Sample records for large format li-ion

  1. Modeling of Nonuniform Degradation in Large-Format Li-ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study of impacts of large-format cell design features on battery useful life to improve battery engineering models, including both realistic geometry and physics.

  2. Addressing the Impact of Temperature Extremes on Large Format Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicle Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the effects of temperature on large format lithium-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles.

  3. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries...

  4. Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

  5. Effect of tab design on large-format Li-ion cell performance , Gang Luo b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to much lower energy density than their coin cell benchmarks. In this work, a 3D computational methodology the cell is operated at high power, which is ubiqui- tous in hybrid and pure electric vehicle (HEV

  6. Modeling of Nonuniform Degradation in Large-Format Li-ion Batteries (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shows results of an empirical model capturing effects of both storage and cycling and developed the lithium ion nickel cobalt aluminum advanced battery chemistry.

  7. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProductsUptakeMultifamily ProjectsBatteries |

  8. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProductsUptakeMultifamily ProjectsBatteries |Batteries

  9. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProductsUptakeMultifamily ProjectsBatteries

  10. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Christoph J., E-mail: Christoph.Weber@freudenberg-nw.com; Geiger, Sigrid, E-mail: Christoph.Weber@freudenberg-nw.com [Freudenberg Vliesstoffe SE and Co KG, 69465 Weinheim (Germany); Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael [Freudenberg Forschungsdienste SE and Co KG, 69465 Weinheim (Germany)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m{sup 2} mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  11. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques 2011 DOE...

  12. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success...

  13. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  14. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercial Li-ion batteries today use graphite or a mixturein certain primary batteries). Graphite has a potential of

  15. Effect of flame-retarding additives on surface chemistry in Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, N.D.; Park, I.J. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.G., E-mail: kimjg@skku.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.S. [Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)] [Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examined the properties of 1 wt.% vinylene carbonate (VC), vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), and diphenyl octyl phosphate (DPOF) additive electrolytes as a promising way of beneficially improving the surface and cell resistance of Li-ion batteries. Surface film formation on the negative and positive electrodes was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In conclusion, EIS, FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM results confirmed that DPOF is an excellent additive to the electrolyte in the Li-ion batteries due to the improved co-intercalation of the solvent molecules.

  16. Experimental simulation of internal short circuit in Li-ion and Li-ion-Polymer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Maleki, Hossein [Motorola Mobility; Howard, Jason [Motorola Mobility; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-parameter controlled pinch test was developed to study the occurrence of internal short circuits in Li-ion and Li-ion-polymer cells. By tuning the control parameters (i.e., cell voltage as well as pinching area, load, and speed), the pinch test can reproducibly create ~1 to 2 mm wide internal short between a cell jelly-roll s inner layer electrodes. This recreates conditions similar to those that may occur during service. Furthermore, the pinch test is used to determine thermal stability of two Li-ion-polymer cells of different designs built by the same manufacturer. The pinch test method can be used to help distinguish cells with design features or characteristics that lower risk of potential thermal events created by internal short circuits.

  17. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Li-ion batteries Using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program DOE 2011 Vehicle...

  18. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of LIB Cathode Materials Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria, Ohio...

  19. Nanoscale In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Electrochemistry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Electrochemistry via Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy A. L. Lipson, R. S. Ginder, and M. C. Hersam, Northwestern University...

  20. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program DOE 2010 Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  1. Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    stability of Si-based anode. 4 Milestones * Synthesize and characterize TiO 2 Graphene and SnO 2 Graphene nano-composite as anode for Li-ion batteries. - on going *...

  2. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria, Ohio Project ID ARRAVT008 Joe DiCarlo BASF Corporation May 11, 2011 "This presentation does not contain...

  3. Thermal Stability of Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.

    1999-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial SONY cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity in the open circuit cell condition. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC). Microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of heat generating side reactions also as a function of SOC. Components of cells were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the thermal reactivity of the individual electrodes to determine the temperature regimes and conditions of the major thermal reactions. Thermal decomposition of the SEI layer at the anodes was identified as the initiating source for thermal runaway. The cells with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes showed greater sensitivity to SOC and higher accelerating heating rates than seen for the cells with Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}cathodes. Lower temperature reactions starting as low as 40 C were also observed that were SOC dependent but not accelerating. These reactions were also measured in the microcalorimeter and observed to decay over time with a power-law dependence and are believed to result in irreversible capacity loss in the cells.

  4. Electrochemical characteristics of plasma-etched black silicon as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Gibaek; Wehrspohn, Ralf B., E-mail: ralf.b.wehrspohn@iwmh.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Halle (Saale) 06120, Germany and Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany); Schweizer, Stefan L. [Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured silicon as an anode material for Li-ion batteries is produced for the first time by inductively coupled plasma–plasma etching of Si wafers in the black silicon regime. The microscopic structure strongly resembles other types of nanostructured silicon, with a well-arranged nanostructure possessing a sufficient porosity for accommodating large volume expansion. Despite these features, however, a high first-cycle irreversible capacity loss and a poor cycle life are observed. The main reason for these poor features is the formation of a thick solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer related to the surface condition of the pristine nanostructured black silicon (b-Si) electrode. Therefore, the cycle life of the b-Si electrode is heavily influenced by the constant reformation of the SEI layer depending upon the surface composition in spite of the presence of nanostructured Si. In the fast lithiation experiments, the nanostructure region of the b-Si electrode is detached from the Si substrate owing to the kinetics difference between the lithium ion diffusion and the electron injection and phase transformation in the nanostructured Si region. This means that more Si substrate is involved in lithiation at high current rates. It is therefore important to maintain balance in the chemical kinetics during the lithiation of nanostructured Si electrodes with a Si substrate.

  5. A New Vision for High-Capacity Hybrid Li-ion/Li-O2 Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduces A New Vision for High-Capacity Hybrid Li-ionLi-O2 Batteries Diagram illustrating the CEES all-in-one vision for a high-capacity Li-ionLi-O2 cell. Illustration of CEES'...

  6. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes. Abstract: Silicon is...

  7. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  8. Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  9. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation Development of CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental...

  10. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries A. Jaiswal 1 , C. R. Hornenext generation of Li-ion batteries for consumer electronics

  11. High Capacity Li Ion Battery Anodes Using Ge Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    High Capacity Li Ion Battery Anodes Using Ge Nanowires Candace K. Chan, Xiao Feng Zhang, and Yi Cui efficiency > 99%. Structural characterization revealed that the Ge nanowires remain intact and connected nanowire anodes are promising candidates for the development of high-energy-density lithium batteries

  12. Polymer graphite composite anodes for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Polymer graphite composite anodes for Li-ion batteries Basker Veeraraghavan, Bala Haran, Ralph for the graphite particles by in-situ polymerization #12;Experimental Preparation of PPy/Graphite composites Dropwise addition of pyrrole into aqueous slurry of graphite at 0 °C with nitric acid acting as an oxidizer

  13. Formation Of The Spinel Phase In The Layered Composite Cathode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of The Spinel Phase In The Layered Composite Cathode Used In Li-Ion Batteries. Formation Of The Spinel Phase In The Layered Composite Cathode Used In Li-Ion Batteries. Abstract:...

  14. The effects of silicon doping on the performance of PMAN carbon anodes in Li-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Johnson, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Even, W. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbons derived from polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN) have been studied for use as intercalation anodes in Li-ion cells. The effect of Si doping upon the electrochemical performance of PMAN carbons was studied using tetravinylsilane (TVS) and tetramethysilane (TMS) as sources of Si during the formation of the PMAN precursors. The carbons were characterized by galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and complex impedance. The presence of 9 to 11 w/o Si in the PMAN lattice greatly increased the irreversible capacity of these materials.

  15. Thermal Abuse Modeling of Li-Ion Cells and Propagation in Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) continue to explore thermal abuse behaviors of Li-ion cells and modules that are affected by local conditions of heat and materials; (2) use the 3D Li-ion battery thermal abuse 'reaction' model developed for cells to explore the impact of the location of internal short, its heating rate, and thermal properties of the cell; (3) continue to understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-ion cells and modules; and (4) explore the use of the developed methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-ion battery systems.

  16. Analysis of Heat Dissipation in Li-Ion Cells & Modules for Modeling of Thermal Runaway (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study are: (1) To develop 3D Li-Ion battery thermal abuse ''reaction'' models for cell and module analysis; (2) To understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-Ion cells and modules; (3) To develop a tool and methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems for PHEVs/HEVs; and (4) To help battery developers accelerate delivery of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems in support of the FreedomCAR's Energy Storage Program.

  17. Ethylmethylcarbonate, a promising solvent for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ein-Eli, Y.; Thomas, S.R.; Koch, V. [Covalent Associates Inc., Woburn, MA (United States); Aurbach, D.; Markovsky, B.; Schechter, A. [Bar-Ilan Univ., Ramat Gan (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylmethylcarbonate (EMC) has been found to be a promising solvent for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Graphite electrodes, which are usually sensitive to the composition of the electrolyte solution, can be successfully cycled at high reversible capacities in several Li salt solutions in this solvent (LiAsF{sub 6}, LiPF{sub 6}, etc.). These results are interesting because lithium ions cannot intercalate into graphite in diethyl carbonate solutions and cycle poorly in dimethyl carbonate solutions. To understand the high compatibility of EMC for Li-ion battery systems as compared with the other two open-chain alkyl carbonates mentioned above, the surface chemistry developed in both Li and carbon electrodes in EMC solution was studied and compared with that developed on these electrodes in other alkyl carbonate solutions. Basically, the major surface species formed on both electrodes in EMC include ROLi, ROCO{sub 2}Li, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} species. The uniqueness of EMC as a battery solvent is discussed in light of these studies.

  18. Development of First Principles Capacity Fade Model for Li-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    into a lithium-ion battery model. The model explains the self-discharge process occurring in Li-ion cells processes in lithium-ion batteries may cause a number of undesirable effects leading to capacity loss.3 with the existing Li- ion intercalation model. Model Development The side reaction of general interest in lithium-ion

  19. Stochastic Simulation Model for the 3D Morphology of Composite Materials in Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    Stochastic Simulation Model for the 3D Morphology of Composite Materials in Li-Ion Batteries Ralf August 30, 2010 Abstract Battery technology plays an important role in energy storage. In particular, lithium­ ion (Li-ion) batteries are of great interest, because of their high capacity, long cycle life

  20. Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries Dmitry Ruzmetov, all-solid-state Li ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and small footprint are highly, into the nanometer regime, can lead to rapid self-discharge of the battery even when the electrolyte layer

  1. Capacity Fade Studies of LiCoO2 Based Li-ion Cells Cycled at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    in capacity of commercially available Sony 18650 Cells cycled at different temperatures. Perform rate of a Sony 18650 Li-ion cell Cathode (positive electrode) - LiCoO2. Anode (negative electrode) - MCMB. Cell capacity ­ 1.8 Ah #12;Characteristics of a Sony 18650 Li-ion cell Characteristics Positive LiCoO2 Negative

  2. Electrochemical Lithium Harvesting from Waste Li-ion Batteries Byron M. Wolfe III1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Electrochemical Lithium Harvesting from Waste Li-ion Batteries Byron M. Wolfe III1 , Wen Chao Lee1 This study demonstrates the feasibility of using water and the contents of waste Li-ion batteries for the electrodes in a Li-liquid battery system. Li metal was collected electrochemically from a waste Li

  3. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Li-ion batteries suffer from strong self-heating, which limits their life-time and creates* Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, automotive and aerospace industries. Li-ion batteries are an essential part of the hybrid electric vehicles

  4. A Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Aging Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Aging Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-ion Batteries: Power of a commercial LiFePO4-graphite Li-ion battery. Compared to the isothermal reference, the mechanism of porosity;2 Due to their high power and energy densities, Li-ion technologies are the leading battery systems

  5. Second-Use Li-Ion Batteries to Aid Automotive and Utility Industries (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repurposing Li-ion batteries at the end of useful life in electric drive vehicles could eliminate owners' disposal concerns and offer low-cost energy storage for certain applications.

  6. High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EVs Based on Novel, High...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Storage Systems Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review 6182014 1 High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV's Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems Keith D. Kepler...

  7. An ultra-compact and efficient Li-ion battery charger circuit for biomedical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do Valle, Bruno Guimaraes

    This paper describes an ultra-compact analog lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery charger for wirelessly powered implantable medical devices. The charger presented here takes advantage of the tanh output current profile of an ...

  8. High Capacity MoO3 Nanoparticle Li-Ion Battery Anode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy functional were employed.) 10 AccomplishmentStatus Theoretical changes in Li-ion intercalated -MoO 3 Mo Li O * Four Li inserted in a theoretical nanoparticle. * 9 ps...

  9. Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries K. Zaghib Hydro-Qubec (IREQ), 1800 Lionel-Boulet Varennes, QC, Canada, J3X 1S1 BATT Review Meeting February 25 - 28,...

  10. Mesoscale Modeling of a Li-Ion Polymer Cell Chia-Wei Wanga,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, Ann Marie

    Mesoscale Modeling of a Li-Ion Polymer Cell Chia-Wei Wanga, * and Ann Marie Sastrya,b,c, *,z, the study reported critical data required for mesoscale numerical simulation, including ionic con- ductivity

  11. Facile synthesis of nanostructured vanadium oxide as cathode materials for efficient Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -ion batteries Yanyi Liu,a Evan Uchaker,a Nan Zhou,ab Jiangang Li,ac Qifeng Zhanga and Guozhong Cao*a Received 23 and VO2 (B) nanorods were tested as active cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The V2O5 sheet for efficient Li-ion batteries. Introduction The expansion and demands for energy use in the past several

  12. NREL's PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Secondary-Use Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) is restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the Li-ion battery's cost via reuse in other applications after it is retired from service in the vehicle, when the battery may still have sufficient performance to meet the requirements of other energy storage applications.

  13. Thermal characterization of Li-ion cells using calorimetric techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial Sony cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC), microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of thermal output, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal reactivity of the individual components. Thermal decomposition of the anode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer occurred at low temperatures and contributes to the initiation of thermal runaway. Low temperature reactions from 40 C--70 C were observed during the ARC runs that were SOC dependent. These reactions measured in the microcalorimeter decayed over time with power-law dependence and were highly sensitive to SOC and temperature. ARC runs of aged and cycled cells showed complete absence of these low-temperature reactions but showed abrupt exothermic spikes between 105--135 C. These results suggest that during aging the anode SEI layer is decomposing from a metastable state to a stable composition that is breaking down at elevated temperatures.

  14. Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu; Liu, Jun

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon is environmentally benign and ubiquitous. Because of its high specific capacity, it is considered one of the most promising candidates to replace the conventional graphite negative electrode used in today's Li ion batteries. Silicon has a theoretical specific capacity of nearly 4200 mAh/g (Li21Si5), which is 10 times larger than the specific capacity of graphite (LiC6, 372 mAh/g). However, the high capacity of silicon is associated with huge volume changes (more than 300 percent) when alloyed with lithium, which can cause severe cracking and pulverization of the electrode and lead to significant capacity loss. Significant scientific research has been conducted to circumvent the deterioration of silicon based anode materials during cycling. Various strategies, such as reduction of particle size, generation of active/inactive composites, fabrication of silicon based thin films, use of alternative binders, and the synthesis of 1-D silicon nanostructures have been implemented by a number of research groups. Fundamental mechanistic research has also been performed to better understand the electrochemical lithiation and delithiation process during cycling in terms of crystal structure, phase transitions, morphological changes, and reaction kinetics. Although efforts to date have not attained a commercially viable Si anode, further development is expected to produce anodes with three to five times the capacity of graphite. In this chapter, an overview of research on silicon based anodes used for lithium-ion battery applications will be presented. The overview covers electrochemical alloying of the silicon with lithium, mechanisms responsible for capacity fade, and methodologies adapted to overcome capacity degradation observed during cycling. The recent development of silicon nanowires and nanoparticles with significantly improved electrochemical performance will also be discussed relative to the mechanistic understanding. Finally, future directions on the development of silicon based anodes will be considered.

  15. Novel Laser-Based Manufacturing of nano-LiFePO4-Based Materials for High Power Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Chang, On; Crane, S.; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Emile

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    II “Olivines in Lithium Batteries” The Beckman Institute,for High Power Li Ion Batteries C.R. Horne 1 , A. Jaiswal

  16. Enhanced Li+ ion transport in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through Control...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li+ ion transport in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through Control of Site Disorder. Enhanced Li+ ion transport in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through Control of Site Disorder. Abstract: High voltage spinel...

  17. Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable nanoparticle clusters have quite reversible lithium-ion insertion and extraction, showing the first discharge lithium reactions, i MPn LixMPn simple Li-ion interca- lation and ii MPn M LixM + LixP alloying followed

  18. Figure 1. Schematic drawing showing the components of a Li-ion battery cell and the information that can be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figure 1. Schematic drawing showing the components of a Li-ion battery cell and the information Proposals In Situ Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Advanced Li-ion Batteries Under Dynamic Operation Conditions Project start date: Spring 2008 EMSL Lead Investigator: Chongmin Wang

  19. Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4- Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge, a simplified electrochemical and thermal model of LiFePO4-graphite based Li-ion batteries is developed for battery management system (BMS) applications and comprehensive aging investigations. Based on a modified

  20. Engineering Recently, we created the first Li-ion electrochemical cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    characterization of Li-ion battery materials. In this presentation, I'll first review our latest progress of using-ion battery anodes. In the future, we will need further advancements in in-situ characterization nanotubes, and graphene. Several electrochemical mechanisms were observed and characterized in real

  1. A Model Reduction Framework for Efficient Simulation of Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of degradation processes in lithium-ion batteries, the modelling of cell dynamics at the mircometer scale lithium-ion batteries is the deposition of metallic lithium at the negative battery electrode (LiA Model Reduction Framework for Efficient Simulation of Li-Ion Batteries Mario Ohlberger Stephan

  2. Nanoparticle iron-phosphate anode material for Li-ion battery Dongyeon Son

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    density.1 The graphite generally used in lithium rechargeable batteries has a capacity of 372 mNanoparticle iron-phosphate anode material for Li-ion battery Dongyeon Son School of Materials rechargeable batteries. The electrochemical properties of the nanoparticle iron phosphates were characterized

  3. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE...

  4. A New Charging Method for Li-ion Batteries: Dependence of the charging time on the Direction of an Additional Oscillating Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamad, I Abou; Wipf, D O; Rikvold, P A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have recently proposed a new method for charging Li-ion batteries based on large-scale molecular dynamics studies (I. Abou Hamad et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 2740 (2010)). Applying an additional oscillating electric field in the direction perpendicular to the graphite sheets of the anode showed an exponential decrease in charging time with increasing amplitude of the applied oscillating field. Here we present new results exploring the effect on the charging time of changing the orientation of the oscillating field. Results for oscillating fields in three orthogonal directions are compared.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 3M at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced high energy Li-ion cell for PHEV...

  6. Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudawski, N. G.; Darby, B. L.; Yates, B. R.; Jones, K. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States); Elliman, R. G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Volinsky, A. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa Florida 33620 (United States)

    2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge electrodes fabricated directly on Ni current collector substrates were found to exhibit excellent specific capacities during electrochemical cycling in half-cell configuration with Li metal for a wide range of cycling rates. Structural characterization revealed that the nanostructured electrodes lose porosity during cycling but maintain excellent electrical contact with the metallic current collector substrate. These results suggest that nanostructured Ge electrodes have great promise for use as high performance Li ion battery anodes.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

    2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

  8. Silicon Nanoparticles-Graphene Paper Composites for Li Ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jeong K.; Smith, Kurt B.; Hayner, Cary M.; Kung, Harold H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composites of Si nanoparticles highly dispersed between graphene sheets, and supported by a 3-D network of graphite formed by reconstituting regions of graphene stacks exhibit high Li ion storage capacities and cycling stability. An electrode was prepared with a storage capacity >2200 mA h g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles and >1500 mA h g{sup ?1} after 200 cycles that decreased by <0.5% per cycle.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Diatom assemblages promote ice formation in large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Diatom assemblages promote ice formation in large lakes NA D'souza1,3 , Y evidence for the directed formation of ice by planktonic communities dominated by filamentous diatoms sampled from the ice-covered Laurentian Great Lakes. We hypothesize that ice formation promotes attachment

  10. Investigation of layered intergrowth LixMyMn1-yO2+z (M=Ni,Co,Al) compounds as positive electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolle, M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Richardson, T.J.; Doeff, M.M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as Positive Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries M. Dollé,* J.layered manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries.Keywords: Lithium batteries, layered manganese oxides,

  11. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrode for Sodium Ion Batteries. Chemistry of Materialsnickel fluoride in Li ion batteries. Electrochimica Actafor advanced lithium ion batteries. Materials Science and

  12. Selected test results from the neosonic polymer Li-ion battery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingersoll, David T.; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery was measured using a number of tests including capacity, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, hybrid pulsed power test, utility partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycle test, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the polymer Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery technology can provide power levels up to the 10C{sub 1} discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h (1C) discharge rate. Two of the three cells used in the utility PSOC pulsed cycle test completed about 12,000 cycles with only a gradual loss in capacity of 10 and 13%. The third cell experienced a 40% loss in capacity at about 11,000 cycles. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were increases in impedance after cycling, especially for the third cell. Cell No.3 impedance Rs increased significantly along with extensive ballooning of the foil pouch. Finally, at a 1C (10 A) charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test with cell confinement similar to a multi cell string resulted in the cell venting hot gases at about 45 C 45 minutes into the test. At 104 minutes into the test the cell voltage spiked to the 12 volt limit and continued out to the end of the test at 151 minutes. In summary, the Neosonic cells performed as expected with good cycle-life and safety.

  13. Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

  14. Surface treated natural graphite as anode material for high-power Li-ion battery applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J.; Vissers, D. R.; Amine, K.; Barsukov, I. V.; Henry, F.; Doniger, J.; Chemical Engineering; Superior Graphite Co.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High power application of Li-ion battery in hybrid electrical vehicles requires low cost and safe cell materials. Among the various carbon anode materials used in lithium ion batteries, natural graphite shows the most promise with advantages in performance and cost. However, natural graphite is not compatible with propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes, which have a lower melting point and improved safety characteristics. The problem with it is that the molecules of propylene carbonate intercalate with Li+ into graphite, and that frequently leads to the exfoliation of the graphite matrix.

  15. Li ion Motors Corp formerly EV Innovations Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,Lakefront Tow(Redirected from Lewisburg, PA)LeydenLi-ion

  16. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  17. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

  18. Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries i g h l i g h t s battery model parameters are optimized. 2012 Accepted 1 June 2012 Available online 9 June 2012 Keywords: Battery management systems SOC

  19. Ultrathin Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanowires as High Power Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Ultrathin Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanowires as High Power Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Hyun diameters less than 10 nm and lengths of several micrometers. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that Li, lithium ion battery, LiMn2O4 nanowires, high power density, Jahn-Teller distortion T he high energy

  20. Performance study of commercial LiCoO2 and spinel-based Li-ion cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    -ion cells and Sony 18650 cells using non-stoichiometric spinel and LiCoO2, respectively, as positive at the cathode and loss of active material at both electrodes due to electrolyte oxidation. For the Sony cells Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Li-ion cells; LiCoO2; Cell-Batt1 ; Capacity fade; Sony 18650

  1. Applied Surface Science 266 (2013) 516 Interphase chemistry of Si electrodes used as anodes in Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the lithiation of graphite, which also contributes to the increase of the energy density of the battery. Among in Li-ion batteries Catarina Pereira-Nabaisa,b , Jolanta S´wiatowskaa, , Alexandre Chagnesb, , Franc made to increase the energy density of lithium-ion batteries (LiB), namely for electric vehicle

  2. Maximum Li storage in Si nanowires for the high capacity three-dimensional Li-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    , such as fuel cells and secondary batteries. Here we report a coin-type Si nanowire NW half-cell Li-ion battery is the central research subject in various energy conversion systems, such as solar cells, fuel cells must be optimally coordinated.7 In this respect, Si nanowire NW arrays can serve as the high capacity

  3. Structural Underpinnings of the Enhanced Cycling Stability upon Al-Substitution in LiNi0.45Mn0.45Co0.1-yAlyO2 Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials for Li-ion batteries Thomas E. Conry, a,b Apurvamaterials in Li-ion batteries. Synchrotron-based high-materials for Li-ion batteries. LiNi z Mn z Co 1-2z O 2 (NMC

  4. Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li+ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botermann, Benjamin; Geppert, Christopher; Gwinner, Gerald; Hänsch, Theodor W; Huber, Gerhard; Karpuk, Sergei; Krieger, Andreas; Kühl, Thomas; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Novotny, Christian; Reinhardt, Sascha; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Schwalm, Dirk; Stöhlker, Thomas; Wolf, Andreas; Saathoff, Guido

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the concluding result from an Ives-Stilwell-type time dilation experiment using 7Li+ ions confined at a velocity of beta = v/c = 0.338 in the storage ring ESR at Darmstadt. A Lambda-type three-level system within the hyperfine structure of the 7Li+ triplet S1-P2 line is driven by two laser beams aligned parallel and antiparallel relative to the ion beam. The lasers' Doppler shifted frequencies required for resonance are measured with an accuracy of < 4 ppb using optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy. This allows us to verify the Special Relativity relation between the time dilation factor gamma and the velocity beta to within 2.3 ppb at this velocity. The result, which is singled out by a high boost velocity beta, is also interpreted within Lorentz Invariance violating test theories.

