Sample records for landfill gas microturbines

  1. Gas-driven microturbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.; McWhorter, P.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Miller, W.M.

    1996-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an invention which relates to microtechnology and the fabrication process for developing microelectrical systems. It describes a means for fabricating a gas-driven microturbine capable of providing autonomous propulsion in which the rapidly moving gases are directed through a micromachined turbine to power devices by direct linkage or turbo-electric generators components in a domain ranging from tenths of micrometers to thousands of micrometers.

  2. Gas-driven microturbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sniegowski, Jeffrey J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, Murray S. (Albuquerque, NM); McWhorter, Paul J. (Albuquerque, NM); Aeschliman, Daniel P. (Cedar Crest, NM); Miller, William M. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microturbine fabricated by a three-level semiconductor batch-fabrication process based on polysilicon surface-micromachining. The microturbine comprises microelectromechanical elements formed from three polysilicon multi-layer surfaces applied to a silicon substrate. Interleaving sacrificial oxide layers provides electrical and physical isolation, and selective etching of both the sacrificial layers and the polysilicon layers allows formation of individual mechanical and electrical elements as well as the required space for necessary movement of rotating turbine parts and linear elements.

  3. Microturbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Microturbines are small combustion turbines, approximately the size of a refrigerator, with outputs of 25-500 kilowatt (kW). They evolved from automotive and truck turbochargers, auxiliary power units for airplanes, and small jet engines and are composed of a compressor, a combustor, a turbine, an alternator, a recuperator, and a generator. Microturbines offer a number of potential advantages over other technologies for small-scale power generation. These include their small number of moving parts, compact size, light weight, greater efficiency, lower emissions, lower electricity costs, and ability to use waste fuels. They can be located on sites with space limitations for the production of power, and waste heat recovery can be used to achieve efficiencies of more than 80%. Turbines are classified by the physical arrangement of their component parts: single-shaft or two-shaft, simple-cycle or recuperated, inter-cooled, and reheat. The machines generally rotate more than 40,000 rotations per minute (rpm). Bearing selection, whether the manufacturer uses oil or air, is dependent on use. Single-shaft is the more common design because it is simpler and less expensive to build. Conversely, the split shaft is necessary for machine drive applications because it does not require an inverter to change the frequency of the AC power.

  4. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    USA ICEF2006-1578 LANDFILL GAS FUELED HCCI DEMONSTRATIONengine that runs on landfill gas. The project team led bynatural gas and simulated landfill gas as a fuel source.

  5. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    USA ICEF2006-1578 LANDFILL GAS FUELED HCCI DEMONSTRATIONengine that runs on landfill gas. The project team led bygas and simulated landfill gas as a fuel source. This

  6. Subtask 3.16 - Low-BTU Field Gas Application to Microturbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren Schmidt; Benjamin Oster

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-energy gas at oil production sites presents an environmental challenge to the sites owners. Typically, the gas is managed in flares. Microturbines are an effective alternative to flaring and provide on-site electricity. Microturbines release 10 times fewer NOx emissions than flaring, on a methane fuel basis. The limited acceptable fuel range of microturbines has prevented their application to low-Btu gases. The challenge of this project was to modify a microturbine to operate on gases lower than 350 Btu/scf (the manufacturer's lower limit). The Energy & Environmental Research Center successfully operated a Capstone C30 microturbine firing gases between 100-300 Btu/scf. The microturbine operated at full power firing gases as low as 200 Btu/scf. A power derating was experienced firing gases below 200 Btu/scf. As fuel energy content decreased, NO{sub x} emissions decreased, CO emissions increased, and unburned hydrocarbons remained less than 0.2 ppm. The turbine was self-started on gases as low as 200 Btu/scf. These results are promising for oil production facilities managing low-Btu gases. The modified microturbine provides an emission solution while returning valuable electricity to the oilfield.

  7. LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND PRELIMINARY MODELING RESULTS O.BOUR*, E,UniversitéLaval, Sainte-Foy, Canada SUMMARY: Lateral landfill gas migration occurs in the surroundings of a MSW landfill complementary physical measures were used to build a conceptual model of lateral landfill gas migration

  8. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  9. Microturbine cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon, R.J.; Snoek, C.W.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Canadian government research agency has developed a heat recovery system, in partnership with a commercial firm, for use with microturbines. These small recuperated gas turbines are becoming commercially available and offer potential as the basis for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems. The agency has developed a series of microturbine field trial projects with several Canadian gas and electric utilities. This paper reports results from the heat recovery prototype testing together with a description of the planned field trial program and the heat recovery system design.

  10. ROCKY MOUNTAIN OILFIELD TESTING CENTER MICROTURBINE PROJECT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrical power. 1 MICROTURBINE-GENERATOR SYSTEM: There are several manufacturers of gas microturbine-generators. The system that was tested was a Capstone Turbine Corporation...

  11. Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas, October 2002 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prev next > Sun Mon Tue WedWhatEnergy Powering

  12. Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas, October 2002 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Powersubsidiary of

  13. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009 The United States

  14. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study, 2013 Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

  15. Gas-driven microturbine [Continuation-in-part of application Serial No. 08/773,148

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sniegowski, Jeffrey J.; Rodgers, Murray S.; McWhorter, Paul J.; Aeschliman, Daniel P.; Miller, William M.

    1999-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a means of fabricating a gas-driven microturbine that is capable of providing autonomous propulsion in which the rapidly moving gases are directed through a micromachined turbine to power mechanical, electrical, or electromechanical devices by direct mechanical linkage of turbo-electric generator components in a domain ranging from tenths of micrometers to thousands of micrometers. By optimally selecting monopropellants or bipropellants to be the fuel set, a more efficient gas-driven microturbine can be realized from the increased mass flow rate of the gas stream due to the higher combustion reaction energies of these fuel sets. Additionally, compressed gas can be utilized to provide a high-flow gas stream for the gas-driven microturbine. The present invention is adaptable to many defense and non-defense applications, including the provision of mechanical power for miniature devices such as fans, geared mechanisms, mechanical linkages, actuators, bio-medical procedures, manufacturing, industrial, aviation, computers, safety systems, and electrical generators.

  16. Renewable LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to LNG Plant Renewable LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to LNG Plant Success story about LNG from landfill gas....

  17. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects Webinar (text version) Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects Webinar (text version) Below is the text...

  18. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  19. Capture and Utilisation of Landfill Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    . In his 2003 review of energy recovery from landfill gas, Willumsen1 reported that as of 2001, there were thermal energy, or 20,000 tonnes of methane (CH4) per year. LANDFILLING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE 40 Austria 15 Switzerland 10 Norway 20 Denmark 21 Sweden 70 Finland 10 Poland 10 Czech Republic 5

  20. Long term performance of boilers using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulledge, J.; Cosulich, J.; Ahmed, S.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US EPA estimates that approximately 600 to 700 landfills produce sufficient gas for profitable energy production in the United States. The gas from these landfills could provide enough electricity for about 3 million homes. Yet, there are only about 120 operating landfill gas to energy facilities. A lack of information on successful projects may cause part of this shortfall. This paper provides information on 4 successful projects using landfill gas fired boilers, some of which have operated over a decade. Natural gas fired boilers can be easily converted to bum landfill gas. Several modifications to Districts` boilers, described in this paper, have resulted in many years of safe and corrosion free operation. Most of the modifications are minor. Conversion can be accomplished for under $100,000 in many cases. Information on the reliability and longevity of landfill gas supplies is also provided. Gas from a given landfill is generally available over 99.5% of the time with about 5 brief flow interruptions annually. Actual data from 3 landfills document the high availability of landfill gas. To show the longevity of landfill gas flows, data from the Palos Verdes Landfill are provided. The Palos Verdes Landfill closed in 1980. The Palos Verdes. Landfill Gas to Energy Facility is currently producing over 8 megawatts. Landfill gas pretreatment is not required for boilers. In cases where the landfill gas is being piped offsite, it is usually cost effective to dehydrate the landfill gas. Landfill gas bums cleaner than natural gas. NO{sub x} emissions from landfill gas fired boilers are lower because of the carbon dioxide in the landfill gas. Trace organic destruction efficiency is usually over 99% in landfill gas fired boilers. In addition, flare emissions are eliminated when landfill gas is used to displace fossil fuels in boilers.

  1. Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dever, S.A. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia) and GHD Pty. Ltd., 10 Bond Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia)]. E-mail: stuart_dever@ghd.com.au; Swarbrick, G.E. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: g.swarbrick@unsw.edu.au; Stuetz, R.M. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.stuetz@unsw.edu.au

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions.

  2. DETERMINATION OF GUIDANCE VALUES FOR CLOSED LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DETERMINATION OF GUIDANCE VALUES FOR CLOSED LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS O. BOUR*, S. BERGER**, C Gambetta, 74 000 Annecy SUMMARY: In order to promote active landfill gas collection and treatment or natural attenuation, it is necessary to identify trigger values concerning landfill gas emissions

  3. Characterization of landfill gas composition at the Fresh Kills municipal solid-waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eklund, B.; Anderson, E.P.; Walker, B.L.; Burrows, D.B. [Radian International, LLC, Austin, TX (United States)] [Radian International, LLC, Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most common disposal method in the US for municipal solid waste (MSW) is burial in landfills. Until recently, air emissions from these landfills were not regulated. Under the New Source Performance Standards and Emission Guidelines for MSW landfills, MSW operators are required to determine the nonmethane organic gas generation rate of their landfill through modeling and/or measurements. This paper summarizes speciated nonmethane organic compound (NMOC) measurement data collected during an intensive, short-term field program. Over 250 separate landfill gas samples were collected from emission sources at the Fresh Kills landfill in New York City and analyzed for approximately 150 different analytes. The average total NMOC value for the landfill was 438 ppmv (as hexane) versus the regulatory default value of 4,000 ppmv (as hexane). Over 70 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected and quantified in the landfill gas samples. The typical gas composition for this landfill was determined as well as estimates of the spatial, temporal, and measurement variability in the gas composition. The data for NMOC show that the gas composition within the landfill is equivalent to the composition of the gas exiting the landfill through passive vents and through the soil cover.

  4. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  5. LANDFILL-GAS-TO-ENERGY PROJECTS: AN ANALYSIS OF NET PRIVATE AND SOCIAL BENEFITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Materials Table A1: Model Results for West Lake Landfill WEST LAKE IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Landfill WEST COUNTY IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Average Landfill Gas Generation (mmcf/yr) 1,075 1,735 $1,250 Table A3: Model Results for Modern Landfill MODERN IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Average

  6. Development of a Thermal Oxidizer for Distributed Microturbine Based Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Barton

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project concerns the replacement of the catalytic bed in a microturbine with a thermal oxidizer. The advantage of a thermal oxidizer over a traditional combustion chamber is that the length and temperature of the device allows the volatile species to oxidize relatively slowly and without a flame front. With no flame, the temperature increase throughout the unit is spread over a much larger volume so there is no hot spot for thermal NO{sub x} formation, and the gas Btu level does not have to be above the ignition concentration. Project specific objectives included assessment of the materials and performance requirements of the thermal oxidizer, design the thermal oxidizer system, fabrication of the thermal oxidizer, testing of the oxidizer's performance in concert with the microturbine and comparison of the performance of the oxidizer with catalytic beds and traditional combustion chambers. The thermal oxidizer was designed and fabricated with the assistance of High Country Fabrication of Casper, Wyoming. The design consists of a long set of tubes surrounded by a packed bed of loose ceramic material. The outer vessel containing the tubes and packing is a 3-foot diameter steel shell with multiple layers of thermal insulation. After the metal components were fabricated, the vessel was shipped to Denver where the insulation was poured. The unit was shipped to the cosponsor site for integration with the 100 kW microturbine device. Connection of the thermal oxidizer to the Elliot microturbine turned out to be problematic. The high flow rate of gas tended to push the hot zone out of the oxidizer as assembled. The research team identified several approaches to improve the oxidizer performance including a longer gas path, increased residence time, higher surface area packing material and improved combustion catalysts. The cosponsor is working with an engineering form with oxidizer experience to reconfigure the hardware before moving to a field trial on landfill gas.

  7. July 17, 2012, Webinar: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar, held July 17, 2012, provided information on the challenges and benefits of developing successful community landfill gas-to-energy projects in Will County, Illinois, and Escambia...

  8. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

  9. Capturing, Purifying, and Liquefying Landfill Gas for Transportation Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    landfill biomethane to liquefied natural gas for use as transportation fuel. The aim is to develop, and liquefaction of biomethane. The resulting liquefied natural gas will consist of cryogenically liquefied. This project will also serve as a model for similar facilities in California to use native biogas resources

  10. Policy Analysis Landfill-Gas-to-Energy Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    perspectives in comparison to current subsidies. It was found that the private breakeven price of electricityPolicy Analysis Landfill-Gas-to-Energy Projects: Analysis of Net Private and Social Benefits P A U gas also has the potential to be used to generate electricity.In1994,the

  11. Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.

  12. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  13. CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    following CHP technologies: Reciprocating Engine, Microturbine, Combustion Turbines, Stirling Engine, and Fuel Cell. CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater...

  14. VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Barton

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of the catalytic bed.

  15. Case Studies from the Climate Technology Partnership: Landfill Gas Projects in South Korea and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larney, C.; Heil, M.; Ha, G. A.

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines landfill gas projects in South Korea. Two case studies provide concrete examples of lessons learned and offer practical guidance for future projects.

  16. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects Webinar (text version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the Webinar titled "Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects," originally presented on July 17, 2012.

  17. Distributed Energy Technology Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration, October 2001 Distributed Energy Technology Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration, October 2001 This 2001 paper discusses the National Rural...

  18. Woodland Landfill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: Energy Resources JumpWood,WoodfordLandfill Gas Recovery

  19. Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:EnergyOssian,ParleInformationPenobscot County, Maine:Landfill Gas

  20. California: Microturbine Protects Environment, Creates Jobs ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    including natural gas, landfill gas, biogas generated from anaerobic digesters, and syngas. While many commercial, industrial, and government facilities are well suited for...

  1. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Jeremy W.F., E-mail: jmorris@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Crest, Marion, E-mail: marion.crest@suez-env.com [Suez Environnement, 38 rue du President Wilson, 78230 Le Pecq (France); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Spokas, Kurt A., E-mail: kurt.spokas@ars.usda.gov [United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, 439 Borlaug Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Akerman, Anna, E-mail: anna.akerman@sita.fr [SITA France, Tour CB 21, 16 Place de l'Iris, 92040 Paris La Defense Cedex (France); Yuan, Lei, E-mail: lyuan@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance-based evaluation of landfill gas control system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical framework to evaluate transition from active to passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Focus on cover oxidation as an alternative means of passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrates research on long-term landfill behavior with practical guidance. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society's interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of landfill covers.

  2. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfield, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the US and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. A pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations: less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide.

