Sample records for landfill gas photovoltaics

  1. Photovoltaic olar nergy Development on Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photovoltaic olar nergy Development on Landfills ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH PIER Environmental of a selfballasting photovoltaic solar racking system will affect a closed landfills dirt cap. The effects experiment wherein single racks with photovoltaic modules will be placed on a landfill cap

  2. Landfill Gas Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of landfill gas energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply landfill gas energy within the Federal sector.

  3. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend greatly on the cost of electricity. Currently, PREPA has an average electric rate of $0.119/kWh. Based on past electric rate increases in Puerto Rico and other islands in the Caribbean, this rate could increase to $0.15/kWh or higher in a relatively short amount of time. In the coming years, increasing electrical rates and increased necessity for clean power will continue to improve the feasibility of implementing solar PV systems at these sites.

  4. Capturing, Purifying, and Liquefying Landfill Gas for Transportation Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capturing, Purifying, and Liquefying Landfill Gas for Transportation Fuel TRANSPORTATION ENERGY alternative fuel, and purified landfill gas could provide a renewable domestic source of it. Landfills of landfill gas purification and demonstrate liquefaction technology for the conversion of renewable

  5. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study, 2013 Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

  6. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas Nitric Oxide/Nitrogen Dioxide Neal Road LandfillThe methane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations ofmethane, 30% nitrogen and 30% carbon dioxide. The recorded

  7. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 121:569-operations with natural gas: Fuel composition implications,”USA ICEF2006-1578 LANDFILL GAS FUELED HCCI DEMONSTRATION

  8. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects Webinar (text version) Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects Webinar (text version) Below is the text...

  9. Using landfill gas for energy: Projects that pay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending Environmental Protection Agency regulations will require 500 to 700 landfills to control gas emissions resulting from decomposing garbage. Conversion of landfill gas to energy not only meets regulations, but also creates energy and revenue for local governments.

  10. DETERMINATION OF GUIDANCE VALUES FOR CLOSED LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DETERMINATION OF GUIDANCE VALUES FOR CLOSED LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS O. BOUR*, S. BERGER**, C Gambetta, 74 000 Annecy SUMMARY: In order to promote active landfill gas collection and treatment or natural attenuation, it is necessary to identify trigger values concerning landfill gas emissions

  11. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  12. Capture and Utilisation of Landfill Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    about 955 landfills that recovered biogas. The largest number of such landfills were in the USA landfills in Denmark that in total captured 5,800Nm3 of biogas per hour, equivalent to 276.4MW of contained #12;Biomass US DATA ON GENERATION OF BIOGAS AT LANDFILLS Eileen Berenyi, a Research Associate of EEC

  13. LANDFILL-GAS-TO-ENERGY PROJECTS: AN ANALYSIS OF NET PRIVATE AND SOCIAL BENEFITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Materials Table A1: Model Results for West Lake Landfill WEST LAKE IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Landfill WEST COUNTY IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Average Landfill Gas Generation (mmcf/yr) 1,075 1,735 $1,250 Table A3: Model Results for Modern Landfill MODERN IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Average

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - annual landfill gas Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems, and emissions from diesel equipment at the landfill. The MWC emissions... .K. dioxins emissions have been reported in the fugitive gas emissions from landfills as well as...

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Johnson County Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, Kansas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Citizens of Shawnee, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Kansas that are particularly well suited for grid-tied solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. This report assesses the Johnson County Landfill for possible grid-tied PV installations and estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. The report findings are applicable to other landfills in the surrounding area.

  16. Renewable LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LNG from landfill gas. Presented by Mike McGowan, Linde NA, Inc., at the NRELDOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado....

  17. July 17, 2012, Webinar: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar, held July 17, 2012, provided information on the challenges and benefits of developing successful community landfill gas-to-energy projects in Will County, Illinois, and Escambia...

  18. Feasibility Study of Solar Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico (Second Study)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a solar photovoltaics (PV) system on landfill sites in Puerto Rico. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). The report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system. The landfills and sites considered in this report were all determined feasible areas in which to implement solar PV systems.

  19. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on a brownfield site at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin. The site currently has a PV system in place and was assessed for further PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.1333/kWh and incentives offered by the State of Wisconsin and by the serving utility, Madison Gas and Electric. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  1. Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.

  2. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  3. Case Studies from the Climate Technology Partnership: Landfill Gas Projects in South Korea and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larney, C.; Heil, M.; Ha, G. A.

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines landfill gas projects in South Korea. Two case studies provide concrete examples of lessons learned and offer practical guidance for future projects.

  4. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects Webinar (text version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the Webinar titled "Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects," originally presented on July 17, 2012.

  5. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfield, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the US and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. A pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations: less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide.

  6. Int. J. Environment and Pollution, V0/. IS, No.4, 2001 Economic evaluation of a landfill system with gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Int. J. Environment and Pollution, V0/. IS, No.4, 2001 Economic evaluation of a landfill system be made as follows: Yedla, S. and Parikh, 1.K. (2001) 'Economic evaluation of a landfill system with gas.K. Parikh Economic evaluation of a landfill system with gas recovery 435 Tonnes per dayMillion tonnes per

  7. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  8. Investigation of Integrated Subsurface Processing of Landfill Gas and Carbon Sequestration, Johnson County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. David Newell; Timothy R. Carr

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, KS is operated by Deffenbaugh Industries and serves much of metropolitan Kansas City. Refuse, which is dumped in large plastic-underlined trash cells covering several acres, is covered over with shale shortly after burial. The landfill waste, once it fills the cell, is then drilled by Kansas City LFG, so that the gas generated by anaerobic decomposition of the refuse can be harvested. Production of raw landfill gas from the Johnson County landfill comes from 150 wells. Daily production is approximately 2.2 to 2.5 mmcf, of which approximately 50% is methane and 50% is carbon dioxide and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds). Heating value is approximately 550 BTU/scf. A upgrading plant, utilizing an amine process, rejects the carbon dioxide and NMVOCs, and upgrades the gas to pipeline quality (i.e., nominally a heating value >950 BTU/scf). The gas is sold to a pipeline adjacent to the landfill. With coal-bearing strata underlying the landfill, and carbon dioxide a major effluent gas derived from the upgrading process, the Johnson County Landfill is potentially an ideal setting to study the feasibility of injecting the effluent gas in the coals for both enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon sequestration. To these ends, coals below the landfill were cored and then were analyzed for their thickness and sorbed gas content, which ranged up to 79 scf/ton. Assuming 1 1/2 square miles of land (960 acres) at the Johnson County Landfill can be utilized for coalbed and shale gas recovery, the total amount of in-place gas calculates to 946,200 mcf, or 946.2 mmcf, or 0.95 bcf (i.e., 985.6 mcf/acre X 960 acres). Assuming that carbon dioxide can be imbibed by the coals and shales on a 2:1 ratio compared to the gas that was originally present, then 1682 to 1720 days (4.6 to 4.7 years) of landfill carbon dioxide production can be sequestered by the coals and shales immediately under the landfill. Three coal--the Bevier, Fleming, and Mulberry coals--are the major coals of sufficient thickness (nominally >1-foot) that can imbibe carbon dioxide gas with an enhanced coalbed injection. Comparison of the adsorption gas content of coals to the gas desorbed from the coals shows that the degree of saturation decreases with depth for the coals.

  9. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics Over the last thirty years, hundreds and utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. ~40 g CO2

  10. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  11. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). 3) The Project will annually produce 365,292 MWh?s of clean energy. 4) By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO{sub 2} equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 28.3 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  12. IEA-Renewable Energy Technologies, Bioenergy Agreement Task 37: Energy from Biogas and Landfill Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFP-06 IEA- Renewable Energy Technologies, Bioenergy Agreement Task 37: Energy from Biogas-Bioenergy, Task 37- Energy from Biogas and Landfill Gas", via samarbejde, informationsudveksling, fælles analyser. biogas fra anaerob udrådning (AD) som en integreret gylle og affalds behandlings teknologi. Arbejdet

  13. Greenhouse gas reduction by recovery and utilization of landfill methane and CO{sub 2} technical and market feasibility study, Boului Landfill, Bucharest, Romania. Final report, September 30, 1997--September 19, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, W.J.; Brown, W.R.; Siwajek, L. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Sanders, W.I. [Power Management Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States); Botgros, I. [Petrodesign, SA, Bucharest (Romania)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is a landfill gas to energy project rated at about 4 megawatts (electric) at startup, increasing to 8 megawatts over time. The project site is Boului Landfill, near Bucharest, Romania. The project improves regional air quality, reduces emission of greenhouse gases, controls and utilizes landfill methane, and supplies electric power to the local grid. The technical and economic feasibility of pre-treating Boului landfill gas with Acrion`s new landfill gas cleanup technology prior to combustion for power production us attractive. Acrion`s gas treatment provides several benefits to the currently structured electric generation project: (1) increase energy density of landfill gas from about 500 Btu/ft{sup 3} to about 750 Btu/ft{sup 3}; (2) remove contaminants from landfill gas to prolong engine life and reduce maintenance;; (3) recover carbon dioxide from landfill gas for Romanian markets; and (4) reduce emission of greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction attributable to successful implementation of the landfill gas to electric project, with commercial liquid CO{sub 2} recovery, is estimated to be 53 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent of its 15 year life.

  14. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Landfill gas (LFG), composed largely of methane and carbon dioxide, is used in over 450 operational projects in 43 states. These projects convert a large source of greenhouse gases into a fuel that...

  15. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  16. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment,Institutes and1 SpecialMaximizingResidential Buildings »CoilGas Reductions

  17. Emerging technologies for the management and utilization of landfill gas. Final report, August 1994-August 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roe, S.; Reisman, J.; Strait, R.; Doorn, M.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report gives information on emerging technologies that are considered to be commercially available (Tier 1), currently undergoing research and development (Tier 2), or considered as potentially applicable (Tier 3), for the management of landfill gas (LFG) emissions or for the utilization of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from LFG. The emerging technologies that are considered to be Tier 1 are: (1) phosphoric acid fuel cells, (2) processes for converting CH4 from LFG to compressed LFG for vehicle fuel or other fuel uses, and (3) use of LFG as a fuel source for leachate evaporation systems. The Tier 2 technologies covered in the report are: (1) operation of landfills as anaerobic bioreactors, (2) operation of landfills are aerobic bioreactors, (3) production of ethanol from LFG, (4) production of commercial CO2 from LFG, and (5) use of LFG to provide fuel for heat and CO2 enhancement in greenhouses. Tier 3 technologies, considered as potentially applicable for LFG. include Stirling and Organic Rankine Cycle engines.

  18. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Hwayang-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Namhoon, E-mail: nhlee@anyang.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane.

  19. Influence of Physical Parameters on Methane Oxidation in Landfill Cover Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    .......................................................................... 5 1.4 Phases of Landfill Gas Production

  20. Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SunShot Initiative aggressively supports development of low-cost, high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) technologies in order to to make solar electricity cost-competitive with other sources of energy by 2020.

  1. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. The technical effort was conducted by EPRI, consultant David Thimsen, Kaltec of Minnesota, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Interpoll Laboratories. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made available two test skids originally used to test an ERC 30 kW carbonate fuel cell at the Destec Coal Gasification Plan in Plaquemine, LA. EPRI`s carbonate fuel cell pilot plant was installed at the Anoka County Regional Landfill in Ramsey, Minnesota. Additional gas cleaning equipment was installed to evaluate a potentially inexpensive, multi-stage gas cleaning process to remove sulfur and chlorine in the gas to levels acceptable for long-term, economical carbonate fuel cell operation. The pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations. Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorined hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide. These were the detection limits of the analytical procedures employed. It is probable that the actual concentrations are below these analytical limits.

  2. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Phase II Final Report for January 25, 1999 - April 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, W. R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L. A.

    2000-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery.

  3. Electric power generation using a phosphoric acid cell on a municipal solid waste landfill gas stream. Technology verification report, November 1997--July 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masemore, S.; Piccot, S.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phosphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Performance data were collected at two sites determined to be representative of the U.S. landfill market. The Penrose facility, in Los Angeles, CA, was the first test site. The landfill gas at this site represented waste gas recovery from four nearby landfills, consisting primarily of industrial waste material. It produced approximately 3000 scf of gas/minute, and had a higher heating value of 446 Btu/scf at about 44% methane concentration. The second test site, in Groton, CT, was a relatively small landfill, but with greater heat content gas (methane levels were about 57% and the average heating value was 585 Btu/scf). The verification test addressed contaminant removal efficiency, flare destruction efficiency, and the operational capability of the cleanup system, and the power production capability of the fuel cell system.