  5. A Combustion Chemistry Analysis of Carbonate Solvents in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S J; Timmons, A; Pitz, W J

    2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Under abusive conditions Li-ion batteries can rupture, ejecting electrolyte and other flammable gases. In this paper we consider some of the thermochemical properties of these gases that will determine whether they ignite and how energetically they burn. We show that flames of carbonate solvents are fundamentally less energetic than those of conventional hydrocarbons. An example of this difference is given using a recently developed mechanism for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) combustion, where we show that a diffusion flame burning DMC has only half the peak energy release rate of an analogous propane flame. We find a significant variation among the carbonate solvents in the factors that are important to determining flammability, such as combustion enthalpy and vaporization enthalpy. This result suggests that thermochemical and kinetic factors might well be considered when choosing solvent mixtures.

  6. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Li-Ion Battery Systems - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget » FY 2014FacilitiesSheet 300OfficeFail

  7. Study of Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using "Gen3" Electrode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Summary Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results...

  8. Statistical Design of Experiment for Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideosSpringout byDevelopmentTurkey

  9. Study of Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using "Gen3" Electrode Materials:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic Safety Goals Strategic Safety|Research with EMLithium|Summary of

  10. SIMULATING LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE FORMATION FOR BSI POWER SPECTRA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Mueller

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A double inflationary model provides perturbation spectra with enhanced power at large scales (Broken Scale Invariant perturbations -- BSI), leading to a promising scenario for the formation of cosmic structures. We describe a series of high-resolution PM simulations with a model for the thermodynamic evolution of baryons in which we are capable of identifying 'galaxy' halos with a reasonable mass spectrum and following the genesis of large and super-large scale structures. The power spectra and correlation functions of 'galaxies' are compared with reconstructed power spectra of the CfA catalogue and the correlation functions of the Las Campanas Deep Redshift Survey.

  11. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Biarritz, France, June 18–23,Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries M. Marcinek, L. J.Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li-ion cells for...

  13. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Conry, Thomas; Wilcox, James

    2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work in our laboratory has been directed towards development of mixed layered transition metal oxides with general composition Li[Ni, Co, M, Mn]O2 (M=Al, Ti) for Li ion battery cathodes. Compounds such as Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 (often called NMCs) are currently being commercialized for use in consumer electronic batteries, but the high cobalt content makes them too expensive for vehicular applications such as electric vehicles (EV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). To reduce materials costs, we have explored partial or full substitution of Co with Al, Ti, and Fe. Fe substitution generally decreases capacity and results in poorer rate and cycling behavior. Interestingly, low levels of substitution with Al or Ti improve aspects of performance with minimal impact on energy densities, for some formulations. High levels of Al substitution compromise specific capacity, however, so further improvements require that the Ni and Mn content be increased and Co correspondingly decreased. Low levels of Al or Ti substitution can then be used offset negative effects induced by the higher Ni content. The structural and electrochemical characterization of substituted NMCs is presented in this paper.

  14. Development and testing of 100-kW/ 1-minute Li-ion battery systems for energy storage applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Clark, Nancy H.

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two 100 kW min{sup -1} (1.67 kW h{sup -1}) Li-ion battery energy storage systems (BESS) are described. The systems include a high-power Li-ion battery and a 100 kW power conditioning system (PCS). The battery consists of 12 modules of 12 series-connected Saft Li-ion VL30P cells. The stored energy of the battery ranges from 1.67 to 14 kW h{sup -1} and has an operating voltage window of 515-405 V (dc). Two complete systems were designed, built and successfully passed factory acceptance testing after which each was deployed in a field demonstration. The first demonstration used the system to supplement distributed microturbine generation and to provide load following capability. The system was run at its rated power level for 3 min, which exceeded the battery design goal by a factor of 3. The second demonstration used another system as a stand-alone uninterrupted power supply (UPS). The system was available (online) for 1146 h and ran for over 2 min.

  15. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  16. Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A.; Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The entropy changes (?S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

  17. High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

  18. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0.04Co02O2 electrode containing 5 wt% single-walled carbon nanotubes as the conductive additive and demonstrated both high rate capability as well as the ability to cycle the cathode to 5 V vrs. Li/Li+. Finally, we coated a Celgard (TM) separator and enabled stable cycling in a high dielectric electrolyte. These results will be presented in detail.

  19. Large-scale star formation in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochen M. Braun

    2001-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution I will present the current status of our project of stellar population analyses and spatial information of both Magellanic Clouds (MCs). The Magellanic Clouds - especially the LMC with its large size and small depth (<300pc) - are suitable laboratories and testing ground for theoretical models of star formation. With distance moduli of 18.5 and 18.9mag for the LMC and SMC, respectively, and small galactic extinction, their stellar content can be studied in detail from the most massive stars of the youngest populations (<25Myr) connected to H-alpha emission down to the low mass end of about 1/10 of a solar mass. Based on broad-band photometry (U,B,V) I present results for the supergiant shell (SGS) SMC1, some regions at the LMC east side incl. LMC2 showing different overlapping young populations and the region around N171 with its large and varying colour excess, and LMC4. This best studied SGS shows a coeval population aged about 12Myr with little age spread and no correlation to distance from LMC4's centre. I will show that the available data are not compatible with many of the proposed scenarios like SSPSF or a central trigger (like a cluster or GRB), while a large-scale trigger like the bow-shock of the rotating LMC can do the job.

  20. Thermal Stability of LiPF6 Salt and Li-ion Battery ElectrolytesContaining LiPF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of the neat LiPF6 salt and of 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and on-line FTIR. Pure LiPF6 salt is thermally stable up to 380 K in a dry inert atmosphere, and its decomposition path is a simple dissociation producing LiF as solid and PF5 as gaseous products. In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct thermal reaction between LiPF6 and water vapor to form POF3 and HF. No new products were observed in 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in EC, DMC and EMC by on-line TGA-FTIR analysis. The storage of the same solutions in sealed containers at 358 K for 300 420 hrs. did not produce any significant quantity of new products as well. In particular, noalkylflurophosphates were found in the solutions after storage at elevated temperature. In the absence of either an impurity like alcohol or cathode active material that may (or may not) act as a catalyst, there is no evidence of thermally induced reaction between LiPF6 and the prototypical Li-ion battery solvents EC, PC, DMC or EMC.

  1. Studies on Capacity Fade of Spinel-Based Li-Ion Batteries Ramadass Premanand, Anand Durairajan,* Bala Haran,** Ralph White,*** and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    December 10, 2001. It is well known that the capacity of a lithium-ion battery de- creases during cyclingStudies on Capacity Fade of Spinel-Based Li-Ion Batteries Ramadass Premanand, Anand Durairajan to this, the capacity fade of these batteries was studied at different charge currents. During cycling

  2. Cahn-Hilliard Reaction Model for Isotropic Li-ion Battery Particles Yi Zeng1, Martin Z. Bazant1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, present ongoing challenges for mathematical modeling. In spite of the fundamental lithium-ion battery dynamics. The first mathematical model on two-phase intercalation dynamicsCahn-Hilliard Reaction Model for Isotropic Li-ion Battery Particles Yi Zeng1, Martin Z. Bazant1,2 1

  3. Investigation of Path Dependence in Commercial Li-ion Cells Chosen for PHEV Duty Cycle Protocols (paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Gering

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Path dependence is emerging as a premier issue of how electrochemical cells age in conditions that are diverse and variable in the time domain. For example, lithium-ion cells in a vehicle configuration will experience a variable combination of usage and rest periods over a range of temperature and state of charge (SOC). This is complicated by the fact that some aging can actually become worse (or better) when a lithium-ion cell is idle for extended periods under calendar-life (calL) aging, as opposed to cycle-life (cycL) conditions where the cell is used within a predictable schedule. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between highly idealized and controlled laboratory test conditions and actual field conditions regarding PHEV applications, so that field-type aging mechanisms can be mimicked and quantified in a repeatable laboratory setting. The main parameters are the magnitude and frequency of the thermal cycling, looking at isothermal, mild, and severe scenarios. To date, little is known about Li-ion aging effects caused by thermal cycling superimposed onto electrochemical cycling, and related path dependence. This scenario is representative of what Li-ion batteries will experience in vehicle service, where upon the typical start of a HEV/PHEV, the batteries will be cool or cold, will gradually warm up to normal temperature and operate there for a time, then will cool down after the vehicle is turned off. Such thermal cycling will occur thousands of times during the projected life of a HEV/PHEV battery pack. We propose to quantify the effects of thermal cycling on Li-ion batteries using a representative chemistry that is commercially available. The secondary Li-ion cells used in this study are of the 18650 configuration, have a nominal capacity rating of 1.9 Ah, and consist of a {LiMn2O4 + LiMn(1/3)Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)O2} cathode and a graphite anode. Electrochemical cycling is based on PHEV-relevant cycle-life protocols that are a combination of charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes discussed in the Battery Test Manual for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (INL, March 2008, rev0). A realistic duty cycle will involve both CD and CS modes, the proportion of each defined by the severity of the power demands. We assume that the cells will start each cycling day at 90% SOC, and that they will not be allowed to go below 35% SOC, with operation around 70% SOC being a nominal condition. The 35, 70, and 90% SOC conditions are also being used to define critical aspects of the related reference performance test (RPT) for this investigation. There are three primary components to the RPT, all assessed at room temperature: (A) static and residual capacity (SRC) over a matrix of current, (B) kinetics and pulse performance testing (PPT) over current for SOCs of interest, and (C) EIS for SOCs of interest. The RPT is performed on all cells every 30 day test interval, as well as a pulse-per-day to provide a quick diagnostic snapshot. Where feasible, we utilize various elements of Diagnostic Testing (DT) to characterize performance of the cells and to gain mechanistic-level knowledge regarding both performance features and limitations. We will present the rationale behind the experimental design, early data, and discuss the fundamental tools used to elucidate performance degradation mechanisms.

  4. Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

  5. A Computational Investigation of Li(subscript 9)M(subscript 3)(P(subscript 2)O(subscript 7))(subscript 3)(PO(subscript 4))(subscript 2) (M = V, Mo) as Cathodes for Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Anubhav

    Cathodes with high energy density and safety are sought to improve the performance of Li ion batteries for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. In this study, we examine the properties of the potential ...

  6. Comparison of Overcharge Behavior of AlPO4-Coated LiCoO2 and LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 Cathode Materials in Li-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    , and Research Center for Energy Conversion and Storage, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea The overcharge in Li-Ion Cells Jaephil Cho,a, *,z Hyemin Kim,b and Byungwoo Parkb, * a Department of Applied Chemistry

  7. Air stable Al2O3-coated Li2NiO2 cathode additive as a surplus current consumer in a Li-ion cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    increases to 2.75V (2.85V vs. graphite), its discharge capacity decreases to 120 mAh/g, which corresponds for the irreversible capacity of the Li-ion cell using LiCoO2 and natural graphite as cathode and anode materials the complete decomposition of the Li2NiO2. 1. Introduction Most Li secondary batteries use LiCoO2 as a cathode

  8. Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery N. G. Rudawski, B. L. Darby, B. R. Yates, K. S. Jones, R. G. Elliman et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes N. G. Rudawski, B photoelectrochemical cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 084104 (2012) Synthesis and characterization of Nd4+xFe72Co5Ga2B17-x://apl.aip.org/authors #12;Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes N. G. Rudawski,1

  9. Failure analysis of pinch-torsion tests as a thermal runaway risk evaluation method of Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Yuzhi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Dr. Tianlei [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Ren, Prof. Fei [Temple University; Gao, Yanfei [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently a pinch-torsion test is developed for safety testing of Li-ion batteries (Ren et al., J. Power Source, 2013). It has been demonstrated that this test can generate small internal short-circuit spots in the separator in a controllable and repeatable manner. In the current research, the failure mechanism is examined by numerical simulations and comparisons to experimental observations. Finite element models are developed to evaluate the deformation of the separators under both pure pinch and pinch-torsion loading conditions. It is discovered that the addition of the torsion component significantly increased the maximum principal strain, which is believed to induce the internal short circuit. In addition, the applied load in the pinch-torsion test is significantly less than in the pure pinch test, thus dramatically improving the applicability of this method to ultra-thick batteries which otherwise require heavy load in excess of machine capability. It is further found that the separator failure is achieved in the early stage of torsion (within a few degree of rotation). Effect of coefficient of friction on the maximum principal strain is also examined.

  10. Self-limiting lithiation of electrode nanoparticles in Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drozdov, A. D., E-mail: add@teknologisk.dk [Center for Plastics Technology, Danish Technological Institute, Gregersensvej 7, Taastrup 2630 (Denmark); Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, Aalborg 9220 (Denmark); Sommer-Larsen, P. [Center for Plastics Technology, Danish Technological Institute, Gregersensvej 7, Taastrup 2630 (Denmark); Claville Christiansen, J. de [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, Aalborg 9220 (Denmark)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A model is derived for the viscoplastic behavior of a host medium driven by stress-induced diffusion of guest atoms. The constitutive equations are applied to study development of stresses in a spherical electrode particle subjected to insertion of lithium. Numerical simulation demonstrates the ability of the model to capture basic phenomena observed in anode nanoparticles under lithiation: formation of a sharp interphase between a Li-poor core and a Li-rich shell, slowing down of the interphase motion revealed as self-limiting lithiation, and growth of tensile hoop stresses near the outer surface of a particle leading to its fracture.

  11. Reinvestigation on the state-of-the-art nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes for 5 V Li-ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Pan, Anqiang; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaohong S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The charging voltage limits of mixed carbonate solvents for Li-ion batteries have been systematically investigated from 4.9 to 5.3 V in half cells using Cr-doped spinel cathode material LiNi0.45Cr0.05Mn1.5O4. We found that the stability of conventional carbonate electrolytes is strongly related to the stability and properties of the cathode materials at both lithiated and de-lithiated states. It is the first time to report that the conventional electrolytes based on mixtures of ethylene carbonate (EC) and linear carbonate (dimethyl carbonate - DMC, ethyl methyl carbonate - EMC, and diethyl carbonate - DEC) have shown very similar long-term cycling performance when cycled up to 5.2 V on LiNi0.45Cr0.05Mn1.5O4. The discharge capacity increases with the charge cutoff voltage and reaches the highest discharge capacity at 5.2 V. The capacity retention is about 87% after 500 cycles at 1C rate for all three carbonate mixtures when cycled between 3.0 V and 5.2V. The first-cycle efficiency has a maximum value at 5.1 V, with an average from 83% to 85% at C/10 rate. When cycled to 5.3 V, EC-DMC still shows good cycling performance but EC-EMC and EC-DEC show faster capacity fading. EC-DMC and EC-EMC have much better rate capability than EC-DEC. In addition, the first-cycle irreversible capacity loss increases with the cutoff voltage and the 'inactive' conductive carbon has also been found to be partly associated with the low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency at high voltages due to electrolyte decomposition and probably the PF6- anion irreversible intercalation.

  12. Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xilin; Li, Xiaolin; Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Cao, Yuliang; Meduri, Praveen; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A cost effective and scalable method is developed to prepare a core-shell structured Si/B4C composite with graphite coating with high efficiency, exceptional rate performance and long-term stability. In this material, conductive B4C with high Mohs hardness serves not only as micro-/nano- millers in the ball-milling process to break down micron-sized Si but also as the conductive rigid skeleton to support the in-situ formed sub-10 nm Si particles to alleviate the volume expansion during charge/discharge. The Si/B4C composite is coated with a few graphitic layers to further improve the conductivity and stability of the composite. The Si/B4C/graphite (SBG) composite anode shows excellent cyclability with a specific capacity of ~822 mAh?g-1 (based on the weight of the entire electrode, including binder and conductive carbon) and ~94% capacity retention over 100 cycles at 0.8C rate. This new structure has the potential to provide adequate storage capacity and stability for practical applications, and good opportunity for large scale manufacturing using commercially available materials and technologies.

  13. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 240-MeV (6)Li ions from (40)Ca and (48)Ca and tests of a systematic optical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Krishichayan X.; Lui, Y. -W; Button, J.; Youngblood, David H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C 81, 044612 (2010) Elastic and inelastic scattering of 240-MeV 6Li ions from 40Ca and 48Ca and tests of a systematic optical potential Krishichayan, X. Chen,* Y.-W. Lui, J. Button, and D. H. Youngblood Cyclotron Institute, Texas... that 0556-2813/2010/81(4)/044612(10) 044612-1 ?2010 The American Physical Society KRISHICHAYAN, CHEN, LUI, BUTTON, AND YOUNGBLOOD PHYSICAL REVIEW C 81, 044612 (2010) the real and imaginary optical potentials have the same radial shape [22]. However...

  14. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  15. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Li, Ning [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wu, Borong [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials (China); Xu, Hongliang [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wang, Lei [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Wu, Feng [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  16. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore »around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  17. A novel lithography technique for formation of large areas of uniform nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    such as plasmonics, sensors, storage devices, solar cells, nano-filtration and artificial kidneys require applications such as surface plasmonics[1] , data storage[2] , optoelectronic devices[3] , and nanoA novel lithography technique for formation of large areas of uniform nanostructures Wei Wu

  18. Formation of large-scale structures by turbulence in rotating planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constantinou, Navid C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a newly developed theory for the formation and maintenance of eddy-driven jets in planetary turbulence. The novelty is that jet formation and maintenance is studied as a dynamics of the statistics of the flow rather than a dynamics of individual realizations. This is pursued using Stochastic Structural Stability Theory (S3T) which studies the closed dynamics of the first two cumulants of the full statistical state dynamics of the flow after neglecting or parameterizing third and higher-order cumulants. With this statistical closure large-scale structure formation is studied in barotropic turbulence on a $\\beta$-plane. It is demonstrated that at analytically predicted critical parameter values the homogeneous turbulent state undergoes a bifurcation becoming inhomogeneous with the emergence of large-scale zonal and/or non-zonal flows. The mechanisms by which the turbulent Reynolds stresses organize to reinforce infinitesimal mean flow inhomogeneities, thus leading to this statistical state ...

  19. EXTENDED STAR FORMATION IN THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 2209

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of the 1 Gyr old star cluster NGC 2209 in the Large Magellanic Cloud made with the GMOS imager on the Gemini South Telescope. These observations show that the cluster exhibits a main-sequence turnoff that spans a broader range in luminosity than can be explained by a single-aged stellar population. This places NGC 2209 amongst a growing list of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) clusters that show evidence for extended or multiple epochs of star formation of between 50 and 460 Myr in extent. The extended main-sequence turnoff observed in NGC 2209 is a confirmation of the prediction in Keller et al. made on the basis of the cluster's large core radius. We propose that secondary star formation is a defining feature of the evolution of massive star clusters. Dissolution of lower mass clusters through evaporation results in only clusters that have experienced secondary star formation surviving for a Hubble time, thus providing a natural connection between the extended main-sequence turnoff phenomenon and the ubiquitous light-element abundance ranges seen in the ancient Galactic globular clusters.

  20. Large-Scale Structure Formation in the Quasi-linear Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Bernardeau

    1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The understanding of the large-scale structure formation requires the resolution of coupled nonlinear equations describing the cosmic density and velocity fields. This is a complicated problem that, for the last decade, has been essentially addressed with N-body simulations. There is however a regime, the so-called quasi-linear regime, for which the relative density fluctuations are on average below unity. It is then possible to apply Perturbation Theory techniques where the perturbation expansions are made with respect to the initial fluctuations. I review here the major results that have been obtained in this regime.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XALT Energy LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development of large format...

  2. Optimized Operating Range for Large-Format LiFePO4/Graphite Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Jiuchun; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Zuo, Pengjian; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Xilin; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e investigated the long-term cycling performance of large format 20Ah LiFePO4/graphite batteries when they are cycled in various state-of-charge (SOC) ranges. It is found that batteries cycled in the medium SOC range (ca. 20~80% SOC) exhibit superior cycling stability than batteries cycled at both ends (0-20% or 80-100%) of the SOC even though the capcity utilized in the medium SOC range is three times as large as those cycled at both ends of the SOC. Several non-destructive techniques, including a voltage interruption approach, model-based parameter identification, electrode impedance spectra analysis, ?Q/?V analysis, and entropy change test, were used to investigate the performance of LiFePO4/graphite batteries within different SOC ranges. The results reveal that batteries at the ends of SOC exhibit much higher polarization impedance than those at the medium SOC range. These results can be attributed to the significant structural change of cathode and anode materials as revealed by the large entropy change within these ranges. The direct correlation between the polarization impedance and the cycle life of the batteries provides an effective methodology for battery management systems to control and prolong the cycle life of LiFePO4/graphite and other batteries.

  3. First-principles modeling of thermal stability and morphology control of cathode materials in Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the energy of a large number of oxidation reactions of 3d transition metal oxides using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to density functional theory and GGA+ U method. Two substantial contributions ...

  4. A Formation Behavior for Large-Scale Micro-Robot Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean; Jones, Michael Paul

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro-robots will soon be available for deployment by the thousands. Consequently, controlling and coordinating a force this large to accomplish a prescribed task is of great interest. This paper describes a flexible architecture for modeling thousands of autonomous agents simultaneously. The agents’ behavior is based on a subsumption architecture in which individual behaviors are prioritized with respect to all others. The primary behavior explored in this work is a group formation behavior based on social potential fields (Reif and Wang 1999). This paper extends the social potential field model by introducing a neutral zone within which other behaviors may exhibit themselves. Previous work with social potential fields has been restricted to models of “perfect” autonomous agents. The paper evaluates the effect of social potential fields in the presence of agent death (failure) and imperfect sensory input.

  5. A Novel In-situ Electrochemical Cell for Neutron Diffraction Studies of Phase Transitions in Small Volume Electrodes of Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vadlamani, Bhaskar S [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Jagannathan, M. [University of Utah; Ravi Chandran, K. [University of Utah

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and performance of a novel in-situ electrochemical cell that greatly facilitates the neutron diffraction study of complex phase transitions in small volume electrodes of Li-ion cells, is presented in this work. Diffraction patterns that are Rietveld-refinable could be obtained simultaneously for all the electrodes, which demonstrates that the cell is best suited to explore electrode phase transitions driven by the lithiation and delithiation processes. This has been facilitated by the use of single crystal (100) Si sheets as casing material and the planar cell configuration, giving improved signal-to-noise ratio relative to other casing materials. The in-situ cell has also been designed for easy assembly and to facilitate rapid experiments. The effectiveness of cell is demonstrated by tracking the neutron diffraction patterns during the charging of graphite/LiCoO2 and graphite/LiMn2O4 cells. It is shown that good quality neutron diffraction data can be obtained and that most of the finer details of the phase transitions, and the associated changes in crystallographic parameters in these electrodes, can be captured.

  6. Formation of Large Polysulfide Complexes during the Lithium-Sulfur Battery Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bin [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Alhassan, Saeed M. [The Petroleum Institute; Pantelides, Sokrates T [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur cathodes have much larger capacities than transition-metal-oxide cathodes used in commercial lithium-ion batteries but suffer from unsatisfactory capacity retention and long-term cyclability. Capacity degradation originates from soluble lithium polysulfides gradually diffusing into the electrolyte. Understanding of the formation and dynamics of soluble polysulfides during the discharging process at the atomic level remains elusive, which limits further development of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Here we report first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and density functional calculations, through which the discharging products of Li-S batteries are studied. We find that, in addition to simple Li2Sn (1 n 8) clusters generated from single cyclooctasulfur (S8) rings, large Li-S clusters form by collectively coupling several different rings to minimize the total energy. At high lithium concentration, a Li-S network forms at the sulfur surfaces. The results can explain the formation of the soluble Li-S complex, such as Li2S8, Li2S6, and Li2S4, and the insoluble Li2S2 and Li2S structures. In addition, we show that the presence of oxygen impurities in graphene, particularly oxygen atoms bonded to vacancies and edges, may stabilize the lithium polysulfides that may otherwise diffuse into the electrolyte.