  3. DoE Advanced Ceramic Microturbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IR Energy Systems

    2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 2001, Ingersoll-Rand began work on this program. Its objective was to introduce ceramic hot section components into the IR family of microturbines to permit higher operating temperatures and hence improved efficiency. The IR microturbine product line combines a novel application of industrial turbocharger equipment, our commercially successful recuperator, and proven industrial gas turbine design practices. The objective of the joint development program is to combine the high production success of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} turbocharger rotors, largely from Japan, with the IR turbocharger-based microturbines. The IR 'Ceramic Microturbine' (CMT) program has been configured to use the most practical ceramic rotor, considering size, geometry, proven manufacturing methods, and physical material limitations Performance predictions indicate that 36% LHV electric conversion efficiency could be attained at a Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) of nominally 1000 C. The initial 72kW engine is being designed to have comparable life and costs to our current product The package power rating is expandable to 100kW with this equipment by slightly increasing pressure ratio flow and TIT. This program was initially planned as five major tasks In Task 1 a comprehensive analysis of the state of the art ceramics and their applicability to microturbines was performed Milestone I was achieved with the joint DoE/IR decision to concentrate on our 70kW microturbine, with elevated turbine inlet temperature and pressure ratio,. This preserved the ability of the engine to utilize the standard IR recuperator and the majority of the microturbine subassemblies, A commercialization report, projecting the market size, was also completed as part of this task. Task 2's detailed design of the special hot-section components has been completed,. The two critical milestones, No.3 and No.4, associated with the detailed design of the monolithic silicon nitride turbine rotor and the release of the purchase order for this critical component were accomplished in Task 2. Task 3 focused on the design and release of the other non-ceramic components, including the gas generator turbine housing, the power turbine and housing, the combustor, and a new compressor section On September 4, 2002, Milestone No.4 was completed with a Detailed Design Review of the 72 kW 'Ceramic Microturbine'. The customer's concurrence at that design review triggered the release of critical components for manufacturing (Milestone 5). In Task 4, the principle components of the CMT were fabricated and delivered to our Portsmouth facility Manufacturing was mostly completed with the exception of the final machining of the GT and PT housings, the machining of the compressor diffuser, and the fabrication of the compressor cover.

  4. Int. J. Environment and Pollution, V0/. IS, No.4, 2001 Economic evaluation of a landfill system with gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Int. J. Environment and Pollution, V0/. IS, No.4, 2001 Economic evaluation of a landfill system be made as follows: Yedla, S. and Parikh, 1.K. (2001) 'Economic evaluation of a landfill system with gas.K. Parikh Economic evaluation of a landfill system with gas recovery 435 Tonnes per dayMillion tonnes per

  5. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dept. of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-00-CH11061 was originally awarded to Honeywell International, Inc. â?? Honeywell Power Systems Inc. (HPSI) division located in Albuquerque, NM in October 2000 to conduct a program titled Advanced Microturbine Systems (AMS). The DOE Advanced Microturbines Systems Program was originally proposed as a five-year program to design and develop a high efficiency, low emissions, durable microturbine system. The period of performance was to be October 2000 through September 2005. Program efforts were underway, when one year into the program Honeywell sold the intellectual property of Honeywell Power Systems Inc. and HPSI ceased business operations. Honeywell made an internal decision to restructure the existing program due to the HPSI shutdown and submitted a formal request to DOE on September 24, 2001 to transfer the Cooperative Agreement to Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services (HES&S) in Phoenix, AZ in order to continue to offer support for DOE's Advanced Microturbine Program. Work continued on the descoped program under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00-CH11061 and has been completed.

  6. Assessment of Recuperator Materials for Microturbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omatete, O.O.

    2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Microturbines in production (or nearly in production) use metal recuperators with gas inlet temperatures of less than 700 C to raise their efficiency to about 30%. To increase their efficiencies to greater than 40% (which is the DOE Advanced Microturbine Program goal) will require operating at higher gas inlet temperatures, if the compression ratio remains less than 6. Even at higher compression ratios, the inlet temperature will increase as the efficiency increases, necessitating the use of new materials of construction. The materials requirement for recuperators used in microturbines may be categorized by their maximum operating temperatures: 700, 800, and {approximately}900 C. These limits are based on the materials properties that determine recuperator failure, such as corrosion, oxidation, creep, and strength. Metallic alloys are applicable in the 700 and 800 C limits; ceramics are applicable in the 900 C range. Most of the heat exchangers in the current microturbines are primary surface recuperators (PSR), compact recuperators fabricated in 347 stainless steel by rolling foil that is a few (>5) mil thick into air cells; the metal recuperators are operated at temperatures below 650 C. Preliminary research indicates that the use of 347 stainless steel can be extended to 700 C. However, additional directed research is required to improve the current properties of 347 stainless steel and to evaluate extended demonstrations on recuperators fabricated from it. Beyond 700 C and up to about 800 C, advanced austenitic stainless steels or other alloys or superalloys become applicable. Their properties must be measured in the expected operational environment, and recuperators fabricated from them must be evaluated for an extended period. Temperatures beyond 900 C exceed the limits of metals, and ceramic materials will be needed. The relevant properties of Si{sub 3} N{sub 4} and SiC, (creep, corrosion, and oxidation) have been studied extensively. Prototype ceramic recuperators have been fabricated from both cordierite and RBSN; consequently, their properties and those of other low-cost applicable ceramic materials need to be investigated further. Because no ceramic microturbine recuperators are in production, it will be necessary to fabricate prototype units and evaluate their properties over an extended demonstration period. A comprehensive workshop for those involved in recuperators for microturbines is recommended to determine how the technology can be accelerated to support the development of ultra-efficient microturbines. The immediate emphasis should be on the cost-effective manufacture of higher-temperature metallic recuperators; the development of ceramic recuperators should be considered a long-term objective.

  7. Investigation of Integrated Subsurface Processing of Landfill Gas and Carbon Sequestration, Johnson County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. David Newell; Timothy R. Carr

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, KS is operated by Deffenbaugh Industries and serves much of metropolitan Kansas City. Refuse, which is dumped in large plastic-underlined trash cells covering several acres, is covered over with shale shortly after burial. The landfill waste, once it fills the cell, is then drilled by Kansas City LFG, so that the gas generated by anaerobic decomposition of the refuse can be harvested. Production of raw landfill gas from the Johnson County landfill comes from 150 wells. Daily production is approximately 2.2 to 2.5 mmcf, of which approximately 50% is methane and 50% is carbon dioxide and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds). Heating value is approximately 550 BTU/scf. A upgrading plant, utilizing an amine process, rejects the carbon dioxide and NMVOCs, and upgrades the gas to pipeline quality (i.e., nominally a heating value >950 BTU/scf). The gas is sold to a pipeline adjacent to the landfill. With coal-bearing strata underlying the landfill, and carbon dioxide a major effluent gas derived from the upgrading process, the Johnson County Landfill is potentially an ideal setting to study the feasibility of injecting the effluent gas in the coals for both enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon sequestration. To these ends, coals below the landfill were cored and then were analyzed for their thickness and sorbed gas content, which ranged up to 79 scf/ton. Assuming 1 1/2 square miles of land (960 acres) at the Johnson County Landfill can be utilized for coalbed and shale gas recovery, the total amount of in-place gas calculates to 946,200 mcf, or 946.2 mmcf, or 0.95 bcf (i.e., 985.6 mcf/acre X 960 acres). Assuming that carbon dioxide can be imbibed by the coals and shales on a 2:1 ratio compared to the gas that was originally present, then 1682 to 1720 days (4.6 to 4.7 years) of landfill carbon dioxide production can be sequestered by the coals and shales immediately under the landfill. Three coal--the Bevier, Fleming, and Mulberry coals--are the major coals of sufficient thickness (nominally >1-foot) that can imbibe carbon dioxide gas with an enhanced coalbed injection. Comparison of the adsorption gas content of coals to the gas desorbed from the coals shows that the degree of saturation decreases with depth for the coals.

  8. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy for conducting gas tracer tests and measuring water saturations in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Yoojin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M. Erfan; Chiu, Pei [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yazdani, Ramin [Yolo County Planning and Public Works Department, Division of Integrated Waste Management, Yolo County, 44090 County Rd. 28H, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Imhoff, Paul T., E-mail: imhoff@udel.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy tested for measuring tracer gas in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement errors for tracer gases were 1-3% in landfill gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Background signals from landfill gas result in elevated limits of detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique is much less expensive and easier to use than GC. - Abstract: Gas tracer tests can be used to determine gas flow patterns within landfills, quantify volatile contaminant residence time, and measure water within refuse. While gas chromatography (GC) has been traditionally used to analyze gas tracers in refuse, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) might allow real-time measurements with reduced personnel costs and greater mobility and ease of use. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PAS for conducting gas tracer tests in landfills. Two tracer gases, difluoromethane (DFM) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}), were measured with a commercial PAS instrument. Relative measurement errors were invariant with tracer concentration but influenced by background gas: errors were 1-3% in landfill gas but 4-5% in air. Two partitioning gas tracer tests were conducted in an aerobic landfill, and limits of detection (LODs) were 3-4 times larger for DFM with PAS versus GC due to temporal changes in background signals. While higher LODs can be compensated by injecting larger tracer mass, changes in background signals increased the uncertainty in measured water saturations by up to 25% over comparable GC methods. PAS has distinct advantages over GC with respect to personnel costs and ease of use, although for field applications GC analyses of select samples are recommended to quantify instrument interferences.

  9. Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: Viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Fadel, Mutasem, E-mail: mfadel@aub.edu.lb [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon); Abi-Esber, Layale; Salhab, Samer [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LFG emissions are measured at an abandoned landfill with highly organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mean headspace and vent emissions are 0.240 and 0.074 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At sites with high food waste content, LFG generation drops rapidly after site closure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The viability of LFG recovery for CDMs in developing countries is doubtful. - Abstract: This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH{sub 4} flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188 {+-} 0.014, 0.224 {+-} 0.012 and 0.237 {+-} 0.008 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m{sup 2} hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06-0.89 l/m{sup 2} hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42-2.46 l/m{sup 2} hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L{sub 0}) values in the range of 19.8-102.6 m{sup 3}/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste.

  10. BUNCOMBE COUNTY WASTEWATER PRE-TREATMENT AND LANDFILL GAS TO ENERGY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon Creighton

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to construct a landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE) facility that generates a renewable energy source utilizing landfill gas to power a 1.4MW generator, while at the same time reducing the amount of leachate hauled offsite for treatment. The project included an enhanced gas collection and control system, gas conditioning equipment, and a 1.4 MW generator set. The production of cleaner renewable energy will help offset the carbon footprint of other energy sources that are currently utilized.

  11. Microturbine Economic Competitiveness: A Study of Two Potential Adopters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capstone 60 kW Microturbine CHP System” Southern ResearchLBNL-57985 Microturbine Economic Competitiveness: A Study ofNational Laboratory microturbine megawatt Naval Base Ventura

  12. Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell microturbine generators during load changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yinger, Robert J.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators During Loadof the behavior of two microturbine generators (MTGs) underof the behavior of two microturbine generators (MTGs) under

  13. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  14. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). 3) The Project will annually produce 365,292 MWh?s of clean energy. 4) By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO{sub 2} equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 28.3 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  15. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, W.R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L.A.

    2000-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery. Work was done in the following areas: (1) production of natural gas pipeline methane for liquefaction at an existing LNG facility, (2) production of LNG from sewage digester gas, (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling in the production of LNG, liquid CO{sub 2} and pipeline methane, (4) cost estimates for an LNG production facility at the Arden Landfill in Washington PA.

  16. Behavior of two capstone 30kW microturbines operating in parallel with impedance between them

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yinger, Robert J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microturbine7 Table 5 - Voltage Drop between SA Microturbine Terminalsand GC Microturbine Terminals at Highest Loadings without

  17. PERFORMANCE OF THE CAPSTONE C30 MICROTURBINE ON BIODIESEL BENDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will describe the tests of biodiesel blends as a fuel in a Capstone oil fired microturbine (C30) with a nominal rating of 30 kW. The blends, in ASTM No. 2 heating oil, ranged from 0% to 100% biodiesel. No changes were made to the microturbine system for operation on the blends. Apart from the data that the control computer acquires on various turbine parameters, measurements were made in the hot gas exhaust from the turbine. The results from this performance testing and from the atomization tests reported previously provide some insight into the use of biodiesel blends in microturbines of this type. The routine use of such blends would need more tests to establish that the life of the critical components of the microturbine are not diminished from what they are on the baseline diesel or heating fuel. Of course, the extension to 'widespread' use of such blends in generating systems based on the microturbine is also determined by economic and other considerations.

  18. IEA-Renewable Energy Technologies, Bioenergy Agreement Task 37: Energy from Biogas and Landfill Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFP-06 IEA- Renewable Energy Technologies, Bioenergy Agreement Task 37: Energy from Biogas-Bioenergy, Task 37- Energy from Biogas and Landfill Gas", via samarbejde, informationsudveksling, fælles analyser. biogas fra anaerob udrådning (AD) som en integreret gylle og affalds behandlings teknologi. Arbejdet

  19. Impact of different plants on the gas profile of a landfill cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenauer, Thomas G., E-mail: thomas.reichenauer@ait.ac.at [Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, AIT - Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Watzinger, Andrea; Riesing, Johann [Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, AIT - Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Gerzabek, Martin H. [Institute of Soil Research, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Peter Jordan-Strasse 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: > Plants influence gas profile and methane oxidation in landfill covers. > Plants regulate water content and increase the availability of oxygen for methane oxidation. > Plant species with deep roots like alfalfa showed more stimulation of methane oxidation than plants with shallow root systems like grasses. - Abstract: Methane is an important greenhouse gas emitted from landfill sites and old waste dumps. Biological methane oxidation in landfill covers can help to reduce methane emissions. To determine the influence of different plant covers on this oxidation in a compost layer, we conducted a lysimeter study. We compared the effect of four different plant covers (grass, alfalfa + grass, miscanthus and black poplar) and of bare soil on the concentration of methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen in lysimeters filled with compost. Plants were essential for a sustainable reduction in methane concentrations, whereas in bare soil, methane oxidation declined already after 6 weeks. Enhanced microbial activity - expected in lysimeters with plants that were exposed to landfill gas - was supported by the increased temperature of the gas in the substrate and the higher methane oxidation potential. At the end of the first experimental year and from mid-April of the second experimental year, the methane concentration was most strongly reduced in the lysimeters containing alfalfa + grass, followed by poplar, miscanthus and grass. The observed differences probably reflect the different root morphology of the investigated plants, which influences oxygen transport to deeper compost layers and regulates the water content.

