huolin; Lin, Feng; Oh, Seung M.; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2015-12-22

    The new, highly conductive (4.1 × 10–4 S cm–1 at 30 °C), highly deformable, and dry-air-stable glass 0.4LiI-0.6Li4SnS4 is prepared using a homogeneous methanol solution. Furthermore, the solution process enables the wetting of any exposed surface of the active materials with highly conductive solidified electrolytes (0.4LiI-0.6Li4SnS4), resulting in considerable improvements in electrochemical performances of these electrodes over conventional mixture electrodes.

  12. Stability and Rate Capability of Al Substituted Lithium-Rich High-Manganese Content Oxide Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zheng; Chernova, Natasha A.; Feng, Jijun; Upreti, Shailesh; Omenya, Fredrick; Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2015-10-15

    The structures, electrochemical properties and thermal stability of Al-substituted lithium-excess oxides, Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.16} Mn{sub 0.56}Co{sub 0.08-y}Al{sub y}O{sub 2} (y = 0, 0.024, 0.048, 0.08), are reported, and compared to the stoichiometric compounds, LiNi{sub z}Mn{sub z}Co{sub 1-2z}O{sub 2}. A solid solution was found up to at least y = 0.06. Aluminum substitution improves the poor thermal stability while preserving the high energy density of lithium-excess oxides. However, these high manganese compositions are inferior to the lithium stoichiometric materials, LiNi{sub z}Mn{sub z}Co{sub 1-2z}O{sub 2} (z = 0.333, 0.4), in terms of both power and thermal stability.

  13. Solution-processable glass LiI-Li4SnS4 superionic conductors for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern Ho Park; Oh, Dae Yang; Choi, Young Eun; Nam, Young Jin; Han, Lili; Kim, Ju -Young; Xin, Huolin; Lin, Feng; Oh, Seung M.; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2015-12-22

    The new, highly conductive (4.1 × 10–4 S cm–1 at 30 °C), highly deformable, and dry-air-stable glass 0.4LiI-0.6Li4SnS4 is prepared using a homogeneous methanol solution. Furthermore, the solution process enables the wetting of any exposed surface of the active materials with highly conductive solidified electrolytes (0.4LiI-0.6Li4SnS4), resulting in considerable improvements in electrochemical performances of these electrodes over conventional mixture electrodes.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis Energy, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li...

  15. Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Lee, K. J.

    2012-05-01

    This 2012 Annual Merit Review presentation gives an overview of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) project and introduces the Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional model for modeling lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by EC Power at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about evelopment of cell/pack level models...

  17. A Phenomenological Model of Bulk Force in a Li-Ion Battery Pack and Its Application to State of Charge Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, S; Kim, Y; Siegel, JB; Samad, NA; Stefanopoulou, AG

    2014-09-19

    A phenomenological model of the bulk force exerted by a lithium ion cell during various charge, discharge, and temperature operating conditions is developed. The measured and modeled force resembles the carbon expansion behavior associated with the phase changes during intercalation, as there are ranges of state of charge (SOC) with a gradual force increase and ranges of SOC with very small change in force. The model includes the influence of temperature on the observed force capturing the underlying thermal expansion phenomena. Moreover the model is capable of describing the changes in force during thermal transients, when internal battery heating due to high C-rates or rapid changes in the ambient temperature, which create a mismatch in the temperature of the cell and the holding fixture. It is finally shown that the bulk force model can be very useful for a more accurate and robust SOC estimation based on fusing information from voltage and force (or pressure) measurements. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Applied Materials at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about modular process equipment...

  19. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Marcinek, M.; Hardwick, L.J.; Richardson, T.J.; Song, X.; Kostecki, R.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin-film composite Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon decorated with uniformly distributed Sn nanoparticles were synthesized from a solid organic precursor Sn(IV) tert-butoxide by a one step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The thin-film Sn/C electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half cells and produced a reversible capacity of 440 and 297 mAhg{sup -1} at C/25 and 5C discharge rates, respectively. A long term cycling of the Sn/C nanocomposite anodes showed 40% capacity loss after 500 cycles at 1C rate.

  20. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DUST MAPPING REVEALS THAT ORION FORMS PART OF A LARGE RING OF DUST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F.; Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2015-02-01

    The Orion Molecular Complex is the nearest site of ongoing high-mass star formation, making it one of the most extensively studied molecular complexes in the Galaxy. We have developed a new technique for mapping the three-dimensional distribution of dust in the Galaxy using Pan-STARRS1 photometry. We isolate the dust at the distance to Orion using this technique, revealing a large (100 pc, 14 diameter), previously unrecognized ring of dust, which we term the ''Orion dust ring''. The ring includes Orion A and B, and is not coincident with current H? features. The circular morphology suggests formation as an ancient bubble in the interstellar medium, though we have not been able to conclusively identify the source of the bubble. This hint at the history of Orion may have important consequences for models of high-mass star formation and triggered star formation.

  1. Formation of hollow nanocrystals through the nanoscale kirkendall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Yadong; Rioux, Robert M.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Hughes, Steven; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2004-03-11

    We demonstrate that hollow nanocrystals can be synthesized through a mechanism analogous to the Kirkendall Effect, in which pores form due to the difference in diffusion rates between two components in a diffusion couple. Cobalt nanocrystals are chosen as a primary example to show that their reaction in solution with oxygen, sulfur or selenium leads to the formation of hollow nanocrystals of the resulting oxide and chalcogenides. This process provides a general route to the synthesis of hollow nanostructures of large numbers of compounds. A simple extension of this process yields platinum-cobalt oxide yolk-shell nanostructures which may serve as nanoscale reactors in catalytic applications.

  2. Project Profile: Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing Project Profile: Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing Abengoa logo Abengoa Solar, under the Solar Manufacturing Technology (SolarMat) program, will be investigating the use of an automotive-style high-rate fabrication and automated assembly techniques to achieve a substantial reduction in the deployment cost of their new SpaceTube advanced large aperture parabolic trough collector. Approach Abengoa is developing

  3. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  4. The Cielo Petascale Capability Supercomputer: Providing Large...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Cielo Petascale Capability Supercomputer: Providing Large-Scale Computing for Stockpile Stewardship Authors: Vigil, Benny Manuel 1 ; Doerfler, Douglas W. 1 + Show ...

  5. Idaho Power- Large Commercial Custom Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large commercial and industrial Idaho Power customers that reduce energy usage through more efficient electrical commercial and industrial processes may qualify for an incentive that is the lesser...

  6. Higgs Hunting at the Large Hadron Collider

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... with exactly 4 leptons There are 11 channels due to lepton flavor Leptons with large transverse momentum can be identified and measured very precisely so also the Higgs ...

  7. REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation PDF icon RCC Workplan NGV.PDF More Documents & Publications REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING ...

  8. Standard Format and Content for Emergency Plans

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21

    This volume addresses recommended emergency plan format and content for Operational Emergency Base Programs and Operational Emergency Hazardous Material Programs. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-3.

  9. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  10. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2013-10-15

    A method for treating a karsted formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and dolomite includes providing heat to at least part of one or more karsted layers in the formation from one or more heaters located in the karsted layers. A temperature in at least one of the karsted layers is allowed to reach a decomposition temperature of dolomite in the formation. The dolomite is allowed to decompose and at least some hydrocarbons are produced from at least one of the karsted layers of the formation.

  11. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

  12. Formation Testing Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Testing Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Formation Testing Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0)...

  13. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  14. New Particle Formation Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, JN; McMurry, PH

    2015-01-01

    The scientific foci of the New Particle Formation Study were the formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols and the impacts of newly formed particles on cloud processes. Specifically, we planned to: (1) to identify the species and mechanisms responsible for the initial steps of new particle formation, i.e., the formation of thermodynamically stable clusters; (2) investigate the role of acid-base chemistry in new particle growth through measurements of ammonia and amines as well as organic and inorganic acids in both atmospheric nanoparticles and the gas phase; (3) investigate the contribution of other surface area or volume-controlled processes to nanoparticle formation and growth; (4) create a comprehensive dataset related to new particle formation and growth that can be used as input for our own thermodynamic models as well as the modeling efforts by our Department of Energy (DOE) Aerosol Life Cycle working group collaborators; (5) characterize the increase of the number and activity of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) due to particle formation and growth; (6) determine the regional extent of new particle formation to address the role that atmospheric transport plays in determining the impacts, if any, of new particle formation on cloud number and properties.

  15. Format requirements of thermal neutron scattering data in a nuclear data format to succeed the ENDF format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-03-31

    In November 2012, the Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation Subgroup 38 (WPEC-SG38) began with the task of developing a nuclear data format and supporting infrastructure to replace the now nearly 50 year old ENDF format. The first step in this process is to develop requirements for the new format and infrastructure. In this talk, I will review the status of ENDF's Thermal Scattering Law (TSL) formats as well as support for this data in the GND format (from which the new format is expected to evolve). Finally, I hope to begin a dialog with members of the thermal neutron scattering community so that their data needs can be accurately and easily accommodated by the new format and tools, as captured by the requirements document. During this discussion, we must keep in mind that the new tools and format must; Support what is in existing data files; Support new things we want to put in data files; and Be flexible enough for us to adapt it to future unanticipated challenges.

  16. Generically large nongaussianity in small multifield inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bramante, Joseph

    2015-07-07

    If forthcoming measurements of cosmic photon polarization restrict the primordial tensor-to-scalar ratio to r<0.01, small field inflation will be a principal candidate for the origin of the universe. Here we show that small multifield inflation, without the hybrid mechanism, typically results in large squeezed nongaussianity. Small multifield potentials contain multiple flat field directions, often identified with the gauge invariant field directions in supersymmetric potentials. We find that unless these field directions have equal slopes, large nongaussianity arises. After identifying relevant differences between large and small two-field potentials, we demonstrate that the latter naturally fulfill the Byrnes-Choi-Hall large nongaussianity conditions. Computations of the primordial power spectrum, spectral index, and squeezed bispectrum, reveal that small two-field models which otherwise match observed primordial perturbations, produce excludably large nongaussianity if the inflatons’ field directions have unequal slopes.

  17. Lyalpha EMITTERS IN HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION. II. ULTRAVIOLET...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lyalpha EMITTERS IN HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION. II. ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM LUMINOSITY ... FORMATION. II. ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND EQUIVALENT WIDTH ...

  18. Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

    2012-09-25

    A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

  19. Stellar signatures of AGN-jet-triggered star formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph; Bryan, Sarah; Gaibler, Volker; Haas, Marcel

    2014-12-01

    To investigate feedback between relativistic jets emanating from active galactic nuclei and the stellar population of the host galaxy, we analyze the long-term evolution of the orbits of the stars formed in the galaxy-scale simulations by Gaibler et al. of jets in massive, gas-rich galaxies at z ? 2-3. We find strong, jet-induced differences in the resulting stellar populations of galaxies that host relativistic jets and galaxies that do not, including correlations in stellar locations, velocities, and ages. Jets are found to generate distributions of increased radial and vertical velocities that persist long enough to effectively augment the stellar structure of the host. The jets cause the formation of bow shocks that move out through the disk, generating rings of star formation within the disk. The bow shock often accelerates pockets of gas in which stars form, yielding populations of stars with significant radial and vertical velocities, some of which have large enough velocities to escape the galaxy. These stellar population signatures can serve to identify past jet activity as well as jet-induced star formation.

  20. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S.; Anh, D.H.; Chung, S.H.

    2008-08-15

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  1. ON MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FORMATION AND THE MAGNETOHYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM OF SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaeggli, S. A.; Lin, H.; Uitenbroek, H.

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the problem of sunspot magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with comprehensive IR sunspot magnetic field survey observations of the highly sensitive Fe I lines at 15650 A and nearby OH lines. We have found that some sunspots show isothermal increases in umbral magnetic field strength which cannot be explained by the simplified sunspot model with a single-component ideal gas atmosphere assumed in previous investigations. Large sunspots universally display nonlinear increases in magnetic pressure over temperature, while small sunspots and pores display linear behavior. The formation of molecules provides a mechanism for isothermal concentration of the umbral magnetic field, and we propose that this may explain the observed rapid increase in umbral magnetic field strength relative to temperature. Existing multi-component sunspot atmospheric models predict that a significant amount of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) exists in the sunspot umbra. The formation of H{sub 2} can significantly alter the thermodynamic properties of the sunspot atmosphere and may play a significant role in sunspot evolution. In addition to the survey observations, we have performed detailed chemical equilibrium calculations with full consideration of radiative transfer effects to establish OH as a proxy for H{sub 2}, and demonstrate that a significant population of H{sub 2} exists in the coolest regions of large sunspots.

  2. Star formation bimodality in early-type galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.; Temi, P.; Im, S.; Fanelli, M.; Serra, P.

