National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for landfills convert biogas

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on

  2. Landfill Gas and Biogas - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy - Energy Information Administration Landfill Gas and Biogas Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come

  3. One Man's Trash, Another Man's Fuel: BMW Plant Converts Landfill...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    One Man's Trash, Another Man's Fuel: BMW Plant Converts Landfill Gas to Hydrogen Fuel One Man's Trash, Another Man's Fuel: BMW Plant Converts Landfill Gas to Hydrogen Fuel August ...

  4. Differences in volatile methyl siloxane (VMS) profiles in biogas from landfills and anaerobic digesters and energetics of VMS transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tansel, Berrin Surita, Sharon C.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • In the digester gas, D4 and D5 comprised the 62% and 27% if siloxanes, respectively. • In landfill gas, the bulk of siloxanes were TMSOH (58%) followed by D4 (17%). • Methane utilization may be a possible mechanism for TMSOH formation in the landfills. • The geometric configurations of D4 and D5 molecules make them very stable. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to compare the types and levels of volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) present in biogas generated in the anaerobic digesters and landfills, evaluate the energetics of siloxane transformations under anaerobic conditions, compare the conditions in anaerobic digesters and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills which result in differences in siloxane compositions. Biogas samples were collected at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant and South Dade Landfill in Miami, Florida. In the digester gas, D4 and D5 comprised the bulk of total siloxanes (62% and 27%, respectively) whereas in the landfill gas, the bulk of siloxanes were trimethylsilanol (TMSOH) (58%) followed by D4 (17%). Presence of high levels of TMSOH in the landfill gas indicates that methane utilization may be a possible reaction mechanism for TMSOH formation. The free energy change for transformation of D5 and D4 to TMSOH either by hydrogen or methane utilization are thermodynamically favorable. Either hydrogen or methane should be present at relatively high concentrations for TMSOH formation which explains the high levels present in the landfill gas. The high bond energy and bond distance of the Si–O bond, in view of the atomic sizes of Si and O atoms, indicate that Si atoms can provide a barrier, making it difficult to break the Si–O bonds especially for molecules with specific geometric configurations such as D4 and D5 where oxygen atoms are positioned inside the frame formed by the large Si atoms which are surrounded by the methyl groups.

  5. Biogas Energia Ambiental SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ambiental SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biogas Energia Ambiental SA Place: Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04561-004 Product: Sao Paulo-based landfill biogas-to-energy...

  6. Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Milbrandt, A.

    2014-07-01

    This analysis updates and expands upon previous biogas studies to include total potential and net availability of methane in raw biogas with respect to competing demands and includes a resource assessment of four sources of biogas: (1) wastewater treatment plants, including domestic and a new assessment of industrial sources; (2) landfills; (3) animal manure; and (4) a new assessment of industrial, institutional, and commercial sources. The results of the biogas resource assessment are used to estimate the potential production of renewable hydrogen from biogas as well as the fuel cell electric vehicles that the produced hydrogen might support.

  7. US Energy Biogas Corp prev ZAPCO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp prev ZAPCO Jump to: navigation, search Name: US Energy Biogas Corp (prev ZAPCO) Place: Connecticut Zip: 6001 Product: Owns and operates 26 landfill gas-to-energy (LFG)...

  8. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  9. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  10. BioGas Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Sector: Biomass Product: Makes anaerobic digesters that convert manure into methane for fuel Website: www.biogas-energy.comsiteind Coordinates: 47.6163159,...

  11. Renewable LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Success story about LNG from landfill gas. Presented by Mike McGowan, Linde NA, Inc., at the NRELDOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. ...

  12. Abwicklungsgesellschaft Biogas I AG Formerly Schmack Biogas AG...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abwicklungsgesellschaft Biogas I AG Formerly Schmack Biogas AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Abwicklungsgesellschaft Biogas I AG (Formerly Schmack Biogas AG) Place: Schwandorf,...

  13. Biogas Potential on Long Island, New York: A Quantification Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, D.; Patel, S.; Tonjes, D.

    2011-08-25

    Biogas is the product of anaerobic digestion of waste, whether occurring spontaneously in landfills or under controlled conditions in digesters. Biogas is viewed as an important energy source in current efforts to reduce the use of fossil fuels and dependency on imported resources. Several studies on the assessment of biogas potential have been made at regional, national, and global scales. However, because it is not economically feasible to transport biogas feedstock over long distances, it is more appropriate to consider local waste sources for their potential to produce biogas. An assessment of the biogas potential on Long Island, based on the review of local landfills, wastewater treatment plants, solid waste generation and management, and agricultural waste, found that 234 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of methane (CH{sub 4}) from biogas might be harvestable, although substantial barriers for complete exploitation exist. This number is equivalent to 2.52 TW-h of electricity, approximately 12% of fossil fuel power generation on Long Island. This work can serve as a template for other areas to rapidly create or approximate biogas potentials, especially for suburban U.S. locations that are not usually thought of as sources of renewable energy.

  14. Renewable LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to LNG Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Success story about LNG from landfill gas. Presented by Mike McGowan, Linde NA, Inc., at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  15. Guidebook on biogas development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This guidebook covers the practical aspects of small-scale biogas development suitable for use in rural areas in developing countries, especially those of the ESCAP region. It is intended that all aspects of biogas are covered so that someone with no knowledge of the subject can, with confidence, design, build, operate and maintain a biogas plant. Information on biogas technology in China is also included. Chapters cover: the biogas process; factors effecting gas-plant design and operation; the classification and design principles of plants; design, size and site selection; the construction of digesters; gas holders and pipes; household gas appliances and their use; starting and operating a biogas digester; servicing and safety; improving gas-plant performance; commercial uses of biogas; the effluent and its uses, biogas-plant development programmes; community plants; and economics. In the annexes, designs for biogas plants of the fixed-dome, bag and floating gas-holder type are presented. 9 references.

  16. Biogas Production Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation about UC Davis's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Ruihong Zhang, UC Davis, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  17. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Biogas Opportunities Roadmap builds on progress made to date to identify voluntary actions that can be taken to reduce methane emissions through the use of biogas systems and outlines strategies to overcome barriers limiting further expansion and development of a robust biogas industry in the United States.

  18. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Infographic | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Infographic Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Infographic biogasopportunitesroadmapprogressreportinfographic.pdf ...

  19. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado, to discuss biogas and waste-to-energy technologies for fuel cell applications. The overall objective was to identify opportunities for coupling renewable biomethane with highly efficient fuel cells to produce electricity; heat; combined heat and power (CHP); or combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) for stationary or motive applications. The workshop focused on biogas sourced from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), landfills, and industrial facilities that generate or process large amounts of organic waste, including large biofuel production facilities (biorefineries).

  20. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado, to discuss biogas and waste-to-energy technologies for fuel cell applications. The overall objective was to identify opportunities for coupling renewable biomethane with highly efficient fuel cells to produce electricity; heat; combined heat and power (CHP); or combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) for stationary or motive applications. The workshop focused on biogas sourced from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), landfills, and industrial facilities that generate or process large amounts of organic waste, including large biofuel production facilities (biorefineries).

  1. GWE Biogas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas Jump to: navigation, search Name: GWE Biogas Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based biogas project developer. The firm is currently developing a waste-to-energy plant in...

  2. Biogas Markets and Federal Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    National policy and legislative outlook for biogas and fuel cells. Presented by Patrick Serfass, American Biogas Council, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  3. Energen Biogas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas Place: United Kingdom Product: Scottish company developing anaerobic digestion plants. References: Energen Biogas1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  4. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas Opportunities Roadmap: Voluntary Actions to Reduce Methane Emissions, Increase ... This included a Biogas Roadmap, a voluntary strategy created by the U.S. Department of ...

  5. Biomass: Biogas Generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BIOGAS GENERATOR Curriculum: Biomass Power (organic chemistry, chemicalcarbon cycles, plants, energy resourcestransformations) Grade Level: Middle School (6-8) Small groups (3 to ...

  6. Biogas Production Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Biogas Yield (mlg-vs) Digestion time (Days) Coffee grounds Horse Manure from barns Wood ... Cow Manure Rice Hulls Horse Manure Wheat Straw bedding Wood shavings Potential Biomethane ...

  7. Biogas Direct LCC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LCC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biogas Direct LCC Place: Spring Green, Wisconsin Zip: WI 53588 Product: Biogas Direct is specialized in constructing Biogas plants for the...

  8. Modified biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays to assess biodegradation potential of landfilled refuse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogner, J.E.; Rose, C.; Piorkowski, R.