  20. Greenhouse gas reduction by recovery and utilization of landfill methane and CO{sub 2} technical and market feasibility study, Boului Landfill, Bucharest, Romania. Final report, September 30, 1997--September 19, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, W.J.; Brown, W.R.; Siwajek, L. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Sanders, W.I. [Power Management Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States); Botgros, I. [Petrodesign, SA, Bucharest (Romania)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is a landfill gas to energy project rated at about 4 megawatts (electric) at startup, increasing to 8 megawatts over time. The project site is Boului Landfill, near Bucharest, Romania. The project improves regional air quality, reduces emission of greenhouse gases, controls and utilizes landfill methane, and supplies electric power to the local grid. The technical and economic feasibility of pre-treating Boului landfill gas with Acrion`s new landfill gas cleanup technology prior to combustion for power production us attractive. Acrion`s gas treatment provides several benefits to the currently structured electric generation project: (1) increase energy density of landfill gas from about 500 Btu/ft{sup 3} to about 750 Btu/ft{sup 3}; (2) remove contaminants from landfill gas to prolong engine life and reduce maintenance;; (3) recover carbon dioxide from landfill gas for Romanian markets; and (4) reduce emission of greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction attributable to successful implementation of the landfill gas to electric project, with commercial liquid CO{sub 2} recovery, is estimated to be 53 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent of its 15 year life.

  1. Economic Feasibility of Converting Landfill Gas to Natural Gas for Use as a Transportation Fuel in Refuse Trucks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprague, Stephen M.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    -to-energy (LFGTE) projects are underway in an attempt to curb emissions and make better use of this energy. The methane that is extracted from these landfills can be converted into a transportation fuel, sold as a pipeline-quality natural gas, operate turbines...

  2. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosfjord, T; Tredway, W; Chen, A; Mulugeta, J; Bhatia, T

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 2000, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) was one of five recipients of a US Department of Energy contract under the Advanced Microturbine System (AMS) program managed by the Office of Distributed Energy (DE). The AMS program resulted from several government-industry workshops that recognized that microturbine systems could play an important role in improving customer choice and value for electrical power. That is, the group believed that electrical power could be delivered to customers more efficiently and reliably than the grid if an effective distributed energy strategy was followed. Further, the production of this distributed power would be accomplished with less undesirable pollutants of nitric oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and carbon monoxide (CO). In 2000, the electrical grid delivered energy to US customers at a national average of approximately 32% efficiency. This value reflects a wide range of powerplants, but is dominated by older, coal burning stations that provide approximately 50% of US electrical power. The grid efficiency is also affected by transmission and distribution (T&D) line losses that can be significant during peak power usage. In some locations this loss is estimated to be 15%. Load pockets can also be so constrained that sufficient power cannot be transmitted without requiring the installation of new wires. New T&D can be very expensive and challenging as it is often required in populated regions that do not want above ground wires. While historically grid reliability has satisfied most customers, increasing electronic transactions and the computer-controlled processes of the 'digital economy' demand higher reliability. For them, power outages can be very costly because of transaction, work-in-progress, or perishable commodity losses. Powerplants that produce the grid electrical power emit significant levels of undesirable NOx, UHC, and CO pollutants. The level of emission is quoted as either a technology metric or a system-output metric. A common form for the technology metric is in the units of PPM {at} 15% O2. In this case the metric reflects the molar fraction of the pollutant in the powerplant exhaust when corrected to a standard exhaust condition as containing 15% (molar) oxygen, assuring that the PPM concentrations are not altered by subsequent air addition or dilution. Since fuel combustion consumes oxygen, the output oxygen reference is equivalent to a fuel input reference. Hence, this technology metric reflects the moles of pollutant per mole of fuel input, but not the useful output of the powerplant-i.e. the power. The system-output metric does embrace the useful output and is often termed an output-based metric. A common form for the output-based metric is in the units of lb/MWh. This is a system metric relating the pounds of pollutant to output energy (e.g., MWh) of the powerplant.

  3. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Landfill gas (LFG), composed largely of methane and carbon dioxide, is used in over 450 operational projects in 43 states. These projects convert a large source of greenhouse gases into a fuel that...

  4. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to accept a varying dc voltage source. The study will also look at technical issues pertaining to the interconnection and coordinated/compatible operation of multiple microturbines. It is important to know today if modifications to provide improved operation and additional services will entail complete redesign, selected component changes, software modifications, or the addition of power storage devices. This project is designed to provide a strong technical foundation for determining present technical needs and identifying recommendations for future work.

  5. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  6. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Microturbine-Based BCHP System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairchild, P.D.

    2001-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    On-site and near-site distributed power generation (DG), as part of a Buildings Cooling, Heating and Power (BCHP) system, brings both electricity and waste heat from the DG sources closer to the end user's electric and thermal loads. Consequently, the waste heat can be used as input power for heat-activated air conditioners, chillers, and desiccant dehumidification systems; to generate steam for space heating; or to provide hot water for laundry, kitchen, cleaning services and/or rest rooms. By making use of what is normally waste heat, BCHP systems meet a building's electrical and thermal loads with a lower input of fossil fuel, yielding resource efficiencies of 40 to 70% or more. To ensure the success of BCHP systems, interactions of a DG system-such as a microturbine and thermal heat recovery units under steady-state modes of operation with various exhaust back pressures-must be considered. This article studies the performance and emissions of a 30-kW microturbine over a range of design and off-design conditions in steady-state operating mode with various back pressures. In parallel with the experimental part of the project, a BCHP mathematical model was developed describing basic thermodynamic and hydraulic processes in the system, heat and material balances, and the relationship of the balances. to the system configuration. The model can determine the efficiency of energy conversion both for an individual microturbine unit and for the entire BCHP system for various system configurations and external loads. Based on actual data Tom a 30-kW microturbine, linear analysis was used to obtain an analytical relationship between the changes in the thermodynamic and hydraulic parameters of the system. The actual data show that, when the backpressure at the microturbine exhaust outlet is increased to the maximum of 7 in. WC (0.017 atm), the microturbine's useful power output decreases by from 3.5 % at a full power setting of 30 kW to 5.5 % at a one-third power setting (10 k w), while the efficiency of the unit decreases from 2.5 to 4.0%, accordingly. Tests on the microturbine were conducted at the Cooling, Heating, and Power Laboratory set up at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Buildings Technology Center. Data were collected from the microturbine at power demand settings of 30 kW (full load) to 10 kW in 5-kW increments. For each power demand setting, data measurements were taken over an entire range of microturbine exhaust back pressures. The parameters measured were engine speed, ambient air temperature, air temperature at the microturbine inlet, gas temperature at the turbine outlet, exhaust gas temperature, throttle pressure loss, flow rate of natural gas, and composition of combustion products. The mathematical model provided gas temperature before the turbine, compression rate, and air flow rate, which were determined based on the measured data The results of these early tests and the computer-based simulation model are in very close agreement.

  7. Quantifying methane oxidation in a landfill-cover soil by gas push-pull tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, K.E. [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: gomezke@hotmail.com; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Lazzaro, A. [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schroth, M.H. [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: martin.schroth@env.ethz.ch

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) oxidation by aerobic methanotrophs in landfill-cover soils decreases emissions of landfill-produced CH{sub 4} to the atmosphere. To quantify in situ rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation we performed five gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) at each of two locations in the cover soil of the Lindenstock landfill (Liestal, Switzerland) over a 4 week period. GPPTs consist of the injection of a gas mixture containing CH{sub 4}, O{sub 2} and noble gas tracers followed by extraction from the same location. Quantification of first-order rate constants was based upon comparison of breakthrough curves of CH{sub 4} with either Ar or CH{sub 4} itself from a subsequent inactive GPPT containing acetylene as an inhibitor of CH{sub 4} oxidation. The maximum calculated first-order rate constant was 24.8 {+-} 0.8 h{sup -1} at location 1 and 18.9 {+-} 0.6 h{sup -1} at location 2. In general, location 2 had higher background CH{sub 4} concentrations in vertical profile samples than location 1. High background CH{sub 4} concentrations in the cover soil during some experiments adversely affected GPPT breakthrough curves and data interpretation. Real-time PCR verified the presence of a large population of methanotrophs at the two GPPT locations and comparison of stable carbon isotope fractionation of CH{sub 4} in an active GPPT and a subsequent inactive GPPT confirmed that microbial activity was responsible for the CH{sub 4} oxidation. The GPPT was shown to be a useful tool to reproducibly estimate in situ rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation in a landfill-cover soil when background CH{sub 4} concentrations were low.

  8. High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    efficiency. The microturbine technology will maximize usable exhaust energy and achieve ultra-low emissions levels. High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery More...

  9. High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Presentatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Presentation by Capstone Turbine Corporation, June 2011 High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery -...

  10. U.S. Virgin Islands- Renewables Portfolio Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photovoltaic Energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, landfill gas, biomass, ocean and microturbine systems.

  11. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014,ZaleskiThis Decision considersTable 1: PointsGas Reductions - Case Study,

  12. List of Landfill Gas Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,LakefrontLighthouseEvaporativesource HistorysourceGas

  13. Emerging technologies for the management and utilization of landfill gas. Final report, August 1994-August 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roe, S.; Reisman, J.; Strait, R.; Doorn, M.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report gives information on emerging technologies that are considered to be commercially available (Tier 1), currently undergoing research and development (Tier 2), or considered as potentially applicable (Tier 3), for the management of landfill gas (LFG) emissions or for the utilization of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from LFG. The emerging technologies that are considered to be Tier 1 are: (1) phosphoric acid fuel cells, (2) processes for converting CH4 from LFG to compressed LFG for vehicle fuel or other fuel uses, and (3) use of LFG as a fuel source for leachate evaporation systems. The Tier 2 technologies covered in the report are: (1) operation of landfills as anaerobic bioreactors, (2) operation of landfills are aerobic bioreactors, (3) production of ethanol from LFG, (4) production of commercial CO2 from LFG, and (5) use of LFG to provide fuel for heat and CO2 enhancement in greenhouses. Tier 3 technologies, considered as potentially applicable for LFG. include Stirling and Organic Rankine Cycle engines.

  14. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Hwayang-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Namhoon, E-mail: nhlee@anyang.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane.

  15. Electrical power obtained from burning landfill gas into a gas turbine generator: Experience after one year of operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabbri, R.; Mignani, N.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A typical example of a ``waste to energy'' concept can be found also in the landfill environment. The biogas derived by fermentation process is usually burnt into gas engines. This choice is usually due to the electric efficiency that is normally higher than gas turbine application and to the size that usually, almost in Italian landfill size, does not allow power higher than 1,000 kW. On the other side gas turbine applications, typically based on generator sets greater than 1,000 kW do not require special biogas pre-treatment; require less maintenance and have an extremely higher reliability. The paper describes an application of a gas turbine generator of 4,800 kW outlining the experiences collected after one year of operation. During this period, the system fulfilled the target of a total operating time greater than 8,000 hours. Description is done of the biogas compression system feeding the turbine and also of the subsystem adopted to reach the above mentioned target reliability.

  16. Integrated Field Testing of Fuel Cells and Micro-Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerome R. Temchin; Stephen J. Steffel

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical and economic evaluation of the prospects for the deployment of distributed generation on Long Beach Island, New Jersey concluded that properly sited DG would defer upgrading of the electric power grid for 10 years. This included the deployment of fuel cells or microturbines as well as reciprocating engines. The implementation phase of this project focused on the installation of a 120 kW CHP microturbine system at the Harvey Cedars Bible Conference in Harvey Cedars, NJ. A 1.1 MW generator powered by a gas-fired reciprocating engine for additional grid support was also installed at a local substation. This report contains installation and operation issues as well as the utility perspective on DG deployment.

  17. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biodegradation, landfill, gas generation, simulationPower, H. Landfill emission of gases into the atmosphere:a new approach to landfill operations that controls gas and

  18. Method and apparatus for controlling a microturbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garces, Luis Jose; Cardinal, Mark Edward; Sinha, Gautam; Dame, Mark Edward

    2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for controlling a microturbine, the apparatus including: a rectifier adapted for converting at least one generated voltage from the microturbine to a DC link voltage; an inverter adapted for converting the DC link voltage to at least one inverter output voltage, the at least one inverter output voltage being electrically coupled to an external power bus; a starter drive adapted for converting at least one starter input voltage to at least one starter output voltage, the at least one starter input voltage being electrically coupled to the external power bus, the at least one starter output voltage being electrically coupled to the microturbine.

  19. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. The technical effort was conducted by EPRI, consultant David Thimsen, Kaltec of Minnesota, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Interpoll Laboratories. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made available two test skids originally used to test an ERC 30 kW carbonate fuel cell at the Destec Coal Gasification Plan in Plaquemine, LA. EPRI`s carbonate fuel cell pilot plant was installed at the Anoka County Regional Landfill in Ramsey, Minnesota. Additional gas cleaning equipment was installed to evaluate a potentially inexpensive, multi-stage gas cleaning process to remove sulfur and chlorine in the gas to levels acceptable for long-term, economical carbonate fuel cell operation. The pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations. Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorined hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide. These were the detection limits of the analytical procedures employed. It is probable that the actual concentrations are below these analytical limits.

  20. Analysis of Viscous Micropumps and Microturbines David DeCourtye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed

    Analysis of Viscous Micropumps and Microturbines David DeCourtye Mihir Sen Mohamed Gad pumping is still observed with extremely narrow channels. The utility of the device as a microturbine

  1. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Phase II Final Report for January 25, 1999 - April 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, W. R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L. A.

    2000-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery.

  2. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spokas, K. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, St. Paul, MN (United States)]. E-mail: spokas@morris.ars.usda.gov; Bogner, J. [Landfills Inc., Wheaton, Illinois and University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Chanton, J.P. [Florida State University, Department of Oceanography, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Morcet, M. [Centre de Recherches pour l'Environnement l'Energie et le Dechet (CReeD), Veolia Environnement, Limay (France); Aran, C. [Centre de Recherches pour l'Environnement l'Energie et le Dechet (CReeD), Veolia Environnement, Limay (France); Graff, C. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, St. Paul, MN (United States); Golvan, Y. Moreau-Le [COLLEX Pty Ltd., CReeD, Veolia Environnement, Pyrmont NSW (Australia); Hebe, I. [Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME), French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management, Angers (France)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery.

  3. Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes CALIFORNIA ENERGY #12;LBNL-49095 Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes Prepared of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators During Load Changes ii Abstract This report describes test

  4. Long-Term Microturbine Exposure of an Advanced Alloy for Microturbine Primary Surface Recuperators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Wendy [Capstone Turbines; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Haynes alloy HR-120 (Haynes and HR-120 are trademarks of Haynes International, Inc.) forms a protective oxide scale when exposed to the harsh operating environment of a microturbine primary surface recuperator. Primary surface recuperators manufactured from HR-120 are currently in use on the Capstone C65 MicroTurbine (MicroTurbine is a registered trademark of Capstone Turbine Corporation). Long-term microturbine tests of this alloy are currently being conducted at an elevated turbine exit temperature ({approx}100 F higher than that in a normal operation) at Capstone Turbine Corporation. Alloy samples that have been tested under steady-state microturbine operating conditions are removed after predetermined exposure intervals for characterization by Capstone Turbine Corporation in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Such evaluations include the characterization of surface oxide scales and the associated alloy compositional changes following a steady-state operation ranging from 1800 h to 14,500 h. Results from the microstructural and compositional analyses of these long-term steady-state engine-tested HR-120 samples are used to illustrate the progression of alloy oxidation in the microturbine operating environment.