  7. Three-phase model for the reversible lithiation/delithiation of SnO anodes in Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first-principles calculations, we propose a microscopic model to explain the reversible lithiation/delithiation of tin-oxide anodes in lithium-ion batteries. When the irreversible regime ends, the anode grains consist of layers of Li-oxide separated by Sn bilayers. During the following reversible lithiation, the Li-oxide undergoes two phase transformations that give rise to a Li-enrichment of the oxide and the formation of a SnLi composite. The anode grain structure stays layered and ordered with an effective theoretical reversible capacity of 4.5 Li per Sn atom. The predicted anode volume expansion and voltage profile agree well with experiments, contrary to existing models.

  8. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Significant Cost Improvement of Li-ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Johnson Controls at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about significant cost improvement...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Johnson Controls at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about significant cost improvement...

  11. ForPeerReview Channel formation by flow stripping: large-scale scour features along the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Gary

    East Channel and their relation to sediment waves Journal: Sedimentology Manuscript ID: SED-2005-OM-049 1 of 63 Sedimentology #12;ForPeerReview Monterey East ms -- 2005 June 13, 2005 1 Channel formation it Page 2 of 63Sedimentology 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

  12. Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL] [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL] [ORNL; Sacci, Robert L [ORNL] [ORNL; Adamczyk, Leslie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Alsem, Daan Hein [Hummingbird Scientific] [Hummingbird Scientific; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.

  13. Large

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLand and AssetLandscapingLarge

  14. Large Area Microcorrals and Cavity Formation on Cantilevers using a Focused Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Britt, David W.

    2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We utilize focused ion beam (FIB) to explore various sputtering parameters to form large area microcorrals and cavities on cantilevers. Microcorrals were rapidly created by modifying ion beam blur and overlaps. Modification in FIB sputtering parameters affects the periodicity and shape of corral microstructure. Cantilever deflections show ion beam amorphization effects as a function of sputtered area and cantilever base cavities with or without side walls. The FIB sputtering parameters address a method for rapid creation of a cantilever tensiometer with integrated fluid storage and delivery.

  15. Large eddy simulation of soot formation in a turbulent non-premixed jet flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Asrag, Hossam [Center For Turbulence Research, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Menon, Suresh [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently developed subgrid model for soot dynamics [H. El-Asrag, T. Lu, C.K. Law, S. Menon, Combust. Flame 150 (2007) 108-126] is used to study the soot formation in a non-premixed turbulent flame. The model allows coupling between reaction, diffusion and soot (including soot diffusion and thermophoretic forces) processes in the subgrid domain without requiring ad hoc filtering or model parameter adjustments. The combined model includes the entire process, from the initial phase, when the soot nucleus diameter is much smaller than the mean free path, to the final phase, after coagulation and aggregation, where it can be considered in the continuum regime. A relatively detailed but reduced kinetics for ethylene-air is used to simulate an experimentally studied non-premixed ethylene/air jet diffusion flame. Acetylene is used as a soot precursor species. The soot volume fraction order of magnitude, the location of its maxima, and the soot particle size distribution are all captured reasonably. Along the centerline, an initial region dominated by nucleation and surface growth is established followed by an oxidation region. The diffusion effect is found to be most important in the nucleation regime, while the thermophoretic forces become more influential downstream of the potential core in the oxidation zone. The particle size distribution shows a log-normal distribution in the nucleation region, and a more Gaussian like distribution further downstream. Limitations of the current approach and possible solution strategies are also discussed. (author)

  16. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    needs for better energy storage technologies in large-scalefor advanced energy storage technologies in large-scaleenergy storage is growing as renewable energy technologies

  17. California Lithium Battery, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Systems and CALiB Power. US production of this advanced Very Large Format (400Ah+) si-graphene LI-ion battery is scheduled to start in California in 2014. Plans are to produce the...

  18. LARGE AREA SURVEY FOR z = 7 GALAXIES IN SDF AND GOODS-N: IMPLICATIONS FOR GALAXY FORMATION AND COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Masami [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ono, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Okamura, Sadanori [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ferguson, Henry C.; Fall, S. Michael [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kashikawa, Nobunari; Morokuma, Tomoki [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Dickinson, Mark [NOAO, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Ohta, Kouji, E-mail: ouchi@obs.carnegiescience.ed [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of our large area survey for z'-band dropout galaxies at z = 7 in a 1568 arcmin{sup 2} sky area covering the SDF and GOODS-N fields. Combining our ultra-deep Subaru/Suprime-Cam z'- and y-band (lambda{sub eff} = 1 mum) images with legacy data of Subaru and Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified 22 bright z-dropout galaxies down to y = 26, one of which has a spectroscopic redshift of z = 6.96 determined from Lyalpha emission. The z = 7 luminosity function yields the best-fit Schechter parameters of phi* = 0.69{sup +2.62}{sub -0.55} x 10{sup -3} Mpc{sup -3}, M*{sub UV} = -20.10 +- 0.76 mag, and alpha = -1.72 +- 0.65, and indicates a decrease from z = 6 at a >95% confidence level. This decrease is beyond the cosmic variance in our two fields, which is estimated to be a factor of approx<2. We have found that the cosmic star formation rate density drops from the peak at z = 2-3 to z = 7 roughly by a factor of approx10 but not larger than approx100. A comparison with the reionization models suggests either that the universe could not be totally ionized by only galaxies at z = 7, or more likely that properties of galaxies at z = 7 are different from those at low redshifts having, e.g., a larger escape fraction (approx>0.2), a lower metallicity, and/or a flatter initial mass function. Our SDF z-dropout galaxies appear to form 60 Mpc long filamentary structures, and the z = 6.96 galaxy with Lyalpha emission is located at the center of an overdense region consisting of four UV bright dropout candidates, which might suggest an existence of a well-developed ionized bubble at z = 7.

  19. Effect of fuel rate and annealing process of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material for Li-ion batteries synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim, Abdul; Setyawan, Heru; Machmudah, Siti; Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng [Chemical Engineering, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia 60111 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study the effect of fuel rate and annealing on particle formation of LiFePO{sub 4} as battery cathode using flame spray pyrolysis method was investigated numerically and experimentally. Numerical study was done using ANSYS FLUENT program. In experimentally, LiFePO{sub 4} was synthesized from inorganic aqueous solution followed by annealing. LPG was used as fuel and air was used as oxidizer and carrier gas. Annealing process attempted in inert atmosphere at 700°C for 240 min. Numerical result showed that the increase of fuel rate caused the increase of flame temperature. Microscopic observation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that all particles have sphere and polydisperse. Increasing fuel rate caused decreasing particle size and increasing particles crystallinity. This phenomenon attributed to the flame temperature. However, all produced particles still have more amorphous phase. Therefore, annealing needed to increase particles crystallinity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that all particles have PO4 function group. Increasing fuel rate led to the increase of infrared spectrum absorption corresponding to the increase of particles crystallinity. This result indicated that phosphate group vibrated easily in crystalline phase. From Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, annealing can cause the increase of Li{sup +} diffusivity. The diffusivity coefficient of without and with annealing particles were 6.84399×10{sup ?10} and 8.59888×10{sup ?10} cm{sup 2} s{sup ?1}, respectively.

  20. NIHAO project I: Reproducing the inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time with a large sample of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liang; Stinson, Gregory S; Macciò, Andrea V; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W; Wadsley, James

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce project NIHAO (Numerical Investigation of a Hundred Astrophysical Objects), a set of 100 cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations performed using the GASOLINE code, with an improved implementation of the SPH algorithm. The haloes in our study range from dwarf to Milky Way masses, and represent an unbiased sampling of merger histories, concentrations and spin parameters. The particle masses and force softenings are chosen to resolve the mass profile to below 1% of the virial radius at all masses, ensuring that galaxy half-light radii are well resolved. Using the same treatment of star formation and stellar feedback for every object, the simulated galaxies reproduce the observed inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time as expressed through the stellar mass vs halo mass relation, and the star formation rate vs stellar mass relation. We thus conclude that stellar feedback is the chief piece of physics required to limit the efficiency of star formation in galaxies less massive than t...

  1. Combining mechanical and chemical effects in the deformation and failure of a cylindrical electrode particle in a Li-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeevanjyoti Chakraborty; Colin P. Please; Alain Goriely; S. Jonathan Chapman

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A general framework to study the mechanical behaviour of a cylindrical silicon anode particle in a lithium ion battery as it undergoes lithiation is presented. The two-way coupling between stress and concentration of lithium in silicon, including the possibility of plastic deformation, is taken into account and two particular cases are considered. First, the cylindrical particle is assumed to be free of surface traction and second, the axial deformation of the cylinder is prevented. In both cases plastic stretches develop through the entire cylinder and not just near the surface as is commonly found in spherical anode particles. It is shown that the stress evolution depends both on the lithiation rate and the external constraints. Furthermore, as the cylinder expands during lithiation it can develop a compressive axial stress large enough to induce buckling, which in turn may lead to mechanical failure. An explicit criterion for swelling-induced buckling obtained as a modification of the classical Euler buckling criterion shows the competition between the stabilising effect of radius increase and the destabilising effect of axial stress.

  2. One-pot synthesis of a metal–organic framework as an anode for Li-ion batteries with improved capacity and cycling stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gou, Lei, E-mail: Leigou@chd.edu.cn; Hao, Li-Min; Shi, Yong-Xin; Ma, Shou-Long; Fan, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Lei; Li, Dong-Lin, E-mail: dlli@chd.edu.cn; Wang, Kang

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal–organic framework is a kind of novel electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. Here, a 3D metal–organic framework Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC (BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) was synthesized for the first time by the reaction of Co{sup 2+} with a bio-inspired renewable organic ligand 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid through a solvothermal method. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, this material exhibited an excellent cyclic stability as well as a large reversible capacity of ca. 650 mA h g{sup ?1} at a current density of 50 mA g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles within the voltage range of 0.02–3.0 V, higher than that of other BDC based anode. - Graphical abstract: The PXRD pattern and the cycleability curves (inset) of Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC was synthesized through a one pot solvothermal process. • The solvent had a great effect on the purity of this material. • This material was used as anode material for lithium ion batteries for the first time. • Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC showed improved capacity and cycling stability.

  3. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.; Imhoff, Carl H.; Graff, Gordon L.; Li, Liyu; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Xia, Guanguang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Baskaran, Suresh; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale electrical energy storage has become more important than ever for reducing fossil energy consumption in transportation and for the widespread deployment of intermittent renewable energy in electric grid. However, significant challenges exist for its applications. Here, the status and challenges are reviewed from the perspective of materials science and materials chemistry in electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, sodium (sulfur and metal halide) batteries, Pb-acid battery, redox flow batteries, and supercapacitors. Perspectives and approaches are introduced for emerging battery designs and new chemistry combinations to reduce the cost of energy storage devices.

  4. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Black, Jennifer M [ORNL; Wisinger, Nina [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquid cell.

  5. Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Corp. LG Chem Chemicals Electronics Comm.& Services *LG Chem *LG Hausys *LG Household & Health Care *LG Life Sciences *LG MMA *LG Electronics *LG Display *LG Innotek *Hiplaza...

  6. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on New Sealed Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors, B.10. S. Hossain, in Handbook of Batteries, Second Edition, D.Workshop on Advanced Batteries (Lithium Batteries), February

  7. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  8. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lee, E-mail: leeli@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, HuaZhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  9. High-mass star formation triggered by collision between CO filaments in N159 West in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukui, Yasuo; Tokuda, Kazuki; Morioka, Yuuki; Onishi, Toshikazu; Torii, Kazufumi; Ohama, Akio; Nayak, Omnarayani; Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta; Indebetouw, Remy; Kawamura, Akiko; Saigo, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Madden, Suzanna; Galametz, Maud; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Mizuno, Norikazu; Chen, Rosie

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out 13CO (J=2-1) observations of the active star-forming region N159 West in the LMC with ALMA. We have found that the CO distribution at a sub-pc scale is highly elongated with a small width. These elongated clouds called "filaments" show straight or curved distributions with a typical width of 0.5-1.0 pc and a length of 5-10 pc. All the known infrared YSOs are located toward the filaments. We have found broad CO wings of two molecular outflows toward young high-mass stars in N159W-N and N159W-S, whose dynamical timescale is ~10^4 yrs. This is the first discovery of protostellar outflow in external galaxies. For N159W-S which is located toward an intersection of two filaments we set up a hypothesis that the two filaments collided with each other ~10^5 yrs ago and triggered formation of the high-mass star having ~37Mo. The colliding clouds show significant enhancement in linewidth in the intersection, suggesting excitation of turbulence in the shocked interface layer between them as is consist...

  10. Reduced 30% scanning time 3D multiplexer integrated circuit applied to large array format 20KHZ frequency inkjet print heads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, J -C

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancement of the number and array density of nozzles within an inkjet head chip is one of the keys to raise the printing speed and printing resolutions. However, traditional 2D architecture of driving circuits can not meet the requirement for high scanning speed and low data accessing points when nozzle numbers greater than 1000. This paper proposes a novel architecture of high-selection-speed three-dimensional data registration for inkjet applications. With the configuration of three-dimensional data registration, the number of data accessing points as well as the scanning lines can be greatly reduced for large array inkjet printheads with nozzles numbering more than 1000. This IC (Integrated Circuit) architecture involves three-dimensional multiplexing with the provision of a gating transistor for each ink firing resistor, where ink firing resistors are triggered only by the selection of their associated gating transistors. Three signals: selection (S), address (A), and power supply (P), are employed toge...

  11. Characterization of Pliocene and Miocene Formations in the Wilmington Graben, Offshore Los Angeles, for Large-Scale Geologic Storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Michael

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Geomechanics Technologies has completed a detailed characterization study of the Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California area for large-scale CO2 storage. This effort has included: an evaluation of existing wells in both State and Federal waters, field acquisition of about 175 km (109 mi) of new seismic data, new well drilling, development of integrated 3D geologic, geomechanics, and fluid flow models for the area. The geologic analysis indicates that more than 796 MMt of storage capacity is available within the Pliocene and Miocene formations in the Graben for midrange geologic estimates (P50). Geomechanical analyses indicate that injection can be conducted without significant risk for surface deformation, induced stresses or fault activation. Numerical analysis of fluid migration indicates that injection into the Pliocene Formation at depths of 1525 m (5000 ft) would lead to undesirable vertical migration of the CO2 plume. Recent well drilling however, indicates that deeper sand is present at depths exceeding 2135 m (7000 ft), which could be viable for large volume storage. For vertical containment, injection would need to be limited to about 250,000 metric tons per year per well, would need to be placed at depths greater than 7000ft, and would need to be placed in new wells located at least 1 mile from any existing offset wells. As a practical matter, this would likely limit storage operations in the Wilmington Graben to about 1 million tons per year or less. A quantitative risk analysis for the Wilmington Graben indicate that such large scale CO2 storage in the area would represent higher risk than other similar size projects in the US and overseas.

  12. Large Area Survey for z=7 Galaxies in SDF and GOODS-N: Implications for Galaxy Formation and Cosmic Reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ferguson, Henry C; Fall, Michael S; Ono, Yoshiaki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Okamura, Sadanori; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Ohta, Kouji

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of our large-area survey for z'-band dropout galaxies at z=7 in a 1568 arcmin^2 sky area covering the SDF and GOODS-N fields. Combining our ultra-deep Subaru/Suprime-Cam z'- and y-band (lambda_eff=1um) images with legacy data of Subaru and HST, we have identified 22 bright z-dropout galaxies down to y=26, one of which has a spectroscopic redshift of z=6.96 determined from Lya emission. The z=7 luminosity function (LF) yields the best-fit Schechter parameters of phi*=1.1 +2.8/-0.8 x10^(-3) Mpc^(-3), Muv*=-19.9 +/-0.7 mag, and alpha=-1.7 +/-1.3, and indicates a decrease from z=6 at the =~ 95% confidence level. This decrease is beyond the cosmic variance in our two fields, which is estimated to be a factor of ~ 3 but not larger than ~100. A comparison with the reionization models suggests either that the Universe could not be totally ionized by only galaxies at z=7, or more likely that properties of galaxies at z=7 are different from those at low redshifts having, e.g., a larger escape fractio...

  13. Star formation in the cluster CLG0218.3-0510 at z=1.62 and its large-scale environment: the infrared perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Joana S; Tanaka, Masayuki; Valtchanov, Ivan; Saintonge, Amelie; Dickinson, Mark; Foucaud, Sebastien; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rawle, Tim D; Tadaki, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The galaxy cluster CLG0218.3-0510 at z=1.62 is one of the most distant galaxy clusters known, with a rich muti-wavelength data set that confirms a mature galaxy population already in place. Using very deep, wide area (20x20 Mpc) imaging by Spitzer/MIPS at 24um, in conjunction with Herschel 5-band imaging from 100-500um, we investigate the dust-obscured, star-formation properties in the cluster and its associated large scale environment. Our galaxy sample of 693 galaxies at z=1.62 detected at 24um (10 spectroscopic and 683 photo-z) includes both cluster galaxies (i.e. within r <1 Mpc projected clustercentric radius) and field galaxies, defined as the region beyond a radius of 3 Mpc. The star-formation rates (SFRs) derived from the measured infrared luminosity range from 18 to 2500 Ms/yr, with a median of 55 Ms/yr, over the entire radial range (10 Mpc). The cluster brightest FIR galaxy, taken as the centre of the galaxy system, is vigorously forming stars at a rate of 256$\\pm$70 Ms/yr, and the total cluster ...

  14. EDUCATOR'S GUIDE The large format film Hurricane on the Bayou is appropriate for all intermediate gradesHurricane on the Bayou is appropriate for all intermediate gradesHurricane on the Bayou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    EDUCATOR'S GUIDE #12;The large format film Hurricane on the Bayou is appropriate for all intermediate gradesHurricane on the Bayou is appropriate for all intermediate gradesHurricane on the Bayou (4 for young children. Hurricane on the Bayou Produced and distributed by MacGillivray Freeman Films Executive

  15. Investigation of CO2 Plume Behavior for a Large-Scale Pilot Test of Geologic Carbon Storage in a Saline Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doughty, Christine

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    formations (SPE 84344). Soc. Petrol. Eng. J. 10(3), 349–properties (SPE 1942). Soc. Petrol. Eng. J. 8, 149–156 (of CO 2 (SPE 83695). Soc. Petrol. Eng. J. 8(1), 49–60 (2003)

  16. The partially reversible formation of Li-metal particles on a solid Li electrolyte: applications toward nanobatteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arruda, Thomas M [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of large-scale implementation of Li-air batteries (LABs) hinges on understanding the thermodynamic and kinetic factors that control charge-discharge rates, efficiency and life times. Here, the kinetics of bias-induced reactions is explored locally on the surface of Li-ion conductive glass ceramics, a preferred electrolyte for LABs, using direct current-voltage and strain spectroscopies. Above a critical bias, particle growth kinetics were found to be linear in both the bias and time domains. Partial reversibility was observed for Li particles as evidenced by the presence of anodic peaks following the Li{sup +} reduction, as well an associated reduction in particle height. The degree of reversibility was highest for the smallest particles formed. These observations thus suggest the possibility of producing nanobatteries with an active anode volume of the order of 0.1 al.

  17. Low-temperature (180?°C) formation of large-grained Ge (111) thin film on insulator using accelerated metal-induced crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toko, K., E-mail: toko@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Numata, R.; Oya, N.; Suemasu, T. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Fukata, N. [National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Usami, N. [Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Al-induced crystallization (AIC) yields a large-grained (111)-oriented Ge thin film on an insulator at temperatures as low as 180?°C. We accelerated the AIC of an amorphous Ge layer (50-nm thickness) by initially doping Ge in Al and by facilitating Ge diffusion into Al. The electron backscatter diffraction measurement demonstrated the simultaneous achievement of large grains over 10??m and a high (111) orientation fraction of 90% in the polycrystalline Ge layer formed at 180?°C. This result opens up the possibility for developing Ge-based electronic and optical devices fabricated on inexpensive flexible substrates.

  18. Conference Proceedings (Refereed Invited Reviews). 1. "Role of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields and Material Flows in the Formation of Solar Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackay, Duncan

    Conference Proceedings (Refereed Invited Reviews). 1. "Role of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields Scale Structures and their Role in Solar Activity, ASP Conference Proceedings Series, 346, 177. 2. "The-297. Conference Proceedings (Others). 1. "Basic Magnetic Field Configurations for Filament Channels and Filaments

  19. Separation and Capture of CO2 from Large Stationary Sources and Sequestration in Geological Formations: A Summary of the 2003 Critical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, C.M.; Strazisar, B.R.; Granite, E.J.; Hoffman, J.S.; Pennline, H.W.

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and the resulting global warming effect, is a major air quality concern. CO2 is the most abundant greenhouse gas emitted by fossil-fuel combustion for power generation, transportation, and heating. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2 will require many mitigation measures, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, renewable energy sources, and carbon sequestration. The feasibility of capturing CO2 from large point sources and subsequent geological sequestration is the subject of this year’s Critical Review.

  20. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt007esconner2012p.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  1. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow, porous, or dense particles can be produced with very narrow size distributions, spanning the nano

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL STABILITY OF LI-ION BATTERIES BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Overall Technology Assessment · Appendices o Appendix A: Final Report (under separate cover) o Appendix B Funding: $75,000 Term: July 2002 ­ June 2003 PIER Subject Area: Renewable Energy Technologies #12;Page i · Renewable Energy Technologies · Environmentally-Preferred Advanced Generation · Energy-Related Environmental

  3. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T. , Tozawa, K. Prog. Batteries Solar Cells 1990, 9, 209. E.Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vechicles. ” Center forin Solids: Solid State Batteries and Devices, Ed. by W. vn

  4. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is well predicted by the macrohomogeneous model of Newman and co-workers, predicting degradation and failure remains a challenge. It may be that, like most materials, failure...

  5. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Designs: For Cell (Li5FeO4+LiV3O8) vs. Carbon Anode (with 5% Irreversible Loss) Composite Cathode Materials Potential to achieve higher energy density (Whkg and WhL) at...

  7. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  8. Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 * PI joined BATT and LBNL in FY09 * Project start Sep '09 * Project end Aug '11 * 80% complete * Barriers...

  9. Development of High Energy Cathode for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 3 Objectives Develop cost-effective, high energy cathode based on lithium metal phosphate materials suitable for PHEV and EV applications. Investigate the...

  10. 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information" Positive terminal Negative terminal Lead film (insulation tape) Stack and...

  11. Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    battery for PHEV and EV applications. Approach 5 LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 1.2M LiPF 6 ECEMC (37 wt%) Graphite, cycled at RT and 55 o C Technical Accomplishments and Progress...

  12. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 CapacitymAh 80th 1st 50th 1.0 m LiPF 6 in ECEMC (30:70) with 1% ARL-3 on LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 CapacitymAh...

  13. Electrolytes in Support of 5 V Li-ion Chemistries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1: Sulfone-based 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 ECEMC (30:70) SLEMC (30:70) SLEMCEMS (28:64:8) SLECEMC (15:15:70) CapacitymAh *...

  14. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    long cycling 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 CapacitymAh 80th 1st 50th 1.0 m LiPF 6 in ECEMC (30:70) with 1% ARL-3 on LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 CapacitymAh...

  15. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0.992 0.994 0.996 0.998 1 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Baseline: 1.2 M LiPF 6 in ECEMC (30:70) Baseline + 5 mM PFBP Baseline + 10 mM AFAC Cycle Number ANL LMNOGR Full Cells...

  16. Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D...

  17. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTALnaturalGENII2 DOE Hydrogen and

  19. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTALnaturalGENII2 DOE Hydrogen and1

  20. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTALnaturalGENII2 DOE Hydrogen

  1. Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report: I11IG002 InvestigationFuel CellDepartment of

  2. Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PMDepartment ofs oLetterExpositionSpace

  3. Automotive Li-ion Battery Cooling Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromof Energy Automation World Features

  4. Batteries - Next-generation Li-ion batteries Breakout session

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2, 2015 TheB2 March 5, 2014) TheBagdadThe20585Next-generation

  5. Direct Access to Mesoporous Crystalline TiO2/Carbon Composites with Large and Uniform Pores for Use as Anode Materials in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Jung, Yoon S.; Warren, Scott C.; Kamperman, Marleen; Oh, Seung M.; DiSalvo, Francis J.; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoporous and highly crystalline TiO{sub 2} (anatase)/carbon composites with large (>5?nm) and uniform pores were synthesized using PI-b-PEO block copolymers as structure directing agents. Pore sizes could be tuned by utilizing block copolymers with different molecular weights. The resulting mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/carbon was successfully used as an anode material for Li ion batteries. Without addition of conducting aid (Super P), the electrode showed high capacity during the first insertion/desertion cycle due to carbon wiring inside the walls of mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/carbon. The electrode further showed stable cycle performance up to 50 cycles and the specific charge capacity at 30?C was 38?mA h (g of TiO{sub 2}){sup ?1}, which indicates CCM-TiO{sub 2}/carbon can be used as a material for high rate use.