    2014-03-10

    We compute the properties of a sample of 221 local, early-type galaxies with a spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling software, CIGALEMC. Concentrating on the star-forming (SF) activity and dust contents, we derive parameters such as the specific star formation rate (sSFR), the dust luminosity, dust mass, and temperature. In our sample, 52% is composed of elliptical (E) galaxies and 48% of lenticular (S0) galaxies. We find a larger proportion of S0 galaxies among galaxies with a large sSFR and large specific dust emission. The stronger activity of S0 galaxies is confirmed by larger dust masses. We investigate the relative proportion of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and SF galaxies in our sample using spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and near-infrared selection techniques, and find a larger proportion of AGN-dominated galaxies in the S0 sample than the E one. This could corroborate a scenario where blue galaxies evolve into red ellipticals by passing through an S0 AGN active period while quenching its star formation. Finally, we find a good agreement comparing our estimates with color indicators.

  3. Photogeneration of active formate decomposition catalysts to produce hydrogen from formate and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Jr., Allen D. (Athens, GA); King, Robert B. (Athens, GA); Sailers, III, Earl L. (Athens, GA)

    1983-02-08

    A process for producing hydrogen from formate and water by photogenerating an active formate decomposition catalyst from transition metal carbonyl precursor catalysts at relatively low temperatures and otherwise mild conditions is disclosed. Additionally, this process may be expanded to include the generation of formate from carbon monoxide and hydroxide such that the result is the water gas shift reaction.

  4. Very Large System Dynamics Models - Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Leonard Malczynski

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides lessons learned from developing several large system dynamics (SD) models. System dynamics modeling practice emphasize the need to keep models small so that they are manageable and understandable. This practice is generally reasonable and prudent; however, there are times that large SD models are necessary. This paper outlines two large SD projects that were done at two Department of Energy National Laboratories, the Idaho National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper summarizes the models and then discusses some of the valuable lessons learned during these two modeling efforts.

  5. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Engines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine Combustion/Modeling/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Engines - Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Enginesadmin2015-10-28T02:19:26+00:00 LES-SN-LES-Eng-Combustion-Modeling-2 The combination of High Performance Computing (HPC) and the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique has significant potential to provide new insights into the dynamics of IC-engine flow processes. At the CRF, we integrate the combined merits of HPC and LES in a manner that provides some of the highest-fidelity, most detailed

  6. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Engines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reacting Flow/Modeling/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Engines - Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Enginesadmin2015-10-30T01:57:44+00:00 The combination of high-performance computing (HPC) and the large eddy simulation (LES) technique has significant potential to provide new insights into the dynamics of many types of turbulent combustion processes. The objective of LES development at the CRF is to fully integrate the combined merits of HPC and LES in a manner that provides some of the

  7. Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwaterresources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact ongroundwater systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan,Preston; Zhang,K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-10-24

    If carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies areimplemented on a large scale, the amounts of CO2 injected and sequesteredunderground could be extremely large. The stored CO2 then replaces largevolumes of native brine, which can cause considerable pressureperturbation and brine migration in the deep saline formations. Ifhydraulically communicating, either directly via updipping formations orthrough interlayer pathways such as faults or imperfect seals, theseperturbations may impact shallow groundwater or even surface waterresources used for domestic or commercial water supply. Possibleenvironmental concerns include changes in pressure and water table,changes in discharge and recharge zones, as well as changes in waterquality. In compartmentalized formations, issues related to large-scalepressure buildup and brine displacement may also cause storage capacityproblems, because significant pressure buildup can be produced. Toaddress these issues, a three-year research project was initiated inOctober 2006, the first part of which is summarized in this annualreport.

  8. Large-Scale Wind Training Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, Richard L.

    2013-07-01

    Project objective is to develop a credit-bearing wind technician program and a non-credit safety training program, train faculty, and purchase/install large wind training equipment.

  9. Magnetic fields and galactic star formation rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loo, Sven Van; Tan, Jonathan C.; Falle, Sam A. E. G.

    2015-02-10

    The regulation of galactic-scale star formation rates (SFRs) is a basic problem for theories of galaxy formation and evolution: which processes are responsible for making observed star formation rates so inefficient compared to maximal rates of gas content divided by dynamical timescale? Here we study the effect of magnetic fields of different strengths on the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within a kiloparsec patch of a disk galaxy and resolving scales down to ?0.5 pc. Including an empirically motivated prescription for star formation from dense gas (n{sub H}>10{sup 5} cm{sup ?3}) at an efficiency of 2% per local free-fall time, we derive the amount of suppression of star formation by magnetic fields compared to the nonmagnetized case. We find GMC fragmentation, dense clump formation, and SFR can be significantly affected by the inclusion of magnetic fields, especially in our strongest investigated B-field case of 80 ?G. However, our chosen kiloparsec-scale region, extracted from a global galaxy simulation, happens to contain a starbursting cloud complex that is only modestly affected by these magnetic fields and likely requires internal star formation feedback to regulate its SFR.

  10. Autonomie Large Scale Deployment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Scale Deployment Autonomie Large Scale Deployment 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon vss009_rousseau_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Autonomie Plug&Play Software Architecture Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Accelerate the Development and Introduction of Advanced Technologies Through Model Based System Engineering Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014:

  11. Microsoft Word - Rapid Reflective Facet Characterization Using Fringe Reflection Techniques full paper formatted large pics.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceedings of ES2009 Energy Sustainability 2009 July 19-23, 2009, San Francisco, California USA ES2009-90163 RAPID REFLECTIVE FACET CHARACTERIZATION USING FRINGE REFLECTION TECHNIQUES Charles E. Andraka Scott Sadlon Brian Myer Kirill Trapeznikov Christina Liebner Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185, USA ABSTRACT Mirror facets for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems have stringent requirements on slope accuracy in order to provide adequate system performance. This paper

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Manufacturability Study and Scale-Up for Large Format Lithium Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  13. Carbon nanotube formation by laser direct writing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Su, H.-C.; Tsai, C.-M.; Liu, K.-L.; Chen, G.-D.; Huang, R.-H.; Yew, T.-R.

    2008-07-14

    This letter presents carbon nanotube (CNT) formation by laser direct writing using 248 nm KrF excimer pulsed laser in air at room temperature, which was applied to irradiate amorphous carbon (a-C) assisted by Ni catalysts underneath for the transformation of carbon species into CNTs. The CNTs were synthesized under appropriate combination of laser energy density and a-C thickness. The growth mechanism and key parameters to determine the success of CNT formation were also discussed. The demonstration of the CNT growth by laser direct writing in air at room temperature opens an opportunity of in-position CNT formation at low temperatures.

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - Sacci_ChemComm-2014.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Solid Electrolyte Formation and Growth at the Nano-scale" The SEI is a nm-scaled passivating layer that forms locally at the anode/electrolyte interface as a result of electrolyte decomposition during the initial charging cycle. The ongoing formation of radicals (due to the highly negative reduction potential of Li, -3 V) can lead to disordered SEIs. Controlling the SEI's properties essential to the development longer lasting and safer Li-ion batteries; however, its formation

  15. EXFOR BASICS A SHORT GUIDE TO THE NEUTRON REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its' bibliographic information, experimental information is also compiled. The status (e.g., the source of the data) and history (e.g., date of last update) of the data set is also included. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. It was originally conceived for the exchange of neutron data and was developed through discussions among personnel from centers situated in Saclay, Vienna, Livermore and Brookhaven. It was accepted as the official exchange format of the neutron data centers at Saclay, Vienna, Brookhaven and Obninsk, at a meeting held in November 1969.3 As a result of two meetings held in 1975 and 1976 and attended by several charged-particle data centers, the format was further developed and adapted to cover all nuclear reaction data. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center's own sphere of responsibility. The EXFOR format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in a format: l that is machine-readable (for checking and indicating possible errors); l that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting errors). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange file include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  16. EXFOR BASICS A SHORT GUIDE TO THE NEUTRON REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its' bibliographic information, experimental information is also compiled. The status (e.g., the source of the data) and history (e.g., date of last update) of the data set is also included. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. It was originally conceived for the exchange of neutron data and was developed through discussions among personnel from centers situated in Saclay, Vienna, Livermore and Brookhaven. It was accepted as the official exchange format of the neutron data centers at Saclay, Vienna, Brookhaven and Obninsk, at a meeting held in November 1969. As a result of two meetings held in 1975 and 1976 and attended by several charged-particle data centers, the format was further developed and adapted to cover all nuclear reaction data. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center's own sphere of responsibility. The EXFOR format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in a format: that is machine-readable (for checking and indicating possible errors); that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting errors). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange file include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  17. The interstellar medium and star formation in local galaxies: Variations of the star formation law in simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becerra, Fernando; Escala, Andrs, E-mail: fbecerra@cfa.harvard.edu [Departamento de Astronoma, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-05-01

    We use the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo to model the interstellar medium (ISM) in isolated local disk galaxies. The simulation includes a treatment for star formation and stellar feedback. We get a highly supersonic turbulent disk, which is fragmented at multiple scales and characterized by a multi-phase ISM. We show that a Kennicutt-Schmidt relation only holds when averaging over large scales. However, values of star formation rates and gas surface densities lie close in the plot for any averaging size. This suggests an intrinsic relation between stars and gas at cell-size scales, which dominates over the global dynamical evolution. To investigate this effect, we develop a method to simulate the creation of stars based on the density field from the snapshots, without running the code again. We also investigate how the star formation law is affected by the characteristic star formation timescale, the density threshold, and the efficiency considered in the recipe. We find that the slope of the law varies from ?1.4 for a free-fall timescale, to ?1.0 for a constant depletion timescale. We further demonstrate that a power law is recovered just by assuming that the mass of the new stars is a fraction of the mass of the cell m {sub *} = ??{sub gas}?x {sup 3}, with no other physical criteria required. We show that both efficiency and density threshold do not affect the slope, but the right combination of them can adjust the normalization of the relation, which in turn could explain a possible bi-modality in the law.

  18. Understanding the Factors Affecting the Formation of Carbonyl Iron Electrodes in Rechargeable Alkaline Iron Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable iron-based alkaline batteries such as iron - air and nickel - iron batteries are attractive for large-scale electrical energy storage because iron is inexpensive, globally-abundant and environmentally-friendly. Further, the iron electrode is known for its robustness to repeated charge/discharge cycling. During manufacturing these batteries are charged and discharged 20 to 50 times during which the discharge capacity of the iron electrode increases gradually and attains a stable value. This process of achieving stable capacity is called formation. In this study we have focused our efforts on understanding the effect of electrode design on formation. We have investigated the role of wetting agent, pore-former additive, and sulfide additive on the formation of carbonyl iron electrodes. The wetting agent increased the rate of formation while the pore-former additive increased the final capacity. Sodium sulfide added to the electrolyte worked as a de-passivation agent and increased the final discharge capacity. We have proposed a phenomenological model for the formation process that predicts the rate of formation and final discharge capacity given the design parameters for the electrode. The understanding gained here will be useful in reducing the time lost in formation and in maximizing the utilization of the iron electrode. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.021301jes] All rights reserved.

  19. result formats | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    queries developer Google maps maps multicolor result formats results Semantic Mediawiki Hi all, Recently, a couple of people on OpenEI have asked me how to do compound (or...

  20. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidal, G.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Help:FormattingResults | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    them, including the format declaration. UL BioPower Atlas and BioFuels Atlas Biomass Energy Data Book CLIMWAT 2.0 CROPWAT 8.0 ... further results ask:Category:Tools...

  2. The NeXus data format

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R.; Männicke, David; et al

    2015-01-30

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitionsmore » for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.« less

  3. Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

  4. EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION UP TO THE EPOCH OF COSMIC REIONIZATION AND THE FIRST STARS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION: GAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION UP TO THE EPOCH OF COSMIC REIONIZATION AND THE FIRST STARS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION: GAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION UP TO THE EPOCH OF COSMIC REIONIZATION AND THE FIRST STARS We present a new model of the

  5. Situ microbial plugging process for subterranean formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McInerney, Michael J. (Norman, OK); Jenneman, Gary E. (Norman, OK); Knapp, Roy M. (Norman, OK); Menzie, Donald E. (Norman, OK)

    1985-12-17

    Subterranean paths of water flow are impeded or changed by the facilitation of microbial growth therein. Either indigenous bacterial growth may be stimulated with nutrients or the formation may be first seeded with bacteria or their spores which inhibit fluid flow after proliferation. These methods and bacteria are usable to alter the flow of water in a waterflooded oil formation and to impede the outflow of contaminated water.

  6. Star formation relations in nearby molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Neal J. II; Heiderman, Amanda; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin

    2014-02-20

    We test some ideas for star formation relations against data on local molecular clouds. On a cloud by cloud basis, the relation between the surface density of star formation rate and surface density of gas divided by a free-fall time, calculated from the mean cloud density, shows no significant correlation. If a crossing time is substituted for the free-fall time, there is even less correlation. Within a cloud, the star formation rate volume and surface densities increase rapidly with the corresponding gas densities, faster than predicted by models using the free-fall time defined from the local density. A model in which the star formation rate depends linearly on the mass of gas above a visual extinction of 8 mag describes the data on these clouds, with very low dispersion. The data on regions of very massive star formation, with improved star formation rates based on free-free emission from ionized gas, also agree with this linear relation.

  7. Resolved H I imaging of a population of massive H I-rich galaxies with suppressed star formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemonias, Jenna J.; Schiminovich, David; Catinella, Barbara; Heckman, Timothy M.; Moran, Sean M.