  5. Well-to-Wheels analysis of landfill gas-based pathways and their addition to the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, approximately 300 million standard cubic ft/day (mmscfd) of natural gas and 1600 MW of electricity are produced from the decomposition of organic waste at 519 U.S. landfills (EPA 2010a). Since landfill gas (LFG) is a renewable resource, this energy is considered renewable. When used as a vehicle fuel, compressed natural gas (CNG) produced from LFG consumes up to 185,000 Btu of fossil fuel and generates from 1.5 to 18.4 kg of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions per million Btu of fuel on a 'well-to-wheel' (WTW) basis. This compares with approximately 1.1 million Btu and 78.2 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for CNG from fossil natural gas and 1.2 million Btu and 97.5 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for petroleum gasoline. Because of the additional energy required for liquefaction, LFG-based liquefied natural gas (LNG) requires more fossil fuel (222,000-227,000 Btu/million Btu WTW) and generates more GHG emissions (approximately 22 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu WTW) if grid electricity is used for the liquefaction process. However, if some of the LFG is used to generate electricity for gas cleanup and liquefaction (or compression, in the case of CNG), vehicle fuel produced from LFG can have no fossil fuel input and only minimal GHG emissions (1.5-7.7 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu) on a WTW basis. Thus, LFG-based natural gas can be one of the lowest GHG-emitting fuels for light- or heavy-duty vehicles. This report discusses the size and scope of biomethane resources from landfills and the pathways by which those resources can be turned into and utilized as vehicle fuel. It includes characterizations of the LFG stream and the processes used to convert low-Btu LFG into high-Btu renewable natural gas (RNG); documents the conversion efficiencies and losses of those processes, the choice of processes modeled in GREET, and other assumptions used to construct GREET pathways; and presents GREET results by pathway stage. GREET estimates of well-to-pump (WTP), pump-to-wheel (PTW), and WTW energy, fossil fuel, and GHG emissions for each LFG-based pathway are then summarized and compared with similar estimates for fossil natural gas and petroleum pathways.

  6. Landfill gas energy utilization experience: Discussion of technical and non-technical issues, solutions, and trends. Final report, January 1992-September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doorn, M.; Pacey, J.; Augenstein, D.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report discusses technical and non-technical considerations associated with the development and operation of landfill gas to energy projects. Much of the report is based on interviews and site visits with the major developers and operators of the more than 110 projects in the U.S. The report also provides the history and trends of the landfill gas industry in the U.S. Graphs illustrate how the influence of reciprocating internal combustion (RIC) engines, compared to other utilization options, has steadily increased over time. The report summarizes information on new landfill gas utilization technologies, including vehicular fuel systems and fuel cells. Overall results of programs to demonstrate the operational feasibility of innovative technologies appear quite promising. Some of the non-technical problems and solutions described in the report are associated with the development of energy utilization options including project economics, barriers, and incentives.

  7. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer...

  8. High Efficiency Microturbine Leads to Increased Market Share...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to Increased Market Share April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Partnering with Capstone Turbine Corporation of Chatsworth, EERE supported microturbine research and development for a...

  9. Economic Feasibility of Converting Landfill Gas to Natural Gas for Use as a Transportation Fuel in Refuse Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprague, Stephen M.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    to global climate change, diesel-fueled refuse trucks are one of the most concentrated sources of health-threatening air pollution in most cities. The landfills that they ultimately place their waste in are the second largest source of human-related methane...

  10. Combined Heating and Power Using Microturbines in a Major Urban Hotel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweetser, Richard [Exergy Partners Corp.] [Exergy Partners Corp.; Wagner, Timothy [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC)] [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC); Leslie, Neil [Gas Technology Institute] [Gas Technology Institute; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a cooperative effort to install and operate a Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at a major hotel in San Francisco, CA. The packaged CHP System integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller was directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, and could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 Refrigeration Tons (RT) of chilled water at a 59oF (15oC) ambient temperature. For the year, the CHP efficiency was 54 percent. Significant lessons learned from this test and verification project are discussed as well as measured performance and economic considerations.

  11. Demonstration of a 30-kW Microturbine with Heat Recovery in a 500-Soldier Barracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Michele; Armstrong, Peter R.; Smith, David L.; Rowley, Steven

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined heat and power-configured microturbine system was evaluated as an alternative to grid-supplied electric power. While off-grid, the system provides auxiliary power for gas-fired boilers and a portion of the domestic hot water for a 500-man barracks and kitchen. One-time tests were made of sound levels, stack emissions and power quality. Steady-state generating capacity dropped faster than the ratings as the inlet air temperature approached 15°C, while generating efficiency, based on fuel higher heating value, did not drop as rapidly and was still almost 21% at 33°C. The microturbine must boost the fuel (natural gas) delivery pressure to 55 psig. During the one year of operation, four fuel compressors failed and there were repeated failures of the microturbine and heat recovery heat exchanger controls. Energy savings based on the measured performance and CY2003 utility rates were $2670 per year. This paper, which will be presented at the ASHRAE Annual Meeting in Orlando, Florida, Feb. 5-9, describes the results of this evaluation.

  12. Microturbine Systems Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose BendMiasole Inc JumpMicroPlanet LtdMicroturbine Systems

  13. T2LBM Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model for TOUGH2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. , 1998, Modeling landfill gas generation and migration inPower, 1999, Landfill emission of gases into the atmosphere:1.0 modern landfill operators to control gas and leachate

  14. Microturbine Economic Competitiveness: A Study of Two PotentialAdopters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project evaluates what $/kW subsidy on microturbines (MT's) makes them economically competitive with natural gas internal combustion engines (ICE's). The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is used to determine least cost solutions, including distributed generation (DG) investment and operation, to sites' energy demands. The first site considered is a hospital in New York City. The small hospital (90 beds) has a peak electric load (including cooling) of 1200 kW, with heat loads comparable to electric loads. Consolidated Edison electricity and natural gas tariffs for 2003 are used. A 60% minimum DG system efficiency is imposed on DG operation to avoid the standby tariff, which is less amenable to DG than the parent tariff. The second site considered is the Naval Base Ventura County commissary in Southern California. The commissary has 13,000 m{sup 2} of floor space and contains a large retail store, supermarket, food court, and other small businesses. The site peak electric load (including cooling) is 1050 kW. Electricity and natural gas supply are from direct access contracts, and delivery service is provided by Southern California Edison and Southern California Gas, respectively. 2003 supply and delivery rates are used.

  15. Effects of dry bulk density and particle size fraction on gas transport parameters in variably saturated landfill cover soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickramarachchi, Praneeth, E-mail: praneeth1977@yahoo.co.uk [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kawamoto, Ken; Hamamoto, Shoichiro [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nagamori, Masanao [Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Moldrup, Per [Environmental Engineering Section, Dept. of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Komatsu, Toshiko [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > The effects of soil physical properties on gas transport parameters were investigated. > Higher values of D{sub p} and k{sub a} exhibited in the '+gravel' than the '-gravel' fraction at same soil-air content ({epsilon}). > Recent power law models for D{sub p} (WLR) and k{sub a} (RPL) were modified. > Model parameters were linearly related to easily measurable dry bulk density ({rho}{sub b}). - Abstract: Landfill sites are emerging in climate change scenarios as a significant source of greenhouse gases. The compacted final soil cover at landfill sites plays a vital role for the emission, fate and transport of landfill gases. This study investigated the effects of dry bulk density, {rho}{sub b}, and particle size fraction on the main soil-gas transport parameters - soil-gas diffusivity (D{sub p}/D{sub o}, ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (k{sub a}) - under variably-saturated moisture conditions. Soil samples were prepared by three different compaction methods (Standard and Modified Proctor compaction, and hand compaction) with resulting {rho}{sub b} values ranging from 1.40 to 2.10 g cm{sup -3}. Results showed that D{sub p} and k{sub a} values for the '+gravel' fraction (<35 mm) became larger than for the '-gravel' fraction (<2 mm) under variably-saturated conditions for a given soil-air content ({epsilon}), likely due to enhanced gas diffusion and advection through less tortuous, large-pore networks. The effect of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} was most pronounced for the '+gravel' fraction. Normalized ratios were introduced for all soil-gas parameters: (i) for gas diffusivity D{sub p}/D{sub f}, the ratio of measured D{sub p} to D{sub p} in total porosity (f), (ii) for air permeability k{sub a}/k{sub a,pF4.1}, the ratio of measured k{sub a} to k{sub a} at 1235 kPa matric potential (=pF 4.1), and (iii) for soil-air content, the ratio of soil-air content ({epsilon}) to total porosity (f) (air saturation). Based on the normalized parameters, predictive power-law models for D{sub p}({epsilon}/f) and k{sub a}({epsilon}/f) models were developed based on a single parameter (water blockage factor M for D{sub p} and P for k{sub a}). The water blockage factors, M and P, were found to be linearly correlated to {rho}{sub b} values, and the effects of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} for both '+gravel' and '-gravel' fractions were well accounted for by the new models.

  16. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Marc L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the sources (e.g. , landfills, natural gas use, petroleumfrom landfills, livestock, natural gas transmission and use,sources sectors: landfills (LF), livestock (LS), natural gas

  17. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U., E-mail: heyer@ifas-hamburg.de; Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000–135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  18. Global Microturbine Systems Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Microturbine Systems Market Home John55364's picture Submitted by John55364(95) Contributor 11 May, 2015 - 04:00 Expected Technological Innovation to Drive Global Market for...

  19. Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell microturbine generators during load changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yinger, Robert J.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generatorsthe Capstone 30-kW and Honeywell Parallon 75- kW MTGs. Allthe Capstone 30-kW and Honeywell Parallon 75-kW MTGs. For

  20. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup ?1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup ?1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system emissions.

  1. Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

    2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

  2. Influence of mechanical-biological waste pre-treatment methods on the gas formation in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockreis, A. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: a.bockreis@iwar.tu-darmstadt.de; Steinberg, I. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to minimise emissions and environmental impacts, only pre-treated waste should be disposed of. For the last six years, a series of continuous experiments has been conducted at the Institute WAR, TU Darmstadt, in order to determine the emissions from pre-treated waste. Different kinds of pre-treated waste were incubated in several reactors and various data, including production and composition of the gas and the leachate, were collected. In this paper, the interim results of gas production and the gas composition from different types of waste after a running time of six years are presented and discussed.

  3. Cooperative Research and Development for Advanced Microturbines Program on Advanced Integrated Microturbine System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Bowman

    2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Integrated Microturbine Systems (AIMS) project was kicked off in October of 2000 to develop the next generation microturbine system. The overall objective of the project was to develop a design for a 40% electrical efficiency microturbine system and demonstrate many of the enabling technologies. The project was initiated as a collaborative effort between several units of GE, Elliott Energy Systems, Turbo Genset, Oak Ridge National Lab and Kyocera. Since the inception of the project the partners have changed but the overall direction of the project has stayed consistent. The project began as a systems study to identify design options to achieve the ultimate goal of 40% electrical efficiency. Once the optimized analytical design was identified for the 40% system, it was determined that a 35% efficient machine would be capable of demonstrating many of the advanced technologies within the given budget and timeframe. The items that would not be experimentally demonstrated were fully produced ceramic parts. However, to understand the requirements of these ceramics, an effort was included in the project to experimentally evaluate candidate materials in representative conditions. The results from this effort would clearly identify the challenges and improvement required of these materials for the full design. Following the analytical effort, the project was dedicated to component development and testing. Each component and subsystem was designed with the overall system requirements in mind and each tested to the fullest extent possible prior to being integrated together. This method of component development and evaluation helps to minimize the technical risk of the project. Once all of the components were completed, they were assembled into the full system and experimentally evaluated.

  4. Dynamic friction and wear in a planar-contact encapsulated microball bearing using an integrated microturbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Matthew

    The demonstration and characterization of a novel planar-contact encapsulated microball bearing using a radial in-flow microturbine are presented. Stable operation of the air-driven silicon microturbine is shown for over ...

  5. Cooperative Research and Development of Primary Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escola, George

    2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recuperators have been identified as key components of advanced gas turbines systems that achieve a measure of improvement in operating efficiency and lead the field in achieving very low emissions. Every gas turbine manufacturer that is studying, developing, or commercializing advanced recuperated gas turbine cycles requests that recuperators operate at higher temperature without a reduction in design life and must cost less. The Solar Cooperative Research and Development of Primary Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine Systems Program is directed towards meeting the future requirements of advanced gas turbine systems by the following: (1) The development of advanced alloys that will allow recuperator inlet exhaust gas temperatures to increase without significant cost increase. (2) Further characterization of the creep and oxidation (dry and humid air) properties of nickel alloy foils (less than 0.13 mm thick) to allow the economical use of these materials. (3) Increasing the use of advanced robotic systems and advanced in-process statistical measurement systems.

  6. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Bringing new life to old landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabasca, L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the West Coast, Waste Management, Inc. is bringing new life to old landfills. The Bradley Landfill in Sun Valley, CA, just outside of Los Angeles, is being transformed into a recycling park, while a few hundred miles north, in the San Francisco Bay Area, an old landfill is now home to a transfer station and recycling center. WMI began transforming the landfill in the early 1990s.The first change was to process wood and green waste rather than landfilling it. In 1993, WMI added a sorting facility, and in 1994, after the Jan. 17 Northridge earthquake, the company added a construction and demolition debris (C and D) facility. There also is a landfill gas collection facility on the site. In the future, WMI hopes to add the following facilities: composting, railhaul, alternative fuels production, tire processing, and soil remediation. WMI also hopes several companies that use recycled materials as feedstock will build their plants at the landfill.

  8. UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline...

  9. New Technology Demonstration of Microturbine with Heat Recovery at Fort Drum, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Michele; Armstrong, Peter R.; Smith, David L.

    2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report replaces PNNL-14417 and documents a project to demonstrate and evaluate a combined heat and power-configured microturbine system.

  10. Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance: Activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. Report for January 1998--January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masemore, S.; Kirchgessner, D.A.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the US EPA`s Office of Research and Development. The Center is part of EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, which has established 12 verification centers to evaluate a wide range of technologies in various environmental media and technology areas. The Center has published the results of its first verification: use of a phosphoric acid fuel cell to produce electricity from landfill gas. It has also initiated three new field verifications, two on technologies that reduce methane emissions from natural gas transmissions compressors, and one on a new microturbine electricity production technology.

  11. Renewable Energy 32 (2007) 12431257 Methane generation in landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide. In his 2003 review of energy recovery from landfill gas, Willumsen [2,3] reported that as of 2001 followed by Germany and United Kingdom (Table 1). The capacity of most landfill gas-fuelled generators, close to Los Angeles California; the biogas is combusted in a steam boiler that powers a 50-MW turbine

  12. Microturbine Systems Market Forecast | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose BendMiasole Inc JumpMicroPlanet Ltd JumpMicroplanetMicroturbine

  13. Microturbine Systems Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose BendMiasole Inc JumpMicroPlanet LtdMicroturbine Systems Market

  14. LANDFILL GAS CONVERSION TO LNG AND LCO{sub 2}. PHASE 1, FINAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1998-FEBRUARY 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK,W.J.; NEYMAN,M.; SIWAJEK,L.A.; BROWN,W.R.; VAN HAUWAERT,P.M.; CURREN,E.D.