    1989-01-01

    Modified Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) assays were used to assess biogas production potential of solid landfill samples. In landfill samples with visible soil content, moisture addition alone was generally as effective at stimulating biogas production as the addition of a comprehensive nutrient media. In a variety of samples from humid and semiarid landfills, addition of an aqueous nutrient media was the most effective stimulant for biogas production; however, moisture addition was almost as effective for most samples, suggesting that water addition would be the most cost-effective field approach. Onset of methanogenesis was slower in fresh refuse samples (even when inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge) than in landfill samples, indicating that the soil into which materials are landfilled is a major source of microorganisms. High volatile solids loading in fresh refuse and landfill assays retarded methanogenesis. A comparison of anaerobic and aerobic sample handling techniques showed no significant differences with regard to onset of methanogenesis and total gas production. The technique shows initial promise with regard to replication and reproducibility of results and could be a meaningful addition to landfill site evaluations where commercial gas recovery is anticipated. The BMP technique could also be adapted to assess anaerobic biodegradability of other solid waste materials for conventional anaerobic digestion applications. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report biogasopportunitesroadmapprogressreport.pdf (1.14 MB) biogasopportunitesroadmapprog...

  10. Refeeding biogas digester solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Biosolid, the digester residue from a biogas plant, must be of economical use to ensure the financial feasibility of biogas facilities. This paper sumarizes work performed for a Department of Energy study in the Imperial Valley of California. Feeding trials show that biosolid can only be used as a small proportion of feed rations. Apart from bacterial debris, biosolid is composed larely of non-nutritive residues. 5 refs.

  11. American Biogas Council: The Voice of the U.S. Biogas Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous Fuels American Biogas Council: The Voice of the U.S. Biogas Industry Patrick Serfass, Executive Director, American Biogas Council

  12. Chesterfield Biogas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chesterfield Biogas Place: United Kingdom Zip: S9 1BT Product: UK-based firm which provides turnkey solutions for the cleaning, storage and...

  13. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... the environment PT Loma WWTP, Biogas to Fuel Cell Power BioFuels Energy Biogas to BioMethane to 4.5 MW Fuel Cell Power 3 FCE Fuel Cells 2 via directed Biomethane ...

  14. Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  15. Biogas: the Chinese experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-10-01

    This article details the history of biogas in China and its development as a renewable energy source. There are 7.2 million biogas plants that benefit directly 35 million rural people. The average family digester costs $20 to $40 and can easily be made by unskilled technical workers. The design of a typical digester is described together with its maintenance and recovery of gas. The uses of biogas in China are numerous and solves most of the major energy problems of rural life such as village cooking, and fuel for irrigation pumps and farm tractors. The utilizing of human, animal and agricultural waste is in itself a large benefit and a list of other benefits to the Chinese is given.

  16. Westchester Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Westchester Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Westchester Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location...

  17. Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Kiefer Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location...

  18. American Biogas Council: The Voice of the US Biogas Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Biogas Council: The Voice of the US Biogas Industry  The only U.S. organization representing the biogas and anaerobic digestion industry  Over 220 Organizations from the U.S., Germany, Italy, Canada, Sweden, Belgium and the UK  All Industry Sectors Represented:  project developers/owners  anaerobic digestion designers  equipment dealers  waste managers  waste water companies  farms  utilities  consultants and EPCs  financiers, accountants, lawyers and

  19. Zebec Biogas Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zebec Biogas Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zebec Biogas Limited Place: Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: G12 9JD Product: Sotland-based biogas company. The firm is...

  20. H2A Biomethane Model Documentation and a Case Study for Biogas From Dairy Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Jalalzadeh, A.

    2010-12-01

    The new H2A Biomethane model was developed to estimate the levelized cost of biomethane by using the framework of the vetted original H2A models for hydrogen production and delivery. For biomethane production, biogas from sources such as dairy farms and landfills is upgraded by a cleanup process. The model also estimates the cost to compress and transport the product gas via the pipeline to export it to the natural gas grid or any other potential end-use site. Inputs include feed biogas composition and cost, required biomethane quality, cleanup equipment capital and operations and maintenance costs, process electricity usage and costs, and pipeline delivery specifications.

  1. Small-scale biogas applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Guidance is given through the exercise of determining whether a biogas system is worthwhile for a farm owner. After a brief description of anaerobic digestion and characteristics and economics of biogas, basic features of anaerobic digesters are discussed. The use of biogas is discussed, starting with gas collection at the digester and ending with waste heat recovery in cogeneration systems. Direct heating with biogas is also covered briefly. The parts of a working biogas system are discussed. Three different case studies are reviewed. Directions are offered for collecting site data and a method for performing a preliminary economic analysis of a given operation. Firms and consultants with experience in the design and construction of biogas systems are listed. (LEW)

  2. Biogas Technology Group Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biogas Technology Group Ltd. Place: England, United Kingdom Zip: PE28 5SB Product: UK based, Biogas Technology, provides infrastructure...

  3. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report In support of the Obama Administration's ...

  4. German Biogas Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Association Jump to: navigation, search Name: German Biogas Association Place: Freising, Germany Zip: 85356 Product: The Association represents the interests of biogas plant...

  5. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Infographic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (EPA), created the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap as a response to the White House Climate ... BIOGAS OPPORTUNITIES ROADMAP PROGRESS REPORT POTENTIAL CAPACITY POLICY ACHIEVEMENTS There ...

  6. Archea Biogas N V | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas N V Jump to: navigation, search Name: Archea Biogas N.V. Place: Hessisch Oldendorf, Lower Saxony, Germany Zip: 31840 Product: Design, analysis, planning and construction of...

  7. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  8. Biogas Markets and Federal Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... CEC proposed wholesale moratorium on biomethane projects Biomethane no longer would qualify for RPS; biogas to electricity unaffected Reason: CEC wants to stop new ...

  9. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO{sub 2} reduction – A case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biogas can be upgraded to create biomethane, a substitute to natural gas. • Biogas upgrading was applied to landfills and anaerobic digestors in 3 countries. • Up to 0.6% of a country’s consumption of natural gas could be replaced by biomethane. • Italy could save 46% of the national CO{sub 2} emissions attributed to the waste sector. • Scenarios were created to increase biomethane production. - Abstract: Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO{sub 2} reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy.

  10. Shell structures for biogas plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasse, L.

    1982-01-01

    The shell structures designed for biogas plants of the fixed-dome type by the Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association are described. Biogas digesters of the design described have been successfully tested in Rwanda and India without structural or contractural problems.

  11. Landfill Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Landfill Gas Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLandfillGas&oldid267173...

  12. Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: ...

  13. Biogas Nord GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Biogas Nord GmbH Place: Bielefeld, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 33719 Product: Biogas Nord is a specialized engineering company for biogas...

  14. Tulalip Tribe - Biogas Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Gas Project Daryl Williams November 18, 2008 Introduction Background Description of Project Partnership Feasibility Study/Business Plan Creation of Quil Ceda Power Funding Creation of Qualco Energy Closing Background Land-Use Changes from Agriculture to Other Types of Development Skykomish River WQ Problems Bacteria Nutrient Loading Relationship Between Tribes and Dairies Poor Economy for Dairy Operations Project Description Sewage Treatment for

  15. Hese Biogas GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hese Biogas GmbH Place: Gelsenkirchen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 45881 Product: Hese Biogas is a biogas plant manufacturer and a subsidiary of Schmack Biogas AG....

  16. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

  17. Beam converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter

    2003-05-06

    A converter and method for converting electron energy to irradiative energy comprising foam and/or foil. Foam and foil optionally comprise a high-Z material, such as, but not limited to, tantalum.

  18. Biogas and alcohol fuels production. Proceedings of the Seminar on Biomass, Energy for City, Farm, and Industry, Chicago, IL, October 25, 26, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, J.

    1980-01-01

    Basic principles of anaerobic digestion are considered along with the status of the Imperial Valley Biogas Project, the Department of Energy program for the recovery of energy and materials from urban waste, the principles of alcohol production from wastes, the mechanical recovery of a refuse-derived cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production, and the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Attention is given to on-farm alcohol fuel production, the current status and future role of gasohol production, methane generation from small scale farms, farmsite installations of energy harvester anaerobic digesters, biogas/composting and landfill recovery, farm-scale composting as an option to anaerobic digestion, designing a high-quality biogas system, and methane as fuel of the future. A description is presented of subjects which are related to landfill gas recovery, biogas purification with permselective membranes, and anaerobic digestion of marine biomass. Other topics studied include the application of biogas technology in India, biogas production in China, biogasification of organic wastes in the Republic of the Philippines, and economics and operational experience of full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester.

  19. Biogas Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation about biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Shabbir Ahmed, Argonne National Laboratory, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  20. Biogas Technologies and Integration with Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation about Ros Roca Envirotec's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Ian Handley, Ros Roca Envirotec, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  1. Ocean County Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ocean County Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Ocean County Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas...