    2014-07-20

    Despite the existence of well-defined relationships between cold gas and star formation, there is evidence that some galaxies contain large amounts of H I that do not form stars efficiently. By systematically assessing the link between H I and star formation within a sample of galaxies with extremely high H I masses (log M{sub H{sub I}}/M{sub ?} > 10), we uncover a population of galaxies with an unexpected combination of high H I masses and low specific star formation rates that exists primarily at stellar masses greater than log M{sub *}/M{sub ?} ? 10.5. We obtained H I maps of 20 galaxies in this population to understand the distribution of the H I and the physical conditions in the galaxies that could be suppressing star formation in the presence of large quantities of H I. We find that all of the galaxies we observed have low H I surface densities in the range in which inefficient star formation is common. The low H I surface densities are likely the main cause of the low specific star formation rates, but there is also some evidence that active galactic nuclei or bulges contribute to the suppression of star formation. The sample's agreement with the global star formation law highlights its usefulness as a tool for understanding galaxies that do not always follow expected relationships.

  8. Large scale magnetic fields and coherent structures in nonuniform unmagnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jucker, Martin; Andrushchenko, Zhanna N.; Pavlenko, Vladimir P.

    2006-07-15

    The properties of streamers and zonal magnetic structures in magnetic electron drift mode turbulence are investigated. The stability of such large scale structures is investigated in the kinetic and the hydrodynamic regime, for which an instability criterion similar to the Lighthill criterion for modulational instability is found. Furthermore, these large scale flows can undergo further nonlinear evolution after initial linear growth, which can lead to the formation of long-lived coherent structures consisting of self-bound wave packets between the surfaces of two different flow velocities with an expected modification of the anomalous electron transport properties.

  9. Large volume flow-through scintillating detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gritzo, Russ E. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A large volume flow through radiation detector for use in large air flow situations such as incinerator stacks or building air systems comprises a plurality of flat plates made of a scintillating material arranged parallel to the air flow. Each scintillating plate has a light guide attached which transfers light generated inside the scintillating plate to an associated photomultiplier tube. The output of the photomultiplier tubes are connected to electronics which can record any radiation and provide an alarm if appropriate for the application.

  10. Method and apparatus for extruding large honeycombs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kragle, Harry A. (Corning, NY); Lambert, David W. (Corning, NY); Lipp, G. Daniel (Painted Post, NY)

    1996-09-03

    Extrusion die apparatus and an extrusion method for extruding large-cross-section honeycomb structures from plasticized ceramic batch materials are described, the apparatus comprising a die having a support rod connected to its central portion, the support rod being anchored to support means upstream of the die. The support rod and support means act to limit die distortion during extrusion, reducing die strain and stress to levels permitting large honeycomb extrusion without die failure. Dies of optimal thickness are disclosed which reduce the maximum stresses exerted on the die during extrusion.

  11. Sandia Energy - Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Engines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Engines Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Reacting Flow Modeling Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Engines Large Eddy...

  12. Sandia Energy - Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Engines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Engines Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Modeling Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Engines Large Eddy...

  13. LARGE INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES BY STATE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LARGE INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES BY STATE LARGE INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES BY STATE PDF icon Number of Large Energy User Manufacturing Facilities by Sector and State (with Industrial Energy...

  14. REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy FORMAT REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT PDF icon RCC Workplan PDF EN FR.PDF More Documents & Publications REGULATORY PARTNERSHIP STATEMENT REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation

  15. Growth of large zeolite crystals in space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacco, A. Jr.; Dixon, A.; Thompson, R.; Scott, G.; Ditr, J.

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis studies performed using close analogs of triethanolamine (TEA) have shown that all three hydroxyl groups and the amine group in this molecule are necessary to provide nucleation suppression. Studies using C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the hydroxyl ions and the amine group are involved in the formation of an aluminum complex. It was also shown that silicate species do not interact this way with TEA in an alkaline solution. These results suggest that successful aluminum complexation leads to nucleation in zeolite-A crystallization.

  16. RPF: An Extensible, Cross-Platform, Binary File Format for Radiation Physics Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, C L

    2002-09-10

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Radiation Technology Group (RTG) uses a number of computer codes for simulation and analysis of radiation data. The number of incompatible data formats that these data presented themselves in have continued to multiply. In the 1980's a Common Data Format (CDF, see Appendix A) was devised for internal use by the RTG. This format represented a single gamma-ray spectrum as ASCII energy/count pairs preceded by an ASCII header. The ASCII representation of the data assured that it was compatible on any computing platform and this format is still in use. In the mid 1990's it became apparent that instrument systems of greater complexity would demand a file format of larger capacity to support systems then on the drawing board, including networks of sensors collecting time series of gamma-ray spectra. These systems were in the planning stage and defined data structures were not available. It became apparent that a new storage format for nuclear measurements data would be needed and it would have to be flexible and extensible to accommodate the requirements of systems of the future. As part of an LDRD, we began to investigate what others were doing, especially in the high-energy physics community, to deal with the large volumes of data being generated. Of particular interest was the very general Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), developed and maintained by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), that we ultimately used to develop the Radiation Physics Format (RPF). The HDF subroutine library provides users with the ability to customize a data file format based on standard calls to the HDF subroutine library. The RPF was developed and deployed on Sun and Hewlett-Packard workstations running their proprietary versions of UNIX.

  17. Global Alignment System for Large Genomic Sequencing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-03-01

    AVID is a global alignment system tailored for the alignment of large genomic sequences up to megabases in length. Features include the possibility of one sequence being in draft form, fast alignment, robustness and accuracy. The method is an anchor based alignment using maximal matches derived from suffix trees.

  18. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  19. Modeling needs for very large systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.

    2010-10-01

    Most system performance models assume a point measurement for irradiance and that, except for the impact of shading from nearby obstacles, incident irradiance is uniform across the array. Module temperature is also assumed to be uniform across the array. For small arrays and hourly-averaged simulations, this may be a reasonable assumption. Stein is conducting research to characterize variability in large systems and to develop models that can better accommodate large system factors. In large, multi-MW arrays, passing clouds may block sunlight from a portion of the array but never affect another portion. Figure 22 shows that two irradiance measurements at opposite ends of a multi-MW PV plant appear to have similar irradiance (left), but in fact the irradiance is not always the same (right). Module temperature may also vary across the array, with modules on the edges being cooler because they have greater wind exposure. Large arrays will also have long wire runs and will be subject to associated losses. Soiling patterns may also vary, with modules closer to the source of soiling, such as an agricultural field, receiving more dust load. One of the primary concerns associated with this effort is how to work with integrators to gain access to better and more comprehensive data for model development and validation.

  20. Aerodynamic beam generator for large particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dykhuizen, Ronald C. (Albuquerque, NM); Neiser, Richard A. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Mark F. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new type of aerodynamic particle beam generator is disclosed. This generator produces a tightly focused beam of large material particles at velocities ranging from a few feet per second to supersonic speeds, depending on the exact configuration and operating conditions. Such generators are of particular interest for use in additive fabrication techniques.

  1. 2007 CBECS Large Hospital Building List of Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Large Hospitals Table H4: Lighting and Window Features in Large Hospitals Table H5: Major Fuels Usage for Large Hospitals Table H6: Electricity Usage for Large Hospitals...

  2. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Portola Valley, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics.

  3. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Sigmon, T.W.; Aceves, R.C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics. 5 figs.

  4. Twinned silicon and germanium nanocrystals: Formation, stability and quantum confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Ting; Pi, Xiaodong Ni, Zhenyi; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-03-15

    Although twins are often observed in Si/Ge nanocrystals (NCs), little theoretical investigation has been carried out to understand this type of important planar defects in Si/Ge NCs. We now study the twinning of Si/Ge NCs in the frame work of density functional theory by representatively considering single-twinned and fivefold-twinned Si/Ge NCs. It is found that the formation of twinned Si/Ge NCs is thermodynamically possible. The effect of twinning on the formation of Si NCs is different from that of Ge NCs. For both Si and Ge NCs twinning enhances their stability. The quantum confinement effect is weakened by twinning for Si NCs. Twinning actually enhances the quantum confinement of Ge NCs when they are small (<136 atoms), while weakening the quantum confinement of Ge NCs as their size is large (>136 atoms). The current results help to better understand the experimental work on twinned Si/Ge NCs and guide the tuning of Si/Ge-NC structures for desired properties.

  5. Worming Their Way into Shape: Toroidal Formations in Micellar Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardiel Rivera, Joshua J.; Tonggu, Lige; Dohnalkova, Alice; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Pozzo, Danilo C.; Shen, Amy

    2013-11-01

    We report the formation of nanostructured toroidal micellar bundles (nTMB) from a semidilute wormlike micellar solution, evidenced by both cryogenicelectron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. Our strategy for creating nTMB involves a two-step protocol consisting of a simple prestraining process followed by flow through a microfluidic device containing an array of microposts, producing strain rates in the wormlike micelles on the order of 105 s^1. In combination with microfluidic confinement, these unusually large strain rates allow for the formation of stable nTMB. Electron microscopy images reveal a variety of nTMB morphologies and provide the size distribution of the nTMB. Small-angle neutron scattering indicates the underlying microstructural transition from wormlike micelles to nTMB. We also show that other flow-induced approaches such as sonication can induce and control the emergence of onion-like and nTMB structures, which may provide a useful tool for nanotemplating.

  6. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  7. Inhibition of coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, Y.; Poindexter, M.K.; Rowe, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces, which thermally convert hydrocarbons to ethylene as well as other useful products, adversely affects product yields, causes furnace down time for coke removal, and shortens furnace coil life. A phosphorus-based chemical treatment program was developed to inhibit the coke formation. The anticoking performance of the phosphorus-based treatment program was studied using a bench scale coking rate measurement apparatus. The programs`s influence on coke morphology and reactor surface was addressed using SEM/EDX surface characterization techniques. For comparison, similar studies were carried out with sulfur-containing species which are conventionally used in industrial practice as furnace additives. The present work demonstrated that the phosphorus-based treatment program provided an efficient and durable surface passivation against coke formation.

  8. In situ oxidation of subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Li, Busheng (Houston, TX); Shen, Chonghui (Calgary, CA)

    2011-01-11

    Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

  9. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces, and this reduction can be scaled by the gravitational dimensionless time. Mechanistic simulation of core-scale surfactant brine imbibition matches the experimentally observed imbibition data. In-situ distributions observed through simulation indicate that surfactant diffusion (which depends on temperature and molecular weight) is the rate limiting step. Most of the oil is recovered through gravitational forces. Oil left behind at the end of this process is at its residual oil saturation. The capillary and Bond numbers are not large enough to affect the residual oil saturation. At the field-scale, 50% of the recoverable oil is produced in about 3 years if the fracture spacing is 1 m and 25% if 10 m, in the example simulated. Decreasing fracture spacing and height, increasing permeability, and increasing the extent of wettability alteration increase the rate of oil recovery from surfactant-aided gravity drainage. This dilute surfactant aided gravity-drainage process is relatively cheap. The chemical cost for a barrel of oil produced is expected to be less than $1.

  10. STAR FORMATION IN TWO LUMINOUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Ashburn, Allison; Wright, Teresa; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Rubin, Vera C.; Jzsa, Gyula I. G.; Struve, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We examined star formation in two very luminous (M{sub V} = 22 to 23) Sc-type spiral galaxies, NGC 801 and UGC 2885, using ultra-deep H? images. We combine these H? images with UBV and Two-Micron All-Sky Survey JHK images and H I maps to explore the star formation characteristics of disk galaxies at high luminosity. H? traces star formation in these galaxies to 4-6 disk scale lengths, but the lack of detection of H? further out is likely due to the loss of Lyman continuum photons. Considering gravitational instabilities alone, we find that the gas and stars in the outer regions are marginally stable in an average sense, but considering dissipative gas and radial and azimuthal forcing, the outer regions are marginally unstable to forming spiral arms. Star formation is taking place in spiral arms, which are regions of locally higher gas densities. Furthermore, we have traced smooth exponential stellar disks over four magnitudes in V-band surface brightness and 4-6 disk scale lengths, in spite of a highly variable gravitational instability parameter. Thus, gravitational instability thresholds do not seem relevant to the stellar disk. One possibility for creating an exponential disk is that the molecular cloud densities and star formation rates have exponential profiles and this fact forces the stellar disk to build up such a profile. Another possibility is that the stellar disk is continuously adjusted to an exponential shape regardless of the star formation profile, for example, through global dynamical processes that scatter stars. However, such scattering processes are only known to operate in spiral systems, in which case they cannot explain the same dilemma of smooth exponential disks observed in dwarf irregular galaxies.

  11. Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results 2003 DEER Conference...

  12. Energy Secretary Moniz Announces Formation of Nuclear Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Formation of Nuclear Energy Tribal Working Group Energy Secretary Moniz Announces Formation of Nuclear Energy Tribal Working Group December 12, 2014 - 2:00pm Addthis News Media ...

  13. Patent: Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEpatents Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation Citation Details Title: Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation

  14. Effects of Ambient Density and Temperature on Soot Formation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ambient Density and Temperature on Soot Formation under High-EGR Conditions Effects of Ambient Density and Temperature on Soot Formation under High-EGR Conditions Presentation...