  6. Star Formation and Galaxy Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. K. C. Yee

    2000-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of star formation rate on galaxian environment is a key issue in the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. However, the study of this subject is complex and observationally challenging. This paper reviews some of the current results, drawing mostly from recent large redshift surveys such the LCRS, the MORPH collaboration, and the CNOC1 and CNOC2 redshift surveys.

  7. On the Origin and Implications of Li$_2$O$_2$ Toroid Formation in Nonaqueous Li-O$_2$ Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aetukuri, Nagaphani B; García, Jeannette M; Krupp, Leslie E; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Luntz, Alan C

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lithium-air (Li-O$_2$) battery has received enormous attention as a possible alternative to current state-of-the-art rechargeable Li-ion batteries given their high theoretical specific energy. However, the maximum discharge capacity in nonaqueous Li-O$_2$ batteries is limited to a small fraction of its theoretical value due to the insulating nature of lithium peroxide, Li$_2$O$_2$, the battery$'$s primary discharge product. In this work, we show that the inclusion of trace amounts of electrolyte additives, such as H$_2$O, significantly improve the capacity of the Li-O$_2$ battery. These additives trigger a solution-based growth mechanism due to their solvating properties, thereby circumventing the Li$_2$O$_2$ conductivity limitation. Experimental observations and a growth model imply that this solution mechanism is responsible for Li$_2$ toroid formation. We present a general formalism describing an additive$'$s tendency to trigger the solution process, providing a rational design route for electrolytes t...

  8. Alternate Thesis & Dissertation Formats Manuscript Format Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayfield, John

    Alternate Thesis & Dissertation Formats Manuscript Format Guidelines In addition to the standard format for dissertation/thesis, the Graduate School allows for the use of an alternative format. The manuscript format refers to the use of articles and/or book chapters to replace the standard dissertation

  9. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context.

  10. Formation of Carbon Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

  11. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts. Abstract: We...

  12. Manufacturability Study and Scale-Up for Large Format Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    integrators - Original equipment manufacturers * Development of processes, process optimization, manufacturing schemes, materials improvements, diagnostics, and production yield...

  13. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    microscopy Rhodia - Inorganic fillers ENTEK Manufacturing Inc -Equipment and materials processing Project objectives Selection of electrochemically stable,...

  14. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es008pekala2011...

  15. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es008pekala2012...

  16. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    We plan on expanding our options with respect to suppliers of the silicon-carbon composite materials. 06162014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

  17. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    May 10, 2011 Project ID ES008 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Overview Timeline Start - Feb 2010 ...

  18. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and reducing variability. Reliability, life and cost Characterize the moisture absorption properties of the silica-filled separator and develop handling and drying...

  19. Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fossil fuels by other green energy sources, such as solar,fuels, most of these green energy sources suffer from their

  20. Modeling and simulation of Li-ion conduction in poly(ethylene oxide)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Averbuch, Amir

    rechargeable batteries for consumer portable applications. A lithium-ion battery employs a metal oxide/discharge voltage depends on the current and resistance of all battery components. In most solid-state lithium-ion of Computational Physics 227 (2007) 1162­1175 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcp #12;1. Introduction Lithium and lithium-ion

  1. Cahn-Hilliard Reaction Model for Isotropic Li-ion Battery Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Yi

    Using the recently developed Cahn-Hilliard reaction (CHR) theory, we present a simple mathematical model of the transition from solid-solution radial diffusion to two-phase shrinking-core dynamics during ion intercalation ...

  2. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    initial estimates in FY12 Validate overhead savings assumptions based on today's Capex Opex with Johnson Controls finance Consolidate estimates for design options - Q3...

  3. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Approach 5 Dry coated electrode Electrode design optimization Binder and electrolyte development Process and equipment optimization...

  4. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M n , ^ for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Electrochem.of LiCoi/3Nii/ Mn 02 for lithium-ion batteries," Chem.Mni/ 0 for advanced lithium-ion batteries," J. Power

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Anode Material Development for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sinode Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy anode material...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Metal-Based High Capacity Li-Ion Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Binghamton University-SUNY at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal-based high...

  7. The Relationship of the Nail Penetration Test to Safety of Li-Ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  8. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries," Science 311(5763), 977-^ for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Electrochem. Soc.02 for lithium-ion batteries," Chem. Lett. , [3] Yabuuchi,

  9. Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 2000. 8(3):Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. , Designing newDept. of Materials Science and Engineering. , First

  10. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Nian; Wu, Hui; Mcdowell, Matthew T.; Yao, Yan; Wang, Chong M.; Cui, Yi

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si electrode must have high capacity, long cycle life, high efficiency, and the fabrication must be industrially scalable. Here, we design and fabricate a yolk-shell structure to meet all these needs. The fabrication is carried out without special equipment and mostly at room temperature. Commercially available Si nanoparticles are completely sealed inside conformal, thin, self-supporting carbon shells, with rationally designed void space in between the particles and the shell. The well-defined void space allows the Si particles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell, therefore stabilizing the solid-electrolyte interphase on the shell surface. High capacity (?2800 mAh/g at C/10), long cycle life (1000 cycles with 74% capacity retention), and high Coulombic efficiency (99.84%) have been realized in this yolk-shell structured Si electrode.

  11. Electrochemical and physical analysis of a Li-ion cell cycled at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Joongpyo; Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Song, Xiangyun; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2002-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory-size LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/graphite lithium-ion pouch cells were cycled over 100 percent DOD at room temperature and 60 degrees C in order to investigate high-temperature degradation mechanisms of this important technology. Capacity fade for the cell was correlated with that for the individual components, using electrochemical analysis of the electrodes and other diagnostic techniques. The high-temperature cell lost 65 percent of its initial capacity after 140 cycles at 60 degrees C compared to only 4 percent loss for the cell cycled at room temperature. Cell ohmic impedance increased significantly with the elevated temperature cycling, resulting in some of loss of capacity at the C/2 rate. However, as determined with slow rate testing of the individual electrodes, the anode retained most of its original capacity, while the cathode lost 65 percent, even when cycled with a fresh source of lithium. Diagnostic evaluation of cell components including XRD, Raman, CSAFM and suggest capacity loss occurs primarily due to a rise in the impedance of the cathode, especially at the end-of-charge. The impedance rise may be caused in part by a loss of the conductive carbon at the surface of the cathode and/or by an organic film on the surface of the cathode that becomes non-ionically conductive at low lithium content.

  12. Influence of constraints on axial growth reduction of cylindrical Li-ion battery electrode particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeevanjyoti Chakraborty; Colin P. Please; Alain Goriely; S. Jonathan Chapman

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Volumetric expansion of silicon anode particles in a lithium-ion battery during charging may lead to the generation of undesirable internal stresses. For a cylindrical particle such growth may also lead to failure by buckling if the expansion is constrained in the axial direction due to other particles or supporting structures. To mitigate this problem, the possibility of reducing axial growth is investigated theoretically by studying simple modifications of the solid cylinder geometry. First, an annular cylinder is considered with lithiation either from the inside or from the outside. In both cases, the reduction of axial growth is not found to be significant. Next, explicit physical constraints are studied by addition of a non-growing elasto-plastic material: first, an outer annular constraint on a solid silicon cylinder, and second a rod-like inner constraint for an annular silicon cylinder. In both cases, it is found that axial growth can be reduced if the yield stress of the constraining material is significantly higher than that of silicon and/or the thickness of the constraint is relatively high. Phase diagrams are presented for both the outer and the inner constraint cases to identify desirable operating zones. Finally, to interpret the phase diagrams and isolate the key physical principles two different simplified models are presented and are shown to recover important qualitative trends of the numerical simulation results.

  13. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

  15. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. P. Lee, M. Leitner, P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, J. -L. Vay,IEEE Trans Plasma Sci. , P. K. Roy, W. G. Greenway, J. W.19] P. A. Ni, J. W. Kwan, P. K. Roy, and W. L. Waldron, Rev.

  16. The Effects Of Internal Pressure Evolution On The Aging Of Commercial Li-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Fuqiang

    % after 500 cycles as a result of the increase in DC resistance. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy//Graphite LFP-26650P lithium-ion battery (LIB) was studied throughout elevated rate life cycle testing. Introduction Over the last two decades, the demand for energy dense electrochemical storage devices has grown

  17. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of amount of lithium alumino-silicate mass deposition on Themg, and 2.8 mg of alumino- silicate material deposited. [19]extracted from alumino-silicate sources Prabir K. Roy, ?

  18. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W

    2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A space-charge-limited beam with current densities (J) exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} have been measured from lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at a temperature of #24;~1275#14;{degrees} C. At higher extraction voltages, the source appears to become emission limited with J #21;{>=} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, and J increases weakly with the applied voltage. A 6.35 mm diameter source with an alumino-silicate coating, {<=}#20;0.25 mm thick, has a measured lifetime of ~#24;40 hours at ~#24;1275#14;{degrees} C, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of #24;~6 μs each. At this rate, the source lifetime was independent of the actual beam charge extracted due to the loss of neutral atoms at high temperature. The source lifetime increases with the amount of alumino-silicate coated on the emitting surface, and may also be further extended if the temperature is reduced between pulses.

  19. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. es086srinivasan2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Performance and Degradation Modeling of Batteries Improved Methods for Making Intermetallic Anodes Overview of...

  20. Layer cathode methods of manufacturing and materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive electrode active material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of general formula Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.A.sub..gamma.O.sub.2 and further wherein A is Mg, Zn, Al, Co, Ga, B, Zr, or Ti and 0

  1. Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cathode materials for lithium batteries guided by first-facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature, 2001. 414(M.S. Whittingham, Lithium batteries and cathode materials.

  2. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries," Science 311 (5763),for rechargeable lithium batteries," Science 311(5763), 977-M n , ^ for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Electrochem.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  5. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  7. Understanding Phase Transformation in Crystalline Ge Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    studies. 1. INTRODUCTION One of the most important renewable energy storage technologies is lithium and § Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States Stanford Synchrotron the beginning stage of lithiation, followed by the conversion of the remaining crystalline Ge to amorphous Ge

  8. Analysis of Electrochemical and Thermal Behavior of Li-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on heat generation is collected during charge/discharge1-3 and/or by studying the self-heating heat generation. Simulations were used to estimate the thermal and electrical energy and the active applications, are expected to replace Ni-MH and lead-acid cells in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

  9. Electrostatic Energy Harvester and Li-Ion Charger Circuit for Micro-Scale Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    -embedded monitoring systems, biomedical implants, and ad- hoc wireless transceiver micro-sensors, continue], electric field [9-12], or strain on a piezoelectric material [13]. Electromagnetic and piezoelectric scav micro-systems like biomedical implants and ad-hoc wireless transceiver micro-sensors continue

  10. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartment ofEnergy310 DOESource

  11. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries: a New Synthetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy Innovation Portal

  12. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARD ACCOUNTING SYSTEMMeso-Scale during

  13. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of EnergyFocus GroupSherrell R. Greene AboutSideCoating,

  14. 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHE U.S. DEPARTMENTTechnologies09Combustion2/2010 1 2010 DOE

  15. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) | SciTech

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnical Information STIP

  16. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccess Stories from the HighDepartment

  17. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccess Stories from the HighDepartmentthe

  18. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013 Sanyo: Notice ofConstantWorker ScreeningOhio |

  19. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013 Sanyo: Notice ofConstantWorker ScreeningOhio

  20. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliances »Contact-Information Sign InApril

  1. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I ETechnology |DepartmentExperimental

  2. Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I

  3. Development of High Energy Cathode for Li-ion Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H IMaterials Development of High Energy

  4. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries1000:Light-Weight, andEnergy|

  5. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries1000:Light-Weight, andEnergy||

  6. Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment of Energy Graphite and

  7. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleateElectrochemicalProposedElectrolytes | Department

  8. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleateElectrochemicalProposedElectrolytes |

  9. Electrolytes in Support of 5 V Li-ion Chemistries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleateElectrochemicalProposedElectrolytes |Operatingin

  10. Hard Carbon Materials for High-Capacity Li-ion Battery Anodes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TO THEHudson Year Pursuit ofof Energy Hard

  11. High Capacity MoO3 Nanoparticle Li-Ion Battery Anode | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnology Validation » Hickam

  12. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e p p a a r r t t m m e1 DOE Hydrogen

  13. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e p p a a r r t t m m e1 DOE Hydrogen1

  14. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e p p a a r r t t m m e1 DOE Hydrogen109

  15. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE10

  16. Streamlining the Optimization of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic Safety Goals Strategic Safety Goals JulyIntegratedDepartment

  17. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProducts | Department of|

  18. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProducts | Department of|of Energy 09 DOE Hydrogen

  19. Modeling - Scale-Bridging Simulations Active Materials in Li-ion Batteries,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProducts | Department of|of Energy 09 DOEand

  20. Sequentially Triggered Star Formation in OB Associations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Preibisch; Hans Zinnecker

    2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss observational evidence for sequential and triggered star formation in OB associations. We first review the star formation process in the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, the nearest OB association to the Sun, where several recent extensive studies have allowed us to reconstruct the star formation history in a rather detailed way. We then compare the observational results with those obtained for other OB associations and with recent models of rapid cloud and star formation in the turbulent interstellar medium. We conclude that the formation of whole OB subgroups (each consisting of several thousand stars) requires large-scale triggering mechanisms such as shocks from expanding wind and supernova driven superbubbles surrounding older subgroups. Other triggering mechanisms, like radiatively driven implosion of globules, also operate, but seem to be secondary processes, forming only small stellar groups rather than whole OB subgroups with thousands of stars.

  1. ABSTRACT & DISSERTATION FORMAT GUIDELINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi

    2 ABSTRACT & DISSERTATION FORMAT GUIDELINES The Knowledge Navigation Center (second floor these guidelines. The most up-to-date version of the Abstract and Dissertation Format Guidelines is available;2 Abstract Format Guidelines ABSTRACT Title of the Dissertation by by Student's Name Chair: Chair's name Text

  2. Cryogenic heat pipe for cooling high temperature superconductors with application to Electromagnetic Formation Flight Satellites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Daniel W., 1980-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An emerging method of propellant-less formation flight propulsion is the use of electromagnets coupled with reaction wheels. This technique is called Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF). In order to create a large ...

  3. Effect of friction on disoriented chiral condensate formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the effect of friction on the DCC domain formation. We solve the Newton equation of motion for the O(4) fields, with quenched initial condition. The initial fields are randomly distributed in a Gaussian form. In one dimensional expansion, on the average, large DCC domains can not be formed. However, in some particular orbits, large instabilities may occur. This possibility also greatly diminishes with the introduction of friction. But, if the friction is large, the system may be overdamped and then, there is a possibility of large DCC domain formation in some events.

  4. Triggered star formation in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Elmegreen; J. Palous; Kenji Bekki

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract. We discuss how tidal interaction between the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and the Galaxy triggers galaxy-wide star formation in the Clouds for the last ? 0.2 Gyr based on our chemodynamical simulations on the Clouds. Our simulations demonstrate that the tidal interaction induces the formation of asymmetric spiral arms with high gas densities and consequently triggers star formation within the arms in the LMC. Star formation rate in the present LMC is significantly enhanced just above the eastern edge of the LMC’s stellar bar owing to the tidal interaction. The location of the enhanced star formation is very similar to the observed location of 30 Doradus, which suggests that the formation of 30 Doradus is closely associated with the last Magellanic collision about 0.2 Gyr ago. The tidal interaction can dramatically compress gas initially within the outer part of the SMC so that new stars can be formed from the gas to become intergalactic young stars in the inter-Cloud region (e.g., the Magellanic Bridge). The metallicity distribution function of the newly formed stars in the Magellanic Bridge has a peak of [Fe/H] ? ?0.8, which is significantly lower than the stellar metallicity of the SMC.

  5. Adaptive Optics in Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Brandner

    2003-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past ten years, the concept of adaptive optics has evolved from early experimental stages to a standard observing tool now available at almost all major optical and near-infrared telescope facilities. Adaptive optics will also be essential in exploiting the full potential of the large optical/infrared interferometers currently under construction. Both observations with high-angular resolution and at high contrast, and with a high point source sensitivity are facilitated by adaptive optics. Among the areas which benefit most from the use of adaptive optics are studies of the circumstellar environment (envelopes, disks, outflows), substellar companions and multiple systems, and dense young stellar populations. This contribution highlights some of the recent advances in star formation studies facilitated by adaptive optics, and gives a brief tutorial on optimized observing and data reduction strategies.

  6. Zonal Flow as Pattern Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this section, we examine the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence to inhomogeneous turbulence with zonal flows. Statistical equations of motion can be derived from the quasilinear approximation to the Hasegawa-Mima equation. We review recent work that finds a bifurcation of these equations and shows that the emergence of zonal flows mathematically follows a standard type of pattern formation. We also show that the dispersion relation of modulational instability can be extracted from the statistical equations of motion in a certain limit. The statistical formulation can thus be thought to offer a more general perspective on growth of coherent structures, namely through instability of a full turbulent spectrum. Finally, we offer a physical perspective on the growth of large-scale structures.

  7. Unveiling the Formation of Massive Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2004-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive galaxies, such as nearby ellipticals, have relatively low number densities, yet they host the majority of the stellar mass in the universe. Understanding their origin is a central problem of galaxy formation. Age dating of stellar populations found in modern ellipticals, and observations of star formation in high redshift galaxies, allow us to determine roughly when these systems formed. These age diagnostics however do not tell us what triggered star formation, or how galaxies form as opposed to simply when. Recent analyses of the structures of z > 2 ultraviolet selected galaxies reveal that major galaxy mergers are a likely method for forming some massive galaxies. There are however galaxy populations at high redshift (z > 2), namely infrared and sub-millimeter bright systems, whose evolutionary relationship to modern ellipticals is still uncertain. An improved characterization of these and other high redshift galaxy populations is achievable with large infrared imaging and spectroscopic surveys.

  8. The Efficiency of Globular Cluster Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean E. McLaughlin

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    (Abridged): The total populations of globular cluster systems (GCSs) are discussed in terms of their connection to the efficiency of globular cluster formation---the mass fraction of star-forming gas that was able to form bound stellar clusters rather than isolated stars or unbound associations---in galaxy halos. Observed variations in GCS specific frequencies (S_N=N_gc/L_gal), both as a function of galactocentric radius in individual systems and globally between entire galaxies, are reviewed in this light. It is argued that trends in S_N do not reflect any real variation in the underlying efficiency of cluster formation; rather, they result from ignoring the hot gas in many large ellipticals. This claim is checked and confirmed in each of M87, M49, and NGC 1399, for which existing data are combined to show that the volume density profile of globular clusters, rho_cl, is directly proportional to the sum of (rho_gas+rho_stars) at large radii. The constant of proportionality is the same in each case: epsilon=0.0026 +/- 0.0005 in the mean. This is identified with the globular cluster formation efficiency. The implication that epsilon might have had a universal value is supported by data on the GCSs of 97 early-type galaxies, on the GCS of the Milky Way, and on the ongoing formation of open clusters. These results have specific implications for some issues in GCS and galaxy formation, and they should serve as a strong constraint on more general theories of star and cluster formation.

  9. Star Formation Histories in the Local Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas M. Brown

    2004-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep color magnitude diagrams extending to the main sequence provide the most direct measure of the detailed star formation history in a stellar population. With large investments of observing time, HST can obtain such data for populations out to 1 Mpc, but its field of view is extremely small in comparison to the size of Local Group galaxies. This limitation severely constrains our understanding of galaxy formation. For example, the largest galaxy in the Local Group, Andromeda, offers an ideal laboratory for studying the formation of large spiral galaxies, but the galaxy shows substructure on a variety of scales, presumably due to its violent merger history. Within its remaining lifetime, HST can only sample a few sight-lines through this complex galaxy. In contrast, a wide field imager could provide a map of Andromeda's halo, outer disk, and tidal streams, revealing the spatially-dependent star formation history in each structure. The same data would enable many secondary studies, such as the age variation in Andromeda's globular cluster system, gigantic samples of variable stars, and microlensing tracers of the galaxy's dark matter distribution.

  10. Dissipation, noise and DCC domain formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of friction on domain formation in disoriented chiral condensate. We solve the equation of motion of the linear sigma model, in the Hartree approximation, including a friction and a white noise term. For quenched initial condition, we find that even in presence of noise and dissipation domain like structure emerges after a few fermi of evolution. Domain size as large as 5 fm can be formed.

  11. Observing Massive Galaxy Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major goal of contemporary astrophysics is understanding the origin of the most massive galaxies in the universe, particularly nearby ellipticals and spirals. Theoretical models of galaxy formation have existed for many decades, although low and high redshift observations are only beginning to put constraints on different ideas. We briefly describe these observations and how they are revealing the methods by which galaxies form by contrasting and comparing fiducial rapid collapse and hierarchical formation model predictions. The available data show that cluster ellipticals must have rapidly formed at z > 2, and that up to 50% of all massive galaxies at z ~ 2.5 are involved in major mergers. While the former is consistent with the monolithic collapse picture, we argue that hierarchal formation is the only model that can reproduce all the available observations.

  12. JPEG File Interchange Format

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Eric

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    interchange format compressed image representation • PC or Mac or Unix workstation compatible • Standard color space: one or three components. For three components, YCbCr (CCIR 601-256 levels) • APP0 marker used to specify Units, X pixel density, Y pixel... by the Macintosh but not by PCs or workstations. JPEG File Interchange Format, Version 1.02 2 Standard color space The color space to be used is YCbCr as defined by CCIR 601 (256 levels). The RGB components calculated by linear conversion from YCbCr shall...

  13. Design and Development of an Artificial Neural Network for Estimation of Formation Permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 28237 Design and Development of an Artificial Neural Network for Estimation of Formation and measuring their oldest practices for estimating the formation permeability. Coring every well in a large, especially in fields with hundreds of wells, requires a large amount of capital. In a heterogeneous field

  14. Hair follicle Formation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

  15. Large scale disease prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Patrick R. (Patrick Raphael)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to present the foundation of an automated large-scale disease prediction system. Unlike previous work that has typically focused on a small self-contained dataset, we explore the possibility ...

  16. Star Formation in Mergers and Interacting Galaxies: Gathering the Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtis Struck

    2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected results from recent studies of star formation in galaxies at different stages of interaction are reviewed. Recent results from the Spitzer Space Telescope are highlighted. Ideas on how large-scale driving of star formation in interacting galaxies might mesh with our understanding of star formation in isolated galaxies and small scale mechanisms within galaxies are considered. In particular, there is evidence that on small scales star formation is determined by the same thermal and turbulent processes in cool compressed clouds as in isolated galaxies. If so, this affirms the notion that the primary role of large-scale dynamics is to gather and compress the gas fuel. In gas-rich interactions this is generally done with increasing efficiency through the merger process.

  17. NETL Report format template

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that large-scale CO 2 storage is safe and effective requires predicting the long-term integrity of storage sites as well as demonstrating the comprehensive consideration of...

  18. Substructure: Clues to the Formation of Clusters of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael J. West; Christine Jones; William Forman

    1995-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We have examined the spatial distribution of substructure in clusters of galaxies using Einstein X-ray observations. Subclusters are found to have a markedly anisotropic distribution that reflects the surrounding matter distribution on supercluster scales. Our results suggest a picture in which cluster formation proceeds by mergers of subclusters along large-scale filaments. The implications of such an anisotropic formation process for the shapes, orientations and kinematics of clusters are discussed briefly.

  19. Large power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsai, K.; Kerenyi, D.; Kiss, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The book deals with the following aspects of transformer engineering: general principles governing the function of transformers, iron cores, windings, stray losses caused by stray flux, the insulation of transformers, and the structural parts and accessories. This edition includes the developments in theory and practice on the basis of the authors' experience in design, manufacturing and testing of large transformers. New developments have been particularly extensive in the fields of new magnetic materials, cooling methods, dielectric strength for overvoltages of different types, and stray-load loss problems, which are presented in the book in detail. The many diagrams in the book can be used directly in the design, manufacture and testing of large transformers. In preparing their text, the authors have aimed to satisfy the demand for a work that summarizes the latest experience in development and design of large power transformers.