  4. Well-to-Wheels analysis of landfill gas-based pathways and their addition to the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, approximately 300 million standard cubic ft/day (mmscfd) of natural gas and 1600 MW of electricity are produced from the decomposition of organic waste at 519 U.S. landfills (EPA 2010a). Since landfill gas (LFG) is a renewable resource, this energy is considered renewable. When used as a vehicle fuel, compressed natural gas (CNG) produced from LFG consumes up to 185,000 Btu of fossil fuel and generates from 1.5 to 18.4 kg of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions per million Btu of fuel on a 'well-to-wheel' (WTW) basis. This compares with approximately 1.1 million Btu and 78.2 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for CNG from fossil natural gas and 1.2 million Btu and 97.5 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for petroleum gasoline. Because of the additional energy required for liquefaction, LFG-based liquefied natural gas (LNG) requires more fossil fuel (222,000-227,000 Btu/million Btu WTW) and generates more GHG emissions (approximately 22 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu WTW) if grid electricity is used for the liquefaction process. However, if some of the LFG is used to generate electricity for gas cleanup and liquefaction (or compression, in the case of CNG), vehicle fuel produced from LFG can have no fossil fuel input and only minimal GHG emissions (1.5-7.7 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu) on a WTW basis. Thus, LFG-based natural gas can be one of the lowest GHG-emitting fuels for light- or heavy-duty vehicles. This report discusses the size and scope of biomethane resources from landfills and the pathways by which those resources can be turned into and utilized as vehicle fuel. It includes characterizations of the LFG stream and the processes used to convert low-Btu LFG into high-Btu renewable natural gas (RNG); documents the conversion efficiencies and losses of those processes, the choice of processes modeled in GREET, and other assumptions used to construct GREET pathways; and presents GREET results by pathway stage. GREET estimates of well-to-pump (WTP), pump-to-wheel (PTW), and WTW energy, fossil fuel, and GHG emissions for each LFG-based pathway are then summarized and compared with similar estimates for fossil natural gas and petroleum pathways.

  5. Renewable Energy 32 (2007) 12431257 Methane generation in landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    . Some of the modern regulated landfills attempt to capture and utilize landfill biogas, a renewable collecting landfill biogas worldwide. The landfills that capture biogas in the US collect about 2.6 million. All rights reserved. Keywords: Landfill gas; Renewable energy; Municipal solid waste; Biogas; Methane

  6. Economic Feasibility of Converting Landfill Gas to Natural Gas for Use as a Transportation Fuel in Refuse Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprague, Stephen M.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    to global climate change, diesel-fueled refuse trucks are one of the most concentrated sources of health-threatening air pollution in most cities. The landfills that they ultimately place their waste in are the second largest source of human-related methane...

  7. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup ?1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup ?1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system emissions.

  8. Influence of mechanical-biological waste pre-treatment methods on the gas formation in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockreis, A. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: a.bockreis@iwar.tu-darmstadt.de; Steinberg, I. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to minimise emissions and environmental impacts, only pre-treated waste should be disposed of. For the last six years, a series of continuous experiments has been conducted at the Institute WAR, TU Darmstadt, in order to determine the emissions from pre-treated waste. Different kinds of pre-treated waste were incubated in several reactors and various data, including production and composition of the gas and the leachate, were collected. In this paper, the interim results of gas production and the gas composition from different types of waste after a running time of six years are presented and discussed.

  9. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2DigesterLandfillGas | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyo County,Information SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrTownGas Jump to:Energy

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  17. UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring...

  18. Request for Qualifications for Sacramento Landfill

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Request for Qualifications (RFQ) solicits experienced companies to design, permit, finance, build, and operate a solar photovoltaic farm (SPV Farm) on the City of Sacramento’s 28th Street Landfill. Respondents to this RFQ must demonstrate experience and capacity to design, permit, finance, build, and operate a SPV Farm that generates electricity that can be sold for electrical use through a power-purchase agreement. Submittals must be prepared and delivered in accordance with the requirements set forth in this document.

  19. LANDFILL GAS CONVERSION TO LNG AND LCO{sub 2}. PHASE 1, FINAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1998-FEBRUARY 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK,W.J.; NEYMAN,M.; SIWAJEK,L.A.; BROWN,W.R.; VAN HAUWAERT,P.M.; CURREN,E.D.

    1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Process designs and economics were developed to produce LNG and liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from landfill gas (LFG) using the Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process. The patented Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process uses liquid CO{sub 2} to absorb contaminants from the LFG. The process steps are compression, drying, CO{sub 2} wash contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery, residual CO{sub 2} removal and methane liquefaction. Three flowsheets were developed using different residual CO{sub 2} removal schemes. These included physical solvent absorption (methanol), membranes and molecular sieves. The capital and operating costs of the flowsheets were very similar. The LNG production cost was around ten cents per gallon. In parallel with process flowsheet development, the business aspects of an eventual commercial project have been explored. The process was found to have significant potential commercial application. The business plan effort investigated the economics of LNG transportation, fueling, vehicle conversion, and markets. The commercial value of liquid CO{sub 2} was also investigated. This Phase 1 work, March 1998 through February 1999, was funded under Brookhaven National laboratory contract 725089 under the research program entitled ``Liquefied Natural Gas as a Heavy Vehicle Fuel.'' The Phase 2 effort will develop flowsheets for the following: (1) CO{sub 2} and pipeline gas production, with the pipeline methane being liquefied at a peak shaving site, (2) sewage digester gas as an alternate feedstock to LFG and (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling. Phase 2 will also study the modification of Acrion's process demonstration unit for the production of LNG and a market site for LNG production.

  20. Landfill Disamenities And Better Utilization of Waste Resources Presented to the Wisconsin Governor's Task Force on Waste Materials Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    emissions. I recently saw an exhibit of a landfill gas carbon adsorber designed to remove siloxanes and air toxics from landfill gas prior to engine burning, to reduce wear on the engine. They later stripped this is a common practice. Most landfill gas energy combustion systems are uncontrolled. In 1998, a New York State

  1. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  2. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John C (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  3. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - areas treating landfill Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conference COMPARISON OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Summary: .K. dioxins emissions have been reported in the fugitive gas emissions from landfills as well as...

  5. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Bruce (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX)

    1991-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  6. Landfill Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey, Washington:Lakeville, MN) Jump to:LamarJump to:Lanco

  7. PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS: RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2006; 14:275280

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS: RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2006; 14 COMMUNICATION: ACCELERATED PUBLICATION Photovoltaics Energy Payback Times, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and External University, The Netherlands Life cycle assessments and external cost estimates of photovoltaics have been

  8. Module Handbook Specialisation Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habel, Annegret

    Module Handbook Specialisation Photovoltaics 2nd Semester for the Master Programme REMA/EUREC Course 2008/2009 University of Northumbria Specialisation Provider: Photovoltaics #12;Specialisation Photovoltaics, University of Northumbria Module 1/Photovoltaics: PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL

  9. Photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kurtz, Sarah (Somerville, MA)

    1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  10. Energy payback and CO{sub 2} gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

  11. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 20: Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    · 6. Determine battery size for recommended reserve time Photovoltaic System Design Block Diagram Ph1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 20: Photovoltaic Systems Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser into the grid 2 Application Areas 3 Photovoltaic System Basics · Photovoltaic Systems ­ Cell Panel Array

  12. Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.

  13. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 15 Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 15 Photovoltaic Devices Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser) · Demonstrated the photovoltaic effect · Best results with UV or blue light 2 g · Electrodes covered with light of photovoltaic effect in an all solid state device · Several decades before the effect could be explained Fritts

  14. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Photovoltaic Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Amorphous Silicon as a Photovoltaic Material 2.1.2ii Photovoltaic Model . . . . . . . . . . .

  15. Livingston Parish Landfill Methane Recovery Project (Feasibility Study)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Steven

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Woodside Landfill is owned by Livingston Parish, Louisiana and is operated under contract by Waste Management of Louisiana LLC. This public owner/private operator partnership is commonplace in the solid waste industry today. The landfill has been in operation since approximately 1988 and has a permitted capacity of approximately 41 million cubic yards. Based on an assumed in-place waste density of 0.94 ton per cubic yard, the landfill could have an expected design capacity of 39.3 million tons. The landfill does have an active landfill gas collection and control system (LFGCCS) in place because it meets the minimum thresholds for the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The initial LFGCS was installed prior to 2006 and subsequent phases were installed in 2007 and 2010. The Parish received a grant from the United States Department of Energy in 2009 to evaluate the potential for landfill gas recovery and utilization at the Woodside Landfill. This includes a technical and economic feasibility study of a project to install a landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) plant and to compare alternative technologies. The LFGTE plant can take the form of on-site electrical generation, a direct use/medium Btu option, or a high-Btu upgrade technology. The technical evaluation in Section 2 of this report concludes that landfill gas from the Woodside landfill is suitable for recovery and utilization. The financial evaluations in sections 3, 4, and 5 of this report provide financial estimates of the returns for various utilization technologies. The report concludes that the most economically viable project is the Electricity Generation option, subject to the Parish’s ability and willingness to allocate adequate cash for initial capital and/or to obtain debt financing. However, even this option does not present a solid return: by our estimates, there is a 19 year simple payback on the electricity generation option. All of the energy recovery options discussed in this report economically stressed. The primary reason for this is the recent fundamental shift in the US energy landscape. Abundant supplies of natural gas have put downward pressure on any project that displaces natural gas or natural gas substitutes. Moreover, this shift appears long-term as domestic supplies for natural gas may have been increased for several hundred years. While electricity prices are less affected by natural gas prices than other thermal projects, they are still significantly affected since much of the power in the Entergy cost structure is driven by natural gas-fired generation. Consequently, rates reimbursed by the power company based on their avoided cost structure also face downward pressure over the near and intermediate term. In addition, there has been decreasing emphasis on environmental concerns regarding the production of thermal energy, and as a result both the voluntary and mandatory markets that drive green attribute prices have softened significantly over the past couple of years. Please note that energy markets are constantly changing due to fundamental supply and demand forces, as well as from external forces such as regulations and environmental concerns. At any point in the future, the outlook for energy prices may change and could deem either the electricity generation or pipeline injection project more feasible. This report is intended to serve as the primary background document for subsequent decisions made at Parish staff and governing board levels.

  16. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  17. INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS INTO PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE CONTRACTS IN DELAWARE FINAL for Energy and Environmental Policy University of Delaware February 2006 #12;INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC..................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Photovoltaics in Performance Contracts: An Overview

  18. Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis Vasilis Fthenakis Center of Life Cycle Analysis Earth & Environmental Engineering Department Columbia University and National Photovoltaic (PV) EHS Research Center (air, water, solid) M, Q E PV array Photovoltaic modules Balance of System (BOS) (Inverters

  19. Risk assessment of landfill disposal sites - State of the art

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butt, Talib E. [Sustainability Centre in Glasgow (SCG), George Moore Building, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: t_e_butt@hotmail.com; Lockley, Elaine [Be Environmental Ltd. Suite 213, Lomeshaye Business Village, Turner Road, Nelson, Lancashire, BB9 7DR, England (United Kingdom); Oduyemi, Kehinde O.K. [Built and Natural Environment, Baxter Building, University of Abertay Dundee, Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.oduyemi@abertay.ac.uk

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A risk assessment process can assist in drawing a cost-effective compromise between economic and environmental costs, thereby assuring that the philosophy of 'sustainable development' is adhered to. Nowadays risk analysis is in wide use to effectively manage environmental issues. Risk assessment is also applied to other subjects including health and safety, food, finance, ecology and epidemiology. The literature review of environmental risk assessments in general and risk assessment approaches particularly regarding landfill disposal sites undertaken by the authors, reveals that an integrated risk assessment methodology for landfill gas, leachate or degraded waste does not exist. A range of knowledge gaps is discovered in the literature reviewed to date. From the perspective of landfill leachate, this paper identifies the extent to which various risk analysis aspects are absent in the existing approaches.

  20. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  1. Recirculation of municipal landfill leachate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinkowski, Brian Jude

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    RECIRCULATION OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE A Thesis by BRIAN JUDE PINKO4ISKI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering RECIRCULATION OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE A Thesis by BRIAN JUDE PINKOWSKI Approved as to style and content by: Charles P. Giammona (Chair of Committee) Roy . Harm, (Member) Kirk W. Brown (Member) Donald A. Maxwel...