  15. Category:Formation Testing Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Formation Testing Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Formation Testing Techniques page? For detailed...

  16. Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong Bonding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong...

  17. On the Lack of Evolution in Galaxy Star Formation Efficiency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: On the Lack of Evolution in Galaxy Star Formation Efficiency Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the Lack of Evolution in Galaxy Star Formation...

  18. Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

    2012-04-24

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

  19. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T.

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  20. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  1. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  2. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  3. Passive load control for large wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-05-01

    Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

  4. Buried pipelines in large fault movements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L.J.; Wang, L.R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Responses of buried pipelines in large fault movements are examined based upon a non-linear cantilever beam analogy. This analogy assumes that the pipeline in a large deflection zone behaves like a cantilever beam under a transverse-concentrated shear at the inflection point with a uniformly distributed soil pressure along the entire span. The tangent modulus approach is adopted to analyze the coupled axial force-bending moment interaction on pipeline deformations in the inelastic range. The buckling load of compressive pipeline is computed by the modified Newmark`s numerical integration scheme. Parametric studies of both tensile and compressive pipeline responses to various fault movements, pipeline/fault crossing angles, soil/pipe friction angles, buried depths, pipe diameters and thickness are investigated. It is shown by the comparisons that previous findings were unconservative.

  5. 2007 CBECS Large Hospital Building Methodology Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Methodology Report Main Report | Methodology | FAQ | List of Tables CBECS 2007 - Release date: August 17, 2012 Data Collection The data in the Energy Characteristics and Energy Consumed in Large Hospital Buildings in the United States in 2007 report and accompanying tables were collected in the 2007 round of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). CBECS is a quadrennial survey is conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide basic statistical information

  6. Concepts to Facilitate Very Large Blades

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Concepts to Facilitate Very Large Blades Thomas Ashwill* Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185, USA Daniel Laird* Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185, USA Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing concepts that will enable the utilization of longer blades that weigh less, are more efficient structurally and aerodynamically, and impart reduced loads to the system. Several of these concepts have been

  7. motion-of-large-riprap-rocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development of a Computational Approach to Detect Instability and Incipient Motion of Large Riprap Rocks" Presentation at the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting Washington DC, January 14, 2014 Paper number 14-3035 Cezary Bojanowski Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC), Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory Steven Lottes Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC), Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory Abstract

  8. Large-Angle Anomalies in the CMB

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the recently found large-scale anomalies in the maps of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. These include alignments of the largest modes of CMB anisotropy with each other and with geometry and direction of motion of the solar ssystem, and the unusually low power at these largest scales. We discuss these findings in relation to expectation from standard inflationary cosmology, their statistical significance, the tools to study them, and the various attempts to explain them.

  9. How large is 'large N{sub c}' for nuclear matter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torrieri, G. Mishustin, I.

    2012-06-15

    We argue that a so far neglected dimensionless scale, the number of neighbors in a closely packed system, is relevant for the convergence of the large-N{sub c} expansion at high chemical potential. It is only when the number of colors is large w.r.t. this new scale ({approx} O(10)) that a convergent large-N{sub c} limit is reached. This provides an explanation as to why the large-N{sub c} expansion, qualitatively successful in vacuum QCD, fails to describe high baryo-chemical potential systems, such as nuclear matter. It also means that phenomenological claims about high-density matter based on large-N{sub c} extrapolations should be treated with caution. This work is based on [1].

  10. Flexible Language Constructs for Large Parallel Programs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosing, Matt; Schnabel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the research described in this article is to develop flexible language constructs for writing large data parallel numerical programs for distributed memory (multiple instruction multiple data [MIMD]) multiprocessors. Previously, several models have been developed to support synchronization and communication. Models for global synchronization include single instruction multiple data (SIMD), single program multiple data (SPMD), and sequential programs annotated with data distribution statements. The two primary models for communication include implicit communication based on shared memory and explicit communication based on messages. None of these models by themselves seem sufficient to permit the natural and efficient expression ofmore » the variety of algorithms that occur in large scientific computations. In this article, we give an overview of a new language that combines many of these programming models in a clean manner. This is done in a modular fashion such that different models can be combined to support large programs. Within a module, the selection of a model depends on the algorithm and its efficiency requirements. In this article, we give an overview of the language and discuss some of the critical implementation details.« less

  11. Dense molecular clumps associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud supergiant shells LMC 4 and LMC 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, Kosuke; Mizuno, Norikazu [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Minamidani, Tetsuhiro [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, 462-2 Nobeyama Minamimaki-mura, Minamisaku-gun, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu; Muraoka, Kazuyuki [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko; Muller, Erik; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Miura, Rie E.; Ezawa, Hajime [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Dawson, Joanne [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Yamayashiki-machi, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Sakai, Takeshi [Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Tsukagoshi, Takashi [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Tanaka, Kunihiko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo, E-mail: kosuke.fujii@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star-forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2, 1-0) and {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities (n(H{sub 2})) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup 3}) and their kinetic temperatures (T {sub kin}) are typically high (greater than 50 K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of H?, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density H I envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high n(H{sub 2}) and T {sub kin}, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.

  12. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  13. Low temperature synthesis of methyl formate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder (Selden, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A gas reaction process for the preferential production of methyl formate over the co-production of methanol wherein the reactant ratio of CO/H.sub.2 is upgraded and this reaction takes place at low temperatures of 50.degree.-150.degree. C. and moderate pressures of .gtoreq.100 psi.

  14. Formation of magnetic discontinuities through viscous relaxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2014-05-15

    According to Parker's magnetostatic theorem, tangential discontinuities in magnetic field, or current sheets (CSs), are generally unavoidable in an equilibrium magnetofluid with infinite electrical conductivity and complex magnetic topology. These CSs are due to a failure of a magnetic field in achieving force-balance everywhere and preserving its topology while remaining in a spatially continuous state. A recent work [Kumar, Bhattacharyya, and Smolarkiewicz, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112903 (2013)] demonstrated this CS formation utilizing numerical simulations in terms of the vector magnetic field. The magnetohydrodynamic simulations presented here complement the above work by demonstrating CS formation by employing a novel approach of describing the magnetofluid evolution in terms of magnetic flux surfaces instead of the vector magnetic field. The magnetic flux surfaces being the possible sites on which CSs develop, this approach provides a direct visualization of the CS formation, helpful in understanding the governing dynamics. The simulations confirm development of tangential discontinuities through a favorable contortion of magnetic flux surfaces, as the magnetofluid undergoes a topology-preserving viscous relaxation from an initial non-equilibrium state with twisted magnetic field. A crucial finding of this work is in its demonstration of CS formation at spatial locations away from the magnetic nulls.

  15. ACOUSTIC FORMING FOR ENHANCED DEWATERING AND FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cyrus K Aidun

    2007-11-30

    The next generation of forming elements based on acoustic excitation to increase drainage and enhances formation both with on-line control and profiling capabilities has been investigated in this project. The system can be designed and optimized based on the fundamental experimental and computational analysis and investigation of acoustic waves in a fiber suspension flow and interaction with the forming wire.

  16. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms. This research is aimed at advancing understanding of biofilm formation and other complex processes involved in the degradation of the abundant cellulosic biomass, and the biology of the microbes involved. Information obtained from these studies is invaluable in the development of practical applications, such as the single-step bioconversion of cellulose-containing residues to fuels and other bioproducts. Our results have clearly shown that cellulose-decomposing microbes rapidly colonize cellulose and form complex structures typical of biofilms. Furthermore, our observations suggest that, as cells multiply on nutritive surfaces during biofilms formation, dramatic cell morphological changes occur. We speculated that morphological changes, which involve a transition from rod-shaped cells to more rounded forms, might be more apparent in a filamentous microbe. In order to test this hypothesis, we included in our research a study of biofilm formation by T. fusca, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete commonly found in compost. The cellulase system of T. fusca has been extensively detailed through the work of David Wilson and colleagues at Cornell, and also, genome sequence of a T. fusca strain has been determine by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. Thus, T. fusca is an excellent subject for studies of biofilm development and its potential impacts on cellulose degradation. We also completed a study of the chitinase system of C. uda. This work provided essential background information for understanding how C. uda colonizes and degrades insoluble substrates. Major accomplishments of the project include: Development of media containing dialysis tubing (described by the manufacturer as regenerated cellulose) as sole carbon and energy source and a nutritive surface for the growth of cellulolytic bacteria, and development of various microscopic methods to image biofilms on dialysis tubing. Demonstration that cultures of C. phytofermentans, an obligate anaerobe, C. uda, a facultative aerobe, and T. fusca, a filamentous aerobe, formed microbial communities on the surface of dialysis tubing, which possessed architectural features and functional characteristics typical of biofilms. Demonstration that biofilm formation on the nutritive surface, cellulose, involves a complex developmental processes, including colonization of dialysis tubing, formation of cell clusters attached to the nutritive surface, cell morphological changes, formation of complex structures embedded in extracellular polymeric matrices, and dispersal of biofilm communities as the nutritive surface is degraded. Determination of surface specificity and regulatory aspects of biofilm formation by C. phytofermentans, C. uda, and T. fusca. Demonstration that biofilm formation by T. fusca forms an integral part of the life cycle of this filamentous cellulolytic bacterium, including studies on the role of mycelial pellet formation in the T. fusca life cycle and a comparison of mycelial pellets to surface-attached T. fusca biofilms. Characterization of T. fusca biofilm EPS, including demonstration of a functional role for EPS constituents. Correlation of T. fusca developmental life cycle and cellulase gene expression.

  17. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  18. Method for large and rapid terahertz imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Neil, George R.

    2013-01-29

    A method of large-scale active THz imaging using a combination of a compact high power THz source (>1 watt), an optional optical system, and a camera for the detection of reflected or transmitted THz radiation, without the need for the burdensome power source or detector cooling systems required by similar prior art such devices. With such a system, one is able to image, for example, a whole person in seconds or less, whereas at present, using low power sources and scanning techniques, it takes several minutes or even hours to image even a 1 cm.times.1 cm area of skin.

  19. Mass Estinctions Caused by Large Bolide Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavarez, Luis W.

    1987-01-01

    In this talk, I will describe the wealth of evidence that has forced my colleagues and me to conclude that the great mass extinctions, 65 million years ago, were caused by a large bolide impact on the earth. Bolide is a new word to most people, and it means any piece of solar system debris, such as a meteorite, asteroid, or comet nucleus. As I will show, the bolide responsible for the extinction of most of the then existing species, including the dinosaurs, was about 10 kilometers in diameter.

  20. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  1. Effect of hexafluoroisopropanol on the thermodynamics of peptide secondary structure formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, N.H.; Dyer, R.B.; Fesinmeyer, R.M.; Gai, F.; Liu, Z.; Neidigh, J.W.; Tong, H.

    1999-10-27

    This report provides additional evidence for the importance of hydrophobic interactions in peptide secondary structure formation. For the hydrophobically driven {beta} hairpin formation examined, the addition of HFIP to the 8% level increases hairpin formation and increases {Delta}C{sub p} by nearly a factor of 3. Surprisingly, {alpha} helices bearing a few non-interacting hydrophobic residues can display even larger {Delta}C{sub p} values. The initial phase of secondary structure induction during fluoroalcohol titrations of peptides appears to be largely the result of these effects rather than differential stabilization (or destabilization) of the folded versus coil conformation by alcohol/peptide binding interactions, as the latter would be reflected predominantly in the enthalpy term. The addition of limited quantities of fluoroalcohol may mimic the early hydrophobic collapse stage of protein folding.

  2. Fire characterization and object thermal response for a large flat plate adjacent to a large JP-4 fuel fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Murray, D.

    1997-01-01

    A series of three 18.9 m diameter JP-4 pool fire experiments with a large (2.1 m X 4.6 m), flat plate calorimeter adjacent to the fuel pool were recently performed. The objectives of these experiments were to: (1) gain a better understanding of fire phenomenology, (2) provide empirical input parameter estimates for simplified, deterministic Risk Assessment Compatible Fire Models (RACFMs), (3) assist in continuing fire field model code validation and development, and (4) enhance the data base of fire temperature and heat flux to object distributions. Due to different wind conditions during each experiment, data were obtained for conditions where the plate was not engulfed, fully-engulfed and partially engulfed by the continuous flame zone. Results include the heat flux distribution to the plate and flame thermocouple temperatures in the vicinity of the plate and at two cross sections within the lower region of the continuous flame zone. The results emphasize the importance of radiative coupling (i.e. the cooling of the flames by a thermally massive object) and convective coupling (including object-induced turbulence and object/wind/flame interactions) in determining the heat flux from a fire to an object. The formation of a secondary flame zone on an object adjacent to a fire via convective coupling (which increases the heat flux by a factor of two) is shown to be possible when the object is located within a distance equal to the object width from the fire.