  20. Dynamics of Primordial Black Hole Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Niemeyer; K. Jedamzik

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical investigation of the gravitational collapse of horizon-size density fluctuations to primordial black holes (PBHs) during the radiation-dominated phase of the Early Universe. The collapse dynamics of three different families of initial perturbation shapes, imposed at the time of horizon crossing, is computed. The perturbation threshold for black hole formation, needed for estimations of the cosmological PBH mass function, is found to be $\\delta_{\\rm c} \\approx 0.7$ rather than the generally employed $\\delta_{\\rm c} \\approx 1/3$, if $\\delta$ is defined as $\\Delta M/\\mh$, the relative excess mass within the initial horizon volume. In order to study the accretion onto the newly formed black holes, we use a numerical scheme that allows us to follow the evolution for long times after formation of the event horizon. In general, small black holes (compared to the horizon mass at the onset of the collapse) give rise to a fluid bounce that effectively shuts off accretion onto the black hole, while large ones do not. In both cases, the growth of the black hole mass owing to accretion is insignificant. Furthermore, the scaling of black hole mass with distance from the formation threshold, known to occur in near-critical gravitational collapse, is demonstrated to apply to primordial black hole formation.

  1. Composting Large Animal Carcasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auvermann, Brent W.; Mukhtar, Saqib; Heflin, Kevin

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposing of large animal carcasses can be a problem for agricultural producers. Composting is a simple, low-cost method that yields a useful product that can be used as fertilizer. In this publication you'll learn the basics of composting, how...

  2. Composting Large Animal Carcasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auvermann, Brent W.; Mukhtar, Saqib; Heflin, Kevin

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposing of large animal carcasses can be a problem for agricultural producers. Composting is a simple, low-cost method that yields a useful product that can be used as fertilizer. In this publication you'll learn the basics of composting, how...

  3. Planning and Search Exam format

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alechina, Natasha

    is the frame problem. Revision 5 #12;Exam topics: planning Classical planning. How the problem definitionPlanning and Search Revision Revision 1 #12;Outline Exam format Exam topics How to revise Revision 2 #12;Exam format 4 questions out of 6 same format as 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 exams (on G52PAS

  4. The influence of large dams on surrounding climate and precipitation patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    The influence of large dams on surrounding climate and precipitation patterns Ahmed Mohamed Degu,1 February 2011. [1] Understanding the forcings exerted by large dams on local climate is key to establishing formation are identified around the reservoir shoreline for 92 large dams of North America. Our study

  5. Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

  6. On the electrochemical reactivity and design of NiP2 negative electrodes for secondary Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    @univ-montp2.fr Keywords: Lithium ion batteries, nickel diphosphides, ball milling, ceramic, capacity retention-ion batteries F. Gillot(a) , S. Boyanov(b) , L. Dupont(a) , M-L. Doublet(c) , M. Morcrette(a) , L. Monconduit (b-ion batteries. We found that the monoclinic form is the most attractive one performance-wise. Monoclinic NiP2

  7. Novel Laser-Based Manufacturing of nano-LiFePO4-Based Materials for High Power Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Chang, On; Crane, S.; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Emile

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    17-18, 2007 Novel Laser-Based Manufacturing of nano-LiFePO 4laser-based process for synthesizing nanomaterials, NanoParticle Manufacturing (

  8. A techno-economic analysis and optimization of Li-ion batteries for light-duty passenger vehicle electrification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    September 2014 Keywords: Electric vehicle Lithium-ion battery Battery design Production cost Electrode in addressing oil dependency, global warming, and air pollution in the United States. We investigate the role for minimum cost. Economies of scale are reached quickly at ~200e300 MWh annual production. Small-pack PHEV

  9. Thermal Model for a Li-Ion Cell Karthikeyan Kumaresan,* Godfrey Sikha,** and Ralph E. White***,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cathode in 1 M LiPF6 salt, in a mixture of ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, ethyl-methyl carbonate. Recent experimental characterization8 of transport properties of LiPF6 in a solvent mixture of propylene

  10. Development of a Novel Test Method for On-Demand Internal Short Circuit in a Li-Ion Cell (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, M.; Long, D.; Jung, Y. S.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.; McCarthy, B.; Patrick, L.; Kruger, C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes a cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, produces consistent and reproducible test results, can establish the locations and temperatures/power/SOC conditions where an internal short circuit will result in thermal runaway, and provides relevant data to validate internal short circuit models.

  11. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jigang; Hu, Yongfeng; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Chong M.; Zuin, Lucia

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical bonding nature and its evolution upon electrochemical cycling in amorphous Si coated-carbon nanotube (Si-CNT) anode has been investigated using comprehensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) at Si L- and K-edges along with C and O K-edges. The Si nanolayer on CNT is found to be anchored to CNT via Si-O-C bonding. This bond weakens upon electrochemical cycling accompanied with generation of Li2CO3 on the surface of Si-CNT. Those findings are crucial in designing further improved Si-C composite anode for lithium ion battery.

  12. Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Identity of Passive Film Formed on Aluminum in Li-ion BatteryElectrolytes with LiPF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, T.M.

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The passive film that forms on aluminum in 1:1 ethylene carbonate + ethylmethyl carbonate with 1.2M LiPF{sub 6} and 1:1 ethylene carbonate + dimethyl carbonate with 1.0M LiPF{sub 6} was investigated by a combination of electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements (EQCM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. During anodic polarization of aluminum a film of AlF{sub 3} forms on top of the air-formed oxide, creating a duplex, or two-layered film. The thickness of the AlF{sub 3} increases with the applied potential. Independent measurements of film thickness by EQCM and EIS indicate that at a potential of 5.5V vs. Li/Li{sup +}, the thickness of the AlF{sub 3} is approximately 1 nm.

  14. Understanding local degradation of cycled Ni-rich cathode materials at high operating temperature for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Sooyeon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Chang, Wonyoung, E-mail: cwy@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We utilize transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy to investigate local degradation that occurs in Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} cathode materials (NCA) after 30 cycles with cutoff voltages of 4.3?V and 4.8?V at 55?°C. NCA has a homogeneous crystallographic structure before electrochemical reactions; however, we observed that 30 cycles of charge/discharge reactions induced inhomogeneity in the crystallographic and electronic structures and also introduced porosity particularly at surface area. These changes were more noticeable in samples cycled with higher cutoff voltage of 4.8?V. Effect of operating temperature was further examined by comparing electronic structures of oxygen of the NCA particles cycled at both room temperature and 55?°C. The working temperature has a greater impact on the NCA cathode materials at a cutoff voltage of 4.3?V that is the practical the upper limit voltage in most applications, while a cutoff voltage of 4.8?V is high enough to cause surface degradation even at room temperature.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Li-ion Anode Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Pittsburgh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about nanoscale...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Giga Life Cycle: Manufacture of Cells from Recycled EV Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by OnTo Technology at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Giga Life Cycle: manufacture...

  17. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (Evs) have great potential to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and emissions. Battery costs need to be reduced by ~50% to make PHEVs cost competitive with conventional vehicles. One option to reduce initial costs is to reuse the battery in a second application following its retirement from automotive service and offer a cost credit for its residual value.

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARKING OF A 1ST HT-PEM/LI-ION HYBRID MOTIVE POWER SYSTEM FOR FORKLIFTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Industriparken 34B, 7400 Herning, Danmark Telefon: +45 56 27 96 00 e-mail: kp@h2logic.dk Teknologisk institut Kontakt person: Anders Elkjær Tønnesen Adresse: Kongsvang allé 29, 8000 Århus C, Danmark Telefon: +45 72 Adresse: Baldershøj 26C, 1., 2635 Ishøj, Danmark Telefon: +45 41 33 46 52 e-mail: christoffer

  19. Novel Laser-Based Manufacturing of nano-LiFePO4-Based Materials for High Power Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Chang, On; Crane, S.; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Emile

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NanoParticle Manufacturing (NPM™), has been used tomaterials synthesized by the NPM™ process (branded as nPWR™)phosphoric acid into an NPM™ reactor. The powder collected

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-cost, High Energy Si/Graphene Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XG Sciences at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-cost, high energy Si/graphene...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Real-time Metrology for Li-ion Battery R&D and Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Applied Spectra, Inc at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about real-time metrology for...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Real-time Metrology for Li-ion Battery R&D and Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Applied Spectra at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about real-time metrology for Li...

  3. Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-01-406

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pressure within a lithium-ion cell changes due to various chemical reactions. When a battery undergoes an unintended short circuit, the pressure changes are drastic - and often lead to uncontrolled failure of the cells. As part of work for others with Oceanit Laboratories Inc. for the NAVY STTR, NREL built Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations that can identify potential weak spots in the battery during such events, as well as propose designs to control violent failure of batteries.

  4. Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-407

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creare was awarded a Phase 1 STTR contract from the US Office of Naval Research, with a seven month period of performance from 6/28/2010 to 1/28/2011. The objectives of the STTR were to determine the feasibility of developing a software package for estimating reliability of battery packs, and develop a user interface to allow the designer to assess the overall impact on battery packs and host platforms for cell-level faults. NREL served as sub-tier partner to Creare, providing battery modeling and battery thermal safety expertise.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Efficient Safety and Degradation Modeling of Automotive Li-ion Cells and Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by EC Power at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about efficient safety and degradation...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Efficient Safety and Degradation Modeling of Automotive Li-ion Cells and Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by EC-Power at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about efficient safety and degradation...

  7. Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive Polymer Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrode used in lithium-ion battery is invariably a composite of multifunctional components. The performance of the electrode is controlled by the interactive function of all components at mesoscale. Fundamental understanding of mesoscale phenomenon sets the basis for innovative designing of new materials. Here we report the achievement and origin of a significant performance enhancement of electrode for lithium ion batteries based on Si nanoparticles wrapped with conductive polymer. This new material is in marked contrast with conventional material, which exhibit fast capacity fade. In-situ TEM unveils that the enhanced cycling stability of the conductive polymer-Si composite is associated with mesoscale concordant function of Si nanoparticles and the conductive polymer. Reversible accommodation of the volume changes of Si by the conductive polymer allows good electrical contact between all the particles during the cycling process. In contrast, the failure of the conventional Si-electrode is probed to be the inadequate electrical contact.

  8. Identity of Passive Film Formed on Aluminum in Li-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiPF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, T.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collectively, the EQCM and EIS results suggest a thin filmimpedance spectroscopy (EIS), and x-ray photoelectronfilm thickness by EQCM and EIS indicate that at a potential

  9. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  10. The (Unstable) Threshold of Black Hole Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. W. Choptuik

    1998-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years it has become apparent that intriguing phenomenology exists at the threshold of black hole formation in a large class of general relativistic collapse models. This phenomenology, which includes scaling, self-similarity and universality, is largely analogous to statistical mechanical critical behaviour, a fact which was first noted empirically, and subsequently clarified by perturbative calculations which borrow on ideas and techniques from dynamical systems theory and renormalization group theory. This contribution, which closely parallels my talk at the conference, consists of an overview of the considerable ``zoo''' of critical solutions which have been discovered thus far, along with a brief discussion of how we currently understand the nature of these solutions from the point of view of perturbation theory.

  11. Large Spectral Library Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.

  12. Cooling, Gravity and Geometry: Flow-driven Massive Core Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabian Heitsch; Lee Hartmann; Adrianne D. Slyz; Julien E. G. Devriendt; Andreas Burkert

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study numerically the formation of molecular clouds in large-scale colliding flows including self-gravity. The models emphasize the competition between the effects of gravity on global and local scales in an isolated cloud. Global gravity builds up large-scale filaments, while local gravity -- triggered by a combination of strong thermal and dynamical instabilities -- causes cores to form. The dynamical instabilities give rise to a local focusing of the colliding flows, facilitating the rapid formation of massive protostellar cores of a few 100 M$_\\odot$. The forming clouds do not reach an equilibrium state, though the motions within the clouds appear comparable to ``virial''. The self-similar core mass distributions derived from models with and without self-gravity indicate that the core mass distribution is set very early on during the cloud formation process, predominantly by a combination of thermal and dynamical instabilities rather than by self-gravity.

  13. Stabilization of Large Scale Structure by Adhesive Gravitational Clustering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Buchert

    1999-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The interplay between gravitational and dispersive forces in a multi-streamed medium leads to an effect which is exposed in the present note as the genuine driving force of stabilization of large-scale structure. The conception of `adhesive gravitational clustering' is advanced to interlock the fairly well-understood epoch of formation of large-scale structure and the onset of virialization into objects that are dynamically in equilibrium with their large-scale structure environment. The classical `adhesion model' is opposed to a class of more general models traced from the physical origin of adhesion in kinetic theory.

  14. Predictions from star formation in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8162 (United States)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute trivariate probability distributions in the landscape, scanning simultaneously over the cosmological constant, the primordial density contrast, and spatial curvature. We consider two different measures for regulating the divergences of eternal inflation, and three different models for observers. In one model, observers are assumed to arise in proportion to the entropy produced by stars; in the others, they arise at a fixed time (5 or 10x10{sup 9} years) after star formation. The star formation rate, which underlies all our observer models, depends sensitively on the three scanning parameters. We employ a recently developed model of star formation in the multiverse, a considerable refinement over previous treatments of the astrophysical and cosmological properties of different pocket universes. For each combination of observer model and measure, we display all single and bivariate probability distributions, both with the remaining parameter(s) held fixed and marginalized. Our results depend only weakly on the observer model but more strongly on the measure. Using the causal diamond measure, the observed parameter values (or bounds) lie within the central 2{sigma} of nearly all probability distributions we compute, and always within 3{sigma}. This success is encouraging and rather nontrivial, considering the large size and dimension of the parameter space. The causal patch measure gives similar results as long as curvature is negligible. If curvature dominates, the causal patch leads to a novel runaway: it prefers a negative value of the cosmological constant, with the smallest magnitude available in the landscape.

  15. Predictions from Star Formation in the Multiverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael Bousso; Stefan Leichenauer

    2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute trivariate probability distributions in the landscape, scanning simultaneously over the cosmological constant, the primordial density contrast, and spatial curvature. We consider two different measures for regulating the divergences of eternal inflation, and three different models for observers. In one model, observers are assumed to arise in proportion to the entropy produced by stars; in the others, they arise at a fixed time (5 or 10 billion years) after star formation. The star formation rate, which underlies all our observer models, depends sensitively on the three scanning parameters. We employ a recently developed model of star formation in the multiverse, a considerable refinement over previous treatments of the astrophysical and cosmological properties of different pocket universes. For each combination of observer model and measure, we display all single and bivariate probability distributions, both with the remaining parameter(s) held fixed, and marginalized. Our results depend only weakly on the observer model but more strongly on the measure. Using the causal diamond measure, the observed parameter values (or bounds) lie within the central $2\\sigma$ of nearly all probability distributions we compute, and always within $3\\sigma$. This success is encouraging and rather nontrivial, considering the large size and dimension of the parameter space. The causal patch measure gives similar results as long as curvature is negligible. If curvature dominates, the causal patch leads to a novel runaway: it prefers a negative value of the cosmological constant, with the smallest magnitude available in the landscape.

  16. Black hole formation in the early universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supermassive black holes with up to a $\\rm 10^{9}~M_{\\odot}$ dwell in the centers of present-day galaxies, and their presence has been confirmed at z $\\geq$ 6. Their formation at such early epochs is still an enigma. Different pathways have been suggested to assemble supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang. Direct collapse has emerged as a highly plausible scenario to form black holes as it provides seed masses of $\\rm 10^{5}-10^{6}~M_{\\odot}$. Gravitational collapse in atomic cooling haloes with virial temperatures T$_{vir} \\geq 10^{4}$~K may lead to the formation of massive seed black holes in the presence of an intense background UV flux. Turbulence plays a central role in regulating accretion and transporting angular momentum. We present here the highest resolution cosmological large-eddy simulations to date which track the evolution of high-density regions on scales of $0.25$~AU beyond the formation of the first peak, and study the impact of subgrid-scale turbulence. The pe...

  17. The Formation History of Globular Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean E. McLaughlin

    2000-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of old globular cluster systems in galaxy halos are used to infer quantitative constraints on aspects of generic star (cluster) formation. First, the spatial distribution of globulars in three large galaxies, together with trends in total cluster population vs. galaxy luminosity for 97 early-type systems plus the halo of the Milky Way, imply that bound stellar clusters formed with a universal efficiency throughout early protogalaxies: by mass, always 0.26% of star-forming gas was converted into globulars rather than halo field stars. That this fraction is so robust in the face of extreme variations in local and global galaxy environment suggests that any parcel of gas needs primarily to exceed a relative density threshold in order to form a bound cluster of stars. Second, it is shown that a strict, empirical scaling of total binding energy with luminosity and Galactocentric position is a defining equation for a fundamental plane of Galactic globular clusters. The characteristics of this plane, which subsumes all other observable correlations between the structural parameters of globulars, provide a small but complete set of facts that must be explained by theories of cluster formation and evolution in the Milky Way. It is suggested that the E_b(L,r_{\\rm gc}) relation specifically resulted from star formation efficiencies having been systematically higher inside more massive protoglobular gas clumps.

  18. Collisionless Weibel shocks: Full formation mechanism and timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Stockem, A. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Narayan, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Silva, L. O. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Collisionless shocks in plasmas play an important role in space physics (Earth's bow shock) and astrophysics (supernova remnants, relativistic jets, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays). While the formation of a fluid shock through the steepening of a large amplitude sound wave has been understood for long, there is currently no detailed picture of the mechanism responsible for the formation of a collisionless shock. We unravel the physical mechanism at work and show that an electromagnetic Weibel shock always forms when two relativistic collisionless, initially unmagnetized, plasma shells encounter. The predicted shock formation time is in good agreement with 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of counterstreaming pair plasmas. By predicting the shock formation time, experimental setups aiming at producing such shocks can be optimised to favourable conditions.

  19. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLane, V. [ed.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. In addition to storing the data and its bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine).

  20. FORMATION GESTION DU STRESS CONTEXTE, PUBLIC, FINALITE DE LA FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    FORMATION GESTION DU STRESS CONTEXTE, PUBLIC, FINALITE DE LA FORMATION La vie moderne et le stress : mettre en place des stratégies de gestion , étudier quelques aspects essentiels de la et cas cliniques composés par les participants ou fournis par le formateur . - Jeux de rôle en sous

  1. Dual-Doppler observations of the formative stage of an asymmetric squall line system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Daniel Richard

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to document and explain the formation of a large asymmetric squall line system. Despite having a precipitation pattern similar to the conceptual model of an asymmetric squall line, the development and evolution...

  2. Evaluating permeability anisotropy in the early Jurassic Tilje formation, offshore mid-Norway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliyev, Kanan

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of evaluating permeability anisotropy in the Tilje Formation, Heidrum field, offshore mid-Norway, has been investigated by the Statoil Research Centre by a detailed combination of the geological and petrophysical data. The large...

  3. Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from the Direct Photolytic Generation of Organic Radicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Sean Herbert

    The immense complexity inherent in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA)—due primarily to the large number of oxidation steps and reaction pathways involved—has limited the detailed understanding of its underlying ...

  4. Star formation in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8162 (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a simple semianalytic model of the star formation rate as a function of time. We estimate the star formation rate for a wide range of values of the cosmological constant, spatial curvature, and primordial density contrast. Our model can predict such parameters in the multiverse, if the underlying theory landscape and the cosmological measure are known.

  5. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  6. Formation depths of Fraunhofer lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurtovenko, E A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have summed up our investigations performed in 1970--1993. The main task of this paper is clearly to show processes of formation of spectral lines as well as their distinction by validity and by location. For 503 photospheric lines of various chemical elements in the wavelength range 300--1000 nm we list in Table the average formation depths of the line depression and the line emission for the line centre and on the half-width of the line, the average formation depths of the continuum emission as well as the effective widths of the layer of the line depression formation. Dependence of average depths of line depression formation on excitation potential, equivalent widths, and central line depth are demonstrated by iron lines.

  7. Nonequilibrium Alfvenic Plasma Jets Associated with Spheromak Formation Deepak Kumar and Paul M. Bellan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    . Bellan California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA (Received 6 February 2009-current arcs [4], Z-pinch formation [5], spheromak formation [6,7], and sustainment [8]) to extraterrestrial whereby the radial magnetic pinch force associated with I produces a large on-axis plasma pressure. Axial

  8. Dense water formation on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea: 2. Quantifying the transports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    the rate of formation of Dense Shelf Water (DSW) due to brine rejection on the Okhotsk Sea northwestern- mediate water (NPIW) [Talley, 1991, 1993; Yasuda, 1997]. The initial overturn is driven by brine rejection ice formation and brine rejection into underlying waters. Newly formed DSW is advected by the large

  9. Cloud and Star Formation in Disk Galaxy Models with Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahul Shetty; Eve C. Ostriker

    2008-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We include feedback in global hydrodynamic simulations in order to study the star formation properties, and gas structure and dynamics, in models of galactic disks. We extend previous models by implementing feedback in gravitationally bound clouds: momentum is injected at a rate proportional to the star formation rate. This mechanical energy disperses cloud gas back into the surrounding ISM, truncating star formation in a given cloud, and raising the overall level of ambient turbulence. Propagating star formation can however occur as expanding shells collide, enhancing the density and triggering new cloud and star formation. By controlling the momentum injection per massive star and the specific star formation rate in dense gas, we find that the negative effects of high turbulence outweigh the positive ones, and in net feedback reduces the fraction of dense gas and thus the overall star formation rate. The properties of the large clouds that form are not, however, very sensitive to feedback, with cutoff masses of a few million solar masses, similar to observations. We find a relationship between the star formation rate surface density and the gas surface density with a power law index ~2 for our models with the largest dynamic range, consistent with theoretical expectations for our model of disk flaring. We point out that the value of the "Kennicutt-Schmidt" index depends on the thickness of the disk. With our simple feedback prescription (a single combined star formation event per cloud), we find that global spiral patterns are not sustained; less correlated feedback and smaller scale turbulence appear to be necessary for spiral patterns to persist.

  10. Negative feedback effects on star formation history and cosmic reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Wang; Jirong Mao; Shouping Xiang; Ye-Fei Yuan

    2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    After considering the effects of negative feedback on the process of star formation, we explore the relationship between star formation process and the associated feedback, by investigating how the mechanical feedback from supernovae(SNe) and radiative feedback from luminous objects regulate the star formation rate and therefore affect the cosmic reionization.Based on our present knowledge of the negative feedback theory and some numerical simulations, we construct an analytic model in the framework of the Lambda cold dark matter model. In certain parameter regions, our model can explain some observational results properly. In large halos(T_vir>10000 K), both mechanical and radiative feedback have a similar behavior: the relative strength of negative feedback reduces as the redshift decreases. In contrast, in small halos (T_virfeedback gets stronger when the redshift decreases. And the star formation rate in these small halos depends very weakly on the star-formation efficiency. Our results show that the radiative feedback is important for the early generation stars. It can suppress the star formation rate considerably. But the mechanical feedback from the SNe explosions is not able to affect the early star formation significantly. The early star formation in small-halo objects is likely to be self-regulated. The radiative and mechanical feedback dominates the star formation rate of the PopII/I stars all along. The feedback from first generation stars is very strong and should not be neglected. However, their effects on the cosmic reionization are not significant, which results in a small contribution to the optical depth of Thomson scattering.

  11. Studies of Local Degradation Phenomena in Composite Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerlau, M.; Marcinek, M.; Srinivasan, V.; Kostecki, R.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite Cathodes for Li-ion Batteries Marie Kerlau, Marekfrom commercial Li-ion batteries and mode cells which

  12. Feedback Processes [in Massive Star Formation]: A Theoretical Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mordecai-Mark Mac Low

    2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    I review the evidence for the importance of feedback from massive stars at small and large scales. The feedback mechanisms include accretion luminosity, ionizing radiation, collimated outflows, and stellar winds. The good news is that feedback doesn't entirely prevent the formation of massive stars, while the bad news is that we don't know what does limit their masses. Feedback from massive stars also influences their surroundings. I argue that this does not produce a triggering efficiency above unity, nor does it prevent lots of prompt star formation in GMCs, though it may preserve massive remnants of the clouds for many dynamical times.

  13. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  14. Use-driven concept formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jennifer M. (Jennifer Marie)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When faced with a complex task, humans often identify domain-specific concepts that make the task more tractable. In this thesis, I investigate the formation of domain-specific concepts of this sort. I propose a set of ...

  15. Theoretical Tools for Large Scale Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Bond; L. Kofman; D. Pogosyan; J. Wadsley

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the main theoretical aspects of the structure formation paradigm which impinge upon wide angle surveys: the early universe generation of gravitational metric fluctuations from quantum noise in scalar inflaton fields; the well understood and computed linear regime of CMB anisotropy and large scale structure (LSS) generation; the weakly nonlinear regime, where higher order perturbation theory works well, and where the cosmic web picture operates, describing an interconnected LSS of clusters bridged by filaments, with membranes as the intrafilament webbing. Current CMB+LSS data favour the simplest inflation-based $\\Lambda$CDM models, with a primordial spectral index within about 5% of scale invariant and $\\Omega_\\Lambda \\approx 2/3$, similar to that inferred from SNIa observations, and with open CDM models strongly disfavoured. The attack on the nonlinear regime with a variety of N-body and gas codes is described, as are the excursion set and peak-patch semianalytic approaches to object collapse. The ingredients are mixed together in an illustrative gasdynamical simulation of dense supercluster formation.