  2. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  3. Chapter VII-2, Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics: Fundamentals and Applications, General editors T. Markvart and L. Castaner, to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    Chapter VII-2, Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics: Fundamentals and Applications, General editors Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY 11973 1. INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have distinct of photovoltaic systems does not produce any noise, toxic-gas emissions, or greenhouse gases. Photovoltaic

  4. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal Electric, Geothermal Heat Pumps, CHP, Small Hydroelectric, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Biodiesel, Fuel Cells Using Renewable Fuels September% by 2020 Solar Thermal Electric, Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal

  5. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1 Optimal Dispatch of Residential Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1 Optimal Dispatch of Residential Photovoltaic Inverters Under of existing low- voltage distribution systems with high photovoltaic (PV) gen- eration have focused relaxation techniques. Index Terms--Distribution networks, microgrids, photovoltaic systems, inverter control

  6. Recharging U.S. Energy Policy: Advocating for a National Renewable Portfolio Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunt, Robin J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electricity generated from the following sources qualifies as renewable energy: "solar thermal electric, photovoltaics, landfill gas, wind, biomass, geothermal

  7. Fluxes of methane between landfills and the atmosphere: Natural and engineered controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogner, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Meadows, M. [ETSU, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Czepiel, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field measurement of landfill methane emissions indicates natural variability spanning more than 2 seven orders of magnitude, from approximately 0.0004 to more than 4000 g m{sub -2} day{sup -1}. This wide range reflects net emissions resulting from production (methanogenesis), consumption (methanotrophic oxidation), and gaseous transport processes. The determination of an {open_quotes}average{close_quotes} emission rate for a given field site requires sampling designs and statistical techniques which consider spatial and temporal variability. Moreover, particularly at sites with pumped gas recovery systems, it is possible for methanotrophic microorganisms in aerated cover soils to oxidize all of the methane from landfill sources below and, additionally, to oxidize methane diffusing into cover soils from atmospheric sources above. In such cases, a reversed soil gas concentration gradient is observed in shallow cover soils, indicating bidirectional diffusional transport to the depth of optimum methane oxidation. Rates of landfill methane oxidation from field and laboratory incubation studies range up to 166 g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} among the highest for any natural setting, providing an effective natural control on net emissions. Estimates of worldwide landfill methane emissions to the atmosphere have ranged from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup -1}, differing mainly in assumed methane yields from estimated quantities of landfilled refuse. At highly controlled landfill sites in developed countries, landfill methane is often collected via vertical wells or horizontal collectors. Recovery of landfill methane through engineered systems can provide both environmental and energy benefits by mitigating subsurface migration, reducing surface emissions, and providing an alternative energy resource for industrial boiler use, on-site electrical generation, or upgrading to a substitute natural gas.

  8. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yochim, April, E-mail: ayochim@regionofwaterloo.ca [Region of Waterloo Waste Management Division, 925 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2J 3Z4 (Canada); Zytner, Richard G., E-mail: rzytner@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); McBean, Edward A., E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Endres, Anthony L., E-mail: alendres@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable at 33.9% for the drier landfill and 18.1% for the wetter landfill. Infiltration experiments also showed the potential to measure small increases in water content.

  9. Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications Solar Photovoltaic Specification, Checklist and Guide,...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Regional Testing Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid Integration, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Regional Testing Center (PV RTC), Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

  11. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel Make solar cells more efficient Theoretical energy conversion efficiency limit of single junction warming and fossil fuel depletion problems! #12;Photovoltaics: Explosive Growth Sustained growth of 30

  12. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Girard, J. W. , 2001, “HCCI combustion: analysis andratio effect on methane HCCI combustion,” Journal ofEquivalence ratio-EGR control of HCCI engine operation and

  13. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from combustion of fuel Power loss from evacuated exhaustturbo and ATA Engine power losses Power rejected by enginesteady state operation Power loss from escaping exhaust

  14. LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , where waste was buried without building a compacted clay liner at the bottom of the cells. Exploitation of the site. After capping the old cells with a geosynthetic liner, areas of poor crop production (zone Zl and transversal section studied. The site was initially exploited for clay and later filled with domestic waste

  15. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion engine,” Prenticemany aspects of internal combustion engine design. Involvedof ICEF2006 ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division 2006

  16. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemical- kinetic model of propane HCCI combustion,” SAEof a four-cylinder 1.9 l propane- fueled homogeneous chargethe fuel line can use propane from a tank and NG from the

  17. Electroluminescence in photovoltaic cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petraglia, Antonio; 10.1088/0031-9120/46/5/F01

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we propose two methods to get electroluminescence images from photovoltaic cells in a school or home lab.

  18. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  19. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  20. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  1. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 17 Photovoltaic Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 17 Photovoltaic Modules Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser to temperature effects and other non ideal conditions · Allows for voltage drops across other PV system components · Requires 15 V to charge a 12 V battery 10 Module Current · Depends primarily on size of solar

  2. EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of closing the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and the Solid Waste Landfill. The Washington State Department of Ecology is a cooperating agency in preparing this EA.

  3. Settlement Prediction, Gas Modeling and Slope Stability Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Settlement Prediction, Gas Modeling and Slope Stability Analysis in Coll Cardús Landfill Li Yu UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE CATALUÑA April, 2007 GEOMODELS #12;Introduction to Coll Cardús landfill Prediction of settlement in Coll Cardús landfill 1) Settlement prediction by empirical method 2) Settlement prediction

  4. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

  5. Bioreactor Landfill Research and Demonstration Project Northern Oaks Landfill, Harrison, MI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xiando; Voice, Thomas; and Hashsham, Syed A.

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A bioreactor landfill cell with 1.2-acre footprint was constructed, filled, operated, and monitored at Northern Oaks Recycling and Disposal Facility (NORDF) at Harrison, MI. With a filled volume of 74,239 cubic yards, the cell contained approximately 35,317 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 20,777 tons of cover soil. It was laid on the slope of an existing cell but separated by a geosynthetic membrane liner. After the cell reached a design height of 60 feet, it was covered with a geosynthetic membrane cap. A three-dimensional monitoring system to collect data at 48 different locations was designed and installed during the construction phase of the bioreactor cell. Each location had a cluster of monitoring devices consisting of a probe to monitor moisture and temperature, a leachate collection basin, and a gas sampling port. An increase in moisture content of the MSW in the bioreactor cell was achieved by pumping leachate collected on-site from various other cells, as well as recirculation of leachate from the bioreactor landfill cell itself. Three types of leachate injection systems were evaluated in this bioreactor cell for their efficacy to distribute pumped leachate uniformly: a leachate injection pipe buried in a 6-ft wide horizontal stone mound, a 15-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer, and a 60-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer. All leachate injection systems were installed on top of the compacted waste surface. The distribution of water and resulting MSW moisture content throughout the bioreactor cell was found to be similar for the three designs. Water coming into and leaving the cell (leachate pumped in, precipitation, snow, evaporation, and collected leachate) was monitored in order to carry out a water balance. Using a leachate injection rate of 26 – 30 gal/yard3, the average moisture content increased from 25% to 35% (wet based) over the period of this study. One of the key aspects of this bioreactor landfill study was to evaluate bioreactor start up and performance in locations with colder climate. For lifts filled during the summer months, methane generation started within three months after completion of the lift. For lifts filled in winter months, very little methane production occurred even eight months after filling. The temperature data indicated that subzero or slightly above zero (oC) temperatures persisted for unusually long periods (more than six months) in the lifts filled during winter months. This was likely due to the high thermal insulation capability of the MSW and the low level of biological activity during start up. This observation indicates that bioreactor landfills located in cold climate and filled during winter months may require mechanisms to increase temperature and initiate biodegradation. Thus, besides moisture, temperature may be the next important factor controlling the biological decomposition in anaerobic bioreactor landfills. Spatial and temporal characterization of leachate samples indicated the presence of low levels of commonly used volatile organic compounds (including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and toluene) and metals (including arsenic, chromium, and zinc). Changes and leachate and gaseous sample characteristics correlated with enhanced biological activity and increase in temperature. Continued monitoring of this bioreactor landfill cell is expected to yield critical data needed for start up, design, and operation of this emerging process.

  6. Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Facilities (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides rules and guidelines for landfills, including those that treat waste to generate electricity. The law...

  7. CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants There are important issues to consider when selecting...

  8. CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities This document explores...

  9. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assamoi, Bernadette [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada); Lawryshyn, Yuri, E-mail: yuri.lawryshyn@utoronto.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residential waste diversion initiatives are more successful with organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using a incineration to manage part of the waste is better environmentally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incineration leads to more power plant emission offsets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilling all of the waste would be preferred financially. - Abstract: This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  10. Photovoltaics Business Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frantzis, L.; Graham, S.; Katofsky, R.; Sawyer, H.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work to better understand the structure of future photovoltaics business models and the research, development, and demonstration required to support their deployment.

  11. Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

  12. Photovoltaic Cell Structure Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The actual structural design of a photovoltaic (PV), or solar cell, depends on the limitations of the material used in the PV cell.

  13. Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia's glitter-sized photovoltaic cells are highly efficient and cost effective – the perfect combination for a game-changing technology.

  14. Photovoltaic Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of photovoltaic (PV) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply PV within the Federal sector.

  15. National Laboratory Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE supports photovoltaic (PV) research and development and facilities at its national laboratories to accelerate progress toward achieving the SunShot Initiative's technological and economic...

  16. Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies Print Monday, 06 February 2012 15:48 Organic solar cells based on the polymerfullerene bulk...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuels in ItsStationHydrogenNatural Gas Landfills

  18. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock. As each facility has different guidelines and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock-581-3468 Garfield City of Enid Landfill 580-249-4917 Garvin Foster Waste Disposal Landfill 405-238-2012 Jackson City-436-1403 Call ahead, may limit qty. Pottawatomie Absolute Waste Solutions 405-598-3893 Call ahead Seminole

  19. Photovoltaics industry profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A description of the status of the US photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end-user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry-organized and US government-organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included. (WHK)

  20. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  1. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  2. Photovoltaics for municipal planners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  3. Characterization of 3D Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization of 3D Photovoltaics SEMICONDUCTORS Our goal is to provide industry with test structures and models of next-generation photovoltaics, with an initial focus on cadmium telluride (Cd (nanostructured) photovoltaic devices. Objective Impact and Customers · The U.S. Photovoltaic Industry Roadmap

  4. Franklin County Sanitary Landfill - Landfill Gas (LFG) to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityFieldMinds" GiveFuture ofFRANKLIN COUNTY SANITARY

  5. Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davoli, E., E-mail: enrico.davoli@marionegri.i [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M. [Progress S.r.l., Via Nicola A. Porpora 147, 20131 Milano (Italy); Fanelli, R. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation ( and ).

  6. Metallic nanostructures for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Swee Hoe

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    enhanced performance of photovoltaic and photodetector Proc.and H. Wagner, in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. ,for Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Applications by Swee Hoe

  7. DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Submitted by Russell M Reserved #12;ABSTRACT DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Thin-film photovoltaics

  8. Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derkacs, Daniel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high-efficiency low- cost photovoltaic devices has been thehigh-efficiency low-cost photovoltaic devices has been theoverall per unit cost of photovoltaic modules. Module costs

  9. Geohydrology and groundwater geochemistry at a sub-arctic landfill, Fairbanks, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downey, J.S.; Sinton, P.O.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fairbanks-North Star Borough, Alaska, landfill is located on silt, sand, and gravel deposits of the Tanana River flood plain, about 3 miles south of the city of Fairbanks water supply wells. The landfill has been in operation for about 25 years in this sub-arctic region of discontinuous permafrost. The cold climate limits biological activity within the landfill with corresponding low gas and leachate production. Chloride concentrations, specific conductance, water temperature, and earth conductivity measurements indicate a small plume of leachate flowing to the northwest from the landfill. The leachate remains near the water table as it flows northwestward toward a drainage ditch. Results of computer modeling of this local hydrologic system indicate that some of the leachate may be discharging to the ditch. Chemical data show that higher-than-background concentrations of several ions are present in the plume. However, the concentrations appear to be reduced to background levels within a short distance along the path of groundwater flow from the landfill, and thus the leachate is not expected to affect the water supply wells. 11 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. If current capacity were to be expanded so that all of the non-recycled municipal solid waste that is currently sent to U.S. landfills each year could instead be converted to energy, we could generate enough electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    so that we could convert our non-recycled waste to alternative energy instead of landfilling it, we-recycled waste into energy instead of landfilling it, we could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by nearly our roads. The Power of Waste GARBAGE ENERGY REDUCES 123M TONS CO2 = 23M LESS CARS PLASTICS 5.7B

  11. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  12. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  13. Photovoltaic Research Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) at its national laboratory facilities located throughout the country. To encourage further innovation,...

  14. Organic Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE funds research and development projects related to organic photovoltaics (OPV) due to the unique benefits it offers. Below are a list of the projects, summary of the benefits, and discussion on...

  15. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  16. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  17. Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells use the energy in sunlight to produce electricity. However, the amount of electricity produced depends on the quality of the light available and the performance of the PV cell.

  18. Three-dimensional photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Bryan

    The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint ...

  19. Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE supports crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) research and development efforts that lead to market-ready technologies. Below are a list of the projects, summary of the benefits, and discussion...

  20. Nanocarbon-Based Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernardi, Marco

    Carbon materials are excellent candidates for photovoltaic solar cells: they are Earth-abundant, possess high optical absorption, and maintain superior thermal and photostability. Here we report on solar cells with active ...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar...

  2. General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento, California General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento, California Document describes a...