  3. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  4. REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation | Department of Energy FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation PDF icon RCC Workplan NGV.PDF More Documents & Publications REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation REGULATORY PARTNERSHIP STATEMENT REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT

  5. Massachusetts Large Blade Test Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahul Yarala; Rob Priore

    2011-09-02

    Project Objective: The Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (CEC) will design, construct, and ultimately have responsibility for the operation of the Large Wind Turbine Blade Test Facility, which is an advanced blade testing facility capable of testing wind turbine blades up to at least 90 meters in length on three test stands. Background: Wind turbine blade testing is required to meet international design standards, and is a critical factor in maintaining high levels of reliability and mitigating the technical and financial risk of deploying massproduced wind turbine models. Testing is also needed to identify specific blade design issues that may contribute to reduced wind turbine reliability and performance. Testing is also required to optimize aerodynamics, structural performance, encourage new technologies and materials development making wind even more competitive. The objective of this project is to accelerate the design and construction of a large wind blade testing facility capable of testing blades with minimum queue times at a reasonable cost. This testing facility will encourage and provide the opportunity for the U.S wind industry to conduct more rigorous testing of blades to improve wind turbine reliability.

  6. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  7. Pair Creation at Large Inherent Angles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.; /SLAC

    2007-04-25

    In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs created during the collision of high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al[1]. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter {Upsilon} lies approximately in the range 0.6 {approx}< {Upsilon} {approx}< 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen[2]. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. One source of transverse momentum is from the kick by the field of the oncoming beam which results in an outcoming angle {theta} {proportional_to} 1/{radical}x, where x is the fractional energy of the particle relative to the initial beam particle energy[2,3]. As was shown in Ref. 131, there in fact exists an energy threshold for the coherent pairs, where x{sub th} {approx}> 1/2{Upsilon}. Thus within a tolerable exiting angle, there exists an upper limit for {Upsilon} where all coherent pairs would leave the detector through the exhaust port[4]. A somewhat different analysis has been done by Schroeder[5]. In the next generation of linear colliders, as it occurs, the coherent pairs can be exponentially suppressed[2] by properly choosing the {Upsilon}({approx}< 0.6). When this is achieved, the incoherent pairs becomes dominant. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, we notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. This issue was first studied in Ref. [1]. In this paper we reinvestigate the problem, following essentially the same equivalent photon approach, but with changes in specific details including the virtual photon spectrum. In addition, various assumptions are made more explicit. The formulas derived are then applied to the collider parameters designed by Palmer[6].

  8. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  9. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  10. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  11. Nanodot formation induced by femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abere, M. J.; Kang, M.; Goldman, R. S.; Yalisove, S. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chen, C. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Rittman, D. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Phillips, J. D. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    The femtosecond laser generation of ZnSe nanoscale features on ZnSe surfaces was studied. Irradiation with multiple exposures produces 10100?nm agglomerations of nanocrystalline ZnSe while retaining the original single crystal structure of the underlying material. The structure of these nanodots was verified using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The nanodots continue to grow hours after irradiation through a combination of bulk and surface diffusion. We suggest that in nanodot formation the result of ultrafast laser induced point defect formation is more than an order of magnitude below the ZnSe ultrafast melt threshold fluence. This unique mechanism of point defect injection will be discussed.

  12. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Dickson, Todd Jay (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0.degree. and 80.degree. C. in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  13. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Dickson, T.J.

    1998-04-28

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0 and 80 C in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  14. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  15. Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L.

    2011-07-15

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with ?-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  16. System for inspecting large size structural components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birks, Albert S. (Columbus, OH); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for inspecting large scale structural components such as concrete walls or the like. The system includes a mobile gamma radiation source and a mobile gamma radiation detector. The source and detector are constructed and arranged for simultaneous movement along parallel paths in alignment with one another on opposite sides of a structural component being inspected. A control system provides signals which coordinate the movements of the source and detector and receives and records the radiation level data developed by the detector as a function of source and detector positions. The radiation level data is then analyzed to identify areas containing defects corresponding to unexpected variations in the radiation levels detected.

  17. Supporting large-scale computational science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musick, R., LLNL

    1998-02-19

    Business needs have driven the development of commercial database systems since their inception. As a result, there has been a strong focus on supporting many users, minimizing the potential corruption or loss of data, and maximizing performance metrics like transactions per second, or TPC-C and TPC-D results. It turns out that these optimizations have little to do with the needs of the scientific community, and in particular have little impact on improving the management and use of large-scale high-dimensional data. At the same time, there is an unanswered need in the scientific community for many of the benefits offered by a robust DBMS. For example, tying an ad-hoc query language such as SQL together with a visualization toolkit would be a powerful enhancement to current capabilities. Unfortunately, there has been little emphasis or discussion in the VLDB community on this mismatch over the last decade. The goal of the paper is to identify the specific issues that need to be resolved before large-scale scientific applications can make use of DBMS products. This topic is addressed in the context of an evaluation of commercial DBMS technology applied to the exploration of data generated by the Department of Energy`s Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The paper describes the data being generated for ASCI as well as current capabilities for interacting with and exploring this data. The attraction of applying standard DBMS technology to this domain is discussed, as well as the technical and business issues that currently make this an infeasible solution.

  18. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T.sub.ij (x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T.sub.ij (x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T.sub.ij (x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval.

  19. LIGHT CURVES OF 32 LARGE TRANSNEPTUNIAN OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benecchi, Susan D.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2013-05-15

    We present observations of 32 primarily bright, newly discovered Transneptunian objects (TNOs) observable from the Southern Hemisphere during 39 nights of observation with the Irenee du Pont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Our dataset includes objects in all dynamical classes, but is weighted toward scattered objects. We find 15 objects for which we can fit periods and amplitudes to the data, and place light curve amplitude upper limits on the other 17 objects. Combining our sample with the larger light curve sample in the literature, we find a 3{sigma} correlation between light curve amplitude and absolute magnitude with fainter objects having larger light curve amplitudes. We looked for correlations between light curve and individual orbital properties, but did not find any statistically significant results. However, if we consider light curve properties with respect to object dynamical classification, we find statistically different distributions between the classical-scattered and classical-resonant populations at the 95.60% and 94.64% level, respectively, with the classical objects having larger amplitude light curves. The significance is 97.05% if the scattered and resonant populations are combined. The properties of binary light curves are largely consistent with the greater TNO population except in the case of tidally locked systems. All the Haumea family objects measured so far have light curve amplitudes and rotation periods {<=}10 hr, suggesting that they are not significantly different from the larger TNO population. We expect multiple factors are influencing object rotations: object size dominates light curve properties except in the case of tidal, or proportionally large collisional interactions with other TNOs, the influence of the latter being different for each TNO sub-population. We also present phase curves and colors for some of our objects.

  20. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, J.N.

    1998-01-20

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T{sub ij}(x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval. 6 figs.

  1. Radio constraints on heavily obscured star formation within dark gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Perley, R. A., E-mail: dperley@astro.caltech.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Highly dust-obscured starbursting galaxies (submillimeter galaxies and their ilk) represent the most extreme sites of star formation in the distant universe and contribute significantly to overall cosmic star formation beyond z > 1.5. Some stars formed in these environments may also explode as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and contribute to the population of 'dark' bursts. Here we present Very Large Array wideband radio-continuum observations of 15 heavily dust-obscured Swift GRBs to search for radio synchrotron emission associated with intense star formation in their host galaxies. Most of these targets (11) are not detected. Of the remaining four objects, one detection is marginal, and for two others we cannot yet rule out the contribution of a long-lived radio afterglow. The final detection is secure, but indicates a star formation rate (SFR) roughly consistent with the dust-corrected UV-inferred value. Most galaxies hosting obscured GRBs are therefore not forming stars at extreme rates, and the amount of optical extinction seen along a GRB afterglow sightline does not clearly correlate with the likelihood that the host has a sufficiently high SFR to be radio-detectable. While some submillimeter galaxies do readily produce GRBs, these GRBs are often not heavily obscuredsuggesting that the outer (modestly obscured) parts of these galaxies overproduce GRBs and the inner (heavily obscured) parts underproduce GRBs relative to their respective contributions to star formation, hinting at strong chemical or initial mass function gradients within these systems.

  2. DOES MAGNETIC-FIELD-ROTATION MISALIGNMENT SOLVE THE MAGNETIC BRAKING CATASTROPHE IN PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhiyun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien [Academia Sinica, Theoretical Institute for Advanced Research in Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-01

    Stars form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be significantly magnetized. In the simplest case of a laminar (non-turbulent) core with the magnetic field aligned with the rotation axis, both analytic considerations and numerical simulations have shown that the formation of a large, 10{sup 2} AU scale, rotationally supported protostellar disk is suppressed by magnetic braking in the ideal MHD limit for a realistic level of core magnetization. This theoretical difficulty in forming protostellar disks is termed the ''magnetic braking catastrophe''. A possible resolution to this problem, proposed by Hennebelle and Ciardi and Joos et al., is that misalignment between the magnetic field and rotation axis may weaken the magnetic braking enough to enable disk formation. We evaluate this possibility quantitatively through numerical simulations. We confirm the basic result of Joos et al. that the misalignment is indeed conducive to disk formation. In relatively weakly magnetized cores with dimensionless mass-to-flux ratio {approx}> 4, it enabled the formation of rotationally supported disks that would otherwise be suppressed if the magnetic field and rotation axis are aligned. For more strongly magnetized cores, disk formation remains suppressed, however, even for the maximum tilt angle of 90 Degree-Sign . If dense cores are as strongly magnetized as indicated by OH Zeeman observations (with a mean dimensionless mass-to-flux ratio {approx}2), it would be difficult for the misalignment alone to enable disk formation in the majority of them. We conclude that, while beneficial to disk formation, especially for the relatively weak field case, misalignment does not completely solve the problem of catastrophic magnetic braking in general.

  3. Montana's At-large congressional district: Energy Resources ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Registered Research Institutions in Montana's At-large congressional district Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Registered Energy Companies in Montana's At-large...

  4. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope...

  5. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives PDF icon nanoparticulate-basedlubricati...

  6. The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures...

  7. DOE's New Large Blade Test Facility in Massachusetts Completes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE's New Large Blade Test Facility in Massachusetts Completes First Commercial Blade Tests DOE's New Large Blade Test Facility in Massachusetts Completes First Commercial Blade ...

  8. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research: Target 2014 ASCRFrontcover.png Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for ...

  9. Photoswitchable Red Fluorescent Protein with a Large Stokes Shift...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoswitchable Red Fluorescent Protein with a Large Stokes Shift Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photoswitchable Red Fluorescent Protein with a Large Stokes Shift ...

  10. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope ...

  11. DOE Issues Enforcement Guidance on Large-Capacity Clothes Washer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enforcement Guidance on Large-Capacity Clothes Washer Waivers and the Waiver Process DOE Issues Enforcement Guidance on Large-Capacity Clothes Washer Waivers and the Waiver Process...

  12. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy ...

  13. Large-Scale Residential Energy Efficiency Programs Based on CFLs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Large-Scale Residential Energy Efficiency Programs Based on CFLs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Large-Scale Residential Energy Efficiency Programs Based...

  14. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercLargeComputersServers | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Large computers servers Pages using the property "BuildingSPElectrtyUsePercLargeComputersServers"...

  15. Observation of Large Photoacoustic Signal Phase Changes During...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Observation of Large Photoacoustic Signal Phase Changes During a Diffusion Process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of Large Photoacoustic...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Large Eddy Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Applied to Advanced Engine Combustion Research Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Applied to Advanced Engine...

  17. Large kinetic asymmetry in the metal-insulator transition nucleated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Large kinetic asymmetry in the metal-insulator transition nucleated at localized and extended defects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large kinetic...

  18. ACCOLADES: A Scalable Workflow Framework for Large-Scale Simulation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ACCOLADES: A Scalable Workflow Framework for Large-Scale Simulation and Analyses of Automotive Engines Title ACCOLADES: A Scalable Workflow Framework for Large-Scale Simulation and...

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    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large Higgs energy region in Higgs associated top pair production at the Linear Collider Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large Higgs energy region in Higgs associated ...

  20. DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications Large scale Python and other dynamic applications may spend huge time at startup. The DLFM library,...

  1. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  2. A large hadron electron collider at CERN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelleira Fernandez, J. L.

    2015-04-06

    This document provides a brief overview of the recently published report on the design of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), which comprises its physics programme, accelerator physics, technology and main detector concepts. The LHeC exploits and develops challenging, though principally existing, accelerator and detector technologies. This summary is complemented by brief illustrations of some of the highlights of the physics programme, which relies on a vastly extended kinematic range, luminosity and unprecedented precision in deep inelastic scattering. Illustrations are provided regarding high precision QCD, new physics (Higgs, SUSY) and eletron-ion physics. The LHeC is designed to run synchronously with the LHC in the twenties and to achieve an integrated luminosity of O(100)fb1. It will become the cleanest high resolution microscope of mankind and will substantially extend as well as complement the investigation of the physics of the TeV energy scale, which has been enabled by the LHC.

  3. Multiphoton ionization of large water clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apicella, B.; Li, X.; Passaro, M.; Spinelli, N.; Wang, X.