    1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Process designs and economics were developed to produce LNG and liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from landfill gas (LFG) using the Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process. The patented Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process uses liquid CO{sub 2} to absorb contaminants from the LFG. The process steps are compression, drying, CO{sub 2} wash contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery, residual CO{sub 2} removal and methane liquefaction. Three flowsheets were developed using different residual CO{sub 2} removal schemes. These included physical solvent absorption (methanol), membranes and molecular sieves. The capital and operating costs of the flowsheets were very similar. The LNG production cost was around ten cents per gallon. In parallel with process flowsheet development, the business aspects of an eventual commercial project have been explored. The process was found to have significant potential commercial application. The business plan effort investigated the economics of LNG transportation, fueling, vehicle conversion, and markets. The commercial value of liquid CO{sub 2} was also investigated. This Phase 1 work, March 1998 through February 1999, was funded under Brookhaven National laboratory contract 725089 under the research program entitled ``Liquefied Natural Gas as a Heavy Vehicle Fuel.'' The Phase 2 effort will develop flowsheets for the following: (1) CO{sub 2} and pipeline gas production, with the pipeline methane being liquefied at a peak shaving site, (2) sewage digester gas as an alternate feedstock to LFG and (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling. Phase 2 will also study the modification of Acrion's process demonstration unit for the production of LNG and a market site for LNG production.

  15. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkeby, Janus T.; Birgisdottir, Harpa [Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark, Building 424, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)], E-mail: thc@er.dtu.dk

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  16. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  17. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John C (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  18. University of Washington Montlake Landfill Oversight Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    University of Washington Montlake Landfill Oversight Committee Montlake Landfill Project Guide Department with the review and approval of the Montlake Landfill Oversight Committee. #12;Montlake Landfill ...................................................................................................................................3 Figure 1 ­ Approximate Boundaries of the Montlake Landfill

  19. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  20. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decision support tool for landfill gas-to energy projects,”component of landfills to 100% HGWP gases a. HFC phase-out:

  1. Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas electricity contracts: A summary of the California Department of Water Resources contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachrach, Devra; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M W of geothermal, and 3 M W of landfill gas. The wind powerwind, geothermal, and landfill gas generators, provide theRISK: SUMMARY advance. Landfill gas and geothermal resources

  2. Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell microturbine generators during load changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yinger, Robert J.

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes test measurements of the behavior of two microturbine generators (MTGs) under transient conditions. The tests were conducted under three different operating conditions: grid-connect; stand-alone single MTG with load banks; and two MTGs running in parallel with load banks. Tests were conducted with both the Capstone 30-kW and Honeywell Parallon 75-kW MTGs. All tests were conducted at the Southern California Edison /University of California, Irvine (UCI) test facility. In the grid-connected mode, several test runs were conducted with different set-point changes both up and down and a start up and shutdown were recorded for each MTG. For the stand-alone mode, load changes were initiated by changing load-bank values (both watts and VARs). For the parallel mode, tests involved changes in the load-bank settings as well as changes in the power set point of the MTG running in grid-connect mode. Detailed graphs of the test results are presented. It should be noted that these tests were done using a specific hardware and software configuration. Use of different software and hardware could result in different performance characteristics for the same units.

  3. Creep Strength and Microstructure of Al20-25+Nb Alloy Sheets and Foils for Advanced Microturbine Recurperators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Evans, Neal D [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ATI Allegheny Ludlum worked together on a collaborative program for about two years to produce a wide range of commercial sheets and foils of the new AL20-25+Nb{trademark} (AL20-25+Nb) stainless alloy for advanced microturbine recuperator applications. There is a need for cost-effective sheets/foils with more performance and reliability at 650-750 C than 347 stainless steel, particularly for larger 200-250 kW microturbines. Phase 1 of this collaborative program produced the sheets and foils needed for manufacturing brazed plated-fin air cells, while Phase 2 provided foils for primary surface air cells, and did experiments on modified processing designed to change the microstructure of sheets and foils for improved creep-resistance. Phase 1 sheets and foils of AL20-25+Nb have much more creep-resistance than 347 steel at 700-750 C, and those foils are slightly stronger than HR120 and HR230. Results for Phase 2 showed nearly double the creep-rupture life of sheets at 750 C/100 MPa, and similar improvements in foils. Creep data show that Phase 2 foils of AL20-25+Nb alloy have creep resistance approaching that of alloy 625 foils. Testing at about 750 C in flowing turbine exhaust gas for 500 h in the ORNL Recuperator Test Facility shows that foils of AL20-25+Nb alloy have oxidation-resistance similar to HR120 alloy, and much better than 347 steel.

  4. Landfill Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:

  5. Clean Air Act Title III accidental emission release risk management program, and how it applies to landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbard, C.S.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On June 20, 1996, EPA promulgated regulations pursuant to Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA). The rule, contained in 40 CFR Part 68, is called Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs, and is intended to improve accident prevention and emergency response practices at facilities that store and/or use hazardous substances. Methane is a designated highly hazardous chemical (HHC) under the rule. The rule applies to facilities that have 10,000 pounds of methane or more in any process, roughly equivalent to about 244,000 cubic feet of methane. The US EPA has interpreted this threshold quantity as applying to landfill gas within landfills. This paper presents an overview of the Accidental Release Prevention regulations, and how landfills are affected by the requirements. This paper describes methodologies for calculating the threshold quantity of landfill gas in a landfill. Methane is in landfill gas as a mixture. Because landfill gas can burn readily, down to concentrations of about five percent methane, the entire landfill gas mixture must be treated as the regulated substance, and counts toward the 10,000-pound threshold. It is reasonable to assume that the entire landfill gas collection system, active or passive, is filled with landfill gas, and that a calculation of the volume of the system would be a calculation of the landfill gas present in the process on the site. However, the US EPA has indicated that there are some instances in which pore space gas should be included in this calculation. This paper presents methods available to calculate the amount of pore space gas in a landfill, and how to determine how much of that gas might be available for an explosion. The paper goes through how to conduct the release assessment to determine the worst-case hazard zone around the landfill.

  6. Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Turbine Commercial Microturbine Commercial ConventionalTurbine Commercial Microturbine Residential PV ResidentialGas Turbine Commercial Microturbine Commercial Conventional

  7. Isotopic constraints on off-site migration of landfill CH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desrocher, S.; Lollar, B.S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geology

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Occurrences of CH{sub 4} in residential areas in the vicinity of the Beare Road landfill, Toronto, Canada, have raised public concern about potential off-site migration of CH{sub 4} from the landfill site. Carbon isotopic analysis of dissolved and gas phase CH{sub 4} at the Beare Road site, however, indicates that CH{sub 4} in the ground water systems in the vicinity of the landfill is related to naturally occurring microbial methanogenesis within these geologic units, rather than to contamination by landfill CH{sub 4}. CH{sub 4} gas in the landfill and landfill cover has {delta}{sup 13}C values typical of microbially produced gas. Concentrations of CH{sub 4} found in deep ground water in the Scarborough, Don, and Whitby Formations underlying the landfill are isotopically distinct from the landfill gases. They are isotopically and compositionally similar, however, to naturally occurring microbial CH{sub 4} identified in organic-rich glacial deposits throughout Ontario. The lack of any significant CH{sub 4} concentrations or concentration gradients in the upper tin zone between the landfill and the deep ground water aquifer is further evidence that no transport between the landfill and deep ground water is occurring.

  8. Microturbines - an economic and reliability evaluation for commercial, residential, and remote load applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.W.; Gifford, A.H.; Krupa, T.J.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most distributed self-generation operates base loaded and in parallel with the electric utility system (1) to minimize peak loads, (2) to improve reliability, (3) to eliminate the need for reserve margin (standby) and (4) may or may not sell back excess generation. This paper examines the economics of distributed microturbine generation operating isolated from the electric utility system and having enough reserve margin to either match or improve the existing reliability of service provided by central station generation and the T and D system. This analysis shows the isolated operation of microturbines with a reserve margin can provide the same or a higher level of reliability as the electric utility, yet the costs can be lower. Sensitivity analysis for different investment costs, O and M costs, fuel costs, reliability, load shapes (load factors), and alternative fuels were performed and the economic comparisons are made in terms of {cents}/kWh. This analysis shows a strong economic preference in applying microturbines to high load factor commercial loads. The cost of standby (from the utility) was found to be from .52 to 2.09{cents}/kWh greater than if the microturbine generation provided its own standby through a built in reserve margin.

  9. Generating CO{sub 2}-credits through landfill in situ aeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritzkowski, M., E-mail: m.ritzkowski@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology, Harburger Schlossstr. 36, D-21079 Hamburg (Germany); Stegmann, R. [Consultants for Waste Management, Prof. R. Stegmann and Partner, Schellerdamm 19-21, D-21079 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are some of the major anthropogenic sources of methane emissions worldwide. The installation and operation of gas extraction systems for many landfills in Europe and the US, often including technical installations for energy recovery, significantly reduced these emissions during the last decades. Residual landfill gas, however, is still continuously produced after the energy recovery became economically unattractive, thus resulting in ongoing methane emissions for many years. By landfill in situ aeration these methane emissions can be widely avoided both, during the aeration process as well as in the subsequent aftercare period. Based on model calculations and online monitoring data the amount of avoided CO{sub 2-eq}. can be determined. For an in situ aerated landfill in northern Germany, acting as a case study, 83-95% (depending on the kind and quality of top cover) of the greenhouse gas emission potential could be reduced under strictly controlled conditions. Recently the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has approved a new methodology on the 'Avoidance of landfill gas emissions by in situ aeration of landfills' (). Based on this methodology landfill aeration projects might be considered for generation of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) in the course of CDM projects. This paper contributes towards an evaluation of the potential of landfill aeration for methane emissions reduction.

  10. Illinois Turning Landfill Trash into Future Cash

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Will County, Illinois officials yesterday formally broke ground on a new $7 million project (that includes $1 million of Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grant funds) to turn methane gas from the Prairie View Landfill into electricity in a partnership with Waste Management. Will County will receive revenue from the sale of the gas created from decomposing garbage which will be harnessed and converted to generate 4.8 megawatts of green electrical power and used to power up to 8,000 homes. The future revenue generated from the sale of the gas and the sale of the electricity could reach $1 million annually.

  11. Controlling landfill closure costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millspaugh, M.P.; Ammerman, T.A. [Spectra Engineering, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill closure projects are significant undertakings typically costing well over $100,000/acre. Innovative designs, use of alternative grading and cover materials, and strong project management will substantially reduce the financial impact of a landfill closure project. This paper examines and evaluates the various elements of landfill closure projects and presents various measures which can be employed to reduce costs. Control measures evaluated include: the beneficial utilization of alternative materials such as coal ash, cement kiln dust, paper mill by-product, construction surplus soils, construction debris, and waste water treatment sludge; the appropriate application of Mandate Relief Variances to municipal landfill closures for reduced cover system requirements and reduced long-term post closure monitoring requirements; equivalent design opportunities; procurement of consulting and contractor services to maximize project value; long-term monitoring strategies; and grant loan programs. An analysis of closure costs under differing assumed closure designs based upon recently obtained bid data in New York State, is also provided as a means for presenting the potential savings which can be realized.

  12. Evaluation and Characterization of Iron- and Nickel-Based Alloys for Microturbine Recuperators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of stress, temperature and time of exposure to microturbine exhaust gases on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of alloys HR-120(reg. sign) and 230(reg. sign) was investigated at turbine exhaust temperatures between 620 C and 760 C. It was found that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility of alloy 230(reg. sign) decreased by 30% and 60%, respectively, after 500 hours exposure at 752 C. At the lowest exposure temperature of 679 C the ultimate tensile strength and ductility decreased by 10% and 25%, respectively. The ultimate tensile strength and ductility of HR-120(reg. sign) alloy decreased by 15% and 50%, respectively, after 500 hours exposure at 745 C. At the lowest exposure temperature of 632 C the ultimate tensile strength and ductility decreased by 10% and 23%, respectively. The microstructural changes associated with exposure to microturbine exhaust gases are analyzed and discussed.

  13. Update on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate Treatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Study continued on p

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Update on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate Treatment Studyreatment, the County of Hawaii is considering an expansion of the South Hilo Sanitary Landfill (SHSL

  14. IpNose: Electronic nose for remote bad odour monitoring system in landfill sites Alex Perera*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    IpNose: Electronic nose for remote bad odour monitoring system in landfill sites Alex Perera to classify and quantify different gas/odours. Here we suggest the integration of a small form factor computer of bad odours in landfill sites. Preliminary approach to this application using commercial sensors

  15. GEOSYNTHETIC REINFORCEMENT IN LANDFILL DESIGN: US PERSPECTIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    GEOSYNTHETIC REINFORCEMENT IN LANDFILL DESIGN: US PERSPECTIVES Jorge G. Zornberg1 , M. ASCE Abstract: Geosynthetic reinforcement in landfill applications in the US has involved conventional reinforced soil structures and veneer stabilization with reinforcements placed along the landfill slope

  16. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koehler, J. [Woodward-Clyde International -- Americas, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  17. The influence of atmospheric pressure on landfill methane emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czepiel, P.M.; Shorter, J.H.; Mosher, B.; Allwine, E.; McManus, J.B.; Harriss, R.C.; Kolb, C.E.; Lamb, B.K

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions to the atmosphere in the United States. However, few measurements of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions have been reported. Here, we present the results of a multi-season study of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions using atmospheric tracer methods at the Nashua, New Hampshire Municipal landfill in the northeastern United States. The measurement data include 12 individual emission tests, each test consisting of 5-8 plume measurements. Measured emissions were negatively correlated with surface atmospheric pressure and ranged from 7.3 to 26.5 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} min{sup -1}. A simple regression model of our results was used to calculate an annual emission rate of 8.4x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These data, along with CH{sub 4} oxidation estimates based on emitted landfill gas isotopic characteristics and gas collection data, were used to estimate annual CH{sub 4} generation at this landfill. A reported gas collection rate of 7.1x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} and an estimated annual rate of CH{sub 4} oxidation by cover soils of 1.2x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} resulted in a calculated annual CH{sub 4} generation rate of 16.7x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These results underscore the necessity of understanding a landfill's dynamic environment before assessing long-term emissions potential.