  3. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  4. Wasting Time : a leisure infrastructure for mega-landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Margaret)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are consolidating into fewer, taller, and more massive singular objects in the exurban landscape.This thesis looks at one instance in Virginia, the first regional landfill in the state to accept trash from New ...

  5. Landfill Instability and Its Implications Operation, Construction, and Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    landfill waste slide, a 300,000 cubic yard landfill failure involving a geosynthetic clay liner, and a 100 occurred involving liner systems during construction and waste containment closures. Recently an older

  6. Thermionic-photovoltaic energy converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chubb, D. L.

    1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic-photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or galium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  7. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  8. Nanowires enabling strained photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greil, J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Lugstein, A., E-mail: alois.lugstein@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Birner, S. [nextnano GmbH, Südmährenstr. 21, 85586 Poing (Germany)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic nano-devices have largely been relying on charge separation in conventional p-n junctions. Junction formation via doping, however, imposes major challenges in process control. Here, we report on a concept for photovoltaic energy conversion at the nano scale without the need for intentional doping. Our approach relies on charge carrier separation in inhomogeneously strained germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). This concept utilizes the strain-induced gradient in bandgap along tapered NWs. Experimental data confirms the feasibility of strain-induced charge separation in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NW devices with an internal quantum efficiency of ?5%. The charge separation mechanism, though, is not inherently limited to a distinct material. Our work establishes a class of photovoltaic nano-devices with its opto-electronic properties engineered by size, shape, and applied strain.

  9. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  10. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  11. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  12. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5 acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  13. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  14. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  15. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  16. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  17. Soil Insulation For Barrier Layer Protection In Landfill Covers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory Smith Roy

    Landfill covers are designed to isolate waste from the environment by incorporating low-permeability barrier layers. The barrier layer minimizes and controls gas escaping from the waste and the amount of infiltrating moisture available for leachate generation. Barrier layers are typically designed and constructed of a thick layer of compacted fine-grain native soil material or a manufactured geosynthetic clay liner. The barrier layer must be protected from frost damage. Freezing of a compacted soil layer has been shown to cause quick and irreversible degradation. Large increases in permeability have been demonstrated in compacted clay barriers subjected to a minimum number of freezing and thawing cycles. Design methods to protect the barrier layer from frost damage have not been addressed in the research literature. A design procedure is addressed in this paper that determines the thickness of soil required to protect a barrier layer. The procedure is based on sitespecific temperature ...

  18. Turning waste into energy beats landfilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    , not incineration. Miller and others also refer to incineration as a source of dioxins, and they're right. But let's put things in perspective. In Sweden, which has 30 incineration plants, the total amount of dioxins that the landfills throughout Ontario and Michigan release fewer dioxins than that, he needs to hire better advisers

  19. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  20. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  1. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  2. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar photovoltaics (PV) domestically. The SunShot Initiative aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  3. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  4. PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    management of electricity demand. · PV applications are now being integrated directly into building roofs, Valuation of Demand-Side Commercial PV Systems in the United States, we sought to measure the costPHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS-- A NATURAL MATCH A study highlighting strategic

  5. Geohydrology and ground-water geochemistry at a sub-Arctic Landfill, Fairbanks, Alaska. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downey, J.S.; Sinton, P.O.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fairbanks-North Star Borough landfill is located on silt, sand, and gravel deposits of the Tanana River flood plain, about 3 miles south of the city of Fairbanks water-supply wells. The landfill has been in operation for about 25 years in this sub-arctic region of discontinuous permafrost. The cold climate limits biological activity within the landfill with corresponding low gas and leachate production. Chloride concentrations, specific conductance, water temperatures, and earth conductivity measurements indicate a small plume of leachate flowing to the northwest from the landfill. The leachate remains near the water table as it flows northwestward toward a drainage ditch. Results of computer modeling of this local hydrologic system indicate that some of the leachate may be discharging to the ditch. Chemical data show that higher-than-background concentrations of several ions are present in the plume. However, the concentrations appear to be reduced to background levels within a short distance along the path of ground-water flow from the landfill, and thus the leachate is not expected to affect the water-supply wells.

  6. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  7. Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic Renewable Energy Research Renewable Energy inhibit the potential growth of the California photovoltaic market: high installation costs, expenses improvements have been made in recent years on the assembly and deployment of flatplate photovoltaic

  8. Photon management in thermal and solar photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaics is a technology that directly converts photon energy into electrical energy. Depending on the photon source, photovoltaic systems can be categorized into two groups: solar photovoltaics (PV) and thermophotovoltaics ...

  9. Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derkacs, Daniel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arya, D. Carlson, Prog. Photovoltaics 10, p. 69 (2002). K.and J. Bailat, Prog. in Photovoltaics 12 , 113 (2004). M.and A. Mart?´, Progress in Photovoltaics 9, p. 73 (2001). S.

  10. Mississippi Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  11. Illinois Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  12. North Carolina Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  13. Wisconsin Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  14. Tennessee Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  15. Michigan Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  16. Texas Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  17. California Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  18. Louisiana Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  19. Arkansas Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  20. New York Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  1. South Carolina Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  2. New Hampshire Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  3. Alabama Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  4. Ohio Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  5. Massachusetts Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  6. Connecticut Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  7. Maryland Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  8. Vermont Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  9. Kansas Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  10. Minnesota Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  11. Arizona Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  12. Washington Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  13. Virginia Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  14. Nebraska Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  15. Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  16. Florida Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  17. Missouri Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  18. Iowa Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  19. New Jersey Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  20. Georgia Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind...

  1. RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES PROCUREMENT PLAN This Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan ("RPS Procurement Plan" or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and tidal current Biogas Geothermal Photovoltaic Biomass Hydroelectric incremental generation from efficiency improvements Small hydroelectric (30 megawatts or less) Conduit hydroelectric Landfill gas Solar

  2. Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute exempts renewable energy equipment from property taxes. Renewable energy includes wind, solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, biomass, hydropower, geothermal, and landfill gas...

  3. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Sources: Form EIA-860, "Annual...

  4. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual...

  5. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual...

  6. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, other biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic energy, and wind. Source:Form EIA-860, "Annual...

  7. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  8. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  9. Monitoring SERC Technologies — Solar Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Market Transformation Center electrical engineer Peter McNutt about Solar Photovoltaics and how to properly monitor its installation.

  10. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepperd, L.W. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)] [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States); Richards, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major US photovoltaic system suppliers.

  11. Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Otto VanGeet on using solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to provide electricity for homes.

  12. EROI of crystalline silicon photovoltaics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundin, Johan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Installed photovoltaic nameplate power have been growing rapidly around the worldin the last few years. But how much energy is returned to society (i.e.… (more)

  13. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  14. Frequencies Studies Applied to Photovoltaic Modules.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miquel, Clément

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? This master thesis proposes to study applications of frequencies studies to the case of photovoltaic modules and photovoltaic plants. Such studies are little used… (more)

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy On May 1, 2013, in DETL, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar...

  16. Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept Collaboration Key to Enabling On-The-Fly HPC...

  17. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reductions in costs for installed photovoltaic systems. Thisreductions in costs for installed photovoltaic systems. Thisphotovoltaic technologies that improve upon current solutions by being lower cost,

  18. Field performance of a geosynthetic clay liner landfill capping system under simulated waste subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, W. [Hochschule fur Architektur und Bauwesen (Germany); Siegmund, M. [Materialforschungs - und, Prufanstalt (Germany); Alexiew, D.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible landfill capping system consisting of a 3-D-geocore composite for gas vent, a Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) for sealing and a 3-D-geocore composite for drainage of the vegetation soil was built on a test field at Michelshoehe landfill near Weimar, Germany. At four locations airbags were installed underneath the thin capping system to simulate subsidences. On top of three of these airbags overlaps of the GCL were positioned, for comparison there was no overlap at the fourth location. After hydratation of the GCL the airbags were de-aerated and subsidences occurred with app. 5 % tensile strain in the GCL. For three weeks the test field was intensively sprinkled in intervals. Then horizontal and vertical deformations were measured, but not displacements were registered in the overlaps. The evaluation of the GCL`s permeability showed no significant difference between the locations with and without overlaps.

  19. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  20. Hydrogeological Environmental Assessment of Sanitary Landfill Project at Jammu City, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagar, Bharat Bhushan; Mirza, Umar Karim

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Sanitary Landfill Project at Jammu City, India Bharata proposed landfill facility for the city of Jammu in India.landfill projects have been conceived, designed, and completed in India.

  1. Evaluation of three geophysical methods to locate undocumented landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brand, Stephen Gardner

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal Object. The Arrows Are Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Figure 45: Magnetic Profile over Area Fill, Station 19, Brenham Landfill. 84 Figure 46: Magnetic Profile over Undisturbed Area, Station... and the road. Thus the northern portion of the entrance way loop especially on the western side was not landfilled. The pond on the north western boundary of the landfill in the well buffer zone was installed for fire control purposes. After the entrance...

  2. DOE EM Landfill Workshop and Path Forward - July 2009

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SSAB Teleconference: 2. DOE EM Landfill Workshop & Path Forward Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation US Department of Energy July 2009 Slides prepared by CRESP DOE EM...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - ardeer landfill scotland Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...28 Are there risks associated with landfilling of air pollution control residues... . 79% went to landfill sites, 21% to ash processors to make into...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium-rich sanitary landfill Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Objective With engineered sanitary landfills... , biogas generation from garbage, pyrolysis and sanitary landfills. These methods include efforts... method in Indian cities....

  5. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max (Madison, WI); Liu, Feng (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  6. Metallic nanostructures for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Swee Hoe

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaics deployment, such technologies will reach their fundamental limitation in terms of efficiency,

  7. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  8. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  9. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  10. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham (Oakland, CA); Miros, Robert H. J. (Fairfax, CA); Brown, Malcolm P. (San Francisco, CA); Stancel, Robert (Loss Altos Hills, CA)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  11. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  12. Photovoltaic system reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States); Greenberg, D. [Ascension Technology, Inc., Lincoln Center, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the reliability of several photovoltaic projects including SMUD`s PV Pioneer project, various projects monitored by Ascension Technology, and the Colorado Parks project. System times-to-failure range from 1 to 16 years, and maintenance costs range from 1 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hour. Factors contributing to the reliability of these systems are discussed, and practices are recommended that can be applied to future projects. This paper also discusses the methodology used to collect and analyze PV system reliability data.

  13. Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

  14. Photovoltaics in the Classroom

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006Photovoltaic Theory and Modeling Los Alamos National Laboratory

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik SpoerkeSolar Regional Test Center in VermontContactPhotovoltaics PV

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik SpoerkeSolar Regional Test Center in VermontContactPhotovoltaics PVTutorial

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik SpoerkeSolar Regional Test Center in VermontContactPhotovoltaics

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik SpoerkeSolar Regional Test Center in VermontContactPhotovoltaicsUtility

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmitted for USMaterialsthe GoalMicrosystems Enabled Photovoltaics (MEPV)

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmitted for USMaterialsthe GoalMicrosystems Enabled Photovoltaics

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmitted for USMaterialsthe GoalMicrosystems Enabled Photovoltaics2013 PV

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmitted for USMaterialsthe GoalMicrosystems Enabled Photovoltaics2013

  3. Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris: Arsenic phased out of many residential uses in the United States, the disposal of CCA-treated wood remains. Catastrophic events have also led to the concentrated disposal of CCA-treated wood, often in unlined landfills

  4. "Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    in "Recycling". "Waste-to-Energy" is now defined as Recycling, when energy efficiency is > 0,65 Prevention Reuse Recycling and Waste-to Energy? #12;6 European Policies on Landfill Ban The EU Landfill Directive The amount Ban decided upon in 2000, in force in 2005. A very strong effect, with a strong increase of Waste-to-Energy

  5. Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills G. Vincent Calder, Ph.D.1 ; and Timothy D. Stark, Ph.D., P.E., F.ASCE2 Abstract: Aluminum enters municipal solid waste MSW landfills from untreated raw curbside trash MSW , industrial waste, and aluminum production wastes variously called dross

  6. Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 landfills may contain aluminum from residential and commercial solid waste, industrial waste, and aluminum pro- duction wastes. Some aluminum-bearing waste materials, particularly aluminum production wastes

  7. LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING GEOSYTNTHETICS Virginia L. Wilson: Geosynthetics: Lessons Learned from Failures International Geosynthetics Society editors J.P. Giroud, K.L. Soderman and G.P. Raymond November 12, 1998 #12;LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING

  8. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  9. Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coggeshall. 2008. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: DeploymentEconomics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California.Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and

  10. Soiling losses for solar photovoltaic systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mejia, Felipe A; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Large Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Californiaof Dust on Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Performance: Researchclimatology in design of photovoltaic systems. In: Markvart

  11. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and V.U. Ho?mann. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Gen- eration.Concentrations for Photovoltaic Technologies A dissertationThirteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference- 1978—