  16. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We adopt a new chemical evolution model for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and thereby investigate its past star formation and chemical enrichment histories. The delay time distribution of Type Ia supernovae recently revealed by Type Ia supernova surveys is incorporated self-consistently into the new model. The principle results are summarized as follows. The present gas mass fraction and stellar metallicity as well as the higher [Ba/Fe] in metal-poor stars at [Fe/H] < -1.5 can be more self-consistently explained by models with steeper initial mass functions. The observed higher [Mg/Fe] ({>=}0.3) at [Fe/H] {approx} -0.6 and higher [Ba/Fe] (>0.5) at [Fe/H] {approx} -0.3 could be due to significantly enhanced star formation about 2 Gyr ago. The observed overall [Ca/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation and remarkably low [Ca/Fe] (< - 0.2) at [Fe/H] > -0.6 are consistent with models with short-delay supernova Ia and with the more efficient loss of Ca possibly caused by an explosion mechanism of Type II supernovae. Although the metallicity distribution functions do not show double peaks in the models with a starburst about 2 Gyr ago, they show characteristic double peaks in the models with double starbursts {approx}200 Myr and {approx}2 Gyr ago. The observed apparent dip of [Fe/H] around {approx}1.5 Gyr ago in the age-metallicity relation can be reproduced by models in which a large amount ({approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) of metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) gas can be accreted onto the LMC.

  17. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  18. STAR FORMATION IN NUCLEAR RINGS OF BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae, E-mail: seowy@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear rings in barred galaxies are sites of active star formation. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the temporal and spatial behavior of star formation occurring in nuclear rings of barred galaxies where radial gas inflows are triggered solely by a bar potential. The star formation recipes include a density threshold, an efficiency, conversion of gas to star particles, and delayed momentum feedback via supernova explosions. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is roughly equal to the mass inflow rate to the ring, while it has a weak dependence on the total gas mass in the ring. The SFR typically exhibits a strong primary burst followed by weak secondary bursts before declining to very small values. The primary burst is associated with the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth, while the secondary bursts are caused by re-infall of the ejected gas from the primary burst. While star formation in observed rings persists episodically over a few Gyr, the duration of active star formation in our models lasts for only about half of the bar growth time, suggesting that the bar potential alone is unlikely to be responsible for gas supply to the rings. When the SFR is low, most star formation occurs at the contact points between the ring and the dust lanes, leading to an azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters. When the SFR is large, on the other hand, star formation is randomly distributed over the whole circumference of the ring, resulting in no apparent azimuthal age gradient. Since the ring shrinks in size with time, star clusters also exhibit a radial age gradient, with younger clusters found closer to the ring. The cluster mass function is well described by a power law, with a slope depending on the SFR. Giant gas clouds in the rings have supersonic internal velocity dispersions and are gravitationally bound.

  19. Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission from Large Scale Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobardzic, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For more than a decade now the complete origin of the diffuse gamma-ray emission background (EGRB) has been unknown. Major components like unresolved star-forming galaxies (making 10GeV. Moreover, we show that, even though the gamma-ray emission arising from structure formation shocks at galaxy clusters is below previous estimates, these large scale shocks can still give an important, and even dominant at high energies, contribution to the EGRB. Future detections of cluster gamma-ray emission would make our upper limit of the extragalactic gamma-ray emission from structure-formation process, a firm prediction, and give us deeper insight in evolution of these large scale shock.

  20. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dursch, Thomas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the University of California. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusionsub-freezing conditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusionstrategies exist to prevent ice formation, there is little

  1. REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation RCC Workplan NGV.PDF More Documents &...

  2. Mixing device for materials with large density differences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An auger-tube pump mixing device for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided.

  3. Mixing device for materials with large density differences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An auger-tube pump mixing device is disclosed for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided. 2 figs.

  4. Seasonal Modulation of Eddy Kinetic Energy and Its Formation Mechanism in the Southeast Indian Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    energy and exert profound impacts on large-scale ocean circulations. Satellite altimeter ob- servations- sociations with the large-scale oceanic circulations and the climate. The global eddy kinetic energy (EKESeasonal Modulation of Eddy Kinetic Energy and Its Formation Mechanism in the Southeast Indian

  5. Large Scale Energy Storage: From Nanomaterials to Large Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    Large Scale Energy Storage: From Nanomaterials to Large Systems Wednesday October 26, 2011, Babbio energy storage devices. Specifically, this talk discusses 1) the challenges for grid scale of emergent technologies with ultralow costs on new energy storage materials and mechanisms. Dr. Jun Liu

  6. QUENCHES IN LARGE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhard, P.H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    QUENCHES IN LARGE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS. P. H. Eberhard,Study of an Unprotected Superconducting Coil Going Normal,"Method for Testing Superconducting Magnets," LBL Physics

  7. What do Multiple Planet Systems Teach us about Planet Formation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric B. Ford

    2005-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    For centuries, our knowledge of planetary systems and ideas about planet formation were based on a single example, our solar system. During the last thirteen years, the discovery of ~170 planetary systems has ushered in a new era for astronomy. I review the surprising properties of extrasolar planetary systems and discuss how they are reshaping theories of planet formation. I focus on how multiple planet systems constrain the mechanisms proposed to explain the large eccentricities typical of extrasolar planets. I suggest that strong planet-planet scattering is common and most planetary systems underwent a phase of large eccentricities. I propose that a planetary system's final eccentricities may be strongly influenced by how much mass remains in a planetesimal disk after the last strong planet-planet scattering event.

  8. HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE FORMATION AND MODES OF STAR FORMATION IN HICKSON COMPACT GROUP 31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Durrell, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Elmegreen, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States); English, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MN R3T 2N2 (Canada); Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Young, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E. [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Mendes de Oliveira, C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica, e Ciencias Atmosfericas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Whitmore, B.; Maybhate, Aparna [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218-2463 (United States); Zabludoff, Ann [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: sgalla4@uwo.ca

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The handful of low-mass, late-type galaxies that comprise Hickson Compact Group 31 (HCG 31) is in the midst of complex, ongoing gravitational interactions, evocative of the process of hierarchical structure formation at higher redshifts. With sensitive, multicolor Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we characterize the large population of < 10 Myr old star clusters (SCs) that suffuse the system. From the colors and luminosities of the young SCs, we find that the galaxies in HCG 31 follow the same universal scaling relations as actively star-forming galaxies in the local universe despite the unusual compact group environment. Furthermore, the specific frequency of the globular cluster system is consistent with the low end of galaxies of comparable masses locally. This, combined with the large mass of neutral hydrogen and tight constraints on the amount of intragroup light, indicate that the group is undergoing its first epoch of interaction-induced star formation. In both the main galaxies and the tidal-dwarf candidate, F, stellar complexes, which are sensitive to the magnitude of disk turbulence, have both sizes and masses more characteristic of z = 1-2 galaxies. After subtracting the light from compact sources, we find no evidence for an underlying old stellar population in F-it appears to be a truly new structure. The low-velocity dispersion of the system components, available reservoir of H I, and current star formation rate of {approx}10 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} indicate that HCG 31 is likely to both exhaust its cold gas supply and merge within {approx}1 Gyr. We conclude that the end product will be an isolated, X-ray-faint, low-mass elliptical.

  9. A paleoenvironmental study of the Lower Mississippian Caballero Formation and Andrecito member of the Lake Valley Formation in the south-central Sacramento Mountains, Otero County, New Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Peter Gillham

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formations. . . . . . . 3 Southern exposure of Muleshoe Mound and flank beds. . . Isopach of Mississippian strata in southwestern and south-central New Mexico (from Kottlowski . 1963). . . . . . . . . 14 Mountains and counties of southwestern and south... of section 12 in Deadman Canyon. 36 Photographs of bed types from the Andrecito member and large nodules from the Caballero Formation in San Andres Canyon. 39 12 Photographs of erosion of the lowermost Andrecito member in San Andres Canyon. 41 13 Photog...

  10. South Mississippi's Hosston, Sligo formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hosston and Sligo formations, of Early Cretaceous age, lie above the Cotton Valley group and below the Pine Island formation. The beds dip southwesterly and become thicker within the Mississippi Interior Salt basin, where virtually all of the Hosston/Sligo oil and gas production occurs. The 3500 ft of alternating sands and shales found at 10,000-17,000 ft depths have the attributes of fluvial deltaic sediments. The Newsom, Bowie Creek, and Seminary fields are representative of recent gas discoveries in the Hosston/Sligo.

  11. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  12. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  13. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  14. Formation Interuniversitaire de Physique Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balbus, Steven

    Formation Interuniversitaire de Physique Module : Hydrodynamics S. Balbus 1 #12;TO LEARN.8.3 Piston Driven into Gas Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.8.4 Driven Acoustic Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 6.2.3 Inertial Drag of a Sphere by an Ideal Fluid . . . . . . . 113 6.3 Line Vortices and Flow

  15. Structurally Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Structurally connected secondary mirror EMFF secondary mirror EMFF Design Electromagnetic Formation for a smaller, simpler system. µEMFF investigates the use of conventional conductors, capacitors, and solar propellants that often limit lifetime, the EMFF system uses solar power to energize a magnetic field

  16. Star Formation in the Multiverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael Bousso; Stefan Leichenauer

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a simple semi-analytic model of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time. We estimate the SFR for a wide range of values of the cosmological constant, spatial curvature, and primordial density contrast. Our model can predict such parameters in the multiverse, if the underlying theory landscape and the cosmological measure are known.

  17. Earth and Terrestrial Planet Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Seth A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth and composition of Earth is a direct consequence of planet formation throughout the Solar System. We discuss the known history of the Solar System, the proposed stages of growth and how the early stages of planet formation may be dominated by pebble growth processes. Pebbles are small bodies whose strong interactions with the nebula gas lead to remarkable new accretion mechanisms for the formation of planetesimals and the growth of planetary embryos. Many of the popular models for the later stages of planet formation are presented. The classical models with the giant planets on fixed orbits are not consistent with the known history of the Solar System, fail to create a high Earth/Mars mass ratio, and, in many cases, are also internally inconsistent. The successful Grand Tack model creates a small Mars, a wet Earth, a realistic asteroid belt and the mass-orbit structure of the terrestrial planets. In the Grand Tack scenario, growth curves for Earth most closely match a Weibull model. The feeding zon...

  18. VEHICLE NETWORKS: ACHIEVING REGULAR FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VEHICLE NETWORKS: ACHIEVING REGULAR FORMATION MADALENA CHAVES, ROBERT DAY, LUCIA GOMEZ a network of vehicles exchanging information among themselves with the intention of achieving a specified the performance of the vehicle network. A stochastic model for information flow is also considered, allowing

  19. Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estalella, Robert

    Chapter 4 Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction We now begin to trace the journey towards a star. How long does this take? The answer is surprisingly short: a good many clouds already contain new stars and these stars tend to be young. The typical cloud cannot spend long, if any time at all

  20. Development of a large format direct detection device for three dimensional transmission electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. Duttweiler, J.C. Bouwer, S.T. Peltier, M.H. Ellisman, andDuttweiler, J.C. Bouwer, S.T. Peltier, M. Ellisman, and N.H.Duttweiler, J.C. Bouwer, S.T. Peltier, A.C. Milazzo, and M.

  1. Large-Eddy Simulation of Pulverized Coal Jet Flame -Effect of Oxygen Concentration on NOx formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than those by using other fossil fuels [1]. It is therefore important to develop clean coal technology for pulverized coal fired power plants, in order to control such emissions and to reduce the environmental impact. Regarding the reduction... of environmental impact of CO2, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is expected as a key technology, and it is believed that oxy-fuel pulverized coal combus- tion, in which gas mixture of oxygen (O2) and CO2 are used instead of air as oxidizer, has advantages...

  2. SCUBA-2 instrument: an application of large-format superconducting bolometer arrays for submillimetre astronomy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollister, Matthew Ian

    This thesis concerns technical aspects related to the design and operation of the submillimetre common-user bolometer array 2 (SCUBA-2) instrument, a new wide-field camera for submillimetre astronomy currently undergoing ...

  3. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. Characterization of a Large Format HgCdTe on Si Focal Plane Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figer, Donald F.

    . Keasler2 Rochester Institute of Technology 1 , Raytheon Vision Systems 2 ABSTRACT The Center for Detectors (CfD) at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) are advancing. The Center for Detectors (CfD) at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and Raytheon Vision Systems

  5. Large-Eddy Simulation of Pulverized Coal Jet Flame -Effect of Oxygen Concentration on NOx formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than those by using other fossil fuels [1]. It is therefore important to develop clean coal technology for pulverized coal fired power plants, in order to control such emissions and to reduce the environmental impact. Regarding the reduction...

  6. Formation of Thick, Large-Area Nanoparticle Superlatices in Lithographically Defined Geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akey, A.; Yang, L.; Lu, C.; Herman, I.P.

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Superlattices of colloidal nanocrystals hold the promise of new nanomaterials with tunable properties. The positioning and size of these structures are often poorly controlled after self-assembly from the solution phase, making studies of their properties difficult. We report the fabrication of {approx}100 layer thick, three-dimensional superlattices on a substrate with controlled lateral placement. This novel fabrication technique generates long-range order over the micrometer scale and controlled placement by employing lithographic patterning and microfluidic flow. Keywords: Nanoparticles; superlattice; self assembly; microfluidics; ordered array.

  7. Revised large mammal biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Barstow Formation (Middle Miocene), California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagnac, Darrin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stratigraphy, and sedimentology of a rapidly extendedand Range Extension Using Sedimentology and Stratigraphy.

  8. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H IMaterialsDepartment of EnergyDie

  9. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues In a Densified Large Square Bale Format

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 A Strategic Framework for SMRA View from the-1Assessment

  10. Investigation of transition to turbulence at low Reynolds numbers using Implicit Large Eddy Simulations with a Discontinuous Galerkin method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uranga Cabrera, Alejandra (Uranga)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work predicts the formation of laminar separation bubbles at low Reynolds numbers and the related transition to turbulence. In addition to being one of the first Implicit Large Eddy Simulation studies using a ...

  11. Large Area Vacuum Deposited Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It's easy to make the myriad of types of large area and decorative coatings for granted. We probably don't even think about most of them; the low-e and heat mirror coatings on our windows and car windows, the mirrors in displays, antireflection coatings on windows and displays, protective coatings on aircraft windows, heater coatings on windshields and aircraft windows, solar reflectors, thin film solar cells, telescope mirrors, Hubble mirrors, transparent conductive coatings, and the list goes on. All these products require large deposition systems and chambers. Also, don't forget that large batches of small substrates or parts are coated in large chambers. In order to be cost effective hundreds of ophthalmic lenses, automobile reflectors, display screens, lamp reflectors, cell phone windows, laser reflectors, DWDM filters, are coated in batches.

  12. The Description of Large Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitman, Kent

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss the problems associated with the description and manipulation of large systems when their sources are not maintained as single fields. We show why and how tools that address these issues, such ...

  13. Analytic bootstrap at large spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apratim Kaviraj; Kallol Sen; Aninda Sinha

    2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We use analytic conformal bootstrap methods to determine the anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients for large spin operators in general conformal field theories in four dimensions containing a scalar operator of conformal dimension $\\Delta_\\phi$. It is known that such theories will contain an infinite sequence of large spin operators with twists approaching $2\\Delta_\\phi+2n$ for each integer $n$. By considering the case where such operators are separated by a twist gap from other operators at large spin, we analytically determine the $n$, $\\Delta_\\phi$ dependence of the anomalous dimensions. We find that for all $n$, the anomalous dimensions are negative for $\\Delta_\\phi$ satisfying the unitarity bound, thus extending the Nachtmann theorem to non-zero $n$. In the limit when $n$ is large, we find agreement with the AdS/CFT prediction corresponding to the Eikonal limit of a 2-2 scattering with dominant graviton exchange.

  14. Analytic bootstrap at large spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaviraj, Apratim; Sinha, Aninda

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use analytic conformal bootstrap methods to determine the anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients for large spin operators in general conformal field theories in four dimensions containing a scalar operator of conformal dimension $\\Delta_\\phi$. It is known that such theories will contain an infinite sequence of large spin operators with twists approaching $2\\Delta_\\phi+2n$ for each integer $n$. By considering the case where such operators are separated by a twist gap from other operators at large spin, we analytically determine the $n$, $\\Delta_\\phi$ dependence of the anomalous dimensions. We find that for all $n$, the anomalous dimensions are negative for $\\Delta_\\phi$ satisfying the unitarity bound, thus extending the Nachtmann theorem to non-zero $n$. In the limit when $n$ is large, we find agreement with the AdS/CFT prediction corresponding to the Eikonal limit of a 2-2 scattering with dominant graviton exchange.

  15. Large-scale pool fires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhaus, Thomas; Welch, Stephen; Carvel, Ricky O; Torero, Jose L

    2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of research into the burning behaviour of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low ...

  16. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  17. ON STAR FORMATION RATES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF GALAXIES OUT TO z {approx} 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Lutz, Dieter; Nordon, Raanan; Berta, Stefano; Genzel, Reinhard; Magnelli, Benjamin; Poglitsch, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Altieri, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Andreani, Paola [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Aussel, Herve; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique, Bat.709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovanni, Angel; Cepa, Jordi; Garcia, Ana Perez [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna (Spain); Cimatti, Andrea [Departamento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Maiolino, Roberto [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); McGrath, Elizabeth J. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare multi-wavelength star formation rate (SFR) indicators out to z {approx} 3 in the GOODS-South field. Our analysis uniquely combines U to 8 {mu}m photometry from FIREWORKS, MIPS 24 {mu}m and PACS 70, 100, and 160 {mu}m photometry from the PEP, and H{alpha} spectroscopy from the SINS survey. We describe a set of conversions that lead to a continuity across SFR indicators. A luminosity-independent conversion from 24 {mu}m to total infrared luminosity yields estimates of L{sub IR} that are in the median consistent with the L{sub IR} derived from PACS photometry, albeit with significant scatter. Dust correction methods perform well at low-to-intermediate levels of star formation. They fail to recover the total amount of star formation in systems with large SFR{sub IR}/SFR{sub UV} ratios, typically occuring at the highest SFRs (SFR{sub UV+IR} {approx}> 100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) and redshifts (z {approx}> 2.5) probed. Finally, we confirm that H{alpha}-based SFRs at 1.5 < z < 2.6 are consistent with SFR{sub SED} and SFR{sub UV+IR} provided extra attenuation toward H II regions is taken into account (A{sub V,neb} = A{sub V,continuum}/0.44). With the cross-calibrated SFR indicators in hand, we perform a consistency check on the star formation histories inferred from spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling. We compare the observed SFR-M relations and mass functions at a range of redshifts to equivalents that are computed by evolving lower redshift galaxies backward in time. We find evidence for underestimated stellar ages when no stringent constraints on formation epoch are applied in SED modeling. We demonstrate how resolved SED modeling, or alternatively deep UV data, may help to overcome this bias. The age bias is most severe for galaxies with young stellar populations and reduces toward older systems. Finally, our analysis suggests that SFHs typically vary on timescales that are long (at least several 100 Myr) compared to the galaxies' dynamical time.

  18. Absorption and elimination of formate following oral administration of calcium formate in female human subjects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fowler, Stephen C.; Eells, Janis T.

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Published abstract: Calcium formate is a water-soluble salt of an essential mineral nutrient with potential for use as a dietary calcium supplement. Formate ion is a product of endogenous and xenobiotic metabolism, but sustained high plasma formate...

  19. Photophoresis boosts giant planet formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teiser, Jens

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the core accretion model of giant planet formation, a solid protoplanetary core begins to accrete gas directly from the nebula when its mass reaches about 5 earth masses. The protoplanet has at most a few million years to reach runaway gas accretion, as young stars lose their gas disks after 10 million years at the latest. Yet gas accretion also brings small dust grains entrained in the gas into the planetary atmosphere. Dust accretion creates an optically thick protoplanetary atmosphere that cannot efficiently radiate away the kinetic energy deposited by incoming planetesimals. A dust-rich atmosphere severely slows down atmospheric cooling, contraction, and inflow of new gas, in contradiction to the observed timescales of planet formation. Here we show that photophoresis is a strong mechanism for pushing dust out of the planetary atmosphere due to the momentum exchange between gas and dust grains. The thermal radiation from the heated inner atmosphere and core is sufficient to levitate dust grains and to ...

  20. Formation of polar ring galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Bournaud; F. Combes

    2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Polar ring galaxies are peculiar systems in which a gas rich, nearly polar ring surrounds an early-type or elliptical host galaxy. Two formation scenarios for these objects have been proposed: they are thought to form either in major galaxy mergers or by tidal accretion of the polar material from a gas rich donor galaxy. Both scenarios are studied through N-body simulations including gas dynamics and star formation. Constraints on physical parameters are drawn out, in order to determine which scenario is the most likely to occur. Polar ring galaxies from each scenario are compared with observations and we discuss whether the accretion scenario and the merging scenario account for observational properties of polar ring galaxies. The conclusion of this study is that the accretion scenario is both the most likely and the most supported by observations. Even if the merging scenario is rather robust, most polar ring galaxies are shown to be the result of tidal gas accretion events.

  1. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  2. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, T.P.; Moses, E.I.; Patterson, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.

    1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse using one or more delay loops is disclosed. The delay loops have a partially reflective beam splitter and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors arranged such that the laser beam pulse enters into the delay loop through the beam splitter and circulates therein along a delay loop length defined by the mirrors. As the laser beam pulse circulates within the delay loop a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse strikes the beam splitter. The laser beam pulse is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses. The delay loops are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses using additive waveform synthesis. 8 figs.

  3. Shock Formation in Lovelock Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey S. Reall; Norihiro Tanahashi; Benson Way

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that Lovelock theories of gravity suffer from shock formation, unlike General Relativity. We consider the propagation of (i) a discontinuity in curvature, and (ii) weak, high frequency, gravitational waves. Such disturbances propagate along characteristic hypersurfaces of a "background" spacetime and their amplitude is governed by a transport equation. In GR the transport equation is linear. In Lovelock theories, it is nonlinear and its solutions can blow up, corresponding to the formation of a shock. We show that this effect is absent in some simple cases e.g. a flat background spacetime, and demonstrate its presence for a plane wave background. We comment on weak cosmic censorship, the evolution of shocks, and the nonlinear stability of Minkowski spacetime, in Lovelock theories.

  4. Kinetic models of opinion formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Toscani

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and discuss certain kinetic models of (continuous) opinion formation involving both exchange of opinion between individual agents and diffusion of information. We show conditions which ensure that the kinetic model reaches non trivial stationary states in case of lack of diffusion in correspondence of some opinion point. Analytical results are then obtained by considering a suitable asymptotic limit of the model yielding a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of opinion among individuals.

  5. Large-eddy simulations of isolated disc galaxies with thermal and turbulent feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Harald; Niemeyer, Jens C; Almgren, Ann S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a subgrid-scale model for the Multi-phase Interstellar medium, Star formation, and Turbulence (MIST) and explore its behaviour in high-resolution large-eddy simulations of isolated disc galaxies. MIST follows the evolution of a clumpy cold and a diffuse warm component of the gas within a volume element which exchange mass and energy via various cooling, heating and mixing processes. The star formation rate is dynamically computed from the state of the gas in the cold phase. An important feature of MIST is the treatment of unresolved turbulence in the two phases and its interaction with star formation and feedback by supernovae. This makes MIST a particularly suitable model for the interstellar medium in galaxy simulations. We carried out a suite of simulations varying fundamental parameters of our feedback implementation. Several observational properties of galactic star formation are reproduced in our simulations, such as an average star formation efficiency ~1%, a typical velocity dispersion arou...

  6. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  7. Large aperture optical switching devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1983-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs.

  8. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLand andComputingLargeLarge

  9. Non-aqueous formation of the calcium carbonate polymorph vaterite: astrophysical implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Sarah J; Parker, Julia E; Evans, Aneurin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the formation of calcium carbonate, through the solid-gas interaction of amorphous Ca-silicate with gaseous CO2, at elevated pressures, and link this to the possible presence of calcium carbonate in a number of circumstellar and planetary environments. We use in-situ synchrotron X-Ray powder diffraction to obtain detailed structural data pertaining to the formation of the crystalline calcium carbonate phase vaterite and its evolution with temperature. We found that the metastable calcium carbonate phase vaterite was formed alongside calcite, at elevated CO2 pressure, at room temperature and subsequently remained stable over a large range of temperature and pressure. We report the formation of the calcium carbonate mineral vaterite whilst attempting to simulate carbonate dust grain formation in astrophysical environments. This suggests that vaterite could be a mineral component of carbonate dust and also presents a possible method of formation for vaterite and its polymorphs on planetary surfaces.