    2014-05-28

    Water clusters are multimers of water molecules held together by hydrogen bonds. In the present work, multiphoton ionization in the UV range coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry has been applied to water clusters with up to 160 molecules in order to obtain information on the electronic states of clusters of different sizes up to dimensions that can approximate the bulk phase. The dependence of ion intensities of water clusters and their metastable fragments produced by laser ionization at 355 nm on laser power density indicates a (3+1)-photon resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization process. It also explains the large increase of ionization efficiency at 355 nm compared to that at 266 nm. Indeed, it was found, by applying both nanosecond and picosecond laser ionization with the two different UV wavelengths, that no water cluster sequences after n = 9 could be observed at 266 nm, whereas water clusters up to m/z 2000 Th in reflectron mode and m/z 3000 Th in linear mode were detected at 355 nm. The agreement between our findings on clusters of water, especially true in the range with n > 10, and reported data for liquid water supports the hypothesis that clusters above a critical dimension can approximate the liquid phase. It should thus be possible to study clusters just above 10 water molecules, for getting information on the bulk phase structure.

  4. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, P. L.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Belfiore, A.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bignami, G. F. E-mail: Gino.Tosti@pg.infn.it E-mail: tburnett@u.washington.edu; and others

    2012-04-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy {gamma}-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely {gamma}-ray-producing source classes.

  5. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  6. Large-scale quasi-geostrophic magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balk, Alexander M.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of a shallow fluid layer on a rapidly rotating planet or star. The presence of a background toroidal magnetic field is assumed, and the 'shallow water' beta-plane approximation is used. We derive a single equation for the slow large length scale dynamics. The range of validity of this equation fits the MHD of the lighter fluid at the top of Earth's outer core. The form of this equation is similar to the quasi-geostrophic (Q-G) equation (for usual ocean or atmosphere), but the parameters are essentially different. Our equation also implies the inverse cascade; but contrary to the usual Q-G situation, the energy cascades to smaller length scales, while the enstrophy cascades to the larger scales. We find the Kolmogorov-type spectrum for the inverse cascade. The spectrum indicates the energy accumulation in larger scales. In addition to the energy and enstrophy, the obtained equation possesses an extra (adiabatic-type) invariant. Its presence implies energy accumulation in the 30° sector around zonal direction. With some special energy input, the extra invariant can lead to the accumulation of energy in zonal magnetic field; this happens if the input of the extra invariant is small, while the energy input is considerable.

  7. A large hadron electron collider at CERN

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abelleira Fernandez, J. L.

    2015-04-06

    This document provides a brief overview of the recently published report on the design of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), which comprises its physics programme, accelerator physics, technology and main detector concepts. The LHeC exploits and develops challenging, though principally existing, accelerator and detector technologies. This summary is complemented by brief illustrations of some of the highlights of the physics programme, which relies on a vastly extended kinematic range, luminosity and unprecedented precision in deep inelastic scattering. Illustrations are provided regarding high precision QCD, new physics (Higgs, SUSY) and eletron-ion physics. The LHeC is designed to run synchronously withmore » the LHC in the twenties and to achieve an integrated luminosity of O(100)fb–1. It will become the cleanest high resolution microscope of mankind and will substantially extend as well as complement the investigation of the physics of the TeV energy scale, which has been enabled by the LHC.« less

  8. Large magnetocapacitance in electronic ferroelectric manganite systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Ujjal; Goswami, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Dipten; Midya, Arindam; Mandal, P.; Das, Pintu; Mukovskii, Ya. M.

    2013-11-21

    We have observed a sizable positive magnetocapacitance (?5%90%) in perovskite Pr{sub 0.55}Ca{sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3} and bilayer Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} system under 5?T magnetic field across 20100?K below the magnetic transition point T{sub N}. The magnetodielectric effect, on the other hand, exhibits a crossover: (a) from positive to negative for the perovskite system and (b) from negative to positive for the bilayer system over the same temperature range. The bilayer Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} system exhibits a sizable anisotropy as well. We have also noticed the influence of magnetic field on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of these systems. These systems belong to a class of improper ferroelectrics and are expected to exhibit charge/orbital order driven ferroelectric polarization below the transition point T{sub CO}. Large magnetocapacitance in these systems shows a typical multiferroic behavior even though the ferroelectric polarization is small in comparison to that of other ferroelectrics.

  9. MASS DETERMINATION STUDIES OF 104 LARGE ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zielenbach, William

    2011-10-15

    The techniques described in an earlier paper were used to determine masses of 104 asteroids by the method of asteroid-asteroid gravitational interaction. For each of the 104 perturbers, 4 large sets of test particles selected by different criteria were used to calculate 4 mass values from a weighted mean of individual results within each set. The sheer number of test particles and observations ameliorates the effects of random observational errors and the type of systematic errors known to have affected specific observatories at specific times. It also reduces the effect of mismodeled attractions by perturbers other than the one being estimated, because the various test particles are affected to different degrees and in different directions. For most of the perturbers that have been analyzed by others, the results of this study agree reasonably well with values published in the past decade, giving credence to the approach. Thirty-eight of the results appear to be the first published masses for the respective asteroids, and 12 are the first determinations based on asteroid-asteroid interactions. Unrealistic and/or negative masses were obtained for some perturbers. Causes for this phenomenon are discussed and various means to obtain reasonable numbers are evaluated.

  10. A large hadron electron collider at CERN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelleira Fernandez, J. L.

    2015-04-06

    This document provides a brief overview of the recently published report on the design of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), which comprises its physics programme, accelerator physics, technology and main detector concepts. The LHeC exploits and develops challenging, though principally existing, accelerator and detector technologies. This summary is complemented by brief illustrations of some of the highlights of the physics programme, which relies on a vastly extended kinematic range, luminosity and unprecedented precision in deep inelastic scattering. Illustrations are provided regarding high precision QCD, new physics (Higgs, SUSY) and eletron-ion physics. The LHeC is designed to run synchronously with the LHC in the twenties and to achieve an integrated luminosity of O(100)fb–1. It will become the cleanest high resolution microscope of mankind and will substantially extend as well as complement the investigation of the physics of the TeV energy scale, which has been enabled by the LHC.

  11. RAPID DUST FORMATION IN NOVAE: THE SPEED CLASSFORMATION TIMESCALE CORRELATION EXPLAINED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, S. C.; Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Evans, A.; Zubko, V.; Shafter, A. W.

    2013-11-10

    Observations show that the time of onset of dust formation in classical novae depends strongly on their speed class, with dust typically taking longer to form in slower novae. Using empirical relationships between speed class, luminosity and ejection velocity, it can be shown that dust formation timescale is expected to be essentially independent of speed class. However, following a nova outburst the spectrum of the central hot source evolves, with an increasing proportion of the radiation being emitted short-ward of the Lyman limit. The rate at which the spectrum evolves also depends on the speed class. We have therefore refined the simple model by assuming photons at energies higher than the Lyman limit are absorbed by neutral hydrogen gas internal to the dust formation sites, therefore preventing these photons reaching the nucleation sites. With this refinement the dust formation timescale is theoretically dependent on speed class and the results of our theoretical modification agree well with the observational data. We consider two types of carbon-based dust, graphite and amorphous carbon, with both types producing similar relationships. Our results can be used to predict when dust will form in a nova of a given speed class and hence when observations should optimally be taken to detect the onset of dust formation.

  12. Testing the big bang: Light elements, neutrinos, dark matter and large-scale structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1991-06-01

    In this series of lectures, several experimental and observational tests of the standard cosmological model are examined. In particular, detailed discussion is presented regarding nucleosynthesis, the light element abundances and neutrino counting; the dark matter problems; and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Comments will also be made on the possible implications of the recent solar neutrino experimental results for cosmology. An appendix briefly discusses the 17 keV thing'' and the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on it. 126 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Large oriented arrays and continuous films of TiO2 based nanotubes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Huifang; Liu, Jun; Voigt, James A.; Tian, Zhengrong Ryan; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth

    2003-08-01

    We report for the first time a one-step, templateless method to directly prepare large arrays of oriented TiO{sub 2}-based nanotubes and continuous films. These titania nanostructures can also be easily prepared as conformal coatings on a substrate. The nanostructured films were formed on a Ti substrate seeded with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. SEM and TEM results suggested that a folding mechanism of sheetlike structures was involved in the formation of the nanotubes. The oriented arrays of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, continuous films, and coatings are expected to have potentials for applications in catalysis, filtration, sensing, photovoltaic cells, and high surface area electrodes.

  14. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2014-07-22

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  15. Bistatic SAR: Signal Processing and Image Formation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the significant processing steps that were used to take the raw recorded digitized signals from the bistatic synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) hardware built for the NCNS Bistatic SAR project to a final bistatic SAR image. In general, the process steps herein are applicable to bistatic SAR signals that include the direct-path signal and the reflected signal. The steps include preprocessing steps, data extraction to for a phase history, and finally, image format. Various plots and values will be shown at most steps to illustrate the processing for a bistatic COSMO SkyMed collection gathered on June 10, 2013 on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

  16. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2015-07-21

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  17. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2012-12-04

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  18. Method For Screening Microcrystallizations For Crystal Formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santarsiero, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL), Stevens, Raymond C. (La Jolla, CA), Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA), Jaklevic, Joseph M. (Lafayette, CA), Yegian, Derek T. (Oakland, CA), Cornell, Earl W. (Antioch, CA), Nordmeyer, Robert A. (San Leandro, CA)

    2003-10-07

    A method is provided for performing array microcrystallizations to determine suitable crystallization conditions for a molecule, the method comprising: forming an array of microcrystallizations, each microcrystallization comprising a drop comprising a mother liquor solution whose composition varies within the array and a molecule to be crystallized, the drop having a volume of less than 1 microliter; storing the array of microcrystallizations under conditions suitable for molecule crystals to form in the drops in the array; and detecting molecule crystal formation in the drops by taking images of the drops.

  19. Electrohydrodynamically driven large-area liquid ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pregenzer, Arian L. (Corrales, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A large-area liquid ion source comprises means for generating, over a large area of the surface of a liquid, an electric field of a strength sufficient to induce emission of ions from a large area of said liquid. Large areas in this context are those distinct from emitting areas in unidimensional emitters.

  20. Star formation trends in the unrelaxed, post-merger cluster A2255

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, K. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Bai, L.

    2014-10-10

    The effects of dense environments on normal field galaxies are still up for debate despite much study since Abell published his catalog of nearby clusters in 1958. There are changes in color, morphology, and star formation properties when galaxies fall into groups and clusters, but the specifics of how and where these modifications occur are not fully understood. To look for answers, we focused on star-forming galaxies in A2255, an unrelaxed cluster thought to have recently experienced a merger with another cluster or large group. We used H?, MIPS 24 ?m, and WISE 22 ?m to estimate total star formation rates (SFRs) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry to find stellar masses (M {sub *}) for galaxies out to ?5 r {sub 200}. We compared the star-forming cluster galaxies with the field SFR-mass distribution and found no enhancement or suppression of star formation in currently star-forming galaxies of high mass (log (M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) ? 10). This conclusion holds out to very large distances from the cluster center. However, the core (r {sub proj} < 3 Mpc) has a much lower fraction of star-forming galaxies than anywhere else in the cluster. These results indicate that for the mass range studied here, the majority of the star formation suppression occurs in the core on relatively short timescales, without any enhancement prior to entering the central region. If any significant enhancement or quenching of star formation occurs, it will be in galaxies of lower mass (log (M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) < 10).

  1. Sensitivity technologies for large scale simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Smith, Thomas Michael; Heinkenschloss, Matthias; Wilcox, Lucas C.; Hill, Judith C.; Ghattas, Omar; Berggren, Martin Olof; Akcelik, Volkan; Ober, Curtis Curry; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Keiter, Eric Richard

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is critically important to numerous analysis algorithms, including large scale optimization, uncertainty quantification,reduced order modeling, and error estimation. Our research focused on developing tools, algorithms and standard interfaces to facilitate the implementation of sensitivity type analysis into existing code and equally important, the work was focused on ways to increase the visibility of sensitivity analysis. We attempt to accomplish the first objective through the development of hybrid automatic differentiation tools, standard linear algebra interfaces for numerical algorithms, time domain decomposition algorithms and two level Newton methods. We attempt to accomplish the second goal by presenting the results of several case studies in which direct sensitivities and adjoint methods have been effectively applied, in addition to an investigation of h-p adaptivity using adjoint based a posteriori error estimation. A mathematical overview is provided of direct sensitivities and adjoint methods for both steady state and transient simulations. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the utility of these methods. A direct sensitivity method is implemented to solve a source inversion problem for steady state internal flows subject to convection diffusion. Real time performance is achieved using novel decomposition into offline and online calculations. Adjoint methods are used to reconstruct initial conditions of a contamination event in an external flow. We demonstrate an adjoint based transient solution. In addition, we investigated time domain decomposition algorithms in an attempt to improve the efficiency of transient simulations. Because derivative calculations are at the root of sensitivity calculations, we have developed hybrid automatic differentiation methods and implemented this approach for shape optimization for gas dynamics using the Euler equations. The hybrid automatic differentiation method was applied to a first order approximation of the Euler equations and used as a preconditioner. In comparison to other methods, the AD preconditioner showed better convergence behavior. Our ultimate target is to perform shape optimization and hp adaptivity using adjoint formulations in the Premo compressible fluid flow simulator. A mathematical formulation for mixed-level simulation algorithms has been developed where different physics interact at potentially different spatial resolutions in a single domain. To minimize the implementation effort, explicit solution methods can be considered, however, implicit methods are preferred if computational efficiency is of high priority. We present the use of a partial elimination nonlinear solver technique to solve these mixed level problems and show how these formulation are closely coupled to intrusive optimization approaches and sensitivity analyses. Production codes are typically not designed for sensitivity analysis or large scale optimization. The implementation of our optimization libraries into multiple production simulation codes in which each code has their own linear algebra interface becomes an intractable problem. In an attempt to streamline this task, we have developed a standard interface between the numerical algorithm (such as optimization) and the underlying linear algebra. These interfaces (TSFCore and TSFCoreNonlin) have been adopted by the Trilinos framework and the goal is to promote the use of these interfaces especially with new developments. Finally, an adjoint based a posteriori error estimator has been developed for discontinuous Galerkin discretization of Poisson's equation. The goal is to investigate other ways to leverage the adjoint calculations and we show how the convergence of the forward problem can be improved by adapting the grid using adjoint-based error estimates. Error estimation is usually conducted with continuous adjoints but if discrete adjoints are available it may be possible to reuse the discrete version for error estimation. We investigate the advantages and disadvantages of continuous and discre