  12. Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Dekong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays. ” IEEE Trans. PowerSolar Cell Variability Photovoltaic (PV) cells manufacturedmodeling method for photovoltaic cells. ” in Proc. IEEE 35th

  13. Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaic cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    circuit diagram for a photovoltaic cell under illumination.Polymer Composite Photovoltaic Cells Wendy U. Huynh ‡ ,devices such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting-

  14. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic Cell .the materials, all photovoltaic cells operate on the basicEquation 1.2) For photovoltaic cells of all kinds and from

  15. Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Dekong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    modeling method for photovoltaic cells. ” in Proc. IEEE 35thlosses in solar photovoltaic cell networks. ” Energy 32:Cell Variability Photovoltaic (PV) cells manufactured with

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and their influence on photovoltaic cells, Solar EnergyPhotodiodes, and Photovoltaic Cells, Applied Physics LettersHeeger, Polymer Photovoltaic Cells - Enhanced Efficiencies

  17. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells”, Center for theconcerns is solar photovoltaic cells (PVs), which captureProduction of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Solar PV cells

  18. Tariffs Can Be Structured to Encourage Photovoltaic Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Be Structured to Encourage Photovoltaic Energy Ryan Wiser,of customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though theseEconomics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California,

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. W. Yu, Organic photovoltaic devices with a crosslinkablein Nanostructured Photovoltaic Devices, Recent Patents oninterfaces in organic photovoltaic devices, Solar Energy

  20. Effects of solar photovoltaic panels on roof heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the energy performance of  photovoltaic roofs, ASHRAE Trans A thermal model for photovoltaic systems, Solar Energy, Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer 

  1. Learning by doing: The evolution of state support for photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of State Support for Photovoltaics Mark Bolinger and Ryantarget the installation of photovoltaics (PV) in one way orwidespread popularity of photovoltaics (PV), along with its

  2. Optically Functional Nanomaterials: Optothermally Responsive Composites and Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okawa, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics by David Christopher OkawaPart II: Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics Chapter 6:Carbon Nanotube – Polymer Photovoltaics 6.1 Polymer-Nanotube

  3. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. C. ; Norrman, K. Prog. Photovoltaics 2007, 15, 697–712.Processed Organic Photovoltaics that Generate Chargepolymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted

  4. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Derek

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.4 Photovoltaics in Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . .milestones. Quantum dot photovoltaics is in the bottom-rightIN QUANTUM DOT PHOTOVOLTAICS A dissertation submitted in

  5. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Space-chargePolymers for Organic Photovoltaics By David Fredric JoelPolymers for Organic Photovoltaics by David Fredric Joel

  6. Comment on "coherence and uncertainty in nanostructured organic photovoltaics"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukamel, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    provide new probes for photovoltaics. The develop- ment ofin Nanostructured Organic Photovoltaics. J. Phys. Chem. Lettin Nanostructured Organic Photovoltaics” Shaul Mukamel

  7. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of Photovoltaic Cost Trends in California,”The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic ElectricityThe Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity

  8. Planning document for the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Center for Ecological Risk Assessment & Management; Bostick, K.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Environmental Science Group

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy and Department of Defense are faced with the closure of thousands of decommissioned radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste landfills as a part of ongoing Environmental Restoration activities. Regulations on the closure of hazardous and radioactive waste landfills require the construction of a ``low-permeability`` cover over the unit to limit the migration of liquids into the underlying waste. These landfills must be maintained and monitored for 30 years to ensure that hazardous materials are not migrating from the landfill. This test plan is intended as an initial road map for planning, designing, constructing, evaluating, and documenting the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD). It describes the goals/ objectives, scope, tasks, responsibilities, technical approach, and deliverables for the demonstration.

  9. Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  10. Cost comparisons of alternative landfill final covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle ``D`` Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle ``C`` Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed of uniform size, side-by-side. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  11. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%?about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  12. Photovoltaics information user study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  13. 64 kW concentrator Photovoltaics Application Test Center. Volume. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, D.M.; Jones, D.W.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kaman Sciences Corporation has designed a 64 kW Concentrating Photovoltaic Applications Test Center (APTEC). The APTEC employs a combined concentrating photovoltaic array in a total energy system application for load sharing the electric and thermal demands of a large computer center with the interfaced electric and natural gas utility. The photovoltaic array is composed of two-axis tracking heliostats of Fresnel lens concentrating, silicon solar cell modules. The modules are cooled with a fluid which transfers heat to a ground coupled heat sink/storage unit for subsequent use in meeting the computer center's thermal load demand. The combined photovoltaic power system shares basic components - a power conditioning unit, batteries and thermal conditioning equipment - with the electric and natural gas utility service, improving the computer center's operating availability time and displacing a portion of the fossil fuel required to power the computer center with solar energy. The detailed system design is reported.

  14. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  15. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  16. The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons of Geophysics #12;2 #12;The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. With several hundred MSW landfills in both the US and UK, estimating

  17. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

  18. Biomass gasification project gets funding to solve black liquor safety and landfill problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, N.P.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on biomass gasifications. The main by-product in pulp making is black liquor from virgin fiber; the main by-product in paper recycling is fiber residue. Although the black liquor is recycled for chemical and energy recovery, safety problems plague the boilers currently used to do this. The fiber residue is usually transported to a landfill. The system being developed by MTCI will convert black liquor and fiber residue into a combustible gas, which can then be used for a wide variety of thermal or power generation applications.

  19. Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoading map...(UtilityCounty, Michigan: Energy ResourcesCoMaine: Energy Resources

  20. Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(Monaster AndLittletown,Longwei Silicon Co Ltd JumpEnergy

  1. List of Landfill Gas Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolarList of Geothermal Incentives

  2. Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer County is8584°,HardyIowa Dunlap,Hart County is a

  3. Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas, October 2002 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment ofOil'sof Energy Jun Luof05/20/14WhatEnergy Powering

  4. Landfill Gas Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIanJennifer SomersKnownLabor StandardsSite | Department

  5. Albany Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergy InformationTuri BiomassWheelerLand andAlatna,Information

  6. Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCT BiomassArnprior,Aurantia SACitasUSFWSBayInformation Balefill

  7. Winnebago County Landfill Gas Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperative JumpWilliamson County,Bay, OR) JumpPhotoSouthWing, NorthWinn,

  8. Woodland Landfill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperative JumpWilliamson County,Bay,°Trap,Woodhull, New York:WoodlandRecovery

  9. Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search

  10. UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,Save Energy Now Jump to:Development Reports JumpUNF Energyof

  11. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Department ofIOWA1999) | Department2009 | Thehigh-tech

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuelsPropane Tank Overfill Safety AdvisoryRefuse

  13. RCWMD Badlands Landfill Gas Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, search RAPIDColoradosource History View New Pages Recent36 -Act

  14. Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd JumpGTZHolland, Illinois:5717551°Farms LtdLLC JumpSouthwoodSoyEnergySpadra

  15. Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity of Photovoltaic Electricity #12;IEA-PVPS-TASK 12 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME Methodology

  16. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaics (OPVs) has led to a significant increase in their power conversion efficiencies (Photovoltaics…………………………..………1 Motivation and Current Technology………………………………………………………1 Organic Photovoltaic Device Operation and Structure……………………………………2 Characterization of Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency……………………………..

  17. Rooftop Photovoltaics Market Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paidipati, J.; Frantzis, L.; Sawyer, H.; Kurrasch, A.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to model the market penetration of rooftop photovoltaics (PV) in the United States under a variety of scenarios, on a state-by-state basis, from 2007 to 2015.

  18. OTEC- Residential Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customers of Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) who install photovoltaic systems are eligible for a rebate of $500 for the first kilowatt (kW) of installed capacity per year. ...

  19. Reducing recombination in organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Jason M. (Jason Michael)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I consider two methods to improve organic photovoltaic efficiency: energy level cascades and promotion of triplet state excitons. The former relies on a thin layer of material placed between the active ...

  20. Salem Electric- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salem Electric offers a rebate to residential customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Customers have the option of receiving a rebate or a [http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive...

  1. Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 7, 2012, DOE announced $21 million in funding for the Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems Integration efforts, the following projects were...

  2. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the request of a customer or a potential customer, Colorado electric utilities are required to conduct a cost comparison of a photovoltaic (PV) system to any proposed distribution line extension...

  3. Ameren Missouri- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ameren Missouri offers rebates to its customers for the installation of net metered photovoltaic (PV) systems on their properties. The rebate is set at $2.00 per DC watt with a maximum rebate of ...

  4. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arizona Corporation Commission requires electric utilities to conduct a cost/benefit analysis to compare the cost of line extension with the cost of installing a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)...

  5. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  6. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J. (Fairfax, CA); Mittan, Margaret Birmingham (Oakland, CA); Seery, Martin N. (San Rafael, CA); Holland, Rodney H. (Novato, CA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  7. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  8. Photovoltaic cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beavis, Leonard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

  9. Landfill mining: A critical review of two decades of research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krook, Joakim, E-mail: joakim.krook@liu.se [Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, Niclas; Eklund, Mats [Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze two decades of landfill mining research regarding trends and topics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer So far landfill mining has mainly been used to solve waste management issues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new perspective on landfills as resource reservoirs is emerging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of resource extraction from landfills is significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We outline several key challenges for realization of resource extraction from landfills. - Abstract: Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research papers published during the period 1988-2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space and local pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources, mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that facilitating implementation involves a number of research challenges in terms of technology innovation, clarifying the conditions for realization and developing standardized frameworks for evaluating economic and environmental performance from a systems perspective. In order to address these challenges, a combination of applied and theoretical research is required.

  10. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    t y (2009). 11. Pacific Gas &Electric, Go Solar California:California Solar Initiative (2008). A consumer's guide toprograms such as the California Solar Initiative (CSI) to

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: No More Green Waste in the Landfill

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    No More Green Waste in the Landfill June 09, 2011 Dump Truck Image On the heels of Sandia National Laboratories' successful food waste composting program, Pollution Prevention (P2)...

  12. Modeling of leachate generation in municipal solid waste landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, James Bryan

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    parameters specified by the user. Ultimately, this model will strive to replace the time the user requires to generate and fill a given landfill geometry with time spent running and evaluating trials to yield the best design....

  13. Installation of geosynthetic clay liners at California MSW landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, M.; Jesionek, K.S.; Dunn, R.J.; Kavazanjian, E. Jr.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California regulations for liner systems at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills require that alternatives to the prescriptive federal Subtitle D liner system have a containment capability greater than that of the prescriptive system. Regulators may also require a demonstration that use of the prescriptive system is burdensome prior to approval of an alternative liner design. This paper presents seven case histories of the design and installation of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) as an alternative to the low-permeability soil component of the prescriptive Subtitle D composite liner system at MSW landfills in California. These case histories cover GCLs from different manufacturers and landfill sites with a wide range of conditions including canyon landfills with slopes as steep as 1H:1V.

  14. Brownfield landfill remediation under the Illinois EPA site remediation program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, J.; Bruce, B.; Miller, J.; Wey, T.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brownfield type landfill remediation was completed at the Ft. Sheridan Historic Landmark District, a former Army Base Realignment and Closure Facility, in conjunction with the future development of 551 historic and new homes at this site. The project was completed during 1998 under the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (Illinois EPA) Site Remediation Program. This paper highlights the Illinois EPA's Site Remediation Program and the remediation of Landfills 3 and 4 at Fort Sheridan. The project involved removal of about 200,000 cubic yards of landfill waste, comprised of industrial and domestic refuse and demolition debris, and post-removal confirmation sampling of soils, sediment, surface water, and groundwater. The sample results were compared to the Illinois Risk-Based Cleanup levels for residential scenarios. The goal of the removal project was to obtain a No Further Remediation letter from the Illinois EPA to allow residential development of the landfill areas.

  15. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powered Hydrogen Generation using Photovoltaic-ElectrolysisPowered Hydrogen Generation Using Photovoltaic?ElectrolysisPowered Hydrogen Production Using Photovoltaic Electrolysis

  16. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    way to do better. A photovoltaic cell, or solar cell, is aFor this thesis, I made photovoltaic cells using a Schottkyphotovoltaic processes oc- cur in a Schottky barrier solar cell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  17. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  18. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  19. Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  20. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Systems Research ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    845-9015 rdrobin@sandia.gov Publications available at: pvsac@sandia.gov Websites Photovoltaics energy.sandia.gov www.eere.energy.gov Tagged with: Energy * Photovoltaics * PV *...

  2. Photovoltaic cell efficiency at elevated temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Katherine Leung

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine what type of photovoltaic solar cell could best be used in a thermoelectric photovoltaic hybrid power generator, we tested the change in efficiency due to higher temperatures of three types of solar ...

  3. Photovoltaic technology development at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the following investigations being pursued under photovoltaic technology development at Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic systems technology; concentrator technology; concentrator arrays and tracking structures; concentrator solar cell development; system engineering; subsystem development; and test and applications.