  10. Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

  11. Structure formation: Models, Dynamics and Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Padmanabhan

    1995-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The constraints on the models for the structure formation arising from various cosmological observations at different length scales are reviewed. The status of different models for structure formation is examined critically in the light of these observations.

  12. Dynamics and control of electromagnetic satellite formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahsun, Umair, 1972-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Satellite formation flying is an enabling technology for many space missions, especially for space-based telescopes. Usually there is a tight formation-keeping requirement that may need constant expenditure of fuel or at ...

  13. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

  14. The Formation and Fragmentation of Primordial Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel; Greg L. Bryan; Michael L. Norman

    1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Many questions in physical cosmology regarding the thermal history of the intergalactic medium, chemical enrichment, reionization, etc. are thought to be intimately related to the nature and evolution of pregalactic structure. In particular the efficiency of primordial star formation and the primordial IMF are of special interest. We present results from high resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations that follow the collapse of primordial molecular clouds and their subsequent fragmentation within a cosmologically representative volume. Comoving scales from 128 kpc down to 0.5 pc are followed accurately. Dark matter dynamics, hydrodynamics and all relevant chemical and radiative processes (cooling) are followed self-consistently for a cluster normalized CDM structure formation model. Primordial molecular clouds with ~100,000 solar masses are assembled by mergers of multiple objects that have formed hydrogen molecules in the gas phase with a fractional abundance of 100,000/cm^3 are found. We find that less than 1% of the primordial gas in such small scale structures cools and collapses to sufficiently high densities to be available for primordial star formation. Furthermore, our results indicate that the formation of very massive objects, massive black holes, fragmentation of a large fraction of baryons into brown dwars or Jupiter size fragments seems, in contrast to various claims in the literature, very unlikely. The expected escape fraction of UV photons with (h nu) > 11eV is very small.

  15. On the formation of massive stellar clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillermo Tenorio-Tagle; Jan Palous; Sergiy Silich; Gustavo A. Medina-Tanco; Casiana Munoz-Tunon

    2003-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we model a star forming factory in which the continuous creation of stars results in a highly concentrated, massive (globular cluster-like) stellar system. We show that under very general conditions a large-scale gravitational instability in the ISM, which triggers the collapse of a massive cloud, leads with the aid of a spontaneous first generation of massive stars, to a standing, small-radius, cold and dense shell. Eventually, as more of the collapsing matter is processed and incorporated, the shell becomes gravitationally unstable and begins to fragment, allowing the formation of new stars, while keeping its location. This is due to a detailed balance established between the ram pressure from the collapsing cloud which, together with the gravitational force exerted on the shell by the forming cluster, acts against the mechanical energy deposited by the collection of new stars. We analyze the mass spectrum of fragments that result from the continuous fragmentation of the standing shell and show that its shape is well approximated at the high mass end by a power law with slope -2.25, very close to the value that fits the universal IMF. The self-contamination resultant from the continuous generation of stars is shown to lead to a large metal spread in massive ($\\sim$ 10$^6$ M$_\\odot$) clusters, while clusters with a mass similar to 10$^5$ M$_\\odot$ or smaller, simply reflect the initial metalicity of the collapsing cloud. This is in good agreement with the data available for globular clusters in the Galaxy.

  16. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  17. CALIFORNIA ENERGY Large HVAC Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Large HVAC Building Survey Information Database of Buildings over 100 Energy Systems: Productivity and Building Science Program. This program was funded by the California of Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Project Management: Cathy Higgins, Program Director for New Buildings

  18. Autonomous Helicopter Formation using Model Predictive Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, S. Shankar

    Autonomous Helicopter Formation using Model Predictive Control Hoam Chung and S. Shankar Sastry are required to fly in tight formations and under harsh conditions. The starting point for safe autonomous into a formation, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient space between it and all other vehicles

  19. Brad R. Yates Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    on the subsequent formation of nanoporous Ge was examined. Characterization of the cycling performance and microstructure of Li ion battery cells constructed with a Group IV anode; specifically Si or Ge. #12;Carnegie researcher under Professor Michael Bockstaller characterizing the morphology of roll-cast poly- isoprene

  20. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Surface Heterogeneity in Graphite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Passive Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Surface Heterogeneity in Graphite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Passive Layer Formation Ravi N. Methekar,a,* Paul W. C. Northrop,a Kejia Chen,b Richard D. Braatz fade, and cycle life of Li-ion secondary batteries. In this paper, Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation

  1. Center for Electrical Energy Storage Tailored Interfaces Argonne National Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Northwestern University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    on a graphite basal plane. Li ion migration pathway in (010) channel of lithium carbonate. The migrations batteries (such as solid electrolyte interphase, or SEI, formation). The goal of this subtask is to model lithium batteries. Follow us at http://www.anl.gov/energy-storage-science Autogenic reactions at high

  2. The Formation of Population III Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazuya Saigo; Tomoaki Matsumoto; Masayuki Umemura

    2004-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the possibility for the formation of Population III binaries. The collapse of a rotating cylinder is simulated with a three-dimensional, high-resolution nested grid, assuming the thermal history of primordial gas. The simulations are done with dimensionless units, and the results are applicable to low-mass as well as massive systems by scaling with the initial density. We find that if the initial angular momentum is as small as $\\beta \\approx 0.1$, where $\\beta$ is the ratio of centrifugal force to pressure force, then the runaway collapse of the cloud stops to form a rotationally-supported disk. After the accretion of the envelope, the disk undergoes a ring instability, eventually fragmenting into a binary. If the initial angular momentum is relatively large, a bar-type instability arises, resulting in the collapse into a single star through rapid angular momentum transfer. The present results show that a significant fraction of Pop III stars are expected to form in binary systems, even if they are quite massive or less massive. The cosmological implications of Population III binaries are briefly discussed.

  3. The Formation of Population III Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saigo, K; Umemura, M; Saigo, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Umemura, Masayuki

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the possibility for the formation of Population III binaries. The collapse of a rotating cylinder is simulated with a three-dimensional, high-resolution nested grid, assuming the thermal history of primordial gas. The simulations are done with dimensionless units, and the results are applicable to low-mass as well as massive systems by scaling with the initial density. We find that if the initial angular momentum is as small as $\\beta \\approx 0.1$, where $\\beta$ is the ratio of centrifugal force to pressure force, then the runaway collapse of the cloud stops to form a rotationally-supported disk. After the accretion of the envelope, the disk undergoes a ring instability, eventually fragmenting into a binary. If the initial angular momentum is relatively large, a bar-type instability arises, resulting in the collapse into a single star through rapid angular momentum transfer. The present results show that a significant fraction of Pop III stars are expected to form in binary systems, even if they ar...

  4. Halo Formation in Warm Dark Matter Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Bode; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Neil Turok

    2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Discrepancies have emerged between the predictions of standard cold dark matter (CDM) theory and observations of clustering on sub-galactic scales. Warm dark matter (WDM) is a simple modification of CDM in which the dark matter particles have initial velocities due either to their having decoupled as thermal relics, or having been formed via non-equilibrium decay. We investigate the nonlinear gravitational clustering of WDM with a high resolution N-body code, and identify a number of distinctive observational signatures. Relative to CDM, halo concentrations and core densities are lowered, core radii are increased, and large halos emerge with far fewer low mass satellites. The number of small halos is suppressed, and those present are formed by `top down' fragmentation of caustics, as part of a `cosmic web' connecting massive halos. Few small halos form outside this web. If we identify small halos with dwarf galaxies, their number, spatial distribution, and formation epoch appear in better agreement with the observations for WDM than they are for CDM.

  5. On the formation of massive stellar clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Silich, S A; Medina-Tanco, G A; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Palous, Jan; Silich, Sergiy; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo A.; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we model a star forming factory in which the continuous creation of stars results in a highly concentrated, massive (globular cluster-like) stellar system. We show that under very general conditions a large-scale gravitational instability in the ISM, which triggers the collapse of a massive cloud, leads with the aid of a spontaneous first generation of massive stars, to a standing, small-radius, cold and dense shell. Eventually, as more of the collapsing matter is processed and incorporated, the shell becomes gravitationally unstable and begins to fragment, allowing the formation of new stars, while keeping its location. This is due to a detailed balance established between the ram pressure from the collapsing cloud which, together with the gravitational force exerted on the shell by the forming cluster, acts against the mechanical energy deposited by the collection of new stars. We analyze the mass spectrum of fragments that result from the continuous fragmentation of the standing shell and show that it...

  6. Star Formation and Merging in Massive Galaxies at z < 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2008-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Observing massive galaxies at various redshifts is one of the most straightforward and direct approaches towards understanding galaxy formation. There is now largely a consensus that the massive galaxy (M_* > 10^11 M_0) population is fully formed by z~1, based on mass and luminosity functions. However, we argue that the latest data can only rule out number and mass density evolution of a factor of > 2-3 at z 10^11 M_0 galaxies reveals that 40+/-5% of galaxies with M_* > 10^11 M_0 at z~1 are undergoing star formation that effectively doubles their stellar mass between z = 0.4 - 1.4. These massive galaxies also undergo 0.9^+0.7_-0.5 major mergers during this same time period.

  7. A General Systems Theory for Rain Formation in Warm Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A cumulus cloud model which can explain the observed characteristics of warm rain formation in monsoon clouds is presented. The model is based on classical statistical physical concepts and satisfies the principle of maximum entropy production. Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations that are ubiquitous to all dynamical systems in nature, such as physical, chemical, social, etc and are characterized by inverse power law form for power (eddy energy) spectrum signifying long-range space-time correlations. A general systems theory model for atmospheric flows developed by the author is based on the concept that the large eddy energy is the integrated mean of enclosed turbulent (small scale) eddies. This model gives scale-free universal governing equations for cloud growth processes. The model predicted cloud parameters are in agreement with reported observations, in particular, the cloud dropsize distribution. Rain formation can occur in warm clouds within 30minutes lifetime under favourable conditions of moisture supply in the environment.

  8. Feedback Effects on Low-Mass Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Charles E; McKee, Christopher F; Fisher, Robert T

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protostellar feedback, both radiation and bipolar outflows, dramatically affects the fragmentation and mass accretion from star-forming cores. We use ORION, an adaptive mesh refinement gravito-radiation-hydrodynamics code, to simulate the formation of a cluster of low-mass stars, including both radiative transfer and protostellar outflows. We ran four simulations to isolate the individual effects of radiation feedback and outflow feedback as well as the combination of the two. Outflows reduce protostellar masses and accretion rates each by a factor of three and therefore reduce protostellar luminosities by an order of magnitude. Thus, while radiation feedback suppresses fragmentation, outflows render protostellar radiation largely irrelevant for low-mass star formation above a mass scale of 0.05 M_sun. We find initial fragmentation of our cloud at half the global Jeans length, ~ 0.1 pc. With insufficient protostellar radiation to stop it, these 0.1 pc cores fragment repeatedly, forming typically 10 stars each...

  9. Gas Cooling Through Galaxy Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariwan A. Rasheed; Mohamad A. Brza

    Abstract-- Gas cooling was studied in two different boxes of sizes and by simulation at same redshifts. The gas cooling is shown in four different redshifts (z=1.15, 0.5, 0.1 and 0). In the simulation the positions of the clumps of cooled gas were studied with slices of the two volumes and also the density of cooled gas of the two volumes shown in the simulation. From the process of gas cooling it is clear that this process gives different results in the two cases. Index Term- Gas Cooling, Simulation, galaxy Formation. I.

  10. Petrophysical evaluation of subterranean formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klein, James D; Schoderbek, David A; Mailloux, Jason M

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are provided for evaluating petrophysical properties of subterranean formations and comprehensively evaluating hydrate presence through a combination of computer-implemented log modeling and analysis. Certain embodiments include the steps of running a number of logging tools in a wellbore to obtain a variety of wellbore data and logs, and evaluating and modeling the log data to ascertain various petrophysical properties. Examples of suitable logging techniques that may be used in combination with the present invention include, but are not limited to, sonic logs, electrical resistivity logs, gamma ray logs, neutron porosity logs, density logs, NRM logs, or any combination or subset thereof.

  11. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

  12. FORMATION OF PLANETARY CORES AT TYPE I MIGRATION TRAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandor, Zsolt; Dullemond, Cornelis P. [Max Planck Research Group, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lyra, Wladimir, E-mail: sandor@mpia.de [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2011-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the long-standing unsolved problems of planet formation is how solid bodies of a few decimeters in size can 'stick' to form large planetesimals. This is known as the 'meter-size barrier'. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that some form of 'particle trapping' must have played a role in overcoming the meter-size barrier. Particles can be trapped in long-lived local pressure maxima, such as those in anticyclonic vortices, zonal flows, or those believed to occur near ice lines or at dead zone boundaries. Such pressure traps are the ideal sites for the formation of planetesimals and small planetary embryos. Moreover, they likely produce large quantities of such bodies in a small region, making it likely that subsequent N-body evolution may lead to even larger planetary embryos. The goal of this Letter is to show that this indeed happens, and to study how efficient it is. In particular, we wish to find out if rocky/icy bodies as large as 10 M{sub +} can form within 1 Myr, since such bodies are the precursors of gas giant planets in the core accretion scenario.

  13. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  14. Coring in deep hardrock formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  16. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S. [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 445-706 (Korea); Anh, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  17. A Random Walk through Star and Planet Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maness, Holly

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and its Neptune-Mass Planet 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . .of Low Mass Star Formation . . . . . 1.3 Planet FormationConstraining Theories of Planet Formation and Evolution .

  18. The case against scaling defect models of cosmic structure formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Albrecht; Richard A. Battye; James Robinson

    1997-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate predictions from defect models of structure formation for both the matter and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) over all observable scales. Our results point to a serious problem reconciling the observed large-scale galaxy distribution with the COBE normalization, a result which is robust for a wide range of defect parameters. We conclude that standard scaling defect models are in conflict with the data, and show how attempts to resolve the problem by considering non-scaling defects would require radical departures from the standard scaling picture.

  19. Alignments of Galaxy Group Shapes with Large Scale Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paz, Dante J; Merchán, Manuel; Padilla, Nelson

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we analyse the alignment of galaxy groups with the surrounding large scale structure traced by spectroscopic galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We characterise these alignments by means of an extension of the classical two-point cross-correlation function, developed by Paz et al. 2008 (arXiv:0804.4477, MNRAS 389 1127). We find a strong alignment signal between the projected major axis of group shapes and the surrounding galaxy distribution up to scales of 30 Mpc/h. This observed anisotropy signal becomes larger as the galaxy group mass increases, in excellent agreement with the corresponding predicted alignment obtained from mock catalogues and LCDM cosmological simulations. These measurements provide new direct evidence of the adequacy of the gravitational instability picture to describe the large-scale structure formation of our Universe.

  20. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  1. Methanol Masers and Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Sobolev; A. B. Ostrovskii; M. S. Kirsanova; O. V. Shelemei; M. A. Voronkov; A. V. Malyshev

    2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol masers which are traditionally divided into two classes provide possibility to study important parts of the star forming regions: Class~II masers trace vicinities of the massive YSOs while class~I masers are likely to trace more distant parts of the outflows where newer stars can form. There are many methanol transitions which produce observed masers. This allows to use pumping analysis for estimation of the physical parameters in the maser formation regions and its environment, for the study of their evolution. Extensive surveys in different masing transitions allow to conclude on the values of the temperatures, densities, dust properties, etc. in the bulk of masing regions. Variability of the brightest masers is monitored during several years. In some cases it is probably caused by the changes of the dust temperature which follow variations in the brightness of the central YSO reflecting the character of the accretion process. A unified catalogue of the class II methanol masers consisting of more than 500 objects is compiled. Analysis of the data shows that: physical conditions within the usual maser source vary considerably; maser brightness is determined by parameters of some distinguished part of the object - maser formation region; class II methanol masers are formed not within the outflows but in the regions affected by their propagation. It is shown that the "near" solutions for the kinematic distances to the sources can be used for statistical analysis. The luminosity function of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers is constructed. It is shown that improvement of the sensitivity of surveys can increase number of detected maser sources considerably.

  2. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; González, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; López, J A; Martínez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Núñez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Pérez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseñor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) is aiming at the detection of the high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts, using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) in high mountain sites (Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 5300 m a.s.l., Pico Espejo, Venezuela, 4750 m a.s.l., Sierra Negra, Mexico, 4650 m a.s.l). WCD at high altitude offer a unique possibility of detecting low gamma fluxes in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV range. The status of the Observatory and data collected from 2007 to date will be presented.

  3. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home asLCLSLaboratoryRowland toShade Landscaping forandLarge

  4. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLand andComputingLarge

  5. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLandLarge Magnetization at

  6. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLandLarge Magnetization

  7. Extra-Large Memory Nodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA) /EmailMolecularGE, Ford, University ofExtra-Large

  8. A Climatology of Tropical Anvil and Its Relationship to the Large-Scale Circulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Wei

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    of anvil formation, and to provide a more realistic assessment of the radiative impact of tropical anvil on the large-scale circulation. Based on 10 years (1998-2007) of observations, anvil observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM...

  9. to 150 GPa, consistent with the modulus values of large SWNT bundles (22). Al-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cottet, Audrey

    to 150 GPa, consistent with the modulus values of large SWNT bundles (22). Al- though an individual to provide the optimum conditions for nanotube strand formation. The gas flow carried the strands down), assuming that the sample volume is constant, where D0 and Df are the original diameter and the real

  10. Chondrule Formation in Bow Shocks around Eccentric Planetary Embryos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Melissa A; Desch, Steven J; Athanassiadou, Themis

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent isotopic studies of Martian meteorites by Dauphas & Pourmond (2011) have established that large (~ 3000 km radius) planetary embryos existed in the solar nebula at the same time that chondrules - millimeter-sized igneous inclusions found in meteorites - were forming. We model the formation of chondrules by passage through bow shocks around such a planetary embryo on an eccentric orbit. We numerically model the hydrodynamics of the flow, and find that such large bodies retain an atmosphere, with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities allowing mixing of this atmosphere with the gas and particles flowing past the embryo. We calculate the trajectories of chondrules flowing past the body, and find that they are not accreted by the protoplanet, but may instead flow through volatiles outgassed from the planet's magma ocean. In contrast, chondrules are accreted onto smaller planetesimals. We calculate the thermal histories of chondrules passing through the bow shock. We find that peak temperatures and cooling rate...

  11. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, Roderick A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  12. The Expanded Very Large Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perley, R; Jackson, J; Butler, B; Carlson, B; Fort, D; Dewdney, P; Clark, B; Hayward, R; Durand, S; Revnell, M; McKinnon, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In almost 30 years of operation, the Very Large Array (VLA) has proved to be a remarkably flexible and productive radio telescope. However, the basic capabilities of the VLA have changed little since it was designed. A major expansion utilizing modern technology is currently underway to improve the capabilities of the VLA by at least an order of magnitude in both sensitivity and in frequency coverage. The primary elements of the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) project include new or upgraded receivers for continuous frequency coverage from 1 to 50 GHz, new local oscillator, intermediate frequency, and wide bandwidth data transmission systems to carry signals with 16 GHz total bandwidth from each antenna, and a new digital correlator with the capability to process this bandwidth with an unprecedented number of frequency channels for an imaging array. Also included are a new monitor and control system and new software that will provide telescope ease of use. Scheduled for completion in 2012, the EVLA will prov...

  13. Radio Triggered Star Formation in Cooling Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. R. McNamara

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The giant galaxies located at the centers of cluster cooling flows are frequently sites of vigorous star formation. In some instances, star formation appears to have been triggered by the galaxy's radio source. The colors and spectral indices of the young populations are generally consistent with short duration bursts or continuous star formation for durations much less than 1 Gyr, which is less than the presumed ages of cooling flows. The star formation properties are inconsistent with fueling by a continuously accreting cooling flow, although the prevalence of star formation is consistent with repeated bursts and periodic refueling. Star formation may be fueled, in some cases, by cold material stripped from neighboring cluster galaxies.

  14. Formation of ice lenses and frost heave A. W. Rempel1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rempel, Alan W.

    are promoted by the influence of mineral surfaces on the phase behavior of ice. A large body of experimental, but nevertheless ad hoc parameterizations for the ice particle interactions, the choice of functional form beingFormation of ice lenses and frost heave A. W. Rempel1 Received 13 April 2006; revised 26 January

  15. New French Guidelines for Structural Safety of Embankment Dams in a Semi-probabilistic Format

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    New French Guidelines for Structural Safety of Embankment Dams in a Semi-probabilistic Format P in France and in most countries, hydraulic works (dams and levees) have remained excluded from semi rules. In this context, the French Committee on Large Dams ­ FRCOLD - initiated, with a panel of experts

  16. OH-initiated oxidation of benzene Part I. Phenol formation under atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OH-initiated oxidation of benzene Part I. Phenol formation under atmospheric conditions Rainer-radical initiated oxidation of benzene was studied in two simulation chambers: (1) the large-volume outdoor chamber-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to simultaneously measure phenol and benzene. The second study used only FTIR

  17. Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer Andrei G depend, to a large extent, on foams formed on the surface of the molten glass and of the batch due models for thermophysical and transport properties and heat, mass, and radiation transfer in glass foams

  18. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  19. Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Formation and Growth. Abstract: Airborne particles play a critical role in air quality, human health effects, visibility and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA)...

  20. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  1. Standard Format and Content for Emergency Plans

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume addresses recommended emergency plan format and content for Operational Emergency Base Programs and Operational Emergency Hazardous Material Programs. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-3.

  2. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  3. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

  4. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a karsted formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and dolomite includes providing heat to at least part of one or more karsted layers in the formation from one or more heaters located in the karsted layers. A temperature in at least one of the karsted layers is allowed to reach a decomposition temperature of dolomite in the formation. The dolomite is allowed to decompose and at least some hydrocarbons are produced from at least one of the karsted layers of the formation.

  5. Theoretical Investigations on the Formation and Dehydrogenation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of boron-nitrogen-hydrogen (BNHx) compounds that are promising materials for chemical hydrogen storage. Understanding the kinetics and reaction pathways of formation of these...

  6. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  7. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay (Brentwood, CA); Ayers, Shannon Lee (Brentwood, CA)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  8. Visualization of Large-Scale Distributed Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew

    that are now considered the "lenses" for examining large-scale data. THE LARGE-SCALE DATA VISUALIZATIONVisualization of Large-Scale Distributed Data Jason Leigh1 , Andrew Johnson1 , Luc Renambot1 representation of data and the interactive manipulation and querying of the visualization. Large-scale data

  9. Turing pattern formation in the Brusselator system with nonlinear diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Gambino; M. C. Lombardo; M. Sammartino; V. Sciacca

    2013-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we investigate the effect of density dependent nonlinear diffusion on pattern formation in the Brusselator system. Through linear stability analysis of the basic solution we determine the Turing and the oscillatory instability boundaries. A comparison with the classical linear diffusion shows how nonlinear diffusion favors the occurrence of Turing pattern formation. We study the process of pattern formation both in 1D and 2D spatial domains. Through a weakly nonlinear multiple scales analysis we derive the equations for the amplitude of the stationary patterns. The analysis of the amplitude equations shows the occurrence of a number of different phenomena, including stable supercritical and subcritical Turing patterns with multiple branches of stable solutions leading to hysteresis. Moreover we consider traveling patterning waves: when the domain size is large, the pattern forms sequentially and traveling wavefronts are the precursors to patterning. We derive the Ginzburg-Landau equation and describe the traveling front enveloping a pattern which invades the domain. We show the emergence of radially symmetric target patterns, and through a matching procedure we construct the outer amplitude equation and the inner core solution.

  10. TESTING TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION IN SIX H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirienzo, William J.; Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Brogan, Crystal; Friesen, Rachel K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Cyganowski, Claudia J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Churchwell, Ed, E-mail: dirienzo@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated six H II regions with infrared, bright rimmed bubble or cometary morphology, in search of quantitative evidence for triggered star formation, both collect and collapse and radiatively driven implosion (RDI). We identified and classified 458 young stellar objects (YSOs) in and around the H II regions. YSOs were determined by fitting a collection of radiative transfer model spectral energy distributions to infrared photometry for a large sample of point sources. We determined areas where there exist enhanced populations of relatively unevolved YSOs on the bright rims of these regions, suggesting that star formation has been triggered there. We further investigated the physical properties of the regions by using radio continuum emission as a proxy for ionizing flux powering the H II regions, and {sup 13}CO (1-0) observations to measure masses and gravitational stability of molecular clumps. We used an analytical model of collect and collapse triggered star formation, as well as a simulation of RDI, and thus we compare the observed properties of the molecular gas with those predicted in the triggering scenarios. Notably, those regions in our sample that show evidence of cometary, or 'blister', morphology are more likely to show evidence of triggering.