  18. Applying guidance for methane emission estimation for landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharff, Heijo [NV Afvalzorg, Postbus 2, 1566 ZG Assendelft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: h.scharff@afvalzorg.nl; Jacobs, Joeri [NV Afvalzorg, Postbus 2, 1566 ZG Assendelft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.jacobs@afvalzorg.nl

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of methane emission from landfills is important to evaluate measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Both the United Nations and the European Union have adopted protocols to ensure quantification of methane emission from individual landfills. The purpose of these protocols is to disclose emission data to regulators and the general public. Criteria such as timeliness, completeness, certainty, comparability, consistency and transparency are set for inclusion of emission data in a publicly accessible database. All methods given as guidance to landfill operators to estimate landfill methane emissions are based on models. In this paper the consequences of applying six different models for estimates of three landfills are explored. It is not the intention of this paper to criticise or validate models. The modelling results are compared with whole site methane emission measurements. A huge difference in results is observed. This raises doubts about the accuracy of the models. It also indicates that at least some of the criteria previously mentioned are not met for the tools currently available to estimate methane emissions from individual landfills. This will inevitably lead to compiling and comparing data with an incomparable origin. Harmonisation of models is recommended. This may not necessarily reduce uncertainty, but it will at least result in comparable, consistent and transparent data.

  19. A finite element simulation of biological conversion processes in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robeck, M., E-mail: markus.robeck@uni-due.de [Department of Water and Waste Management, Building Sciences, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany); Ricken, T. [Institute of Mechanics/Computational Mechanics, Building Sciences, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany); Widmann, R. [Department of Water and Waste Management, Building Sciences, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are the most common way of waste disposal worldwide. Biological processes convert the organic material into an environmentally harmful landfill gas, which has an impact on the greenhouse effect. After the depositing of waste has been stopped, current conversion processes continue and emissions last for several decades and even up to 100 years and longer. A good prediction of these processes is of high importance for landfill operators as well as for authorities, but suitable models for a realistic description of landfill processes are rather poor. In order to take the strong coupled conversion processes into account, a constitutive three-dimensional model based on the multiphase Theory of Porous Media (TPM) has been developed at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The theoretical formulations are implemented in the finite element code FEAP. With the presented calculation concept we are able to simulate the coupled processes that occur in an actual landfill. The model's theoretical background and the results of the simulations as well as the meantime successfully performed simulation of a real landfill body will be shown in the following.

  20. Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.

  1. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: xwang25@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Padgett, Jennifer M. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Powell, John S. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Campus Box 7905, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup ?1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported.

  2. Settlement Prediction, Gas Modeling and Slope Stability Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Settlement Prediction, Gas Modeling and Slope Stability Analysis in Coll Cardús Landfill Li Yu using mechanical models Simulation of gas generation, transport and extraction in MSW landfill 1 models Simulation of gas generation, transport and extraction in MSW landfill 1) Analytical solution

  3. Livingston Parish Landfill Methane Recovery Project (Feasibility Study)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Steven

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Woodside Landfill is owned by Livingston Parish, Louisiana and is operated under contract by Waste Management of Louisiana LLC. This public owner/private operator partnership is commonplace in the solid waste industry today. The landfill has been in operation since approximately 1988 and has a permitted capacity of approximately 41 million cubic yards. Based on an assumed in-place waste density of 0.94 ton per cubic yard, the landfill could have an expected design capacity of 39.3 million tons. The landfill does have an active landfill gas collection and control system (LFGCCS) in place because it meets the minimum thresholds for the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The initial LFGCS was installed prior to 2006 and subsequent phases were installed in 2007 and 2010. The Parish received a grant from the United States Department of Energy in 2009 to evaluate the potential for landfill gas recovery and utilization at the Woodside Landfill. This includes a technical and economic feasibility study of a project to install a landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) plant and to compare alternative technologies. The LFGTE plant can take the form of on-site electrical generation, a direct use/medium Btu option, or a high-Btu upgrade technology. The technical evaluation in Section 2 of this report concludes that landfill gas from the Woodside landfill is suitable for recovery and utilization. The financial evaluations in sections 3, 4, and 5 of this report provide financial estimates of the returns for various utilization technologies. The report concludes that the most economically viable project is the Electricity Generation option, subject to the Parish’s ability and willingness to allocate adequate cash for initial capital and/or to obtain debt financing. However, even this option does not present a solid return: by our estimates, there is a 19 year simple payback on the electricity generation option. All of the energy recovery options discussed in this report economically stressed. The primary reason for this is the recent fundamental shift in the US energy landscape. Abundant supplies of natural gas have put downward pressure on any project that displaces natural gas or natural gas substitutes. Moreover, this shift appears long-term as domestic supplies for natural gas may have been increased for several hundred years. While electricity prices are less affected by natural gas prices than other thermal projects, they are still significantly affected since much of the power in the Entergy cost structure is driven by natural gas-fired generation. Consequently, rates reimbursed by the power company based on their avoided cost structure also face downward pressure over the near and intermediate term. In addition, there has been decreasing emphasis on environmental concerns regarding the production of thermal energy, and as a result both the voluntary and mandatory markets that drive green attribute prices have softened significantly over the past couple of years. Please note that energy markets are constantly changing due to fundamental supply and demand forces, as well as from external forces such as regulations and environmental concerns. At any point in the future, the outlook for energy prices may change and could deem either the electricity generation or pipeline injection project more feasible. This report is intended to serve as the primary background document for subsequent decisions made at Parish staff and governing board levels.

  4. Evaluation of methane emissions from Palermo municipal landfill: Comparison between field measurements and models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Bella, Gaetano, E-mail: dibella@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Di Trapani, Daniele, E-mail: ditrapani@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Viviani, Gaspare, E-mail: gviv@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) diffuse emissions from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills represent one of the most important anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas. CH{sub 4} is produced by anaerobic biodegradation of organic matter in landfilled MSW and constitutes a major component of landfill gas (LFG). Gas recovery is a suitable method to effectively control CH{sub 4} emissions from landfill sites and the quantification of CH{sub 4} emissions represents a good tool to evaluate the effectiveness of a gas recovery system in reducing LFG emissions. In particular, LFG emissions can indirectly be evaluated from mass balance equations between LFG production, recovery and oxidation in the landfill, as well as by a direct approach based on LFG emission measurements from the landfill surface. However, up to now few direct measurements of landfill CH{sub 4} diffuse emissions have been reported in the technical literature. In the present study, both modeling and direct emission measuring methodologies have been applied to the case study of Bellolampo landfill located in Palermo, Italy. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate CH{sub 4} diffuse emissions, based on direct measurements carried out with the flux accumulation chamber (static, non-stationary) method, as well as to obtain the CH{sub 4} contoured flux map of the landfill. Such emissions were compared with the estimate achieved by means of CH{sub 4} mass balance equations. The results showed that the emissions obtained by applying the flux chamber method are in good agreement with the ones derived by the application of the mass balance equation, and that the evaluated contoured flux maps represent a reliable tool to locate areas with abnormal emissions in order to optimize the gas recovery system efficiency.

  5. annual international landfill: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    landfill waste slide, a 300,000 cubic yard landfill failure involving a geosynthetic clay liner, and a 100Landfill Instability and Its Implications for Operation, Construction,...

  6. Risk assessment of landfill disposal sites - State of the art

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butt, Talib E. [Sustainability Centre in Glasgow (SCG), George Moore Building, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: t_e_butt@hotmail.com; Lockley, Elaine [Be Environmental Ltd. Suite 213, Lomeshaye Business Village, Turner Road, Nelson, Lancashire, BB9 7DR, England (United Kingdom); Oduyemi, Kehinde O.K. [Built and Natural Environment, Baxter Building, University of Abertay Dundee, Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.oduyemi@abertay.ac.uk

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A risk assessment process can assist in drawing a cost-effective compromise between economic and environmental costs, thereby assuring that the philosophy of 'sustainable development' is adhered to. Nowadays risk analysis is in wide use to effectively manage environmental issues. Risk assessment is also applied to other subjects including health and safety, food, finance, ecology and epidemiology. The literature review of environmental risk assessments in general and risk assessment approaches particularly regarding landfill disposal sites undertaken by the authors, reveals that an integrated risk assessment methodology for landfill gas, leachate or degraded waste does not exist. A range of knowledge gaps is discovered in the literature reviewed to date. From the perspective of landfill leachate, this paper identifies the extent to which various risk analysis aspects are absent in the existing approaches.

  7. Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ustohalova, Veronika [Institute of Waste Management, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: veronika.ustohalova@uni-essen.de; Ricken, Tim [Institute of Mechanics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany); Widmann, Renatus [Institute of Waste Management, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section.

  8. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  9. Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities Arun to minimize public health and environmental impacts. Landfilling is the process by which residual solid waste is placed in a landfill. #12;Case in Supreme Court · Pathetic condition of Solid waste practices in India

  10. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimmer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.wimmer@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? The isotopic signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates is linked to the reactivity of MSW. ? Isotopic signatures of leachates depend on aerobic/anaerobic conditions in landfills. ? In situ aeration of landfills can be monitored by isotope analysis in leachate. ? The isotopic analysis of leachates can be used for assessing the stability of MSW. ? ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates helps to define the duration of landfill aftercare. - Abstract: Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of ?{sup 13}C, ?{sup 2}H and ?{sup 18}O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25 year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the ?{sup 13}C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (?{sup 13}C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of ?20‰ to ?25‰. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in ?{sup 13}C-DIC up to values of +10‰ and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW. During aeration of a landfill the aerobic degradation of the remaining organic matter caused a decrease to a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of about ?20‰. Therefore carbon isotope analysis in leachates and groundwater can be used for tracing the oxidation–reduction status of MSW landfills. Our results indicate that monitoring of stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates over a longer time period (e.g. during in situ aeration) is a powerful and cost-effective tool for characterising the biodegradability and stability of the organic matter in landfilled municipal solid waste and can be used for monitoring the progress of in situ aeration.

  11. T2LBM Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model for TOUGH2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7 2. LANDFILL BIODEGRADATIONof methanogenic activities in a landfill bioreactor treatingmethane production from landfill bioreactor, J. Env. Eng. ,

  12. Turning waste into energy beats landfilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Turning waste into energy beats landfilling By Christopher Hume The Hamilton Spectator (Nov 16, the fact remains that dumping garbage in a landfill site is far more environmentally destructive, damaging wrong with that picture: it describes landfill, where spontaneous combustion occurs regularly

  13. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharabaghi, B. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: bgharaba@uoguelph.ca; Singh, M.K. [Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Inkratas, C. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: cinkrata@uoguelph.ca; Fleming, I.R. [Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5A9 (Canada)], E-mail: ian.fleming@usask.ca; McBean, E. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects.

  14. Distributed Generation Potential of the U.S. Commercial Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Type Gas Turbine Microturbine Gas Engine Representative Sizeturbine, gas engine, microturbine, combined heat and power (significant drops, microturbine adoption fell dramatically.

  15. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry, Japan MT microturbine NEGA Japan Engine GeneratorGE), gas turbine (GT), microturbine (MT), fuel cell (FC),Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Microturbine Natual Gas Reciprocating

  16. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GE), gas turbine (GT), microturbine (MT), fuel cell (FC),Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Microturbine Natual Gas ReciprocatingRecovery for Heating Microturbine with Heat Recovery for

  17. Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayalon, O. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management and NRERC, Haifa University, 32000 Haifa (Israel)]. E-mail: agofira@tx.technion.ac.il; Becker, N. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management and NRERC, Haifa University, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Department of Economics and Management, Tel Hai College and NRERC, University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel); Shani, E. [Dan Region Association of Towns, Sanitation and Waste Disposal (Israel)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hiriya landfill, Israel's largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use planning. The purpose of the present research is to perform a cost-benefit analysis of engineering and architectural-landscape rehabilitation projects considered for the site. An engineering rehabilitation project is required for the reduction of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, slope instability and leachate formation. An architectural-landscape rehabilitation project would consider improvements to the site to make it suitable for future end uses such as a public park. The findings reveal that reclamation is worthwhile only in the case of architectural-landscape rehabilitation of the landfill, converting it into a public park. Engineering rehabilitation alone was found to be unjustified, but is essential to enable the development of a public park.

  18. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yochim, April, E-mail: ayochim@regionofwaterloo.ca [Region of Waterloo Waste Management Division, 925 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2J 3Z4 (Canada); Zytner, Richard G., E-mail: rzytner@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); McBean, Edward A., E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Endres, Anthony L., E-mail: alendres@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable at 33.9% for the drier landfill and 18.1% for the wetter landfill. Infiltration experiments also showed the potential to measure small increases in water content.

  19. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from combustion of fuel Power loss from evacuated exhaustturbo and ATA Engine power losses Power rejected by enginesteady state operation Power loss from escaping exhaust

  20. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Girard, J. W. , 2001, “HCCI combustion: analysis andratio effect on methane HCCI combustion,” Journal ofEquivalence ratio-EGR control of HCCI engine operation and

  1. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion engine,” Prenticemany aspects of internal combustion engine design. Involvedof ICEF2006 ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division 2006

  2. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemical- kinetic model of propane HCCI combustion,” SAEof a four-cylinder 1.9 l propane- fueled homogeneous chargethe fuel line can use propane from a tank and NG from the

  3. EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of closing the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and the Solid Waste Landfill. The Washington State Department of Ecology is a cooperating agency in preparing this EA.

  4. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Richard; Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. Major. 2001. Advanced Microturbine System (AMTS) Marketwhereas gas turbine and microturbine systems can haveAcid Fuel Cell/ Chiller Microturbine/ Chiller Package Gas

  5. Fuel Effects on a Low-Swirl Injector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlejohn, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equivalent to those from landfill gas to liquified petroleumlandfill and biomass fuels, H 2 -enriched CH 4 to simulate refinery gas

  6. Technology Overview Using Case Studies of Alternative Landfill Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Technology Overview Using Case Studies of Alternative Landfill Technologies and Associated Regulatory Topics Prepared by Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council Alternative Landfill Technologies of Alternative Landfill Technologies and Associated Regulatory Topics March 2003 Prepared by Interstate

  7. assessing landfill performance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bhanpur Landfil Site CiteSeer Summary: The most common means for disposing of municipal solid waste is burial in a sanitary landfill. However, many landfill are underestimate the...

  8. Bioreactor Landfill Research and Demonstration Project Northern Oaks Landfill, Harrison, MI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xiando; Voice, Thomas; and Hashsham, Syed A.