  4. Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. A. Third generation photovoltaics: Ultra-high conversionmodern photovoltaic age. … in photovoltaics: research andnanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible

  5. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  6. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  7. Bexar County Parking Garage Photovoltaic Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golda Weir

    2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of the Bexar County Parking Garage Photovoltaic (PV) Panel project is to install a PV System that will promote the use of renewable energy. This project will also help sustain Bexar County ongoing greenhouse gas emissions reduction and energy efficiency goals. The scope of this project includes the installation of a 100-kW system on the top level of a new 236,285 square feet parking garage. The PV system consists of 420 solar panels that covers 7,200 square feet and is tied into the electric-grid. It provides electricity to the office area located within the garage. The estimated annual electricity production of the PV system is 147,000 kWh per year.

  8. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepperd, L.W. [ed.] [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)] [ed.; Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  9. Discovery Park Impact Network for Photovoltaic Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Discovery Park Impact Network for Photovoltaic Technology NEED Discovery Park provides for Photovoltaic Technology (NPT). The NPT is designed to be a unique venue for industry-directed, university aims to become an international center of gravity for photovoltaic research that connects islands

  10. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density Keith Mathieson1,4 , James Loudin1 to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high

  11. Low band gap polymers Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low band gap polymers for Organic Photovoltaics Eva Bundgaard Ph.D. Dissertation Risø National Bundgaard Title: Low band gap polymers for Organic photovoltaics Department: The polymer department Report the area of organic photovoltaics are focusing on low band gap polymers, a type of polymer which absorbs

  12. Photovoltaics for the Terawatt Christiana Honsberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    1 Photovoltaics for the Terawatt Challenge Christiana Honsberg Department of Electrical Computer;Photovoltaic Milestones · Germany, Spain, Italy have yearly installed PV capacity > yearly increase Workshop 02/28/14 C. Honsberg 5 5 #12;Learning Curves for Photovoltaics UD Energy Institute Solar Workshop

  13. The Solar Photovoltaics Technology Conflict between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutch, John

    A Duel in the Sun The Solar Photovoltaics Technology Conflict between China and the United States A Duel in the Sun The Solar Photovoltaics Technology Conflict between China and the United States1 John domestically, and selling interna- tionally solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity- generating technology. Over

  14. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 01: Intro & Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 01: Intro & Safety Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser@ece.montana.edu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University - Bozeman EELE408 Photovoltaics & Ventre: Photovoltaic Systems Engineering , 3E · Resources: ­ Green: Solar Cells: Operating Principles

  15. Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics Thesis by Jeffrey Paul Bosco would meet me with the same energy and enthusiasm regarding the topic of zinc phosphide photovoltaics to the field of earth-abundant photovoltaics has been indispensable to my work. Greg also made a great mentor

  16. INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is to improve the operation and sizing, the electrical and economic output of photovoltaic power systems#12;INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME TASK 2 ­ Performance, Reliability and Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems THE AVAILABILITY OF IRRADIATION DATA Report IEA-PVPS T2

  17. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 23: Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    Photovoltaic Myth #1 · Solar modules consume more energy for their production than they ever generate. ­ Most industry ­ Future recycling of modules will further reduce environmental impact 15 Photovoltaic Myth #81 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 23: Summary Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser@ece.montana.edu Department

  18. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  19. Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drinkard, Jr., William F. (Charlotte, NC); Long, Mark O. (Charlotte, NC); Goozner; Robert E. (Charlotte, NC)

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

  20. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  1. Rapid screening buffer layers in photovoltaics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    List, III, Frederick Alyious; Tuncer, Enis

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method of testing electrical impedance of a multiplicity of regions of a photovoltaic surface includes providing a multi-tipped impedance sensor with a multiplicity of spaced apart impedance probes separated by an insulating material, wherein each impedance probe includes a first end adapted for contact with a photovoltaic surface and a second end in operable communication with an impedance measuring device. The multi-tipped impedance sensor is used to contact the photovoltaic surface and electrical impedance of the photovoltaic material is measured between individual first ends of the probes to characterize the quality of the photovoltaic surface.

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - air force landfill Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Driving Forces towards Materials... lack of Waste-to-Energy capacity. 12;9 Austria As Germany, but Ban in force already in 2002. Landfill... Landfill Ban in force already in...

  3. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2012-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  4. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. (East Patchogue, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  5. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  6. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) Program from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993 (fiscal year [FY] 1993). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The FY 1993 budget authority (BA) for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $40.1 million in operating funds and $0.9 million in capital equipment funds. An additional $4.8 million in capital equipment funds were made available for the new Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) that will house the in-house PV laboratories beginning in FY 1994. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with more than $23.7 million (nearly 59%) of the FY 1993 operating funds going to 70 subcontractors. In FY 1993, DOE assigned certain other PV subcontracting efforts to the DOE Golden Field Office (DOE/GO), and assigned responsibility for their technical support to the NREL PV Program. An example is the PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) Project. These DOE/GO efforts are also reported in this document.

  7. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, K.A. (ed.)

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaics Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The SERI subcontracted PV research and development represents most of the subcontracted R D that is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program. This report covers fiscal year (FY) 1990: October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. During FY 1990, the SERI PV program started to implement a new DOE subcontract initiative, entitled the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project.'' Excluding (PVMaT) because it was in a start-up phase, in FY 1990 there were 54 subcontracts with a total annualized funding of approximately $11.9 million. Approximately two-thirds of those subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of over $3.3 million. Cost sharing by industry added another $4.3 million to that $11.9 million of SERI PV subcontracted R D. The six technical sections of this report cover the previously ongoing areas of the subcontracted program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, and the University Participation Program. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs discuss approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1990, and future research directions. Another section introduces the PVMaT project and reports the progress since its inception in FY 1990. Highlights of technology transfer activities are also reported.

  8. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  9. Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1983-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  10. Risk mitigation methodology for solid waste landfills. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, W.B.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several recent models have attempted to simulate or assess the probability and consequences of the leakage of aqueous contaminant leakage from solid waste landfills. These models incorporate common factors, including climatological and geological characteristics. Each model, however, employs a unique approach to the problem, assigns different relative weights to factors, and relies upon extrapolated small-scale experimental data and/or subjective judgment in predicting the full-scale landfill failure mechanisms leading to contaminant migration. As a result, no two models are likely to equally assess a given landfill, and no one model has been validated as a predictor of long-term performance. The United States Air Force maintains a database for characterization of potential hazardous waste sites. Records include more than 500 landfills, providing such information as waste, soil, aquifer, monitoring location data, and the results of sample testing. Through analysis of this information, nearly 300 landfills were assessed to have sufficiently, partially, or inadequately contained hazardous constituents of the wastes placed within them.

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of municipal landfill leachate as determined with bioassays and chemical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrab, Gregory Ernst

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    municipal landfill leachates were determined to have mean estimated cumulative cancer risks on the same order of magnitude (10 4) as leachates from co-disposal and hazardous waste landfills. The use of a battery of acute and chronic toxicity bioassays..., chemical analysis, and an estimated cancer risk calculation resulted in data providing evidence that municipal solid waste landfill leachates are as acutely and chronically toxic as co-disposal and hazardous waste landfill leachates. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...

  12. 11. GEOELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COVERED LANDFILL SITES: A PROCESS-ORIENTED MODEL AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meju, Max

    in disused quarries or special purpose-built structures but not all past landfill operations were adequately

  13. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  14. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  15. Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Yucel Guney1 ; Savas in municipal solid waste landfills. However, natural clays may not always provide good contaminant sorption in solid waste landfills. DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE 1090-0241 2008 134:8 1166 CE Database subject headings

  16. Understanding Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with the Electric Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with themodels and datasets. Photovoltaics fall under the broader

  17. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  18. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  19. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  20. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  1. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  2. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  3. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report represents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  4. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  5. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final PDWS for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria.

  6. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  7. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on brownfield sites in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All of the assessed sites are landfills. The sites were assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.119/kWh and incentives offered by Puerto Rico and by the serving utility, PREPA. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  9. Synthesis and photovoltaic application of coper (I) sulfide nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yue

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    polymer hybrid photovoltaic cells. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,S-CdS heterojunction photovoltaic cells. J. Appl. Phys. 45,photovoltaic devices, such as dye-sensitized solar cells 1-

  10. Synthesis and photovoltaic application of coper (I) sulfide nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yue

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices. Nano Lett. 7,nanocrystal-polymer hybrid photovoltaic cells. Appl. Phys.Gill, W. D. , Bube, R. H. Photovoltaic Properties of Cu 2 S-

  11. EXPERIMENTS with PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS for high school science students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    EXPERIMENTS with PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS for high school science students By Dick Erickson ­ Pleasant Activity ­ Testing Photovoltaic Cells ..........................5 Expected Observations: ........................................................................................................8 II. LAB ACTIVITY - TESTING PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS ..................................9 BEFORE YOU START

  12. Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Laminated Top Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Laminated Top Electrode Jung-Yong Lee, Steve T demonstrate semitransparent small molecular weight organic photovoltaic cells using a laminated silver metal cathode due to differences in optical absorption. KEYWORDS Organic photovoltaics, transparent

  13. Femtosecond laser processing of photovoltaic and transparent materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Sanghoon

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    20%  efficiency.  Progress  in  Photovoltaics.  2004;12:efficiency   tables  (version  39).  Progress  in  Photovoltaics.  efficiency   for   Cu(In,Ga)Se-­?2   thin-­?film   solar   cells   beyond   20%.   Progress   in   Photovoltaics.  

  14. Sustainability of Large Deployment of Photovoltaics: Environmental & Grid Integration Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1 Sustainability of Large Deployment of Photovoltaics: Environmental & Grid Integration Research Sustainability of Large Deployment of Photovoltaics: Environmental & Grid Integration Research www Photovoltaics Environmental Research Center Brookhaven National Laboratory #12;2 Source: PV Market Outlook

  15. Solution-processed photovoltaics with advanced characterization and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Hsin-Sheng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at the 37th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference (D. B. Mitzi, Prog. Photovoltaics 2011, 20, 6. [23] S. Bag,R. Noufi, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2012, T. Todorov, J. Tang,

  16. Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation, USA ABSTRACT In order to optimize and extend the life of photovoltaics (PV) modules, scientific photovoltaics. The statisti- cally significant relationships were investigated using lifetime and degradation

  17. Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells for enhanced conversion@bilkent.edu.tr Abstract: We propose and demonstrate semiconductor nanocrystal based photovoltaic scintillators integrated on solar cells to enhance photovoltaic device parameters including spectral responsivity, open circuit

  18. Degradation Pathway Models for Photovoltaics Module Lifetime Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Degradation Pathway Models for Photovoltaics Module Lifetime Performance Nicholas R. Wheeler, Laura data from Underwriter Labs, featuring measurements taken on 18 identical photovoltaic (PV) modules in modules and their effects on module performance over lifetime. Index Terms--photovoltaics, statistical

  19. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and V.U. Ho?mann. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Gen- eration.stacked LSC plates for photovoltaics with the green LSC onsolar concentra- tors for photovoltaics. Science, 321(5886):

  20. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  1. Chapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianfang

    Chapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy Solar Energy? · Clean · Nearly unlimited PHYS5320 Chapter Nine 3 #12;S l ll l t PHYS5320 Chapter Nine 4 Solar cell plant #12;Cars powered by photovoltaic devices PHYS5320 Chapter Nine 5 #12;Solar Energy

  2. PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS, VOL 2, 235-248 (1994) ~pplications Photovoltaics as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS, VOL 2, 235-248 (1994) ~pplications Photovoltaics as a Demand-side Management Technology: an Analysis of Peak-shaving and Direct Load Control Dept. of Energy University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaic Research and Development, Newark, DE

  3. Energizing the Next Generation with Photovoltaics Following the lead of Russian colleagues, photovoltaic (PV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Energizing the Next Generation with Photovoltaics ABSTRACT Following the lead of Russian colleagues, photovoltaic (PV) lab kits are being built and experiments and curricula are being developed for use of these kits. This Photovoltaic Sci- ence Experiments and Curriculum (PSEC) is being tested in local high

  4. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  5. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  6. Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derkacs, Daniel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogen during deposition, dangling bonds are compensated and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) can be made into a promising photovoltaic

  7. Photovoltaic Process Development and innovative Techniques.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismail, Furrukh

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Photovoltaic processing is one of the processes that have significance in semiconductor process line. It is complicated due to the no. of elements involved… (more)

  8. Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX)

    1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick Cds layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the C This invention was made with Government support under Subcontract No. ZL-7-06031-3 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  9. Photovoltaic converter having apertured reflective enclosure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

    1990-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a photovoltaic converter. It comprises: a photovoltaic cell having an incident face upon which light is directed to cause photogeneration; an enclosure over the incident face, the wall of the enclosure having a reflective inner surface spaced apart from the incident face to permit light reflected from the incident face to be re-reflected by the inner surface and back to the photovoltaic cell; and an aperture through the wall of the enclosure to permit light to fall directly upon the voltaic cell. The ratio of the area of the aperture to the are of the incident face of the photovoltaic cell is less than about 0.2.