  2. Pearl Hollow Landfil Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hollow Landfil Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pearl Hollow Landfil Biomass Facility Facility Pearl Hollow Landfil Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas...

  3. Illinois Turning Landfill Trash into Future Cash

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Will County, Illinois officials yesterday formally broke ground on a new $7 million project (that includes $1 million of Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grant funds) to turn methane gas from the Prairie View Landfill into electricity in a partnership with Waste Management. Will County will receive revenue from the sale of the gas created from decomposing garbage which will be harnessed and converted to generate 4.8 megawatts of green electrical power and used to power up to 8,000 homes. The future revenue generated from the sale of the gas and the sale of the electricity could reach $1 million annually.

  4. Biogas project advances in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittrup, L.

    1995-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has given a `thumbs up` rating to the high solids anaerobic digester project which is designed to produce biogas. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), the local utility, is considering the use of biogas to run a fuel cell pilot project. The designs for the three digesters are state-of-the-art, with each containing a horizontal trough measuring 120 feet long, 32 feet wide and 22 feet tall. NREL was asked by the PIA to review the mixing method in the digesters and analyze the overall potential success of the operation. The design employs a redundant system for foam removal from the digester gas, and has provisions to remove moisture from the biogas. However, there are no systems specified to reduce hydrogen sulfide levels. Since hydrogen sulfide is known to be corrosive, it may be destructive to the ultimate use as biogas in fuel cells. A suggested remedy from NREL is to add redundant iron sponge systems to remove hydrogen sulfide gases. A redundant system would allow regenerating one while the other is in service. In general, the lab found the design offers low construction costs, relative ease of operation, and a reasonably high level of anticipated success in operation. Therefore, NREL recommends proceeding with the current digester design plans, once the modifications as indicated are made.

  5. XTL Converter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-10-07

    "XTL Converter" is a short Python script for electron microscopy simulation. The program takes an input crystal file in the VESTA *.XTL format and converts it to a text format readable by the multislice simulation program ìSTEM. The process of converting a crystal *.XTL file to the format used by the ìSTEM simulation program is quite tedious; it generally requires the user to select dozens or hundreds of atoms, rearranging and reformatting their position. Headermore » information must also be reformatted to a specific style to be read by ìSTEM. "XTL Converter" simplifies this process, saving the user time and allowing for easy batch processing of crystals.« less

  6. Thermionic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, G.O.

    1987-05-19

    A thermionic converter is set forth which includes an envelope having an electron collector structure attached adjacent to a wall. An electron emitter structure is positioned adjacent the collector structure and spaced apart from opposite wall. The emitter and collector structures are in a common chamber. The emitter structure is heated substantially only by thermal radiation. Very small interelectrode gaps can be maintained utilizing the thermionic converter whereby increased efficiency results. 10 figs.

  7. Energy potential of modern landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogner, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. On-farm biogas systems information dissemination project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.K.; Koelsch, R.K.; Guest, R.W.; Fabian, E.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to study how farmers manage anaerobic digesters on three New York State dairy farms. Two years of data collected were from both plug-flow and tower-type mixed-flow digesters at regular intervals over a three-year period revealed that the financial return from the energy produced by a biogass system in the late 1980`s is marginal. Little difficulty was experienced in operation of the anaerobic digester; however, several farms utilizing congeneration to convert biogas into electricity and heat suffered from not applying maintenance to the congenerator in a timely fashion.

  9. S R Biogas Energiesysteme AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energiesysteme AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: S&R Biogas Energiesysteme AG Place: Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Germany Zip: 60598 Product: S&R Biogas Energiesysteme is a biogas...

  10. Envio Biogas GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Envio Biogas GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Envio Biogas GmbH Place: Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 44147 Product: North Rhine-Westphalia based biogas...

  11. Renion Biogas GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renion Biogas GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renion Biogas GmbH & Co KG Place: Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 93055 Product: JV between Schmack Biogas and Rewag to...

  12. Bio Energy Biogas GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bio Energy Biogas GmbH Place: Bad Oeynhausen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 32545 Product: Bio Energy Biogas provides the whole...

  13. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Landfill gas (LFG), composed largely of methane and carbon dioxide, is used in over 450 operational projects in 43 states. These projects convert a large source of greenhouse gases into a fuel that...

  14. Thermionic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Gary O.

    1987-05-19

    A thermionic converter (10) is set forth which includes an envelope (12) having an electron collector structure (22) attached adjacent to a wall (16). An electron emitter structure (24) is positioned adjacent the collector structure (22) and spaced apart from opposite wall (14). The emitter (24) and collector (22) structures are in a common chamber (20). The emitter structure (24) is heated substantially only by thermal radiation. Very small interelectrode gaps (28) can be maintained utilizing the thermionic converter (10) whereby increased efficiency results.

  15. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Infographic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Department of Energy (DOE), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap as a response to the White House Climate Action Plan's directive to develop an interagency strategy to reduce methane emissions. Together, the Agencies along with industry partners have formed an Interagency Working Group to help expand the biogas industry. Strategically deployed biogas systems o er the nation a cost-e ective and

  16. EnviTec Biogas AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EnviTec Biogas AG Place: Saerbeck, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 48369 Product: Plans, finances, installs and commissions biogas systems including technical and biological...

  17. EnviTec Biogas India Private Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Private Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: EnviTec Biogas India Private Limited Place: India Product: Manufacturer of anaerobic digesters. References: EnviTec Biogas India...

  18. Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Agricultural Multifamily...

  19. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Agenda for the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  20. Natural Gas Quality Biogas | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Quality Biogas Transportation fuel and organic solid fertilizer from anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids and other organic wastes Organic solid fertilizer is rich...

  1. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.L. . E-mail: d.jones@bangor.ac.uk; Williamson, K.L.; Owen, A.G.

    2006-07-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios.

  2. Swine lagoon biogas utilization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettier, S.W.; Roberts, M.

    1994-12-31

    A project was conceived to design and build a system to recover methane from pig manure with covered anaerobic lagoon technology. Covered lagoon technology lends itself both to new lagoon construction and to retrofit designs on existing anaerobic lagoons. A two cell passive in-ground digester/lagoon system was designed for a 600 sow feeder pig farm. The digester was covered with a flexible fabric cover made of 30 mil XR-5. The biogas has 1,100 ppm hydrogen sulfide. For the first month of operation 473 cubic feet of biogas per hour has been recovered from the digester 24 hours per day. At this gas flow the engine turns an induction generator to produce 17.1 KW per hour. A little over 80% of the farm`s electrical needs are generated with methane from swine manure. On an annual basis there will be 150,000 KWh of electricity produced from 4.3 million cubic feet of biogas.

  3. WC Landfill Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WC Landfill Energy Place: New Jersey Product: Joint venture between DCO Energy and Marina Energy to develop landfill gas-to-energy plants in New Jersey. References: WC Landfill...

  4. Landfill Energy Systems LES | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Systems LES Jump to: navigation, search Name: Landfill Energy Systems (LES) Place: Michigan Zip: 48393 Product: Landfill gas to energy systems project developer, gas...

  5. Development of biogas technology in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiranjivi, C.; Raviprasad, A.; Rao, K.V.

    1981-01-01

    Biogas from organic wastes is a potential renewable energy to meet the domestic energy needs in India. The fundamentals of bio-gasification by anaerobic digestion are presented. The production of biogas from cattle manure in small anaerobic digesters is discussed illustrating with a popular digester model. 9 refs.

  6. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. . Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  7. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  8. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado, to discuss biogas and waste-to-energy technologies for fuel cell applications. Workshop objectives were to discuss the state-of-the-art of the technologies; identify challenges preventing or delaying widespread deployment of biogas fuel cell projects and opportunities to

  9. 7.4 Landfill Methane Utilization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A chapter on Landfill Methane Utilization from the Clean Energy Strategies for Local Governments publication.

  10. LASO Airport Landfill | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LASO Airport Landfill LASO Airport Landfill The Los Alamos Airport Landfill consists of two inactive solid waste disposal sites [the airport landfill, SWMU 73-001(a) and the debris disposal area (DDA), SWMU 73-001(d)] are located at the Los Alamos County Airport. In late 2006 and early 2007, the Final Remedy landfill cover system was installed at the airport landfill. The Final Remedy design and completion activities for the airport landfill and the DDA are provided in the Remedy Completion

  11. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. )

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  12. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  13. Biogas, compost and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichert, B.; Wittrup, L.; Robel, R.