  2. Metal Cutting for Large Component Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulick, Robert M.

    2008-01-15

    Decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of large components mainly consisting of the reactor vessel, steam generators and pressurizer. In order to remove and package these large components nozzles must be cut from the reactor vessel to precise tolerances. In some cases steam generators must be segmented for size and weight reduction. One innovative technology that has been used successfully at several commercial nuclear plant decommissioning is diamond wire sawing. Diamond wire sawing is performed by rotating a cable with diamond segments attached using a flywheel approximately 24 inches in diameter driven remotely by a hydraulic pump. Tension is provided using a gear rack drive which also takes up the slack in the wire. The wire is guided through the use of pulleys keeps the wire in a precise location. The diamond wire consists of 1/4 inch aircraft cable with diamond beads strung over the cable separated by springs and brass crimps. Standard wire contains 40 diamond beads per meter and can be made to any length. Cooling the wire and controlling the spread of contamination presents significant challenges. Under normal circumstances the wire is cooled and the cutting kerf cleaned by using water. In some cases of reactor nozzle cuts the use of water is prohibited because it cannot be controlled. This challenge was solved by using liquid Carbon Dioxide as the cooling agent. The liquid CO{sub 2} is passed through a special nozzle which atomizes the liquid into snowflakes which is introduced under pressure to the wire. The snowflakes attach to the wire keeping it cool and to the metal shavings. As the CO{sub 2} and metal shavings are released from the wire due to its fast rotation, the snowflakes evaporate leaving only the fine metal shavings as waste. Secondary waste produced is simply the small volume of fine metal shavings removed from the cut surface. Diamond wire sawing using CO{sub 2} cooling has been employed for cutting the reactor nozzles at San Onofre Unit 1 and at Connecticut Yankee. These carbon steel nozzles ranged up to 54 inch diameter with a 15 inch thick wall and an interior stainless cladding. Diamond wire sawing using traditional water cooling has been used to segment the reactor head at Rancho Seco and for cutting reactor nozzles and control rod drive tubes at Dairyland Power's Lacrosse BWR project. Advantages: - ALARA: All cutting is preformed remotely significantly reducing dose. Stringing of wires is accomplished using long handle tools. - Secondary waste is reduced to just the volume of material cut with the diamond wire. - The potential for airborne contamination is eliminated. Due to the flexibility of the wire, any access restrictions and interferences can be accommodated using pulleys and long handle tools. - The operation is quiet. Disadvantages: - With Liquid Carbon Dioxide cooling and cleaning, delivery of the material must be carefully planned. The longer the distance from the source to the cut area, the greater the chance for pressure drop and subsequent problems with line freezing. - Proper shrouding and ventilation are required for environmental reasons. In each case, the metal structures were cut at a precise location. Radiation dose was reduced significantly by operating the equipment from a remote location. The cuts were very smooth and completed on schedule. Each project must be analyzed individually and take into account many factors including access, radiological conditions, environmental conditions, schedule requirements, packaging requirements and size of cuts.

  3. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-01-06

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  4. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-02-03

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  5. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Presentation covers the Large-scale RE Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities for the FUPWG Spring meeting, held on May 22, 2013 in San Francisco, California. PDF icon FEMP's Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide - Presented by Brad Gustafson More Documents & Publications Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal

  6. Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History You are accessing a document from the...

  7. Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands Activated by (C5Me5)2Yb Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between ...

  8. Age of the Coso Formation Inyo County California | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Coso indicates that the Coso Formation contains strata at least as old as 6.0 m.y. (million years) and no younger than 2.5 m.y. Within the Coso Formation, Blancan fossils...

  9. REVISITING JOVIAN-RESONANCE INDUCED CHONDRULE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagasawa, M.; Tanaka, K. K.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamoto, T.; Miura, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    2014-10-10

    It is proposed that planetesimals perturbed by Jovian mean-motion resonances are the source of shock waves that form chondrules. It is considered that this shock-induced chondrule formation requires the velocity of the planetesimal relative to the gas disk to be on the order of ? 7 km s{sup 1} at 1AU. In previous studies on planetesimal excitation, the effects of Jovian mean-motion resonance together with the gas drag were investigated, but the velocities obtained were at most 8 km s{sup 1} in the asteroid belt, which is insufficient to account for the ubiquitous existence of chondrules. In this paper, we reexamine the effect of Jovian resonances and take into account the secular resonance in the asteroid belt caused by the gravity of the gas disk. We find that the velocities relative to the gas disk of planetesimals a few hundred kilometers in size exceed 12 km s{sup 1}, and that this is achieved around the 3:1 mean-motion resonance. The heating region is restricted to a relatively narrowband between 1.5AU and 3.5AU. Our results suggest that chondrules were produced effectively in the asteroid region after Jovian formation. We also find that many planetesimals are scattered far beyond Neptune. Our findings can explain the presence of crystalline silicate in comets if the scattered planetesimals include silicate dust processed by shock heating.

  10. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (SS-6656, Alfoterra 35, 38, 63,65,68) have been identified which can change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. All the carbonate surfaces (Lithographic Limestone, Marble, Dolomite and Calcite) show similar behavior with respect to wettability alteration with surfactant 4-22. Anionic surfactants (5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38 and Alfoterra-68), which lower the interfacial tension with a West Texas crude oil to very low values (<10{sup -2} nM/m), have also been identified. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability, mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  11. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2012-02-22

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  12. Large Break LOCA Accident Management Strategies for Accidents With Large Containment Leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sdouz, Gert [ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, Viktor Kaplan-Strasse 2, 2700 Wr. Neustadt (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this work is the investigation of the influence of different accident management strategies on the thermal-hydraulics in the containment during a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident with a large containment leak from the beginning of the accident. The increasing relevance of terrorism suggests a closer look at this kind of severe accidents. Normally the course of severe accidents and their associated phenomena are investigated with the assumption of an intact containment from the beginning of the accident. This intact containment has the ability to retain a large part of the radioactive inventory. In these cases there is only a release via a very small leakage due to the un-tightness of the containment up to cavity bottom melt through. This paper represents the last part of a comprehensive study on the influence of accident management strategies on the source term of VVER-1000 reactors. Basically two different accident sequences were investigated: the 'Station Blackout'- sequence and the 'Large Break LOCA'. In a first step the source term calculations were performed assuming an intact containment from the beginning of the accident and no accident management action. In a further step the influence of different accident management strategies was studied. The last part of the project was a repetition of the calculations with the assumption of a damaged containment from the beginning of the accident. This paper concentrates on the last step in the case of a Large Break LOCA. To be able to compare the results with calculations performed years ago the calculations were performed using the Source Term Code Package (STCP), hydrogen explosions are not considered. In this study four different scenarios have been investigated. The main parameter was the switch on time of the spray systems. One of the results is the influence of different accident management strategies on the source term. In the comparison with the sequence with intact containment it was demonstrated that the accident management measures have quite lower consequences. In addition it was shown that in the case of a 'Large Break LOCA'-sequence the intact containment retains the nuclides up to a factor of 20 000. This is much more than in the case of a 'Station Blackout'-sequence. Within the frame of the study 17 source terms have been generated to evaluate in detail accident management strategies for VVER-1000 reactors. (authors)0.

  13. The plate is not available in electronic format

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    The plate is not available in electronic format. Please email lm.records@lm.doe.gov to request the plate.

  14. Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage In September 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy announced the award of 11 projects with a total project value of $75.5 million* to conduct site characterization of promising geologic formations for CO2 storage. These Recovery Act projects will increase our understanding of the potential for these formations to safely and

  15. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Ortega, A. M.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Jud, W.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Hunter, J. F.; Cross, E. S.; et al

    2015-11-04

    Ambient air was oxidized by OH radicals in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) located in a montane pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and aging. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semi-continuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative time scales of condensation of low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles, condensational loss to the walls, and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. MoremoreSOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 4 ?g m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 1 ?g m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.41.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene + p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 LT. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic compounds, and net production at lower ages followed by net consumption of terpenoid oxidation products as photochemical age increased. New particle formation was observed in the reactor after oxidation, especially during times when precursor gas concentrations and SOA formation were largest. Approximately 6 times more SOA was formed in the reactor from OH oxidation than could be explained by the VOCs measured in ambient air. Several recently-developed instruments quantified ambient semi- and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) that were not detected by a PTR-TOF-MS. An SOA yield of 2480 % from those compounds can explain the observed SOA, suggesting that these typically unmeasured S/IVOCs play a substantial role in ambient SOA formation. Our results allow ruling out condensation sticking coefficients much lower than 1. Our measurements help clarify the magnitude of SOA formation in forested environments, and demonstrate methods for interpretation of ambient OFR measurements.less

  16. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  17. Wavenumber Locking And Pattern Formation In Spatially Forced Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagberg, Aric; Meron, Ehud; Manor, Rotem

    2008-01-01

    We study wavenumber locking and pattern formation resulting from weak spatially periodic one-dimensional forcing of two-dimensional systems. We consider systems that support stationary or traveling stripe patterns in the absence of the forcing, and assume that the one-dimensional forcing is aligned with the direction of the stripe patterns. When the forcing wavenumber is about twice as large as the wavenumber of the unforced system we find that the forcing can either select or stabilize a resonant stripe solution at half the forcing wavenumber, or create a new resonant solution. When the wavenumber mismatch is high we find that the wave-vector component of the pattern in the direction of the forcing can stilI lock at half the forcing wavenumber, but a wave-vector component in the orthogonal direction develops to compensate for the total wavenumber. As a result stationary two-dimensional rectangular and oblique patterns form. When the unforced system supports traveling waves resonant rectangular patterns remain stationary but the oblique patterns travel in a direction orthogonal to the traveling-waves.

  18. Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Michael D.

    2006-09-28

    Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55?m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.

  19. Shocks and star formation in Stephan's Quintet. I. Gemini spectroscopy of H?-bright knots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Cluver, M. E.; Appleton, P. N.; Guillard, P.; Trancho, G.; Bastian, N.; Charlton, J. C.; Fedotov, K.; Gallagher, S. C.; Smith, L. J.; Struck, C. J.

    2014-03-20

    We present a Gemini-GMOS spectroscopic study of Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-selected H?-emitting regions in Stephan's Quintet (HCG 92), a nearby compact galaxy group, with the aim of disentangling the processes of shock-induced heating and star formation in its intra-group medium. The ?40 sources are distributed across the system, but most densely concentrated in the ?kiloparsec-long shock region. Their spectra neatly divide them into narrow- and broad-line emitters, and we decompose the latter into three or more emission peaks corresponding to spatial elements discernible in HST imaging. The emission-line ratios of the two populations of H?-emitters confirm their nature as H II regions (90% of the sample) or molecular gas heated by a shock front propagating at ?300 km s{sup 1}. Their redshift distribution reveals interesting three-dimensional structure with respect to gas-phase baryons, with no H II regions associated with shocked gas, no shocked regions in the intruder galaxy NGC 7318B, and a sharp boundary between shocks and star formation. We conclude that star formation is inhibited substantially, if not entirely, in the shock region. Attributing those H II regions projected against the shock to the intruder, we find a lopsided distribution of star formation in this galaxy, reminiscent of pileup regions in models of interacting galaxies. The H? luminosities imply mass outputs, star formation rates, and efficiencies similar to nearby star-forming regions. Two large knots are an exception to this, being comparable in stellar output to the prolific 30 Doradus region. We also examine Stephan's Quintet in the context of compact galaxy group evolution, as a paradigm for intermittent star formation histories in the presence of a rich, X-ray-emitting intra-group medium. All spectra are provided as supplemental materials.