  10. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1994 bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report lists all published documents of the Photovoltaic Program for FY 1994. Documents include conference papers, journal articles, book chapters, patents, etc.

  11. Nellis AFB 'Sun Park' Photovoltaic Power Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Briefing is: UNCLASSIFIED Headquarters Air Combat Command Nellis AFB 'Sun Park' Photovoltaic Power Project *Capt Frank Hollifield *AFLOAJACLULT Overview *Objective * Provide...

  12. Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity. First used in...

  13. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993 bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pohle, L. [ed.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report lists all published documents of the Photovoltaic Program for FY 1993. Documents include conference papers, journal articles, book chapters, etc.

  14. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules are made of several components, including the front surface materials, encapsulant, rear surface, and frame.

  15. Economic and Environmental Analysis of Photovoltaic Energy ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimpei Okido

    2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 22, 2012 ... Economic and Environmental Analysis of Photovoltaic Energy Systems via Robust Optimization. Shimpei Okido(oks1024 ***at*** hotmail.com)

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can consistently perform over time, the DOE -in ... Second Annual Electric Power Research InstituteSandia Photovoltaic Systems Symposium On April 15, 2014, in...

  17. Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies- Solar Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides a transcript of the of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics webinar, presented on 10/20/2011 by Peter McNutt.

  18. Molecular Designs Toward Improving Organic Photovoltaics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nantalaksakul, Arpornrat

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) that have been studied to date have poor power conversion efficiencies. This dissertation focuses on various molecular designs that could lead to… (more)

  19. Photovoltaics performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. [ed.] [ed.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

  20. Photovoltaics performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. (ed.) [ed.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

  1. The interaction between photovoltaic materials and building forms.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Liming

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??There is an intrinsic relationship between photovoltaic materials and building forms; although there are numerous imaginations and concepts about buildings integrated photovoltaic materials. The relationship… (more)

  2. A Photovoltaic Test Platform Realized with Multiple Independent Outputs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??In this thesis, a project to design and build a photovoltaic test platform is discussed. Essentially, it is a photovoltaic simulator designed to have multiple… (more)

  3. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment on Public Property by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment on Public Property by State and Local Governments Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment on Public Property by State and Local...

  4. Agua Caliente, World's Largest Solar Photovoltaic Plant, Helps...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Agua Caliente, World's Largest Solar Photovoltaic Plant, Helps Advance America's Solar Leadership Agua Caliente, World's Largest Solar Photovoltaic Plant, Helps Advance America's...

  5. Effect of Solar Panel Cooling on Photovoltaic Performance.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Rehan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? One of the main problems in using the photovoltaic system is the low energy conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells and, furthermore, during the long… (more)

  6. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Derek

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell efficiency milestones. Quantum dot photovoltaics is inphotovoltaics provide the potential to create high-efficiencycell efficiency milestones. Quantum dot photovoltaics is in

  7. Geosynthetics in Landfills Prepared by M. Bouazza and J. Zornberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    ; · geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs), which are composite materials consisting of bentonite and geosynthetics and a #12;geomembrane/compacted clay liner composite as the secondary liner system. The leak detectionGeosynthetics in Landfills Prepared by M. Bouazza and J. Zornberg Geosynthetics are extensively

  8. Story Road Landfill Solar Site Evaluation: San Jose

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the findings of a solar site evaluation conducted at the Story Road Landfill (Site) in the City of San Jose, California (City). This evaluation was conducted as part of a larger study to assess solar potential at multiple public facilities within the City.

  9. Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume E T H A N L . G R O S S M A N , * , L U I, and methane, and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its

  10. Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, K.W.; Schrab, G.E.; Donnelly, K.C.

    to be representative of landfills of differing ages and types of wastes. Each sample was tested through three genetic toxicity bioassays (The Aspergillus diploid assay, the Bacillus DNA repair assay and the Salmonella/microsome assay) to measure the ability of each...

  11. Biological Removal of Siloxanes from Landfill and Digester Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    volatilize from waste at landfills and wastewater treatment plants (1). As a result, biogas produced, as well as an increase in maintenance costs (6, 7). The presence of VMSs in biogas is thus a challenge recommended by most equipment manufacturers for un- hindered use (6). Of all VMSs in biogas

  12. Impacts of Market and Technical Characteristics for Developments of Photovoltaic Industry- A Study of Japanese Photovoltaic Industry.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Jung-Yu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The thesis discusses the restrictions of photovoltaic industrial market and technical characteristics, and the reactions of Japanese government and photovoltaic industry. Furthermore, this thesis studies… (more)

  13. Solar Power: Using Photovoltaics to Preserve California's Electricity Capacity Reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herig, C..

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California Power Authority (CPA) is committed to increasing the use of renewable energy supplies--such as photovoltaics and wind--as a hedge against price fluctuations of electricity and natural gas. The CPA wants to own and operate an adequate supply of reserve generation that: - Can be deployed quickly in response to severe summer peak loads, unexpected loss of base and intermediate generation units, and failure of critical transmission facilities; - Will minimize the reliance on spot market purchases during periods when the State is most vulnerable to price gouging from private generators.

  14. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn F. Geisz, Ph.D. PrincipalPhotovoltaic Manufacturing

  15. Solar Photovoltaics development -Status and perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Photovoltaics development - Status and perspectives Jørgen Fenhann Risø National Laboratory for the development of solar photovoltaics, contributing to the Macro Task E1 on production cost for fusion.S. with 53 MWp followed by Japan and EU. Until now off-grid installation have dominated the solar PV market

  16. Sustainability of Large Photovoltaic Deployment: Environmental Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Sustainability of Large Photovoltaic Deployment: Environmental Research Sustainability of Large Photovoltaic Deployment: Environmental ResearchEnvironmental ResearchEnvironmental Research Vasilis Fthenakis, Cu, Fe) CdSO4 Cd Metal Tellurium Clean Glass Cd Electrowinning Cell Cu Recovery Te Separation from Cd

  17. National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanSant, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Greg; Berry, Joseph; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Kurtz, Sarah

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) focuses on technology innovations that drive industry growth in U.S. photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. The NCPV is a central resource for our nation's capabilities in PV research, development, deployment, and outreach.

  18. Photovoltaic Energy Program overview, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaic Energy Program fosters the widespread acceptance of photovoltaic (PV) technology and accelerates commercial use of US PV products. The Program is founded on a collaborative strategy involving industry, the research and development community, potential users, utilities, and state and federal agencies. There are three main Program elements: Systems Engineering and Applications, Technology Development, and Research and Development.

  19. National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    VanSant, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Greg; Berry, Joseph; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Kurtz, Sarah

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) focuses on technology innovations that drive industry growth in U.S. photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. The NCPV is a central resource for our nation's capabilities in PV research, development, deployment, and outreach.

  20. Photovoltaic Installations at Williams College Ruth Aronoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    generation using solar power. Photovoltaic (PV) panel installations are a simple way for the College facilities, it is now evaluating in detail the environmental impact of these actions. In addition to making1 Photovoltaic Installations at Williams College Ruth Aronoff Williams Luce Project SUMMARY

  1. Solar photovoltaic residence in Carlisle, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strong, S. J.; Nichols, B. E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first solar photovoltaic house designed and constructed under the US Department of Energy's Solar Photovoltaic Residential Project has been completed. The house, which is powered by a 7-kWp PV system, will be used to assess the occupants' acceptance of and reactions to residential photovoltaic systems and to familiarize utilities, builders, developers, town building officials and others with issues concerning photovoltaic installations. The house is located on a two-acre lot in Carlisle, approximately twenty miles northwest of Boston. Built by a local architect/developer team, the house includes energy conservation and passive solar features. It utilizes a roof-mounted, flat-plate PV array which operates in a two-way energy exchange mode with the electric utility. The energy conservation and passive solar features of this house are described and a detailed description of the utility-interactive photovoltaic system is presented, along with initial performance data.

  2. EPJ Photovoltaics 2, 20301 (2011) www.epj-pv.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPJ Photovoltaics 2, 20301 (2011) www.epj-pv.org DOI: 10.1051/epjpv/2011001 c Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2011 EPJ PhotovoltaicsEPJ Photovoltaics Geometrical optimization and electrical online: 1 April 2011 Abstract This article investigates the optimal efficiency of a photovoltaic system

  3. Photovoltaics Green is a Prerequisite for Sustainable Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1 Photovoltaics Green is a Prerequisite for Sustainable Growth Vasilis Fthenakis1 and Brent Nelson2 impact on the environment, are the key drivers of photovoltaic energy development Photovoltaic life Criteria Photovoltaics are required to meet the need for abundant electricity generation at competitive

  4. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  5. Photovoltaic Films - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 TheStevenAdministrationPhotometric(dmpePhotovoltaic

  6. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  7. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells. ” Center for theR. Margolis. 2004. “Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toLepley. 1993. “Distributed photovoltaic system evaluation by

  8. An Analysis of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Prices in California.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Homeof homes with existing photovoltaic (PV) energy systems havegrid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems were

  9. Photovoltaic performance of ultra-small PbSe quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Wanli

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y; Alivisatos, AP, Photovoltaic Devices Employing TernaryPhotovoltaic performance of ultra-small PbSe quantum dotsquantum dot, solar cell, photovoltaic, quantum size effect

  10. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells. ” Center for theR. Margolis. 2004. “Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toLepley. 1993. “Distributed photovoltaic system evaluation by

  11. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electricity from photovoltaic cells to convert CO 2 intoSolar Energy Anode Photovoltaic Cell Cathode PP Mesh SpacerCoupling a Photovoltaic Solar Cell with a Homogeneous

  12. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for efficient photovoltaic cells, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 568-for efficient photovoltaic cells, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 568-trapping in thin-film photovoltaic cells, Opt. Express 8,

  13. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microcrystalline- silicon photovoltaic cell, B) range ofpayback of roof mounted photovoltaic cells. Boustead, I. andmicrocrystalline-silicon photovoltaic cell, B) range of

  14. Valuing the Time-Varying Electricity Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Severin BorensteinProduction of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Severin Borenstein 1concerns is so- lar photovoltaic cells (PVs), which capture

  15. Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Luminescent Solar Concentrators And Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Shin Woei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using front-facing photovoltaic cell luminescent solarwith front-facing photovoltaic cells using weighted Montefor tandem photovoltaic cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516,

  16. Rational Design and Preparation of Organic Semiconductors for use in Field Effect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauldin, Clayton Edward

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in thin film organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) is presented.Effect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells By Clayton EdwardEffect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells By Clayton Edward

  17. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen Generation using Photovoltaic-Electrolysis Devices.6128-6141. Gratzel, M. Photovoltaic and PhotoelectrochemicalHydrogen Generation Using Photovoltaic?Electrolysis Devices.

  18. Photovoltaic Devices Employing Ternary PbSxSe1-x Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic Devices Employing Ternary PbS x Se 1-xalloy nanoparticles. Photovoltaic devices made using ternaryInformation for Efficient Photovoltaic Devices Employing

  19. Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-Transfer Complexes and Titanium Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillon, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RIVERSIDE Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-DISSERTATION Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-function of photovoltaic (PV) and photocatalytic (PC)

  20. Modeling Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaic Generation: A Hidden State Spatial Statistical Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callaway, Duncan S; Tabone, Michaelangelo D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND UNCERTAINTY OF PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATION [9] M. Milligan,for grid-connected photovoltaic system based on advancedand uncertainty in solar photovoltaic generation at multiple

  1. Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems in California: The Effect on Home Sales Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems in California: Thethe marginal impacts of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems ons largest market for photovoltaic solar (PV), with nearly

  2. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    installed power from photovoltaic systems worldwide fromBest research photovoltaic efficiencies (Kazmerski,as a function of time for numerous types of photovoltaic

  3. A Cradle to Grave Framework for Environmental Assessment of Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa; Dornfeld, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impacts and costs of photovoltaic systems: Current state ofEnergy Payback Time for Photovoltaic Modules,” ProceedingsLife-cycle assessment of photovoltaic modules: Comparison of

  4. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies? Center for thefrom Residential Photovoltaic Systems Naïm R. Darghouth,FROM RESIDENTIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS Naïm R. Darghouth

  5. Do Photovoltaic Energy Systems Effect Residential Selling Prices? Results from a California Statewide Investigation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DO PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEMS AFFECT RESIDENTIAL SELLINGopportunity employer. DO PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEMS AFFECTin the U.S. have sold with photovoltaic (PV) energy systems

  6. Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high conversion efficiency photovoltaics, utilizing self-low-cost and low-efficiency photovoltaics. Third generationgeneration photovoltaics: Ultra-high conversion efficiency

  7. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics, Nat. Mater. 11, 174-devices towards high-efficiency photovoltaics”, 39th IEEEto ensure high-efficiency nanostructured photovoltaics: each

  8. Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Luminescent Solar Concentrators And Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Shin Woei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for building integrated photovoltaics,” 2013, vol. 8821, pp.of building integrated photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy, vol. 85,of building-integrated photovoltaics,” Energy, vol. 26, no.