    1994-08-01

    A pilot project now under development in Folsom, California, incorporates an anaerobic digestion/aerobic composting process that could eventually supply enough biogas to a fuel cell. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has two fuel cells in operation and is participating in the research project. Recently, the California Prison Industry Authority (PIA) began operating a processing facility at the Folsom prison, designed for 100 tons/day of mixed waste from the City of Folsom. The 35,000 square foot Correctional Resource Recovery Facility (CRRF) uses minimum security inmates from Folsom`s Return to Custody Facility to manually separate recyclables and compostable materials from the waste stream. The PIA will be using a new technology, high solids anaerobic digestion, to compost the organic fraction (representing approximately 60 to 70 percent of the waste stream). Construction began in June on a 40-foot wide by 120-foot long and 22-foot deep anaerobic digester. Once the vessel is operational in 1995, the composting process and the gradual breakdown of organic material will produce biogas, which SMUD hopes to use to power an adjacent two megawatt fuel cell. The electricity generated will serve SMUD customers, including the waste facility and nearby correctional institutions. 1 fig.

  14. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.

  15. Performance of biogas plants of different designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The performance of different designs of biogas digesters were evaluated at four Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) regional centres in: Vijapadi in Gujarat, Nasik in Maharashtra, Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir, and Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh, India. The information provided in the evaluation includes the average daily gas production per unit of digester volume for each month, the total gas produced per unit of digester volume over an 18-month period, the costs of the KVIC-designed biogas digesters of different volume and the expenditures incurred in installing biogas digesters of different design.

  16. EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    07: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and...

  17. Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Biomass Facility Facility Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Sector Biomass...

  18. Miramar Landfill Metro Biosolids Center Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Miramar Landfill Metro Biosolids Center Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Miramar Landfill Metro Biosolids Center Biomass Facility Facility Miramar Landfill Metro...

  19. Blackburn Landfill Co-Generation Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Blackburn Landfill Co-Generation Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Blackburn Landfill Co-Generation Biomass Facility Facility Blackburn Landfill Co-Generation...

  20. EA-1997: Construction Landfill Expansion, Pantex Plant, Amarillo...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7: Construction Landfill Expansion, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas EA-1997: Construction Landfill Expansion, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas SUMMARY Construction Landfill Expansion,...

  1. Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility Facility Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization...

  2. Albany Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Albany Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility Facility Albany Landfill Gas Utilization...

  3. Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility Facility Balefill Landfill Gas...

  4. Woodland Landfill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Landfill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Woodland Landfill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Woodland Landfill Gas Recovery Sector Biomass...

  5. Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility Facility Lopez Landfill Gas...

  6. Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Biomass Facility Facility Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant...

  7. Byxbee Park Sanitary Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Byxbee Park Sanitary Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Byxbee Park Sanitary Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Byxbee Park Sanitary Landfill Sector Biomass...

  8. Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas, October 2002 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants 7.4 Landfill Methane Utilization CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market ...

  9. Prima Desheha Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prima Desheha Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Prima Desheha Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Prima Desheha Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  10. Thermionic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rasor, Ned S.; Britt, Edward J.

    1976-01-01

    A gas-filled thermionic converter is provided with a collector and an emitter having a main emitter region and an auxiliary emitter region in electrical contact with the main emitter region. The main emitter region is so positioned with respect to the collector that a main gap is formed therebetween and the auxiliary emitter region is so positioned with respect to the collector that an auxiliary gap is formed therebetween partially separated from the main gap with access allowed between the gaps to allow ionizable gas in each gap to migrate therebetween. With heat applied to the emitter the work function of the auxiliary emitter region is sufficiently greater than the work function of the collector so that an ignited discharge occurs in the auxiliary gap and the work function of the main emitter region is so related to the work function of the collector that an unignited discharge occurs in the main gap sustained by the ions generated in the auxiliary gap. A current flows through a load coupled across the emitter and collector due to the unignited discharge in the main gap.

  11. Organic carbon cycling in landfills: Model for a continuum approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogner, J.; Lagerkvist, A.

    1997-09-01

    Organic carbon cycling in landfills can be addressed through a continuum model where the end-points are conventional anaerobic digestion of organic waste (short-term analogue) and geologic burial of organic material (long-term analogue). Major variables influencing status include moisture state, temperature, organic carbon loading, nutrient status, and isolation from the surrounding environment. Bioreactor landfills which are engineered for rapid decomposition approach (but cannot fully attain) the anaerobic digester end-point and incur higher unit costs because of their high degree of environmental isolation and control. At the other extreme, uncontrolled land disposal of organic waste materials is similar to geologic burial where organic carbon may be aerobically recycled to atmospheric CO{sub 2}, anaerobically converted to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} during early diagenesis, or maintained as intermediate or recalcitrant forms into geologic time (> 1,000 years) for transformations via kerogen pathways. A family of improved landfill models are needed at several scales (molecular to landscape) which realistically address landfill processes and can be validated with field data.

  12. White Earth Biomass/Biogas Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, Michael

    2015-03-12

    The White Earth Nation examined the feasibility of cost savings and fossil energy reduction through the installation of biogas/biomass boiler at the tribal casino. The study rejected biogas options due to availability and site constraints, but found a favorable environment for technical and financial feasibility of installing a 5 MMBtu hot water boiler system to offset 60-70 percent of current fuel oil and propane usage.

  13. Expanding the Use of Biogas with Fuel Cell Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE perspective on expanding the use of biogas with fuel cell technologies. Presented by Sunita Satyapal, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  14. Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste Feedstocks Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Bruce Logan, Kappe Professor of Environmental Engineering and Evan Pugh Professor, Pennsylvania State University

  15. State Level Incentives for Biogas-Fuel Cell Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    State policy and legislative outlook for biogas and fuel cells. Presented by Norma McDonald, Organic Waste Systems, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  16. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Golden, Colorado June 11-13, 2012 Workshop Proceedings NRELBK-5600-56523 January ...

  17. Converting urban tree maintenance residue to energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphey, W.K.; Massey, J.G.; Sumrall, A.

    1980-01-01

    Three methods of utilizing urban wood waste collected by a tree maintenance firm in Houston, Texas (handling 30,000 ton waste/year) are examined: (a) hauling to a remote landfill; (b) chipping and hauling to a (local) power plant and converting to electricity; and (c) chipping and selling to an outside firm for use as boiler fuel. Breakdown of costs are given for each method in monetary and energy terms. Method (b) was the cheapest, producing a net energy gain (870 million Btu/day), but the firm chose method (c), since it realized a direct monetary return.

  18. Fuel Cells on Bio-Gas (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R. J.

    2009-03-04

    The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Fuel cells operating on bio-gas offer a pathway to renewable electricity generation; (2) With federal incentives of $3,500/kW or 30% of the project costs, reasonable payback periods of less than five years can be achieved; (3) Tri-generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen offers an alternative route to solving the H{sub 2} infrastructure problem facing fuel cell vehicle deployment; and (4) DOE will be promoting bio-gas fuel cells in the future under its Market Transformation Programs.

  19. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-05-01

    This report for first quarter 1992 contains sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring data for the Savannah River Plant. The data tables presented in this report are copies of draft analytical results and therefore do contain errors. These errors will be corrected when the finalized data is received from the laboratory.

  20. Case studies in alternative landfill design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbagallo, J.C.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, landfills or {open_quotes}dumps{close_quotes} were not highly regulated and typically did not require a detailed engineering design. However, landfills are no longer just holes in the ground, and landfill closures entail more than just spreading some dirt on top of piles of garbage. Today landfill design is a highly regulated, complex design effort that integrates soils and geosynthetics into systems aimed at providing long-term protection for the environment and surrounding communities. Integrating these complex design systems into the available landscape and exising landfill configuration often requires the designer go beyond the {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} landfill and landfill closure design to satisfy regulations and provide cost-effective solutions.

  1. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  2. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  3. EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of closing the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and the Solid Waste Landfill. The Washington State Department of Ecology is a cooperating agency in preparing this EA.

  4. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island, and Olinda Alpha Landfill in Brea, California. ... The California plant is the third-largest landfill-gas-to-electricity facility in the ...

  5. I 95 Landfill Phase II Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    I 95 Landfill Phase II Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name I 95 Landfill Phase II Biomass Facility Facility I 95 Landfill Phase II Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  6. Milliken Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMillikenLandfillBiomassFacility&oldid397777" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  7. Acme Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NEEDS 2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAcmeLandfillBiomassFacility&oldid397115" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  8. Colton Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleColtonLandfillBiomassFacility&oldid397336" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  9. Girvin Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGirvinLandfillBiomassFacility&oldid397500" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  10. Biogas Potential in the United States (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    Biogas has received increased attention as an alternative energy source in the United States. The factsheet provides information about the biogas (methane) potential from various sources in the country (by county and state) and estimates the power generation and transportation fuels production (renewable natural gas) potential from these biogas sources. It provides valuable information to the industry, academia and policy makers in support of their future decisions.