  20. Vertical stratification of subsurface microbial community composition across geological formations at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xueju; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-02-01

    The microbial diversity in subsurface sediments at the Hanford Site's 300 Area in southeastern Washington State was investigated by analyzing 21 samples recovered from depths that ranged from 9 to 52 m. Approximately 8000 non-chimeric Bacterial and Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed across geological strata that contain a natural redox transition zone. These strata included the oxic coarse-grained Hanford formation, fine-grained oxic and anoxic Ringold Formation sediments, and the weathered basalt group. We detected 1233 and 120 unique bacterial and archaeal OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units, defined at the 97% identity level). Microbial community structure and richness varied substantially across the different geological strata. Bacterial OTU richness (based upon Chao1 estimator) was highest (>700) in the upper Hanford formation, and declined to about 120 at the bottom of the Hanford formation. Just above the Ringold oxic-anoxic transition zone, richness was about 325 and declined to less than 50 in the deeper reduced zones. The Bacterial community in the oxic Hanford and Ringold Formations contained members of 9 major well-recognized phyla as well 30 as unusually high proportions of 3 candidate divisions (GAL15, NC10, and SPAM). The deeper Ringold strata were characterized by low OTU richness and a very high preponderance (ca. 90%) of Proteobacteria. The study has greatly expanded the intralineage phylogenetic diversity within some major divisions. These subsurface sediments have been shown to contain a large number of phylogenetically novel microbes, with substantial heterogeneities between sediment samples from the same geological formation.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of large arrays of mesoscopic gold rings on large-aspect-ratio cantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngo, D. Q.; Petkovi?, I. Lollo, A.; Castellanos-Beltran, M. A.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2014-10-15

    We have fabricated large arrays of mesoscopic metal rings on ultrasensitive cantilevers. The arrays are defined by electron beam lithography and contain up to 10{sup 5} rings. The rings have a circumference of 1 ?m, and are made of ultrapure (6N) Au that is deposited onto a silicon-on-insulator wafer without an adhesion layer. Subsequent processing of the SOI wafer results in each array being supported at the end of a free-standing cantilever. To accommodate the large arrays while maintaining a low spring constant, the cantilevers are nearly 1 mm in both lateral dimensions and 100 nm thick. The extreme aspect ratio of the cantilevers, the large array size, and the absence of a sticking layer are intended to enable measurements of the rings' average persistent current in the presence of relatively small magnetic fields. We describe the motivation for these measurements, the fabrication of the devices, and the characterization of the cantilevers' mechanical properties. We also discuss the devices' expected performance in measurements of .

  2. LARG at chromosome 11q23 has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Danny C.T.; Rudduck, Christina; Chin, Koei; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lie, Daniel K.H.; Chua, Constance L.M.; Wong, Chow Yin; Hong, Ga Sze; Gray, Joe; Lee, Ann S.G.

    2008-05-06

    Deletion of 11q23-q24 is frequent in a diverse variety of malignancies, including breast and colorectal carcinoma, implicating the presence of a tumor suppressor gene at that chromosomal region. We show here that LARG, from 11q23, has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor. We examined a 6-Mb region on 11q23 by high-resolution deletion mapping, utilizing both loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis and microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). LARG (also called ARHGEF12), identified from the analyzed region, was underexpressed in 34% of primary breast carcinomas and 80% of breast cancer cell lines including the MCF-7 line. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification on 30 primary breast cancers and six breast cancer cell lines showed that LARG had the highest frequency of deletion compared to the BCSC-1 and TSLC1 genes, two known candidate tumor suppressor genes from 11q. In vitro analysis of breast cancer cell lines that underexpress LARG showed that LARG could be reactivated by trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, but not by 5-Aza-2{prime}-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative high-throughput analysis of DNA methylation confirmed the lack of CpG island methylation in LARG in breast cancer. Restoration of LARG expression in MCF-7 cells by stable transfection resulted in reduced proliferation and colony formation, suggesting that LARG has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor gene.

  3. Comparison of prestellar core elongations and large-scale molecular cloud structures in the Lupus I region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poidevin, Frdrick; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angile, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca; and others

    2014-08-10

    Turbulence and magnetic fields are expected to be important for regulating molecular cloud formation and evolution. However, their effects on sub-parsec to 100 parsec scales, leading to the formation of starless cores, are not well understood. We investigate the prestellar core structure morphologies obtained from analysis of the Herschel-SPIRE 350 ?m maps of the Lupus I cloud. This distribution is first compared on a statistical basis to the large-scale shape of the main filament. We find the distribution of the elongation position angle of the cores to be consistent with a random distribution, which means no specific orientation of the morphology of the cores is observed with respect to the mean orientation of the large-scale filament in Lupus I, nor relative to a large-scale bent filament model. This distribution is also compared to the mean orientation of the large-scale magnetic fields probed at 350 ?m with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Telescope for Polarimetry during its 2010 campaign. Here again we do not find any correlation between the core morphology distribution and the average orientation of the magnetic fields on parsec scales. Our main conclusion is that the local filament dynamicsincluding secondary filaments that often run orthogonally to the primary filamentand possibly small-scale variations in the local magnetic field direction, could be the dominant factors for explaining the final orientation of each core.

  4. Formation of nanofilament field emission devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR); Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device. The process enables the formation of high aspect ratio, electroplated nanofilament structure devices for field emission displays wherein a via is formed in a dielectric layer and is self-aligned to a via in the gate metal structure on top of the dielectric layer. The desired diameter of the via in the dielectric layer is on the order of 50-200 nm, with an aspect ratio of 5-10. In one embodiment, after forming the via in the dielectric layer, the gate metal is passivated, after which a plating enhancement layer is deposited in the bottom of the via, where necessary. The nanofilament is then electroplated in the via, followed by removal of the gate passification layer, etch back of the dielectric, and sharpening of the nanofilament. A hard mask layer may be deposited on top of the gate metal and removed following electroplating of the nanofilament.

  5. Mental Representations Formed From Educational Website Formats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizabeth T. Cady; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Tuan Q. Tran; Bernardo de la Garza; Peter D. Elgin

    2006-10-01

    The increasing popularity of web-based distance education places high demand on distance educators to format web pages to facilitate learning. However, limited guidelines exist regarding appropriate writing styles for web-based distance education. This study investigated the effect of four different writing styles on readers mental representation of hypertext. Participants studied hypertext written in one of four web-writing styles (e.g., concise, scannable, objective, and combined) and were then administered a cued association task intended to measure their mental representations of the hypertext. It is hypothesized that the scannable and combined styles will bias readers to scan rather than elaborately read, which may result in less dense mental representations (as identified through Pathfinder analysis) relative to the objective and concise writing styles. Further, the use of more descriptors in the objective writing style will lead to better integration of ideas and more dense mental representations than the concise writing style.

  6. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  7. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN NGC 1266

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lanz, Lauranne; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Appleton, Philip N.; Ogle, Patrick M.; Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Nyland, Kristina; Meier, David S.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Chang, Philip; Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Martn, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    NGC 1266 is a nearby lenticular galaxy that harbors a massive outflow of molecular gas powered by the mechanical energy of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been speculated that such outflows hinder star formation (SF) in their host galaxies, providing a form of feedback to the process of galaxy formation. Previous studies, however, indicated that only jets from extremely rare, high-power quasars or radio galaxies could impart significant feedback on their hosts. Here we present detailed observations of the gas and dust continuum of NGC 1266 at millimeter wavelengths. Our observations show that molecular gas is being driven out of the nuclear region at M-dot {sub out}?110 M{sub ?} yr{sup 1}, of which the vast majority cannot escape the nucleus. Only 2 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} is actually capable of escaping the galaxy. Most of the molecular gas that remains is very inefficient at forming stars. The far-infrared emission is dominated by an ultra-compact (? 50 pc) source that could either be powered by an AGN or by an ultra-compact starburst. The ratio of the SF surface density (?{sub SFR}) to the gas surface density (?{sub H{sub 2}}) indicates that SF is suppressed by a factor of ?50 compared to normal star-forming galaxies if all gas is forming stars, and ?150 for the outskirt (98%) dense molecular gas if the central region is powered by an ultra-compact starburst. The AGN-driven bulk outflow could account for this extreme suppression by hindering the fragmentation and gravitational collapse necessary to form stars through a process of turbulent injection. This result suggests that even relatively common, low-power AGNs are able to alter the evolution of their host galaxies as their black holes grow onto the M-? relation.

  8. Formate brines -- New fluids for drilling and completions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, M.S.; Shipp, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The term ``formate brines`` refers broadly to three primary compounds dissolved in water -- sodium formate (NaCOOH), potassium formate (KCOOH) and cesium formate (CsCOOH). Each is chemically classified as an alkali-metal salt of formic acid. They offer properties that in many respects are superior to their predecessors, halide brines such as zinc bromide and calcium bromide, without the undesirable side effects of those more common halide brine systems. This article introduces the technology and provides an overview of published work to date regarding formates.

  9. IS THE LARGE CRATER ON THE ASTEROID (2867) STEINS REALLY AN IMPACT CRATER?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, A. J. W.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    The large crater on the asteroid (2867) Steins attracted much attention when it was first observed by the Rosetta spacecraft in 2008. Initially, it was widely thought to be unusually large compared to the size of the asteroid. It was quickly realized that this was not the case and there are other examples of similar (or larger) craters on small bodies in the same size range; however, it is still widely accepted that it is a crater arising from an impact onto the body which occurred after its formation. The asteroid (2867) Steins also has an equatorial bulge, usually considered to have arisen from redistribution of mass due to spin-up of the body caused by the YORP effect. Conversely, it is shown here that, based on catastrophic disruption experiments in laboratory impact studies, a similarly shaped body to the asteroid Steins can arise from the break-up of a parent in a catastrophic disruption event; this includes the presence of a large crater-like feature and equatorial bulge. This suggests that the large crater-like feature on Steins may not be a crater from a subsequent impact, but may have arisen directly from the fragmentation process of a larger, catastrophically disrupted parent.

  10. Aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a laminar premixed n-butane flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinov, N.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K.; Vincitore, A.M.; Castaldi, M.J.; Senkan, S.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1998-07-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane-oxygen-argon burner stabilized flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.6 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer technique. Measurements were made in the main reaction and post-reaction zones for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-fused aromatic rings. Reaction flux and sensitivity analysis were used to help identify the important reaction sequences leading to aromatic and PAH growth and destruction in the n-butane flame. Reaction flux analysis showed the propargyl recombination reaction was the dominant pathway to benzene formation. The consumption of propargyl by H atoms was shown to limit propargyl, benzene, and naphthalene formation in flames as exhibited by the large negative sensitivity coefficients. Naphthalene and phenanthrene production was shown to be plausibly formed through reactions involving resonantly stabilized cyclopentadienyl and indenyl radicals. Many of the low molecular weight aliphatics, combustion by-products, aromatics, branched aromatics, and PAHs were fairly well simulated by the model. Additional work is required to understand the formation mechanisms of phenyl acetylene, pyrene, and fluoranthene in the n-butane flame. 73 refs.

  11. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. DETAILED ABUNDANCE RATIOS AT LARGE RADIUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Gunn, James E.; Raskutti, Sudhir; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl

    2013-10-20

    We study the radial dependence in stellar populations of 33 nearby early-type galaxies with central stellar velocity dispersions ?{sub *} ?> 150 km s{sup 1}. We measure stellar population properties in composite spectra, and use ratios of these composites to highlight the largest spectral changes as a function of radius. Based on stellar population modeling, the typical star at 2R{sub e} is old (?10 Gyr), relatively metal-poor ([Fe/H] ? 0.5), and ?-enhanced ([Mg/Fe] ? 0.3). The stars were made rapidly at z ? 1.5-2 in shallow potential wells. Declining radial gradients in [C/Fe], which follow [Fe/H], also arise from rapid star formation timescales due to declining carbon yields from low-metallicity massive stars. In contrast, [N/Fe] remains high at large radius. Stars at large radius have different abundance ratio patterns from stars in the center of any present-day galaxy, but are similar to average Milky Way thick disk stars. Our observations are thus consistent with a picture in which the stellar outskirts are built up through minor mergers with disky galaxies whose star formation is truncated early (z ? 1.5-2)

  12. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes a section that describes efforts already underway or planned at NERSC that address requirements collected at the workshop. NERSC has many initiatives in progress that address key workshop findings and are aligned with NERSC's strategic plans.

  13. Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning of a CEBAF 5-Cell SRF Cavity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for...

  14. Non-Large Hadron Collider Physics Program at CERN (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Non-Large Hadron Collider Physics Program at CERN Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Non-Large Hadron Collider Physics Program at CERN You are accessing a document from...

  15. Publisher's Note: "Chiral symmetry restoration at large chemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at large chemical potential 2 in strongly coupled SU(N) gauge theories" J. Math. ... at large chemical potential 2 in strongly coupled SU(N) gauge theories" J. Math. ...

  16. Energy Department Loan Guarantee Would Support Large-Scale Rooftop...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Loan Guarantee Would Support Large-Scale Rooftop Solar Power for U.S. Military Housing Energy Department Loan Guarantee Would Support Large-Scale Rooftop Solar Power for U.S....

  17. Evaluating Benefits of Idling Restrictions in a Large Northern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluating Benefits of Idling Restrictions in a Large Northern City While an anti-idling law in a large northern city has brought about the deployment of anti-idling technologies ...

  18. Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations on the BlueGeneL Platform using the Qbox Code Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-Scale...

  19. Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy Storage Projects Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy Storage Projects Map of the United States ...

  20. A Look at Health Care Buildings - How large are they

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Large? Return to: A Look at Health Care Buildings How large are they? How many employees are there? Where are they located? How old are they? Who owns and occupies them? Are they...