  9. The Effects of Non-Uniform Electronic Properties on Thin Film Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Gregory Ferguson

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Third   Generation  Photovoltaics:  Advanced  Solar  R.   Noufi,  Prog.  Photovoltaics  16,  235-­?239  (2008).  M.  Green,  Prog.  Photovoltaics  17,  183-­?189  (2009).  

  10. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan A dissertationcost Electronics and Photovoltaics Copyright © 2009 By HengLow-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan Doctor of

  11. Letting The Sun Shine On Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation Of Photovoltaic Cost Trends In California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Cappers, Peter; Margolis, Robert

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC COST TRENDS IN CALIFORNIA RyanInvestigation of Photovoltaic Cost Trends in California”,cost of customer-sited, grid-connected solar photovoltaic (

  12. Sustainability of Very Large Photovoltaic DeploymentSustainability of Very Large Photovoltaic Deployment email: vmf5@columbia.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1 Sustainability of Very Large Photovoltaic DeploymentSustainability of Very Large Photovoltaic for Life Cycle Analysis Columbia University and National Photovoltaics Environmental Research Center, 2006 - Fthenakis & Alsema, Progress in Photovoltaics, 14, 275, 2006 #12;9 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

  13. Mixed waste landfill annual groundwater monitoring report April 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, Mark L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual groundwater sampling was conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories' Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL) in April 2005. Seven monitoring wells were sampled using a Bennett{trademark} pump in accordance with the April 2005 Mini-Sampling and Analysis Plan for the MWL (SNL/NM 2005). The samples were analyzed off site at General Engineering Laboratories, Inc. for a broad suite of radiochemical and chemical parameters, and the results are presented in this report. Sample splits were also collected from several of the wells by the New Mexico Environment Department U.S. Department of Energy Oversight Bureau; however, the split sample results are not included in this report. The results of the April 2005 annual groundwater monitoring conducted at the MWL showed constituent concentrations within the historical ranges for the site and indicated no evidence of groundwater contamination from the landfill.

  14. Emissions inventories for MSW landfills under Title V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, W.G. [SCS Engineers, Reston, VA (United States); Peyser, T.R. [SCS Engineers, Birmingham, AL (United States); Hamilton, S.M. [SCS Engineers, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past, many states were either not concerned with, or unaware that, municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) were potential sources of regulated air pollutants. This philosophy is rapidly changing, in part due to US EPA policy documents concerning (and defining) fugitive and non-fugitive emissions from MSWLFs, the attention given to the newly released New Source Performance Standards and a recent lawsuit that gained national notoriety involving landfill air emissions and air permitting applicability issues. Most states now recognize that MSWLFs are sources of regulated air pollutants and are subject to permitting requirements (and pollutant emission fees) as other industries; i.e., state-level minor- and major-source operating permit programs, and the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments Title V Operating Permits Program (Title V).

  15. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included.

  16. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (Data Only) - First Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during First Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Proteciton Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  17. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-0874A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  18. Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, B.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Austin, TX (United States); Bonaparte, R.; Othman, M.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers (SHBs) used in waste containment or remediation applications. In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system (LCS) and leak detection system (LDS) liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs. Operational data for over 200 waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The top liner of the double-liner system for the units is either a geomembrane (GMB) alone, geomembrane overlying a geosynthetic clay liner (GMB/GCL), or geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (GMB/CCL). In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: (i) infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste (i.e., source control). SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper.

  19. Ocean County Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoading map...(Utility Company)ReferencesNuiqsut,Place,Oakmont,ObionAcres, New56°,Landfill

  20. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  1. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  2. Future contingencies and photovoltaic system worth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G. J.; Thomas, M. G.; Bonk, G. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The value of dispersed photovoltaic systems connected to the utility grid has been calculated using the General Electric Optimized Generation Planning program. The 1986 to 2001 time period was used for this study. Photovoltaic systems were dynamically integrated, up to 5% total capacity, into 9 NERC based regions under a range of future fuel and economic contingencies. Value was determined by the change in revenue requirements due to the photovoltaic additions. Displacement of high cost fuel was paramount to value, while capacity displacement was highly variable and dependent upon regional fuel mix.

  3. Making the most of residential photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, S.; Parker, D.; Hayter, S.

    1999-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Making the Most of Residential Photovoltaic Systems, was recently produced by NREL Communications and Public Affairs. It showcases a demonstration project in Florida that produced some remarkable results by incorporating both energy efficiency and photovoltaic systems into newly built housing. The brochure points up the benefits of making wise personal choices about energy use, and how large-scale use of advanced energy technologies can benefit the nation. This is one of a series of brochures that presents stimulating information about photovoltaics, with a goal of helping to push this technology into the power-generation mix in different utilities, communities, and states.

  4. Request for Information on Photovoltaic Module Recycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative requests feedback from industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders on issues related to photovoltaic (PV) module recycling technology. SunShot intends to understand the current state of recycling technology and the areas of research that could lead to impactful recycling technologies to support the developing PV industry. The intent of this request for information is to generate discussion related to planning for the end of life of photovoltaic modules and to create a list of high impact research topics in photovoltaics recycling.

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing landfill performance Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    , either in designated monofills or co-disposal landfills, significant leaching of dioxins and furans Source: Columbia University - Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - annual international landfill Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    leachate are pollution of groundwater and surface waters. Landfill leachate contains pollutants that can Source: Barlaz, Morton A. - Department of Civil, Construction, and...

  7. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.C. Adams

    2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT, MIAMISBURG, OHIO DCN: 0468-SR-02-0

  8. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.C. Adams

    2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT, MIAMISBURG, OHIO DCN: 0468-SR-03-0

  9. Application of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel for refuse trucks in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gokhale, Bhushan

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    sludge, and non hazardous industrial waste (8,9). The solid waste materials are classified under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (10). The next section describes different methods used for managing... REVIEW.......................................................................................4 Solid Waste Management.................................................................................4 LFG Cleaning Processes...

  10. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from the GridwiseSiteDepartmentChallengeCompliance7/109THETTU U . . S S .Tapping

  11. SIXTH QUARTERLY REPORT OF RESEARCH ON CuxS - (Cd,Zn)S PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY CONVERTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, B.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for use in experimental photovoltaic cells. Hall mobilityvacuum method for photovoltaic cell fabrication" However,

  12. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogen dilution in silane on light induced degradation of hydrogenated amor- phous silicon films for solar photovoltaichydrogen content from 14-22%[76]. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon has promise as a photovoltaic

  13. Battery compatibility with photovoltaic charge controllers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, S.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bower, W.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems offer a cost-effective solution to provide electrical power for a wide variety of applications, with battery performance playing a major role in their success. This paper presents some of the results of an industry meeting regarding battery specifications and ratings that photovoltaic system designers require, but do not typically have available to them. Communications between the PV industry and the battery industry regarding appropriate specifications have been uncoordinated and poor in the past. This paper also discusses the effort under way involving the PV industry and battery manufacturers, and provides a working draft of specifications to develop and outline the information sorely needed on batteries. The development of this information is referred to as ``Application Notes for Batteries in Photovoltaic Systems.`` The content of these ``notes`` has been compiled from various sources, including the input from the results of a survey on battery use in the photovoltaic industry. Only lead-acid batteries are discussed

  14. Modesto Irrigation District- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modesto Irrigation District offers a photovoltaic rebate program for all of their electric customers. The peak output capacity of a system must be 1 kW or greater to participate. Systems up to 30...

  15. Practical Roadmap and Limits to Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunt, Richard R.

    The significant research interest in the engineering of photovoltaic (PV) structures at the nanoscale is directed toward enabling reductions in PV module fabrication and installation costs as well as improving cell power ...

  16. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    has long been identified as a method to abate such heat gains. We present test results from using the photovoltaic (PV) attic ventilator fans in a test home to assess impact on attic and cooling energy performance....

  17. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence and Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, W. K.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Dippo, P.; Geisz, J.; Wanlass, M. W.; Kurtz, S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) technique and its ability to characterize recombination in bulk photovoltaic semiconductor materials are reviewed. Results from a variety of materials and a few recent studies are summarized and compared.

  18. Sawnee EMC- Solar Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sawnee EMC offers a rebate of $300 per kilowatt (kW) to residential customers who install photovoltaic (PV) systems that meet the cooperative's [http://www.sawnee.com/Rate%20Pdfs/NEM%20Rider.pdf...

  19. Ashland Electric Utility- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers electric customers installing photovoltaic systems a rebate of either $0.75 per watt (residential) or $1.00 per watt (commercial), up to a maximum...

  20. GreyStone Power- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative in Georgia, offers a rebate for solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to members. The one-time rebate is offered for PV installations that are interconnected...

  1. Central Georgia EMC- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 2008, Central Georgia Electric Membership Corporation (CGEMC) began offering a rebate of $450 per kilowatt (kW) to residential members who install photovoltaic (PV) systems that are...

  2. Poudre Valley REA- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poudre Valley REC is providing rebates to their residential customers who install photovoltaic (PV) systems on their homes. This rebate program was timed to coincide with the Colorado Governor's...

  3. Residential photovoltaic worth : a summary assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two critical perspectives have been addressed by the analyses of residential photovoltaic worth. For the researcher and designer have been established allowable costs. For the homeowner and institutional decision-makers ...

  4. Silicon cast wafer recrystallization for photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hantsoo, Eerik T. (Eerik Torm)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current industry-standard methods of manufacturing silicon wafers for photovoltaic (PV) cells define the electrical properties of the wafer in a first step, and then the geometry of the wafer in a subsequent step. The ...

  5. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan (El Cerrito, CA); Graves, Simon (Berkeley, CA); Lenox, Carl J. S. (Oakland, CA); Culligan, Matthew (Berkeley, CA); Danning, Matt (Oakland, CA)

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  6. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  7. Effects of Metastabilities on CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster describes a SunShot Initiative solar project led by a team from Nexcis Photovoltaic Technology entitled "Effects of Metastabilities on CIGS Photovoltaic Modules." The team studied the driving force of the mechanisms which governs the different observed phases during storage, light exposition and annealing. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of this phenomenon and hence a better evaluation of its impact on solar panel reliability.

  8. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  9. Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Luminescent Solar Concentrators And Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Shin Woei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain,Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Valencia, Spain,

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - aquatic center photovoltaic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to synthesize conjugated polymer composites for use in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices Greenscale Center... , optoelectronics, polymer photovoltaics, and control...

  11. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  12. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  13. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontract research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics (PV) Program from October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996 (fiscal year [FY] 1996). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to: "Work in partnership with U.S. industry to develop and deploy photovoltaic technology for generating economically competitive electric power, making photovoltaics an important contributor to the nation's and the world's energy use and environmental improvement. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the U.S. PV industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the U.S. industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NREL PV Program provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals.

  14. Sardinia 2007, Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium Potential for Reducing Global Methane Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    for Reducing Global Methane Emissions From Landfills, 2000-2030 E. MATTHEWS1 , N. J. THEMELIS2 1 NASA Goddard methane (CH4 )annually to the world's total CH4 emission of ~550 Tg/yr. Recycling and thermal treatment destined for landfills and to mitigating CH4 emission. Waste generation is estimated to more than double

  15. SERVICE LIFE OF A LANDFILL LINER SYSTEM SUBJECTED TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SERVICE LIFE OF A LANDFILL LINER SYSTEM SUBJECTED TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Timothy D. Stark, Ph and possible publication in the ASCE Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management April 14-Engineered-Components-ServiceLife-Submission_2.pdf #12;2 SERVICE LIFE OF LANDFILL LINER SYSTEMS SUBJECTED TO ELEVATED1 TEMPERATURES2 Timothy D

  16. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  17. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Moyer Landfill Site, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Moyer Landfill is an inactive privately owned landfill located in Lower Providence Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The site was operated as a municipal landfill from the 1940's until April 1981, during which time it received municipal refuse and sewage sludges. According to local Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officials, the landfill accepted a variety of solid and liquid hazardous wastes, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, paints, low-level radioactive wastes, and incinerated materials in bulk form and/or containerized in drums. In 1972, when the Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources (PADER) rules and regulations became more restrictive, this landfill was cited, and finally in 1981, it was closed and brought into receivership of the U.S. District Court.

  19. Landfill Methane Project Development Handbook | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJuno Beach,October, 2012 - 08:20EmissionLandfill Methane

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- West Lake Landfill - MO 05

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofof EnergyYou areDowntown Site -Miami -New JerseyLake Landfill -