  11. Chromospheric Dynamics and Line Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Hammer; P. Ulmschneider

    2007-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar chromosphere is very dynamic, due to the presence of large amplitude hydrodynamic waves. Their propagation is affected by NLTE radiative transport in strong spectral lines, which can in turn be used to diagnose the dynamics of the chromosphere. We give a basic introduction into the equations of NLTE radiation hydrodynamics and describe how they are solved in current numerical simulations. The comparison with observation shows that one-dimensional codes can describe strong brightenings quite well, but the overall chromospheric dynamics appears to be governed by three-dimensional shock propagation.

  12. A Comparison of Independent Star Formation Diagnostics for a UV-Selected Sample of Nearby Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, M; Chan, B; Cram, L; Ellis, R; Treyer, M A; Hopkins, A; Sullivan, Mark; Mobasher, Bahram; Chan, Ben; Cram, Lawrence; Ellis, Richard; Treyer, Marie; Hopkins, Andrew

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from a decimetric radio survey undertaken with the Very Large Array as part of a longer term goal to inter-compare star formation and dust extinction diagnostics, on a galaxy by galaxy basis, for a representative sample of nearby galaxies. For our survey field, Selected Area 57, star formation rates derived from 1.4GHz luminosities are compared with earlier nebular emission line and ultraviolet (UV) continuum diagnostics. We find broad correlations, over several decades in luminosity, between H-alpha, the UV continuum and 1.4GHz diagnostics. However, the scatter in these relations is found to be larger than observational errors, with offsets between the observed relations and those expected assuming constant star-formation histories and luminosity-independent extinction models. We investigate the physical origin of the observed relations, and conclude the discrepancies between different star-formation diagnostics can only be partly explained by simple models of dust extinction in galaxies. ...

  13. A feedback compression star formation model and the black hole - bulge relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bing-Xiao Xu; Xue-Bing Wu

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a "feedback compression" model to describe the galactic spheroid formation and its relation with the central nuclear activity. We suggest that the star formation itself can serve as the "positive feedback" in some extremely dense region to trigger the starburst. The star formation rate as well as the related stellar feedback-induced turbulence will be maximized under the regulation of the background dark halo's gravity. There is also stellar feedback acting inward to confine and obscure the central black hole (BH) till the BH grows sufficiently large to satisfy a balance condition between the accretion disk wind and the inward stellar feedback. The extremely vigorous star formation activity, the BH - bulge relations, the maximum velocity dispersion as well as the maximum BH mass are investigated based on such scenario, and are found to be consistent with observations.

  14. EXFOR BASICS A SHORT GUIDE TO THE NEUTRON REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its' bibliographic information, experimental information is also compiled. The status (e.g., the source of the data) and history (e.g., date of last update) of the data set is also included. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. It was originally conceived for the exchange of neutron data and was developed through discussions among personnel from centers situated in Saclay, Vienna, Livermore and Brookhaven. It was accepted as the official exchange format of the neutron data centers at Saclay, Vienna, Brookhaven and Obninsk, at a meeting held in November 1969.3 As a result of two meetings held in 1975 and 1976 and attended by several charged-particle data centers, the format was further developed and adapted to cover all nuclear reaction data. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center's own sphere of responsibility. The EXFOR format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in a format: l that is machine-readable (for checking and indicating possible errors); l that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting errors). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange file include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  15. EXFOR BASICS A SHORT GUIDE TO THE NEUTRON REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its' bibliographic information, experimental information is also compiled. The status (e.g., the source of the data) and history (e.g., date of last update) of the data set is also included. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. It was originally conceived for the exchange of neutron data and was developed through discussions among personnel from centers situated in Saclay, Vienna, Livermore and Brookhaven. It was accepted as the official exchange format of the neutron data centers at Saclay, Vienna, Brookhaven and Obninsk, at a meeting held in November 1969. As a result of two meetings held in 1975 and 1976 and attended by several charged-particle data centers, the format was further developed and adapted to cover all nuclear reaction data. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center's own sphere of responsibility. The EXFOR format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in a format: that is machine-readable (for checking and indicating possible errors); that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting errors). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange file include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  16. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  17. Analysis of large urban fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures.

  18. Format requirements of thermal neutron scattering data in a nuclear data format to succeed the ENDF format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In November 2012, the Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation Subgroup 38 (WPEC-SG38) began with the task of developing a nuclear data format and supporting infrastructure to replace the now nearly 50 year old ENDF format. The first step in this process is to develop requirements for the new format and infrastructure. In this talk, I will review the status of ENDF's Thermal Scattering Law (TSL) formats as well as support for this data in the GND format (from which the new format is expected to evolve). Finally, I hope to begin a dialog with members of the thermal neutron scattering community so that their data needs can be accurately and easily accommodated by the new format and tools, as captured by the requirements document. During this discussion, we must keep in mind that the new tools and format must; Support what is in existing data files; Support new things we want to put in data files; and Be flexible enough for us to adapt it to future unanticipated challenges.

  19. THE FORMATION OF YOUNG DENSE STAR CLUSTERS THROUGH MERGERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, M. S.; Portegies Zwart, S. F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Saitoh, T. R. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Young star clusters such as NGC 3603 and Westerlund 1 and 2 in the Milky Way and R136 in the Large Magellanic Cloud are dynamically more evolved than expected based on their current relaxation times. In particular, the combination of a high degree of mass segregation, a relatively low central density, and the large number of massive runaway stars in their vicinity are hard to explain with the monolithic formation of these clusters. Young star clusters can achieve such a mature dynamical state if they formed through the mergers of a number of less massive clusters. The shorter relaxation times of less massive clusters cause them to dynamically evolve further by the time they merge, and the merger product preserves the memory of the dynamical evolution of its constituent clusters. With a series of N-body simulations, we study the dynamical evolution of single massive clusters and those that are assembled through merging smaller clusters together. We find that the formation of massive star clusters through the mergers of smaller clusters can reproduce the currently observed spatial distribution of massive stars, the density, and the characteristics (number and mass distribution) of the stars ejected as runaways from young dense clusters. We therefore conclude that these clusters and possibly other young massive star clusters formed through the mergers of smaller clusters.

  20. Composition Mixing during Blue Straggler Formation and Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric L. Sandquist; Michael Bolte; Lars Hernquist

    1996-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We use smoothed-particle hydrodynamics to examine differences between direct collisions of single stars and binary star mergers in their roles as possible blue straggler star formation mechanisms. We find in all cases that core helium in the progenitor stars is largely retained in the core of the remnant, almost independent of the type of interaction or the central concentration of the progenitor stars. We have also modelled the subsequent evolution of the hydrostatic remnants, including mass loss and energy input from the hydrodynamical interaction. The combination of the hydrodynamical and hydrostatic models enables us to predict that little mixing will occur during the merger of two globular cluster stars of equal mass. In contrast to the results of Proctor Sills, Bailyn, & Demarque (1995), we find that neither completely mixed nor unmixed models can match the absolute colors of observed blue stragglers in NGC 6397 at all luminosity levels. We also find that the color distribution is probably the crucial test for explanations of BSS formation - if stellar collisions or mergers are the correct mechanisms, a large fraction of the lifetime of the straggler must be spent away from the main sequence. This constraint appears to rule out the possibility of completely mixed models. For NGC 6397, unmixed models predict blue straggler lifetimes ranging from about 0.1 to 4 Gyr, while completely mixed models predict a range from about 0.6 to 4 Gyr.

  1. FORMATION, SURVIVAL, AND DETECTABILITY OF PLANETS BEYOND 100 AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veras, Dimitri; Crepp, Justin R.; Ford, Eric B. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States)], E-mail: veras@astro.ufl.edu

    2009-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct imaging searches have begun to detect planetary and brown dwarf companions and to place constraints on the presence of giant planets at large separations from their host star. This work helps to motivate such planet searches by predicting a population of young giant planets that could be detectable by direct imaging campaigns. Both the classical core accretion and the gravitational instability model for planet formation are hard pressed to form long-period planets in situ. Here, we show that dynamical instabilities among planetary systems that originally formed multiple giant planets much closer to the host star could produce a population of giant planets at large ({approx} 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} AU) separations. We estimate the limits within which these planets may survive, quantify the efficiency of gravitational scattering into both stable and unstable wide orbits, and demonstrate that population analyses must take into account the age of the system. We predict that planet scattering creates detectable giant planets on wide orbits that decreases in number on timescales of {approx} 10 Myr. We demonstrate that several members of such populations should be detectable with current technology, quantify the prospects for future instruments, and suggest how they could place interesting constraints on planet formation models.

  2. ON MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FORMATION AND THE MAGNETOHYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM OF SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaeggli, S. A.; Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Uitenbroek, H. [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the problem of sunspot magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with comprehensive IR sunspot magnetic field survey observations of the highly sensitive Fe I lines at 15650 A and nearby OH lines. We have found that some sunspots show isothermal increases in umbral magnetic field strength which cannot be explained by the simplified sunspot model with a single-component ideal gas atmosphere assumed in previous investigations. Large sunspots universally display nonlinear increases in magnetic pressure over temperature, while small sunspots and pores display linear behavior. The formation of molecules provides a mechanism for isothermal concentration of the umbral magnetic field, and we propose that this may explain the observed rapid increase in umbral magnetic field strength relative to temperature. Existing multi-component sunspot atmospheric models predict that a significant amount of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) exists in the sunspot umbra. The formation of H{sub 2} can significantly alter the thermodynamic properties of the sunspot atmosphere and may play a significant role in sunspot evolution. In addition to the survey observations, we have performed detailed chemical equilibrium calculations with full consideration of radiative transfer effects to establish OH as a proxy for H{sub 2}, and demonstrate that a significant population of H{sub 2} exists in the coolest regions of large sunspots.

  3. H2 formation on PAHs in photodissociation regions: a high-temperature pathway to molecular hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boschman, Leon; Spaans, Marco; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Schlathölter, Thomas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular hydrogen is the most abundant molecule in the Universe. It is thought that a large portion of H2 forms by association of hydrogen atoms to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We model the influence of PAHs on total H2 formation rates in photodissociation regions (PDRs) and assess the effect of these formation rates on the total cloud structure. We set up a chemical kinetic model at steady state in a PDR environment and included adiative transfer to calculate the chemistry at different depths in the PDR. This model includes known dust grain chemistry for the formation of H2 and a H2 formation mechanism on PAHs. Since H2 formation on PAHs is impeded by thermal barriers, this pathway is only efficient at higher temperatures (T > 200 K). At these temperatures the conventional route of H2 formation via H atoms physisorbed on dust grains is no longer feasible, so the PAH mechanism enlarges the region where H2 formation is possible. We find that PAHs have a significant influence on the structure of PD...

  4. Towards a lithium-ion fiber battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grena, Benjamin (Benjamin Jean-Baptiste)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the key objectives in the realm of flexible electronics and flexible power sources is to achieve large-area, low-cost, scalable production of flexible systems. In this thesis we propose a new Li-ion battery architecture ...

  5. To improve the transient performance of methanol evaporator and SMR reformer with TECs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    . · To reduce heat loss inside methanol evaporator during system startup. · Using TEG heat recovery waste heat is still exhausted unused. And by now, they still cannot get rid of large Li-ion batteries during working condition fluctuating. In this work, possibly useful waste heat from a HTPEMFC system

  6. 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim COMMUNICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    of the most effective approaches due to the shorter transport lengths for both electrons and Li ions, larger for fast Li storage, which requires stability, large active surface area, and short transport path for Li5 gel was diluted, freeze-dried, and further treated at 450 °C in air to obtain V2O5 nanosheets

  7. Implications of Li divertor and other liquid-metal technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plasma-facing systems can rapidly remove heat. h Continuous recovery of damaged surfaces exposed to large. Nuclear Mater. 290-293 (2001) 19. #12;Secondary ion fraction and deuterium- saturation studies of liquid (sputteringions/sputteredatoms) Incident particle energy (eV) Secondary Li ion fraction (non D-sat.) Secondary Li

  8. Using Density Functional Theory to Examine the Electronic Properties of Transition Metal Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    materials of Li-ion batteries and cathode materials of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells charging and discharging. Experiment shows promising results [2]. As a cathode material in (PEM) fuel cells and geometrically optimized in a periodic repeating box. The box was made large enough to prevent self interaction

  9. Le logiciel "Tigre" en formation PLC 1 Grtice J. Vincent Le logiciel Tigre en formation PLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    "Tigre" en formation PLC 1 Grétice J. Vincent Le logiciel « Tigre » en formation PLC J. Vincent Le;______________________________________________________________________________________ Le logiciel "Tigre" en formation PLC 2 Grétice J. Vincent 1.1. La lecture Voici l'écran d;______________________________________________________________________________________ Le logiciel "Tigre" en formation PLC 3 Grétice J. Vincent Figure 3 1.2. La démonstration Voici l

  10. Shell Formation and Bone Strength Laying Hens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age, Daidzein and Exogenous Estrogen Cover aquarelle: E. Spörndly-Nees #12;Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age eggshells as shell quality declines with age during the laying period. This is a concern for food safety

  11. DISSERTATION FORMATION OF THE HURRICANE EYE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Wayne H.

    DISSERTATION FORMATION OF THE HURRICANE EYE Submitted by Jonathan L. Vigh Department of Atmospheric OF THE HURRICANE EYE BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY. Schubert Department Head: Richard H. Johnson ii #12;ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION FORMATION OF THE HURRICANE EYE

  12. FAINT RADIO SOURCES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waddington, Ian

    FAINT RADIO SOURCES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORY Deborah B. Haarsma 1 , R. Bruce Partridge 1 , Ian 85287­1504 USA Abstract. Faint extragalactic radio sources provide important information about the global history of star formation. Sensitive radio observations of the Hubble Deep Field and other fields

  13. First Structure Formation and the First Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael L. Norman; Tom Abel; Greg Bryan

    2000-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the results of recent 3D simulations of first structure formation in relationship to the formation of the first stars. On the basis of a new, high-resolution AMR simulation (spatial dynamic range = 30,000,000), we conclude that the first stars are likely to be massive.

  14. Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

  15. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery-grade DMC (Novolyte, packed and sealed in Kapton under Ar atmosphere. Electrochemical characterization

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis Energy, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Applied Materials at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about modular process equipment...

  18. Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Lee, K. J.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This 2012 Annual Merit Review presentation gives an overview of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) project and introduces the Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional model for modeling lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by EC Power at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about evelopment of cell/pack level models...

  20. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spinel structures for lithium batteries. ElectrochemistryMaterials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Journal of thefor Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Electrochemical and

  1. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Biarritz, France, June 18–23,Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphiticKeywords: Sn/C; Lithium Batteries; Anode; Plasma; Microwave

  2. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul, 2001). Z. H. Lu, J. R. Dahn, In situ X-ray diffraction4109 (2011). Z. Lu, J. R. Dahn, In Situ X-Ray Diffraction9306 (2011). Z. H. Lu, J. R. Dahn, Can all the lithium be

  3. Received 21 Dec 2012 | Accepted 26 Apr 2013 | Published 4 Jun 2013 Stable Li-ion battery anodes by in-situ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill processes, mostly through nanos- tructured material design. Here we report incorporation of a conducting-ion batteries with high- energy density and long cycle life is of critical importance to address the ever

  4. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Marcinek, M.; Hardwick, L.J.; Richardson, T.J.; Song, X.; Kostecki, R.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin-film composite Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon decorated with uniformly distributed Sn nanoparticles were synthesized from a solid organic precursor Sn(IV) tert-butoxide by a one step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The thin-film Sn/C electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half cells and produced a reversible capacity of 440 and 297 mAhg{sup -1} at C/25 and 5C discharge rates, respectively. A long term cycling of the Sn/C nanocomposite anodes showed 40% capacity loss after 500 cycles at 1C rate.

  5. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    graphite negative electrode for lithium-ion batteries.batteries. The Na anode materials must not be overlooked since graphite-

  6. Second-Use Li-Ion Batteries to Aid Automotive and Utility Industries (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook TwitterSearch-Comments Sign In About |Guarantees to

  7. Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwaterresources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact ongroundwater systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan,Preston; Zhang,K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    If carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies areimplemented on a large scale, the amounts of CO2 injected and sequesteredunderground could be extremely large. The stored CO2 then replaces largevolumes of native brine, which can cause considerable pressureperturbation and brine migration in the deep saline formations. Ifhydraulically communicating, either directly via updipping formations orthrough interlayer pathways such as faults or imperfect seals, theseperturbations may impact shallow groundwater or even surface waterresources used for domestic or commercial water supply. Possibleenvironmental concerns include changes in pressure and water table,changes in discharge and recharge zones, as well as changes in waterquality. In compartmentalized formations, issues related to large-scalepressure buildup and brine displacement may also cause storage capacityproblems, because significant pressure buildup can be produced. Toaddress these issues, a three-year research project was initiated inOctober 2006, the first part of which is summarized in this annualreport.

  8. Running spectral index and formation of primordial black hole in single field inflation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drees, Manuel; Erfani, Encieh, E-mail: drees@th.physik.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: erfani@th.physik.uni-bonn.de [Physikalisches Institut and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad range of single field models of inflation are analyzed in light of all relevant recent cosmological data, checking whether they can lead to the formation of long-lived Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). To that end we calculate the spectral index of the power spectrum of primordial perturbations as well as its first and second derivatives. PBH formation is possible only if the spectral index increases significantly at small scales, i.e. large wave number k. Since current data indicate that the first derivative ?{sub S} of the spectral index n{sub S}(k{sub 0}) is negative at the pivot scale k{sub 0}, PBH formation is only possible in the presence of a sizable and positive second derivative (''running of the running'') ?{sub S}. Among the three small-field and five large-field models we analyze, only one small-field model, the ''running mass'' model, allows PBH formation, for a narrow range of parameters. We also note that none of the models we analyze can accord for a large and negative value of ?{sub S}, which is weakly preferred by current data.

  9. ON THE STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY OF TURBULENT MAGNETIZED CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Vic 3800 (Australia)] [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Vic 3800 (Australia); Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: christoph.federrath@monash.edu [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the star formation efficiency (SFE) in simulations and observations of turbulent, magnetized, molecular clouds. We find that the probability density functions (PDFs) of the density and the column density in our simulations with solenoidal, mixed, and compressive forcing of turbulence, sonic Mach numbers of 3-50, and magnetic fields in the super- to the trans-Alfvenic regime all develop power-law tails of flattening slope with increasing SFE. The high-density tails of the PDFs are consistent with equivalent radial density profiles, {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{kappa}} with {kappa} {approx} 1.5-2.5, in agreement with observations. Studying velocity-size scalings, we find that all the simulations are consistent with the observed v{proportional_to}l{sup 1/2} scaling of supersonic turbulence and seem to approach Kolmogorov turbulence with v{proportional_to}l{sup 1/3} below the sonic scale. The velocity-size scaling is, however, largely independent of the SFE. In contrast, the density-size and column density-size scalings are highly sensitive to star formation. We find that the power-law slope {alpha} of the density power spectrum, P {sub 3D}({rho}, k){proportional_to}k {sup {alpha}}, or equivalently the {Delta}-variance spectrum of the column density, {sigma}{sup 2} {sub {Delta}}({Sigma}, l) {proportional_to} l{sup -{alpha}}, switches sign from {alpha} {approx}< 0 for SFE {approx} 0 to {alpha} {approx}> 0 when star formation proceeds (SFE > 0). We provide a relation to compute the SFE from a measurement of {alpha}. Studying the literature, we find values ranging from {alpha} = -1.6 to +1.6 in observations covering scales from the large-scale atomic medium, over cold molecular clouds, down to dense star-forming cores. From those {alpha} values, we infer SFEs and find good agreement with independent measurements based on young stellar object (YSO) counts, where available. Our SFE-{alpha} relation provides an independent estimate of the SFE based on the column density map of a cloud alone, without requiring a priori knowledge of star formation activity or YSO counts.

  10. Large margin classification in infinite neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saul, Lawrence K.

    Large margin classification in infinite neural networks Youngmin Cho and Lawrence K. Saul, CA 92093-0404 Abstract We introduce a new family of positive-definite kernels for large margin classi- fication in support vector machines (SVMs). These kernels mimic the computation in large neural networks

  11. Large-Scale Manifold Learning Ameet Talwalkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Large-Scale Manifold Learning Ameet Talwalkar Courant Institute New York, NY ameet on spectral decom- position, we first analyze two approximate spectral decom- position techniques for large-dimensional embeddings for two large face datasets: CMU-PIE (35 thousand faces) and a web dataset (18 million faces). Our

  12. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar introduces the “Large Scale Renewable Energy Guide." The webinar will provide an overview of this important FEMP guide, which describes FEMP's approach to large-scale renewable energy projects and provides guidance to Federal agencies and the private sector on how to develop a common process for large-scale renewable projects.

  13. Conundrum of the Large Scale Streaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. M. Malm

    1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The etiology of the large scale peculiar velocity (large scale streaming motion) of clusters would increasingly seem more tenuous, within the context of the gravitational instability hypothesis. Are there any alternative testable models possibly accounting for such large scale streaming of clusters?

  14. The Formation of the Hubble Sequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The history of galaxy formation via star formation and stellar mass assembly rates is now known with some certainty, yet the connection between high redshift and low redshift galaxy populations is not yet clear. By identifying and studying individual massive galaxies at high-redshifts, z > 1.5, we can possibly uncover the physical effects driving galaxy formation. Using the structures of high-z galaxies, as imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope, we argue that it is now possible to directly study the progenitors of ellipticals and disks. We also briefly describe early results that suggest many massive galaxies are forming at z > 2 through major mergers.

  15. The Regulation of Cooling and Star Formation in Luminous Galaxies by AGN Feedback and the Cooling-Time/Entropy Threshold for the Onset of Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Rafferty; Brian McNamara; Paul Nulsen

    2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Using broadband optical imaging and Chandra X-ray data for a sample of 46 cluster central dominant galaxies (CDGs), we investigate the connection between star formation, the intracluster medium (ICM), and the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We report the discovery of a remarkably sharp threshold for the onset of star formation that occurs when the central cooling time of the hot atmosphere falls below ~ 5x10^8 yr, or equivalently when the central entropy falls below ~ 30 keV cm^2. In addition to this criterion, star formation in cooling flows also appears to require that the X-ray and galaxy centroids lie within ~ 20 kpc of each other, and that the jet (cavity) power is smaller than the X-ray cooling luminosity. These three criteria, together with the high ratio of cooling time to AGN outburst (cavity) age across our sample, directly link the presence of star formation and AGN activity in CDGs to cooling instabilities in the intracluster plasma. Our results provide compelling evidence that AGN feedback into the hot ICM is largely responsible for regulating cooling and star formation in the cores of clusters, leading to the significant growth of supermassive black holes in CDGs at late times.

  16. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benner, Linda S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NV~ August 25-29, 1980 HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-catalyzed reduction of CO to hydrocarbons Tropscb. Among theof CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain

  17. Modeling deposit formation in diesel injector nozzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudhiesh Kumar, Chintoo

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation of deposit in the diesel injector nozzle affects the injection behavior and hinders performance. Under running condition, deposit precursors are washed away by the ensuing injection. However, during the cool down ...

  18. Electromagnetic formation flight of satellite arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Daniel W., 1980-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed methods of actuating spacecraft in sparse aperture arrays use propellant as a reaction mass. For formation flying systems, propellant becomes a critical consumable which can be quickly exhausted while maintaining ...

  19. Cyclic Imide Dioxime: Formation and Hydrolytic Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, S.O. [University of Kansas; Vukovic, Sinisa [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poly(acrylamidoximes) play an important role in the uranium extraction from seawater. The present work reports solution studies of simple analogs to address the formation and stability of two binding sites present in these polymers, open-chain amidoximes and cyclic imide dioximes, including: 1) conditions that maximize the formation of the cyclic form, 2) existence of a base-induced conversion from open-chain to cyclic form, and 3) degradation under acid and base conditions.

  20. Situ microbial plugging process for subterranean formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McInerney, Michael J. (Norman, OK); Jenneman, Gary E. (Norman, OK); Knapp, Roy M. (Norman, OK); Menzie, Donald E. (Norman, OK)

    1985-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Subterranean paths of water flow are impeded or changed by the facilitation of microbial growth therein. Either indigenous bacterial growth may be stimulated with nutrients or the formation may be first seeded with bacteria or their spores which inhibit fluid flow after proliferation. These methods and bacteria are usable to alter the flow of water in a waterflooded oil formation and to impede the outflow of contaminated water.