  11. State Level Incentives for Biogas-Fuel Cell Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LEVEL INCENTIVES FOR BIOGAS-FUEL CELL PROJECTS Norma McDonald Vice Chair, American Biogas Council North American Sales Manager, Organic Waste Systems, Inc. www.americanbiogascouncil.org FIGURES * FOUNDED IN 1988 * SALES: $25-35 MILLION * 75 EMPLOYEES ACTIVITIES * BIOGAS CONSULTANCY & SUPPORT * BIODEGRADATION TESTING AND WASTE MANAGEMENT CONSULTANCY * DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PLANTS FOR ORGANIC WASTE AND RESIDUALS * NO FORMAL STATE CHAPTERS - YET * MEMBER DRIVEN

  12. Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as a Value Proposition Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition Presentation about the value proposition for biogas from waste water treatment plants. ...

  13. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to discuss biogas and waste-to-energy technologies for fuel cell applications. The overall objective was to identify opportunities for coupling renewable biomethane with highly ...

  14. A technoeconomic assessment of solar-assisted biogas systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, N.K. )

    1988-01-01

    Biogas has been recognized as one of the best available renewable and decentralized sources of energy and organic fertilizer for a country like India. There is enough evidence to prove that temperature has a profound influence on the rate of biogas production. In temperate climates, where the winters are mild, solar energy systems can be effectively used to increase the temperature of the biogas digester to the desired level. This paper examines various techniques, such as a solar greenhouse on the biogas digester, a shallow solar pond water heater, insulation, and a heat exchanger, and their technoeconomic viability.

  15. Briefing: DOE EM ITR Landfill Assessment Project Lessons Learned...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITR Landfill Assessment Project Lessons Learned Briefing: DOE EM ITR Landfill Assessment Project Lessons Learned By: Craig H. Benson, PhD, PE Where: EM SSAB Teleconference: 1 ...

  16. US EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program Jump to: navigation, search Name US EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program AgencyCompany Organization United States Environmental Protection...

  17. Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Page Edit with form History Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC Place: Los Angeles, California Product: Owner...

  18. CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants There are important issues to consider when selecting ...

  19. CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities This document explores ...

  20. Microsoft Word - Final TTR Landfill Extension EA--December 2006...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Once the landfill reaches capacity, sources of air pollution associated with the landfill would no longer be present. Waste transport vehicles would cause minor increases in car- ...

  1. Modeling Analysis of Biosparging at the Sanitary Landfill (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Modeling Analysis of Biosparging at the Sanitary Landfill Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling Analysis of Biosparging at the Sanitary Landfill ...

  2. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- West Lake Landfill - MO...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Lake Landfill - MO 05 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: West Lake Landfill (MO.05) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition:...

  3. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-15

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

  4. Venice Park landfill: Working with the community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, C.L.

    1993-09-01

    Venice Park landfill was one of the first sites to be permitted under Michigan's proposed Public Act 641. PA 641 essentially changed the rules and regulations for landfills from the simple design of digging a hole and filling it. It also upgraded standards to those that are more sophisticated, including liners, leachate collection systems, and gas extraction systems. In 1992, methane gas from the landfill was collected into wells drilled into the trash varying in depth from 30-50 feet in depth. A vacuum pulls the gas from the trash into the wells, then through a piping system. The landfill uses about 80-100 kilowatts in-house. The remainder of the gas is sold to Consumers Power Co. which uses landfill gas to supply power to homes.

  5. Interleaved power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-11-13

    A power converter architecture interleaves full bridge converters to alleviate thermal management problems in high current applications, and may, for example, double the output power capability while reducing parts count and costs. For example, one phase of a three phase inverter is shared between two transformers, which provide power to a rectifier such as a current doubler rectifier to provide two full bridge DC/DC converters with three rather than four high voltage inverter legs.

  6. Universal thermochemical energy converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich; Sand, James R.; Conklin, James C.; VanCoevering, James; Courville, George E.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for a thermochemical closed cycle employing a polyatomic, chemically active working fluid for converting heat energy into useful work.

  7. Technoeconomic Analysis of Biomethane Production from Biogas and Pipeline Delivery (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2010-10-18

    This presentation summarizes "A Technoeconomic Analysis of Biomethane Production from Biogas and Pipeline Delivery".

  8. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  9. Using GIS to Identify Remediation Areas in Landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linda A.Tedrow

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports the use of GIS mapping software—ArcMap and ArcInfo Workstation—by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as a non-intrusive method of locating and characterizing radioactive waste in a 97-acre landfill to aid in planning cleanup efforts. The fine-scale techniques and methods used offer potential application for other burial sites for which hazards indicate a non-intrusive approach. By converting many boxes of paper shipping records in multiple formats into a relational database linked to spatial data, the INEEL has related the paper history to our current GIS technologies and spatial data layers. The wide breadth of GIS techniques and tools quickly display areas in need of remediation as well as evaluate methods of remediation for specific areas as the site characterization is better understood and early assumptions are refined.

  10. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  11. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  12. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  13. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but

  14. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  15. Microminiature thermionic converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2001-09-25

    Microminiature thermionic converts (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures. Methods of manufacturing those converters using semiconductor integrated circuit fabrication and micromachine manufacturing techniques are also disclosed. The MTCs of the invention incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. Existing prior art thermionic converter technology has energy conversion efficiencies ranging from 5-15%. The MTCs of the present invention have maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices can be fabricated at modest costs.

  16. Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritzkowski, M.; Stegmann, R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.

  17. Biogas electric power generation: 25 kW or greater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    A biogas cogeneration system consists basically of: an anaerobic digester to produce the gas, a prime mover which burns the gas and makes power, and recovery devices which capture engine waste heat. Guidance is given through the exercise of determining whether biogas cogeneration is worthwhile. Design, construction, and operation are covered in general. Theoretical and practical background on biogas cogeneration are given, and directions for collecting site data and a method for performing a preliminary economic analysis for a given operation are given. (LEW)

  18. Digital scale converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upton, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    A digital scale converter is provided for binary coded decimal (BCD) conversion. The converter may be programmed to convert a BCD value of a first scale to the equivalent value of a second scale according to a known ratio. The value to be converted is loaded into a first BCD counter and counted down to zero while a second BCD counter registers counts from zero or an offset value depending upon the conversion. Programmable rate multipliers are used to generate pulses at selected rates to the counters for the proper conversion ratio. The value present in the second counter at the time the first counter is counted to the zero count is the equivalent value of the second scale. This value may be read out and displayed on a conventional seven-segment digital display.

  19. ARM - Temperature Converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsTemperature Converter Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Temperature Converter The Fahrenheit scale, invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), is based on 32 °F for the freezing point of water and 212 °F for the boiling point of water. The

  20. Franklin County Sanitary Landfill - Landfill Gas (LFG) to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Project

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    FRANKLIN COUNTY SANITARY LANDFILL - LANDFILL GAS (LFG) TO LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) - PROJECT January/February 2005 Prepared for: National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 Table of Contents Page BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................1 SUMMARY OF EFFORT PERFORMED ......................................................................................2 Task 2B.1 - Literature Search

  1. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend greatly on the

  2. Expanding the Use of Biogas with Fuel Cell Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Typical Efficiency 9 eere.energy.gov Opportunities for Distributed Generation (DG) and Efficient use of Natural Gas- and Biogas? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Steam Turbine Recip. ...

  3. New Biogas Opportunities Roadmap is Part of Climate Change Solution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A new roadmap explains how biogas reduces the emissions associated with the burning of fossil fuels and supports the Administration’s all-of-the-above energy strategy.

  4. The PC/Ecuador biogas program: considerations for future development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warpeha, P.R.

    1980-06-28

    Biogas, the production of methane fuel and fertilizer through the process of controlled anaerobic decomposition, has been one of the most controversial of the new renewable energy technologies. The integrated approach to fuel and fertilizer production, conservation and sanitation on a decentralized community level potentially holds great promise as a truly appropriate technology for rural development. The report presents the research, development, and demonstration of biogas technology conducted by the Peace Corps in Ecuador for the past six years.

  5. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  6. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  7. Support EM LA Airport Landfill Cover Project by providing 40000...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Support EM LA Airport Landfill Cover Project by providing 40000 tons of soil Support EM LA Airport Landfill Cover Project by providing 40000 tons of soil DE-DT0010454-Task-Order-4 ...