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A bioreactor landfill cell with 1.2-acre footprint was constructed, filled, operated, and monitored at Northern Oaks Recycling and Disposal Facility (NORDF) at Harrison, MI. With a filled volume of 74,239 cubic yards, the cell contained approximately 35,317 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 20,777 tons of cover soil. It was laid on the slope of an existing cell but separated by a geosynthetic membrane liner. After the cell reached a design height of 60 feet, it was covered with a geosynthetic membrane cap. A three-dimensional monitoring system to collect data at 48 different locations was designed and installed during the construction phase of the bioreactor cell. Each location had a cluster of monitoring devices consisting of a probe to monitor moisture and temperature, a leachate collection basin, and a gas sampling port. An increase in moisture content of the MSW in the bioreactor cell was achieved by pumping leachate collected on-site from various other cells, as well as recirculation of leachate from the bioreactor landfill cell itself. Three types of leachate injection systems were evaluated in this bioreactor cell for their efficacy to distribute pumped leachate uniformly: a leachate injection pipe buried in a 6-ft wide horizontal stone mound, a 15-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer, and a 60-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer. All leachate injection systems were installed on top of the compacted waste surface. The distribution of water and resulting MSW moisture content throughout the bioreactor cell was found to be similar for the three designs. Water coming into and leaving the cell (leachate pumped in, precipitation, snow, evaporation, and collected leachate) was monitored in order to carry out a water balance. Using a leachate injection rate of 26 – 30 gal/yard3, the average moisture content increased from 25% to 35% (wet based) over the period of this study. One of the key aspects of this bioreactor landfill study was to evaluate bioreactor start up and performance in locations with colder climate. For lifts filled during the summer months, methane generation started within three months after completion of the lift. For lifts filled in winter months, very little methane production occurred even eight months after filling. The temperature data indicated that subzero or slightly above zero (oC) temperatures persisted for unusually long periods (more than six months) in the lifts filled during winter months. This was likely due to the high thermal insulation capability of the MSW and the low level of biological activity during start up. This observation indicates that bioreactor landfills located in cold climate and filled during winter months may require mechanisms to increase temperature and initiate biodegradation. Thus, besides moisture, temperature may be the next important factor controlling the biological decomposition in anaerobic bioreactor landfills. Spatial and temporal characterization of leachate samples indicated the presence of low levels of commonly used volatile organic compounds (including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and toluene) and metals (including arsenic, chromium, and zinc). Changes and leachate and gaseous sample characteristics correlated with enhanced biological activity and increase in temperature. Continued monitoring of this bioreactor landfill cell is expected to yield critical data needed for start up, design, and operation of this emerging process.

  9. Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Facilities (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides rules and guidelines for landfills, including those that treat waste to generate electricity. The law...

  10. Evaluation of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys in Microturbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, M.P.; Matthews, W.J. (Capstone Turbine Corp.)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Capstone Turbine Corporation (CTC) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation Program to explore the feasibility for use of developmental ORNL alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels as a material of construction for microturbine recuperator components. ORNL delivered test coupons of three different AFA compositions to CTC. The coupons were exposed in steady-state elevated turbine exit temperature (TET) engine testing, with coupons removed for analysis after accumulating ~1,500, 3,000, 4,500, and 6,000 hours of operation. Companion test coupons were also exposed in oxidation testing at ORNL at 700-800°C in air with 10% H2O. Post test assessment of the coupons was performed at ORNL by light microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. The higher Al and Nb containing AFA alloys exhibited excellent resistance to oxidation/corrosion, and thus show good promise for recuperator applications.

  11. CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities This document explores...

  12. Knowledge based ranking algorithm for comparative assessment of post-closure care needs of closed landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sizirici, Banu, E-mail: bsy3@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, Civil Engineering Department, 2104 Adelbert Road, Bingham Bld. Room: 216, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tansel, Berrin; Kumar, Vivek [Florida International University, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Post-closure care (PCC) activities at landfills include cap maintenance; water quality monitoring; maintenance and monitoring of the gas collection/control system, leachate collection system, groundwater monitoring wells, and surface water management system; and general site maintenance. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated data and knowledge based decision making tool for preliminary estimation of PCC needs at closed landfills. To develop the decision making tool, 11 categories of parameters were identified as critical areas which could affect future PCC needs. Each category was further analyzed by detailed questions which could be answered with limited data and knowledge about the site, its history, location, and site specific characteristics. Depending on the existing knowledge base, a score was assigned to each question (on a scale 1-10, as 1 being the best and 10 being the worst). Each category was also assigned a weight based on its relative importance on the site conditions and PCC needs. The overall landfill score was obtained from the total weighted sum attained. Based on the overall score, landfill conditions could be categorized as critical, acceptable, or good. Critical condition indicates that the landfill may be a threat to the human health and the environment and necessary steps should be taken. Acceptable condition indicates that the landfill is currently stable and the monitoring should be continued. Good condition indicates that the landfill is stable and the monitoring activities can be reduced in the future. The knowledge base algorithm was applied to two case study landfills for preliminary assessment of PCC performance.

  13. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assamoi, Bernadette [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada); Lawryshyn, Yuri, E-mail: yuri.lawryshyn@utoronto.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residential waste diversion initiatives are more successful with organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using a incineration to manage part of the waste is better environmentally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incineration leads to more power plant emission offsets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilling all of the waste would be preferred financially. - Abstract: This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  14. Notes 15. Gas Bearings for oil-free MTM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kWatt 4 Micro Gas Turbines 100 Turbec, ABB & Volvo 70, 250 Ingersoll Rand 175 General Electric 35, 60, 80, 150 Elliott Energy Systems 30, 60, 200 Capstone 25, 80 Bowman OUTPUT POWER (kW) MANUFACTURER Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review... (MMFB) Bearing Cartridge, metal mesh ring and top foil Hydrodynamic air film between rotating shaft and top foil Applications: ACMs, micro gas turbines, turbo expanders, turbo compressors, turbo blowers, automotive turbochargers, APUs ? Large damping...

  15. Recirculation of municipal landfill leachate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinkowski, Brian Jude

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Under the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), land disposal of hazardous waste in new facilities cannot take place unless these three conditions are met: 1. There are no other means available for disposal, 2. Double... as it passes through the landfill and liners are used to stop the migration oF the leachate into the groundwater by acting as a barrier. Style of the Water Pollution Control Federation RCRA defines hazardous waste as "a solid waste, or combination of solid...

  16. Energy manager design for microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictive Algorithms for Microturbine Performance for BCHPnatural gas engine, and a microturbine is xv Energy Managera reciprocating engine, a microturbine, photovoltaics, or a

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock. As each facility has different guidelines and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock-581-3468 Garfield City of Enid Landfill 580-249-4917 Garvin Foster Waste Disposal Landfill 405-238-2012 Jackson City-436-1403 Call ahead, may limit qty. Pottawatomie Absolute Waste Solutions 405-598-3893 Call ahead Seminole

  18. T2LBM Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model for TOUGH2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    activities in a landfill bioreactor treating the organicproduction from landfill bioreactor, J. Env. Eng. , August,Version 1.0: Landfill Bioreactor Model for TOUGH2 Curtis M.

  19. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    boundary conditions for the mesoscale landfill bioreactor. (and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor Curtisapplied it to our own mesoscale laboratory aerobic landfill

  20. Franklin County Sanitary Landfill - Landfill Gas (LFG) to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Project

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStation LocationsGeneseeValley of theEthanol8 F l e e

  1. Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davoli, E., E-mail: enrico.davoli@marionegri.i [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M. [Progress S.r.l., Via Nicola A. Porpora 147, 20131 Milano (Italy); Fanelli, R. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation ( and ).

  2. An Assessment of the Disposal of Petroleum Industry NORM in Nonhazardous Landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnish, John J.; Blunt, Deborah, L.; Haffenden, Rebecca A.; Herbert, Jennifer; Pfingston, Manjula; Smith, Karen P.; Williams, Gustavious P.

    1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the disposal of radium-bearing NORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the MDEQ guidelines was modeled to evaluate potential radiological doses and resultant health risks to workers and the general public. In addition, the study included an evaluation of the potential doses and health risks associated with disposing of a separate NORM waste stream generated by the petroleum industry--wastes containing lead-210 (Pb-210) and its progeny. Both NORM waste streams are characterized in Section 3 of this report. The study also included reviews of (1) the regulatory constraints applicable to the disposal of NORM in nonhazardous landfills in several major oil and gas producing states (Section 2) and (2) the typical costs associated with disposing of NORM, covering disposal options currently permitted by most state regulations as well as the nonhazardous landfill option (Section 4).

  3. Pilot-scale experiment on anaerobic bioreactor landfills in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Jianguo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China (China)], E-mail: jianguoj@tsinghua.edu.cn; Yang, Guodong; Deng, Zhou; Huang, Yunfeng [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China (China); Huang, Zhonglin; Feng, Xiangming; Zhou, Shengyong; Zhang, Chaoping [Xiaping Solid Waste Landfill, Shenzhen 518019, PR China (China)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing countries have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This paper describes the impacts of leachate recirculation and recirculation loadings on waste stabilization, landfill gas (LFG) generation and leachate characteristics. Four simulated anaerobic columns, R1-R4, were each filled with about 30 tons of waste and recirculated weekly with 1.6, 0.8 and 0.2 m{sup 3} leachate and 0.1 m{sup 3} tap water. The results indicated that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) half-time of leachate from R1 was about 180 days, which was 8-14 weeks shorter than that of R2-R4. A large amount of LFG was first produced in R1, and its generation rate was positively correlated to the COD or volatile fatty acid concentrations of influent leachates after the 30th week. By the 50th week of recirculation, the waste in R1 was more stabilized, with 931.2 kg COD or 175.6 kg total organic carbon released and with the highest landfill gas production. However, this contributed mainly to washout by leachate, which also resulted in the reduction of LFG generation potential and accumulation of ammonia and/or phosphorus in the early stage. Therefore, the regimes of leachate recirculation should be adjusted to the phases of waste stabilization to enhance efficiency of energy recovery. Integrated with the strategy of in situ leachate management, extra pre-treatment or post-treatment methods to remove the nutrients are recommended.

  4. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site`s B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  5. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site's B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  6. Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirschhorn, J.S. [Hirschhorn and Associates, Wheaton, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odusanya, David O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Okonkwo, Jonathan O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: OkonkwoOJ@tut.ac.za; Botha, Ben [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

  8. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend greatly on the cost of electricity. Currently, PREPA has an average electric rate of $0.119/kWh. Based on past electric rate increases in Puerto Rico and other islands in the Caribbean, this rate could increase to $0.15/kWh or higher in a relatively short amount of time. In the coming years, increasing electrical rates and increased necessity for clean power will continue to improve the feasibility of implementing solar PV systems at these sites.

  9. An Analysis of the DER Adoption Climate in Japan Using Optimization Results for Prototype Buildings with U.S. Comparisons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GE), gas turbine (GT), microturbine (MT), fuel cell (FC),60 kW Capstone microturbine, CHP for space heating &

  10. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  11. Wasting Time : a leisure infrastructure for mega-landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Margaret)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are consolidating into fewer, taller, and more massive singular objects in the exurban landscape.This thesis looks at one instance in Virginia, the first regional landfill in the state to accept trash from New ...

  12. Landfill Instability and Its Implications Operation, Construction, and Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    landfill waste slide, a 300,000 cubic yard landfill failure involving a geosynthetic clay liner, and a 100 occurred involving liner systems during construction and waste containment closures. Recently an older

  13. Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachor, Ingke, E-mail: i.rachor@ifb.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Institute of Soil Science, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria [University of Hamburg, Institute of Soil Science, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm{sup -3}, reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material.

  14. alternative landfill cover: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    words: landfills; energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors...

  15. Analysis and Design of Evapotranspirative Cover for Hazardous Waste Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Analysis and Design of Evapotranspirative Cover for Hazardous Waste Landfill Jorge G. Zornberg, M, Inc. OII Superfund landfill in southern California. This cover system constitutes the first ET cover:6 427 CE Database subject headings: Evapotranspiration; Coating; Landfills; Hazardous waste; Design

  16. Biological Removal of Siloxanes from Landfill and Digester Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biological Removal of Siloxanes from Landfill and Digester Gases: Opportunities and Challenges S U) presents challenges for using landfill and digester gases as energy fuels because of the formation volatilize from waste at landfills and wastewater treatment plants (1). As a result, biogas produced

  17. Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills G. Vincent Calder, Ph.D.1 ; and Timothy D. Stark, Ph.D., P.E., F.ASCE2 Abstract: Aluminum enters municipal solid waste MSW landfills from: Solid wastes; Aluminum; Chemicals; Waste disposal; Landfills. Author keywords: Solid waste; Leachate

  18. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  19. Effects of a carbon tax on microgrid combined heat and power adoption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Name DER Type Rated Power (kW) microturbine, low pressureMTH-30 microturbine, high pressure PAFC-200 fuel cell GA-25natural gas engine microturbine microturbine photovoltaics

  20. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chs@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fredenslund, Anders M., E-mail: amf@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Chanton, Jeffrey, E-mail: jchanton@fsu.edu [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, 117 N. Woodward Avenue, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Fl 32306-4320 (United States); Pedersen, Gitte Bukh, E-mail: gbp@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Kjeldsen, Peter, E-mail: pk@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH{sub 4} emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called 'biocovers') to enhance biological oxidation of CH{sub 4}. A full scale biocover system to reduce CH{sub 4} emissions was installed at Fakse landfill, Denmark using composted yard waste as active material supporting CH{sub 4} oxidation. Ten biowindows with a total area of 5000 m{sup 2} were integrated into the existing cover at the 12 ha site. To increase CH{sub 4} load to the biowindows, leachate wells were capped, and clay was added to slopes at the site. Point measurements using flux chambers suggested in most cases that almost all CH{sub 4} was oxidized, but more detailed studies on emissions from the site after installation of the biocover as well as measurements of total CH{sub 4} emissions showed that a significant portion of the emission quantified in the baseline study continued unabated from the site. Total emission measurements suggested a reduction in CH{sub 4} emission of approximately 28% at the end of the one year monitoring period. This was supported by analysis of stable carbon isotopes which showed an increase in oxidation efficiency from 16% to 41%. The project documented that integrating approaches such a whole landfill emission measurements using tracer techniques or stable carbon isotope measurements of ambient air samples are needed to document CH{sub 4} mitigation efficiencies of biocover systems. The study also revealed that there still exist several challenges to better optimize the functionality. The most important challenges are to control gas flow and evenly distribute the gas into the biocovers.

  1. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5 acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  2. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  3. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  4. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  5. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  6. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  7. Soil Insulation For Barrier Layer Protection In Landfill Covers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory Smith Roy

    Landfill covers are designed to isolate waste from the environment by incorporating low-permeability barrier layers. The barrier layer minimizes and controls gas escaping from the waste and the amount of infiltrating moisture available for leachate generation. Barrier layers are typically designed and constructed of a thick layer of compacted fine-grain native soil material or a manufactured geosynthetic clay liner. The barrier layer must be protected from frost damage. Freezing of a compacted soil layer has been shown to cause quick and irreversible degradation. Large increases in permeability have been demonstrated in compacted clay barriers subjected to a minimum number of freezing and thawing cycles. Design methods to protect the barrier layer from frost damage have not been addressed in the research literature. A design procedure is addressed in this paper that determines the thickness of soil required to protect a barrier layer. The procedure is based on sitespecific temperature ...