  8. Using landfill gas for energy: Projects that pay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    Pending Environmental Protection Agency regulations will require 500 to 700 landfills to control gas emissions resulting from decomposing garbage. Conversion of landfill gas to energy not only meets regulations, but also creates energy and revenue for local governments.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Refuse Vehicles Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From

  10. Landfill Cover Revegetation at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Site | Department of Energy Landfill Cover Revegetation at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Landfill Cover Revegetation at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Landfill Cover Revegetation at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Landfill Cover Revegetation at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (507.34 KB) More Documents & Publications Revegetation of the Rocky Flats Site Smooth Brome Monitoring at Rocky Flats-2005 Results EIS-0285-SA-134:

  11. CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities | Department of Energy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities This document explores opportunities for alternative CHP fuels. CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities (November 2007) (342.09 KB) More Documents & Publications CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants Barriers to CHP with

  12. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  13. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  14. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon

  15. B A S Biogas Anlagen Systeme GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    B A S Biogas Anlagen Systeme GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: B.A.S. Biogas Anlagen Systeme GmbH Place: Tellingstedt, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Zip: 25782 Product: B.A.S....

  16. ABO Wind Biogas Sachsen Anhalt GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas Sachsen Anhalt GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: ABO Wind Biogas Sachsen-Anhalt GmbH & Co. KG Place: Wiesbaden, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Zip: 65193 Product: Company...

  17. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 TDA Research ...

  18. Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation about the value proposition for biogas from waste water treatment plants. Presented by Steve Hamilton, SCS Energy, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  19. SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Improving ...

  20. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  1. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  2. Biogas end-use in the European community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constant, M.; Naveau, H.; Nyns, E.J. ); Ferrero, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    In Europe over the past few years the generation of biogas for energy and environmental purposes has been gaining in importance. Industrial wastewaters, cattle manure, sewage sludges, urban wastes, crop residues, algae and aquatic biomass are all typical of the materials being utilized. In contrast to the extensive inventory of biomethanation processes which has been carried out within the EEC, until recently a detailed, up-to-date investigation of the end-sues of biogas had not been undertaken. To supply the necessary information, the Commission of the European Communities and the Belgian Science Policy Office jointly entrusted a study to the Unit of Bioengineering at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium. This book is record of the study and has the following key features: it gives a broad overview of the ongoing use of biogas in Europe; it summarizes available data on storage, purification and engines using biogas; it draws several conclusions concerning the technical and economic viability of the processes; it discusses the problems of using biogas; and it outlines recommendations and future R and D and demonstration projects in the field.

  3. Substrate inhibition and control for high rate biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    This research addresses a critical aspect of the technical feasibility of biogas recovery with poultry manure using anaerobic digestion, namely, inhibition and toxicity factors limiting methane generation under high rate conditions. The research was designed to identify the limiting factors and to examine alternative pretreatment and in situ control methods for the anaerobic digestion of poultry manure as an energy producing system. Biogas production was indicated by the daily gas volume produced per unit digester capacity. Enhanced biogas generation from the anaerobic digester systems using poultry manure was studied in laboratory- and pilot-scale digester operations. It was found that ammonia nitrogen concentration above 4000 mg/l was inhibitory to biogas production. Pretreatment of the manure by elutriation was effective for decreasing inhibitory/toxic conditions. Increased gas production resulted without an indication of serious inhibition by increased volatile acids, indicating a limitation of available carbon sources. For poultry manure digestion, the optimum pH range was 7.1 to 7.6. Annual costs for pretreatment/biogas systems for 10,000, 30,000 and 50,000 birds were estimated and compared with annual surplus energy produced. The economic break-even point was achieved in digesters for greater than 30,000 birds. Capital cost of the digester system was estimated to be $18,300 with annual costs around $4000. It is anticipated that the digester system could be economically applied to smaller farms as energy costs increase.

  4. Design and operation of small biogas plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Dayem, A.M.; Hamad, M.A.

    1980-12-01

    This paper concentrates on the experience gained from the adaptation of the Chinese biogas technology to rural areas of Egypt. Three different prototype digesters have been constructed. The first is a 10 M/sup 3/ rectangular digester of the water pressure type, the second is a 6 M/sup 3/ circular and shallow digester with domed roof and dished bottom. The third prototype unit with a capacity of 7 M/sup 3/ has been recently constructed. It combines the features of both plug flow and the Indian movable cap types. Provisions for solar heating of feed water, composting of effluent and attachments to both latrine and animal shed were incorporated in the unit. The structural theory, design criteria, construction technique and cost estimation of the circular digester are described. Some operation and performance data of the circular digester are presented. This covers the effects of variation of ambient temperature on internal temperature, effects of temperature and pressure on the gas production rate and composition.

  5. Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel carbon-conversion-fig-1.jpg Key Challenges: An important strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for...

  6. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  7. One Man's Trash, Another Man's Fuel: BMW Plant Converts Landfill Gas to Hydrogen Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supported by the U.S. Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), the BMW manufacturing plant in Greer, South Carolina demonstrated the use of unique source to...

  8. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esser, A.A.M.

    1998-03-31

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero. 20 figs.

  9. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esser, Albert Andreas Maria

    1998-03-31

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero.

  10. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup −1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  11. Request for Qualifications for Sacramento Landfill

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Request for Qualifications (RFQ) solicits experienced companies to design, permit, finance, build, and operate a solar photovoltaic farm (SPV Farm) on the City of Sacramento’s 28th Street Landfill. Respondents to this RFQ must demonstrate experience and capacity to design, permit, finance, build, and operate a SPV Farm that generates electricity that can be sold for electrical use through a power-purchase agreement. Submittals must be prepared and delivered in accordance with the requirements set forth in this document.

  12. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporary aeration shortened the initial acid inhibition phase for methanogens. • COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactor than that in the anaerobic control. • Methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. • MSW settlement increased with increasing the frequency of intermittent aeration. - Abstract: Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10 months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic–anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  13. Biogas from agricultural and other wastes: a subject bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadduck, G.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography covers the following areas: application of anaerobic digestion to agricultural wastes, biochemistry and microbiology, factors in digester design and performance, digester design and types, digestion of individual materials, biogas use, use of digester effluent, integrated recycling systems, and economics and policy. (MHR)

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Pfohl Brothers Landfill - NY 66

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Pfohl Brothers Landfill - NY 66 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Pfohl Brothers Landfill (NY.66 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see Five-Year Review Report Pfohl Brothers Landfill Superfund Site Erie County Town of Cheektowaga, New York EPA REGION 2 Congressional District(s): 30 Erie Cheektowaga NPL LISTING HISTORY Documents

  15. CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants There are important issues to consider when selecting a CHP technology, such as size, emissions, location of maintenance personnel, and efficiency. This document summarizes the following CHP technologies: Reciprocating Engine, Microturbine, Combustion Turbines, Stirling Engine, and Fuel Cell. CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater

  16. UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and...

  17. Landfill Methane Project Development Handbook | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methane Project Development Handbook Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Landfill Methane Project Development Handbook AgencyCompany Organization: United...

  18. http://ndep.nv.gov/bwm/landfill.htm

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Republic Services, Inc Operating - Class I Permitted Laughlin Nevada Clark County Apex Regional Landfill Republic Services, Inc Operating - Class I Permitted Las Vegas Valley ...

  19. Savannah River Site - Sanitary Landfill | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Name: Sanitary Landfill Remediation Contractor: Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC PBS Number: 30 Report Last Updated: 2013 Contaminants Halogenated VOCsSVOCs Present?: Yes ...

  20. Increasing biogas yield of rural biogas digester by addition of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, G.C.; Chen, G.Q.; Chen, M.; Liu, K.X.; Zhou, S.Y.

    1983-12-01

    By addition of 0.3% NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ instead of animal manure into rural biogas digester in which the rotted rice straw was the major feedstock, the biogas yield doubled in comparison with the check digester (0.1 m/sup 3//m/sup 3//d) and the fertility of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ did not decrease because of biogas fermentation. Many digesters have been built in China. But, owing to the problems of improper management, unsuitable influent mixing, etc., neither digesters nor feedstock were fully utilized. In order to solve these problems, adding NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ into digester instead of animal manure was tried. Its results showed that the suitable C/N ratio of influent mixing was obtained, the fertility of effluent went up, and biogas producing rate increased. The concentration of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ is 0.2-0.6%, but the optimal is 0.3%.

  1. Briefing: DOE EM Landfill Workshop & Path Forward | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Landfill Workshop & Path Forward Briefing: DOE EM Landfill Workshop & Path Forward By: Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation Where: SSAB Teleconference 2 Subject: DOE EM Landfill Workshop & Path Forward DOE EM Landfill Workshop and Path Forward - July 2009 (316.86 KB) More Documents & Publications Briefing: Summary and Recommendations of EM Landfill Workshop Briefing: DOE EM ITR Landfill Assessment Project Lessons Learned Environmental Management Waste Management Facility

  2. System dynamics of the competition of municipal solid waste to landfill, electricity, and liquid fuel in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-03-01

    A quantitative system dynamics model was created to evaluate the economic and environmental tradeoffs between biomass to electricity and to liquid fuel using MSW biomass in the state of California as a case study. From an environmental perspective, landfilling represents the worst use of MSW over time, generating more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to converting MSW to liquid fuel or to electricity. MSW to ethanol results in the greatest displacement of GHG emissions per dollar spent compared to MSW to electricity. MSW to ethanol could save the state of California approximately $60 billion in energy costs by 2050 compared to landfilling, while also reducing GHG emissions state-wide by approximately 140 million metric tons during that timeframe. MSW conversion to electricity creates a significant cost within the state's electricity sector, although some conversion technologies are cost competitive with existing renewable generation.

  3. Comparison between lab- and full-scale applications of in situ aeration of an old landfill and assessment of long-term emission development after completion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrad, Marlies; Gamperling, Oliver; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ? Current data on in situ aeration effects from the first Austrian full-scale case study. ? Data on lasting waste stabilisation after aeration completion. ? Information on the transferability of results from lab- to full-scale aeration. - Abstract: Sustainable landfilling has become a fundamental objective in many modern waste management concepts. In this context, the in situ aeration of landfills has been recognised for its potential to convert conventional anaerobic landfills into biological stabilised state, whereby both current and potential (long-term) emissions of the landfilled waste are mitigated. In recent years, different in situ aeration concepts have been successfully applied in Europe, North America and Asia, all pursuing different objectives and strategies. In Austria, the first full-scale application of in situ landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection and simultaneous off-gas collection and treatment was implemented on an old, small municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill (2.6 ha) in autumn 2007. Complementary laboratory investigations were conducted with waste samples taken from the landfill site in order to provide more information on the transferability of the results from lab- to full-scale aeration measures. In addition, long-term emission development of the stabilised waste after aeration completion was assessed in an ongoing laboratory experiment. Although the initial waste material was described as mostly stable in terms of the biological parameters gas generation potential over 21 days (GP{sub 21}) and respiration activity over 4 days (RA{sub 4}), the lab-scale experiments indicated that aeration, which led to a significant improvement of leachate quality, was accompanied by further measurable changes in the solid waste material under optimised conditions. Even 75 weeks after aeration completion the leachate, as well as gaseous emissions from the stabilised waste material, remained low and stayed below the authorised

  4. Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels: The added value of the isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D CH{sub 4}) approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widory, D.; Proust, E.; Bellenfant, G.; Bour, O.

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of the isotope and mass balance approaches to evaluate the level of methane oxidation within a landfill. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The level of methane oxidation is not homogenous under the landfill cover and is strongly correlated to the methane flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotope tracking of the contribution of the methane oxidation to the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the ambient air. - Abstract: We are presenting here a multi-isotope approach ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D of CH{sub 4}) to assess (i) the level(s) of methane oxidation during waste biodegradation and its migration through a landfill cover in Sonzay (France), and (ii) its contribution to the atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels above the surface. The isotope approach is compared to the more conventional mass balance approach. Results from the two techniques are comparable and show that the CH{sub 4} oxidation under the landfill cover is heterogenous, with low oxidation percentages in samples showing high biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH{sub 4} is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH{sub 4} oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria. {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} samples taken at different heights (from below the cover up to 8 m above the ground level) were also used to identify and assess the relative contributions of its main sources both under the landfill cover and in the surrounding atmosphere.

  5. Array Converter | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Converter Place: Sunnyvale, California Zip: 94086 Product: US manufacturer of micro-inverters. Coordinates: 32.780338, -96.547405 Show Map Loading map......

  6. Self-powered microthermionic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; King, Donald B.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2004-08-10

    A self-powered microthermionic converter having an internal thermal power source integrated into the microthermionic converter. These converters can have high energy-conversion efficiencies over a range of operating temperatures. Microengineering techniques are used to manufacture the converter. The utilization of an internal thermal power source increases potential for mobility and incorporation into small devices. High energy efficiency is obtained by utilization of micron-scale interelectrode gap spacing. Alpha-particle emitting radioisotopes can be used for the internal thermal power source, such as curium and polonium isotopes.

  7. Biogas Potential in the United States (Fact Sheet), Energy Analysis, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Energy Analysis Biogas Potential in the United States Biogas is the gaseous product of anaerobic digestion, a biological process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. Biogas is comprised primarily of methane (50%-70%) and carbon dioxide (30%-50%), with trace amounts of other particulates and contaminants. It can be produced from various waste sources, including landfll material; animal manure; wastewater; and industrial, institutional, and commercial

  8. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanicallybiologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup ?1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup ?1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global

  9. Methane recovery from landfill in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaolai, L.

    1996-12-31

    GEF has approved a special project for a demonstration project for Methane Recovery from the Urban Refuse Land Fill. This paper will introduce the possibility of GHG reduction from the landfill in China, describe the activities of the GEF project, and the priorities for international cooperation in this field. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) approved the project, China Promoting Methane Recovery and Unlization from Mixed Municipal Refuse, at its Council meeting in last April. This project is the first one supported by international organization in this field.

  10. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional

  11. Overview of An Analysis Project for Renewable Biogas / Fuel Cell Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2009-11-19

    Presentation on renewable biogas: as an opportunity for commercialization of fuel cells presented as part of a panel discussion at the 2009 Fuel Cell Seminar, Palm Springs, CA.

  12. Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    From Municipal WWTPs Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado June 12, 2012 WWTP Anaerobic ...

  13. O'Brien Biogas IV LLC Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References NEEDS 2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleO%27BrienBiogasIVLLCBiomassFacility&oldid397863" Feedback Contact needs updating...

  14. Performance evaluation of Janata and Deenbandhu biogas plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalia, A.K.; Kanwar, S.S.

    1996-04-01

    Performance of the Janata and Deenbandhu fixed dome biogas plants for anaerobic digestion of dairy manure was evaluated under the conditions of a hilly region. In contrast to Janata, the Deenbandhu biogas plant was found to be not only cheaper on the basis of cost/m{sup 3} rated capacity of the plant, but it also produced more gas per unit of manure fed and per unit of digester volume in addition to maintaining a consistent rate of gas production during subsequent years from initial charging. The higher production of gas by 28.5% and 12.5% per kg of manure fed and 49.5% and 28.9% per m{sup 3} of digester volume was observed from this plant for highest 24 C and lowest 14 C digester temperatures of the plants for the months of July and December, respectively.

  15. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  16. A case study: Environmental benefit plan for Blydenburgh Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, J.M.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Town of Islip, New York, encompasses 285 square kilometers (110 square miles) along the southern shore of Suffolk County, Long Island. The Town relied upon Blydenburgh Landfill for the disposal of its estimated 290 kilotonnes per year (320,000 tons per year) of municipal solid waste (MSW) without having to contract for off-Long Island hauling and disposal. In 1983, the Long Island Landfill Law was enacted and effectively banned landfilling of raw garbage on most of Long Island after December 18, 1990. The act precluded the economic development of new landfill capacity for the Town. Blydenburgh Landfill was projected to reach capacity in early 1987 and close. To conserve landfill capacity for residential use, the Town prohibited commercial haulers from the landfill in the fall of 1986. In response, the Mobro barge departed Long Island City on March 22, 1987 loaded with commercial MSW that was no longer accepted at the Blydenburgh site. Negative publicity surrounded the Mobro barge and the continuing need to provide for waste disposal. In response, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the Town`s Resource Recovery Agency entered into an Order on Consent on May 12, 1987. This allowed for continued operations and a vertical MSW {open_quotes}piggyback{close_quotes} expansion on top of a closed and capped portion of the existing 181,000 square meter (44.8 acre) landfill mound. In addition, the Order on Consent permitted construction of a separate 12,000 square meter (3.0 acre) ash residue vertical piggyback expansion adjacent to the MSW piggyback expansion. Both expansions were designed for and constructed on top of existing landfilled MSW.

  17. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  18. Landfill mining: A critical review of two decades of research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas; Eklund, Mats

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze two decades of landfill mining research regarding trends and topics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer So far landfill mining has mainly been used to solve waste management issues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new perspective on landfills as resource reservoirs is emerging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of resource extraction from landfills is significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We outline several key challenges for realization of resource extraction from landfills. - Abstract: Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research papers published during the period 1988-2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space and local pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources, mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that

  19. Manhattan Project truck unearthed at landfill cleanup site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manhattan project truck Manhattan Project truck unearthed at landfill cleanup site A LANL excavation crew working on a Recovery Act cleanup project has uncovered the remnants of a 1940s military truck buried in a Manhattan Project-era landfill. April 8, 2011 image description Excavator operator Kevin Miller looks at the remnants of a 1940s military truck buried in a Manhattan Project-era landfill. Contact Fred deSousa Communications Office (505) 665-3430 Email Remnants of a 1940s military truck

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Shpack Landfill - MA 06

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Shpack Landfill - MA 06 FUSRAP Considered Sites Shpack Landfill, NY Alternate Name(s): Attleboro, MA Metals and Controls Site Norton Landfill area MA.06-2 MA.06-3 Location: 68 Union Road, Norton, Massachusetts MA.06-2 Historical Operations: No AEC activities were conducted on site. Contamination was suspected from disposal of materials containing uranium and zirconium ash. MA.06-2 MA.06-3 Eligibility Determination: Eligible MA.06-1 Radiological Survey(s): Assessment Surveys MA.06-4 MA.06-5

  1. Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill. Volume 1. Project report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-07

    Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

  2. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • BMP test displayed high gas potential generation capacity of MBT waste. • Strong inhibition effects were observed due to ammonia and VFA accumulation. • Waste water content was found as the key parameter limiting gas generation. • First order k-values were determined for different operating conditions. - Abstract: In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically–biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26–43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25 °C up to 55 °C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150 Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007 d{sup −1} at room temperature that increased to 0.03–0.05 d{sup −1} at 37 °C and to 0.04–0.11 d{sup −1} at 55 °C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution

  3. Renewable Energy Holdings Landfill Gas Wales Ltd REH Wales |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Wales Ltd REH Wales Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Holdings Landfill Gas (Wales) Ltd (REH Wales) Place: United Kingdom Product: A joint venture to own and...

  4. Fuel Flexibility: Landfill Gas Contaminant Mitigation for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Kass, Michael D; FINNEY, Charles E A; Lewis, Samuel; Kaul, Brian C; Besmann, Theodore M; Thomas, John F; Rogers, Hiram; Sepaniak, Michael

    2014-04-01

    This research project focused on the mitigation of silica damage to engine-based renewable landfill gas energy systems. Characterization of the landfill gas siloxane contamination, combined with characterization of the silica deposits in engines, led to development of two new mitigation strategies. The first involved a novel method for removing the siloxanes and other heavy contaminants from the landfill gas prior to use by the engines. The second strategy sought to interrupt the formation of hard silica deposits in the engine itself, based on inspection of failed landfill gas engine parts. In addition to mitigation, the project had a third task to develop a robust sensor for siloxanes that could be used to control existing and/or future removal processes.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF HOLOCENE FAULTING PROPOSED C-746-U LANDFILL EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lettis, William

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  6. Briefing: Summary and Recommendations of EM Landfill Workshop...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The briefing is an independent technical review report from the summary and recommendations of the EM Landfill Workshop help in October 2008. By: Craig H. Bendson, PhD, PE; William ...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: No More Green Waste in the Landfill

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    No More Green Waste in the Landfill June 09, 2011 Dump Truck Image On the heels of Sandia National Laboratories' successful food waste composting program, Pollution Prevention (P2)...

  8. Computer Modeling of Saltstone Landfills by Intera Environmental Consultants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albenesius, E.L.

    2001-08-09

    This report summaries the computer modeling studies and how the results of these studies were used to estimate contaminant releases to the groundwater. These modeling studies were used to improve saltstone landfill designs and are the basis for the current reference design. With the reference landfill design, EPA Drinking Water Standards can be met for all chemicals and radionuclides contained in Savannah River Plant waste salts.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: No More Green Waste in the Landfill

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    No More Green Waste in the Landfill June 09, 2011 Dump Truck Image On the heels of Sandia National Laboratories' successful food waste composting program, Pollution Prevention (P2) has teamed with the Facilities' Grounds and Roads team and the Solid Waste Transfer Facility to implement green waste composting. Previously, branches and logs were being diverted and mulched by Kirtland Air Force Base at their Construction & Demolition Landfill that is on base and utilized under contract by

  10. Climate Change Adaptation Technical Fact Sheet: Landfills and Containment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as an Element of Site Remediation | Department of Energy Landfills and Containment as an Element of Site Remediation Climate Change Adaptation Technical Fact Sheet: Landfills and Containment as an Element of Site Remediation This fact sheet addresses contaminated site remedies involving source containment systems. It is intended to serve as an adaptation planning tool by (1) providing an overview of potential climate change vulnerabilities and (2) presenting possible adaptation measures that

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Woburn Landfill - MA 07

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Woburn Landfill - MA 07 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Woburn Landfill (MA.07) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Woburn , Massachusetts MA.07-2 Evaluation Year: 1987 MA.07-6 Site Operations: The National Lead Company, Inc. disposed of approximately fifty 55-gallon drums of low grade uranium ore in at this site in 1960. MA.07-2 MA.07-4 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Conditions determined meet applicable requirements

  12. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  13. Biogas Purifications for Fuel Cells: SulfaTrap Sorbents

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas Purifications for Fuel Cells SulfaTrap TM Sorbents Gökhan Alptekin, PhD Vice President, Technology Tel: 303 940 2349 galptekin@tda.com DOE Workshop on Gas Clean-up for Fuel Cell Applications Argonne National Laboratory March 7, 2014 TDA Research Inc. * Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 * www.tda.com Background - SulfaTrap TM Sorbents Bio-ethanol desulfurizer SulfaTrap TM sorbents for stationary/mobile fuel cell applications * Fundamental work started at TDA Research in 2002 * SulfaTrap LLC was

  14. EA-1907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by DOE and USDA to provide funding to Western Plains Energy, LLC (WPE) to construct, purchase equipment, and operate a new Biogas Anaerobic Digester at WPE's existing Ethanol Facility, located at 3022 County Road 18, Grinnell Township (Oakley), Gove County, Kansas. The proposed facility will include a receiving building, digester, and related infrastructure. Based on the analysis in USDA's Final EA and FONSI, DOE has determined that DOE's proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human or natural environment.

  15. Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States G. Saur and A. Milbrandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-60283 July 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National

  16. Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L.; Colturato, L.F.; Font, X.; Vicent, T.

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  18. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, Lucie; Eismann, Frank; Wißmann, Daniel; Nägele, Hans-Joachim; Zielonka, Simon; Müller, Roland A.; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Foaming in biogas plants depends on the interactions between substrate and digestate. • Foaming tests enable the evaluation of substrate foaming tendency in biogas plants. • Leipzig foam tester enables foaming tests of substrates prior to use. - Abstract: Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes.

  19. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  20. Energy Economics of Farm Biogas in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillay, Pragasen; Grimberg, Stefan; Powers, Susan E

    2012-10-24

    Anaerobic digestion of farm and dairy waste has been shown to be capital intensive. One way to improve digester economics is to co-digest high-energy substrates together with the dairy manure. Cheese whey for example represents a high-energy substrate that is generated during cheese manufacture. There are currently no quantitative tools available that predict performance of co-digestion farm systems. The goal of this project was to develop a mathematical tool that would (1) predict the impact of co-digestion and (2) determine the best use of the generated biogas for a cheese manufacturing plant. Two models were developed that separately could be used to meet both goals of the project. Given current pricing structures of the most economical use of the generated biogas at the cheese manufacturing plant was as a replacement of fuel oil to generate heat. The developed digester model accurately predicted the performance of 26 farm digesters operating in the North Eastern U.S.

  1. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  2. Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ustohalova, Veronika . E-mail: veronika.ustohalova@uni-essen.de; Ricken, Tim; Widmann, Renatus

    2006-07-01

    Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section.

  3. Risk mitigation methodology for solid waste landfills. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Several recent models have attempted to simulate or assess the probability and consequences of the leakage of aqueous contaminant leakage from solid waste landfills. These models incorporate common factors, including climatological and geological characteristics. Each model, however, employs a unique approach to the problem, assigns different relative weights to factors, and relies upon extrapolated small-scale experimental data and/or subjective judgment in predicting the full-scale landfill failure mechanisms leading to contaminant migration. As a result, no two models are likely to equally assess a given landfill, and no one model has been validated as a predictor of long-term performance. The United States Air Force maintains a database for characterization of potential hazardous waste sites. Records include more than 500 landfills, providing such information as waste, soil, aquifer, monitoring location data, and the results of sample testing. Through analysis of this information, nearly 300 landfills were assessed to have sufficiently, partially, or inadequately contained hazardous constituents of the wastes placed within them.

  4. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein

    2001-02-01

    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  5. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler,; Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  6. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2011-03-15

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  7. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  8. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    is to develop a low-cost, high-capacity expendable ... its use possible in a fuel cell CHP unit The high ... sulfur is present as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), biogas ...

  9. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Success story about using waste water treatment gas for hydrogen production at UC Irvine. Presented by Jack Brouwer, UC Irvine, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  10. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions- Case Study, 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study overviewing two large landfill projects in California and Rhode Island funded by the Recovery Act