  8. Photovoltaic olar nergy Development on Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .pvnavigator.com environmentally sensitive desert lands, as is the case for some largescale solar developments impacts of natural lands developed for solar energy at high environmental costs. InnovativePhotovoltaic olar nergy Development on Landfills ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH PIER Environmental

  9. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  10. Advanced Micro Turbine System (AMTS) -C200 Micro Turbine -Ultra-Low Emissions Micro Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capstone Turbine Corporation

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 2000 Capstone Turbine Corporation commenced work on a US Department of Energy contract to develop and improve advanced microturbines for power generation with high electrical efficiency and reduced pollutants. The Advanced MicroTurbine System (AMTS) program focused on: (1) The development and implementation of technology for a 200 kWe scale high efficiency microturbine system (2) The development and implementation of a 65 kWe microturbine which meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards effective in 2007. Both of these objectives were achieved in the course of the AMTS program. At its conclusion prototype C200 Microturbines had been designed, assembled and successfully completed field demonstration. C65 Microturbines operating on natural, digester and landfill gas were also developed and successfully tested to demonstrate compliance with CARB 2007 Fossil Fuel Emissions Standards for NOx, CO and VOC emissions. The C65 Microturbine subsequently received approval from CARB under Executive Order DG-018 and was approved for sale in California. The United Technologies Research Center worked in parallel to successfully execute a RD&D program to demonstrate the viability of a low emissions AMS which integrated a high-performing microturbine with Organic Rankine Cycle systems. These results are documented in AMS Final Report DOE/CH/11060-1 dated March 26, 2007.

  11. BACK-ANALYSES OF LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURES Nejan Huvaj-Sarihan Timothy D. Stark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BACK-ANALYSES OF LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURES Nejan Huvaj-Sarihan Timothy D. Stark University strength of MSW. The back-analysis of failed waste slopes in the Gnojna Grora landfill in Poland, Istanbul Landfill in Turkey, Hiriya Landfill in Israel, and Payatas Landfill in Philippines are presented

  12. Request for Qualifications for Sacramento Landfill

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Request for Qualifications (RFQ) solicits experienced companies to design, permit, finance, build, and operate a solar photovoltaic farm (SPV Farm) on the City of Sacramento’s 28th Street Landfill. Respondents to this RFQ must demonstrate experience and capacity to design, permit, finance, build, and operate a SPV Farm that generates electricity that can be sold for electrical use through a power-purchase agreement. Submittals must be prepared and delivered in accordance with the requirements set forth in this document.

  13. Stochastic modelling of landfill processes incorporating waste heterogeneity and data uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharof, A.I.; Butler, A.P

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A landfill is a very complex heterogeneous environment and as such it presents many modelling challenges. Attempts to develop models that reproduce these complexities generally involve the use of large numbers of spatially dependent parameters that cannot be properly characterised in the face of data uncertainty. An alternative method is presented, which couples a simplified microbial degradation model with a stochastic hydrological and contaminant transport model. This provides a framework for incorporating the complex effects of spatial heterogeneity within the landfill in a simplified manner, along with other key variables. A methodology for handling data uncertainty is also integrated into the model structure. Illustrative examples of the model's output are presented to demonstrate effects of data uncertainty on leachate composition and gas volume prediction.

  14. Field performance of a geosynthetic clay liner landfill capping system under simulated waste subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, W. [Hochschule fur Architektur und Bauwesen (Germany); Siegmund, M. [Materialforschungs - und, Prufanstalt (Germany); Alexiew, D.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible landfill capping system consisting of a 3-D-geocore composite for gas vent, a Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) for sealing and a 3-D-geocore composite for drainage of the vegetation soil was built on a test field at Michelshoehe landfill near Weimar, Germany. At four locations airbags were installed underneath the thin capping system to simulate subsidences. On top of three of these airbags overlaps of the GCL were positioned, for comparison there was no overlap at the fourth location. After hydratation of the GCL the airbags were de-aerated and subsidences occurred with app. 5 % tensile strain in the GCL. For three weeks the test field was intensively sprinkled in intervals. Then horizontal and vertical deformations were measured, but not displacements were registered in the overlaps. The evaluation of the GCL`s permeability showed no significant difference between the locations with and without overlaps.

  15. GeoChip-based Analysis of Groundwater Microbial Diversity in Norman Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhenmei

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diversity in Norman Landfill Zhenmei Lu 1,2 , Zhili He 2,4 ,projects/norlan / ABSTRACT The Norman Landfill is a closedmunicipal solid waste landfill located on an alluvium

  16. Enhanced Landfill Mining Symposium EEC/WTERT Participation at ELFM Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhanced Landfill Mining Symposium EEC/WTERT Participation at ELFM Conference of Enhanced Landfill Mining. Held at the Greenville (Center of Cleantech of old landfills, each containing valuable resources that are untapped

  17. Hydrogeological Environmental Assessment of Sanitary Landfill Project at Jammu City, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagar, Bharat Bhushan; Mirza, Umar Karim

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DRASTIC Method The prepared landfill project is supposed toAssessment of Sanitary Landfill Project at Jammu City, Indiaimpact of a proposed landfill facility for the city of Jammu

  18. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1179. Popov, V. ; Power, H. Landfill emission of gases intoC.M. T2LBM Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model forand recovery from landfills, Ann Arbor Science Publishers,

  19. Hydrogeological Environmental Assessment of Sanitary Landfill Project at Jammu City, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagar, Bharat Bhushan; Mirza, Umar Karim

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Sanitary Landfill Project at Jammu City, India Bharata proposed landfill facility for the city of Jammu in India.landfill projects have been conceived, designed, and completed in India.

  20. Evaluation of three geophysical methods to locate undocumented landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brand, Stephen Gardner

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal Object. The Arrows Are Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Figure 45: Magnetic Profile over Area Fill, Station 19, Brenham Landfill. 84 Figure 46: Magnetic Profile over Undisturbed Area, Station... and the road. Thus the northern portion of the entrance way loop especially on the western side was not landfilled. The pond on the north western boundary of the landfill in the well buffer zone was installed for fire control purposes. After the entrance...

  1. Modeling Analysis of Biosparging at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, D.

    1998-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a groundwater modeling study that evaluates the performance of the biosparging system at the Sanitary Landfill.

  2. GeoChip-based Analysis of Groundwater Microbial Diversity in Norman Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhenmei

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is a closed municipal solid waste landfill located on anis a closed municipal solid waste landfill sited on thecollection system, received solid waste for surface disposal

  3. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    engines, microturbines, gas turbines, and fuel cells. Byreciprocating engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. Costin the DER-CAM analysis Gas Turbine Capacity (kW) Capital

  4. LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING GEOSYTNTHETICS Virginia L. Wilson: Geosynthetics: Lessons Learned from Failures International Geosynthetics Society editors J.P. Giroud, K.L. Soderman and G.P. Raymond November 12, 1998 #12;LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING

  5. Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 landfills may contain aluminum from residential and commercial solid waste, industrial waste, and aluminum American Society of Civil Engineers. CE Database subject headings: Solid wastes; Leaching; Aluminum

  6. Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris: Arsenic phased out of many residential uses in the United States, the disposal of CCA-treated wood remains. Catastrophic events have also led to the concentrated disposal of CCA-treated wood, often in unlined landfills

  7. Comparison between lab- and full-scale applications of in situ aeration of an old landfill and assessment of long-term emission development after completion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrad, Marlies; Gamperling, Oliver [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water–Atmosphere–Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water–Atmosphere–Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Current data on in situ aeration effects from the first Austrian full-scale case study. ? Data on lasting waste stabilisation after aeration completion. ? Information on the transferability of results from lab- to full-scale aeration. - Abstract: Sustainable landfilling has become a fundamental objective in many modern waste management concepts. In this context, the in situ aeration of landfills has been recognised for its potential to convert conventional anaerobic landfills into biological stabilised state, whereby both current and potential (long-term) emissions of the landfilled waste are mitigated. In recent years, different in situ aeration concepts have been successfully applied in Europe, North America and Asia, all pursuing different objectives and strategies. In Austria, the first full-scale application of in situ landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection and simultaneous off-gas collection and treatment was implemented on an old, small municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill (2.6 ha) in autumn 2007. Complementary laboratory investigations were conducted with waste samples taken from the landfill site in order to provide more information on the transferability of the results from lab- to full-scale aeration measures. In addition, long-term emission development of the stabilised waste after aeration completion was assessed in an ongoing laboratory experiment. Although the initial waste material was described as mostly stable in terms of the biological parameters gas generation potential over 21 days (GP{sub 21}) and respiration activity over 4 days (RA{sub 4}), the lab-scale experiments indicated that aeration, which led to a significant improvement of leachate quality, was accompanied by further measurable changes in the solid waste material under optimised conditions. Even 75 weeks after aeration completion the leachate, as well as gaseous emissions from the stabilised waste material, remained low and stayed below the authorised Austrian discharge limits. However, the application of in situ aeration at the investigated landfill is a factor 10 behind the lab-based predictions after 3 years of operation, mainly due to technical limitations in the full-scale operation (e.g. high air flow resistivity due to high water content of waste and temporarily high water levels within the landfill; limited efficiency of the aeration wells). In addition, material preparation (e.g. sieving, sorting and homogenisation) prior to the emplacement in Landfill Simulation Reactors (LSRs) must be considered when transferring results from lab- to full-scale application.

  8. Organic and nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yanjie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection in Water Transport Engineering Ministry of Communications, Tianjin Research Institute of Water Transport Engineering, Tianjin 300456 (China); Ji Min, E-mail: jmtju@yahoo.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li Ruying [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin Feifei [Tianjin Tanggu Sino French Water Supply Co. Ltd., Tianjin 300450 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aerobic granular sludge SBR was used to treat real landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different ammonium inputs were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DO variations were consistent with the GSBR performances at low ammonium inputs. - Abstract: Granule sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) were established for landfill leachate treatment, and the COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Results showed that COD removal rate decreased as influent ammonium concentration increasing. Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different influent ammonium levels were also studied. When the ammonium concentration in the landfill leachate was 366 mg L{sup -1}, the dominant nitrogen removal process in the GSBR was simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Under the ammonium concentration of 788 mg L{sup -1}, nitrite accumulation occurred and the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen gas by the shortcut denitrification process. When the influent ammonium increased to a higher level of 1105 mg L{sup -1}, accumulation of nitrite and nitrate lasted in the whole cycle, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and ammonium decreased to only 35.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Results also showed that DO was a useful process controlling parameter for the organics and nitrogen removal at low ammonium input.

  9. Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  10. Cost comparisons of alternative landfill final covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle ``D`` Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle ``C`` Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed of uniform size, side-by-side. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  11. Planning document for the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Center for Ecological Risk Assessment & Management; Bostick, K.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Environmental Science Group

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy and Department of Defense are faced with the closure of thousands of decommissioned radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste landfills as a part of ongoing Environmental Restoration activities. Regulations on the closure of hazardous and radioactive waste landfills require the construction of a ``low-permeability`` cover over the unit to limit the migration of liquids into the underlying waste. These landfills must be maintained and monitored for 30 years to ensure that hazardous materials are not migrating from the landfill. This test plan is intended as an initial road map for planning, designing, constructing, evaluating, and documenting the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD). It describes the goals/ objectives, scope, tasks, responsibilities, technical approach, and deliverables for the demonstration.

  12. Mid Valley Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose BendMiasole Inc JumpMicroPlanet LtdMicroturbine SystemsMid

  13. Alternative Landfill Cover. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of an engineered cover is to isolate the underlying waste. A key element to isolating the wastes from the environment, engineered covers should minimize or prevent water from infiltrating into the landfill and coming into contact with the waste, thereby minimizing leachate generation. The U.S. EPA construction guidelines for soil hydraulic barriers specify that the soil moisture content and compactive effort may be increased to ensure that the barrier achieves a specified permeability of 1 x 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. However, constructing a soil barrier with high moisture content makes the soil more difficult to work and increases the required compactive effort to achieve the specified density, ultimately increasing the construction cost of the barrier. Alternative landfill cover designs rely on soil physical properties, hydraulic characteristics, and vegetation requirements to lower the flux rate of water through the cover. They can achieve greater reliability than the prescriptive RCRA Subtitle C design, especially under arid or semi-arid environmental conditions. With an alternative cover design, compacted soil barriers can be constructed with a soil moisture content that makes placement and compaction of the soil easier and less expensive. Under these conditions, the soil barrier has more capacity to absorb and control moisture within it, thereby enhancing the reliability of the barrier. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance, data.

  14. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  15. PREFERENTIAL FLOW THROUGH EARTHEN LANDFILL COVERS: FIELD EVALUATION OF ROOT ZONE WATER QUALITY MODEL (RZWQM) AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract PREFERENTIAL FLOW THROUGH EARTHEN LANDFILL COVERS: FIELD EVALUATION OF ROOT ZONE WATER into the waste, earthen landfill covers are constructed once a landfill reaches its capacity. Formation earthen landfill covers during service. Most commonly used water balance models that are used

  16. The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons of Geophysics #12;2 #12;The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. With several hundred MSW landfills in both the US and UK, estimating

  17. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

  18. Biomass gasification project gets funding to solve black liquor safety and landfill problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, N.P.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on biomass gasifications. The main by-product in pulp making is black liquor from virgin fiber; the main by-product in paper recycling is fiber residue. Although the black liquor is recycled for chemical and energy recovery, safety problems plague the boilers currently used to do this. The fiber residue is usually transported to a landfill. The system being developed by MTCI will convert black liquor and fiber residue into a combustible gas, which can then be used for a wide variety of thermal or power generation applications.

  19. Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tallec, G.; Bureau, C. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France); Peu, P.; Benoist, J.C. [Cemagref, UR GERE, 17 Avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes (France); Lemunier, M. [Suez-Environnement, CIRADE, 38 Av. Jean Jaures, 78440 Gargenville (France); Budka, A.; Presse, D. [SITA France, 132 Rue des 3 Fontanot, 92000 Nanterre Cedex (France); Bouchez, T. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France)], E-mail: theodore.bouchez@cemagref.fr

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N{sub 2}O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N{sub 2}O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N{sub 2}O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N{sub 2}O releases: 8.1 {+-} 0.16 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 384), 4.2 {+-} 0.14 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 132) and 1.9 {+-} 0.10 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N{sub 2}O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N{sub 2}O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection.

  20. Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:Landowners andLodgepole, Nebraska:Longboard CapitalEnergy Information

  1. Landfill Gas Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and national laboratories to create a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. This program is largely focused on biomass fuels,...

  2. annual landfill gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors 18 Proceedings...

  3. Albany Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit

  4. Winnebago County Landfill Gas Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTEDBird,Wilsonville, Oregon:WindPoleWisconsin:Wing,Winn,

  5. Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG| OpenInformation HandbookOhio:

  6. Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,Southeast Colorado PowerSouthwestern PublicSovelloEnergySpadra

  7. Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOffice of StateOklahomaField,Olde WestInformation

  8. Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon, France: EnergyBagley Public UtilitiesBaldHomes

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulaseFuelsConversions to someoneRefuse Vehicles

  10. UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin Baxin HydropowerTrinityTurnbull HydroUKFinance,Risoe Centreproject

  11. RCWMD Badlands Landfill Gas Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethodInformationeNevada < RAPID‎78.6048 -458

  12. Landfill mining: A critical review of two decades of research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krook, Joakim, E-mail: joakim.krook@liu.se [Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, Niclas; Eklund, Mats [Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze two decades of landfill mining research regarding trends and topics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer So far landfill mining has mainly been used to solve waste management issues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new perspective on landfills as resource reservoirs is emerging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of resource extraction from landfills is significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We outline several key challenges for realization of resource extraction from landfills. - Abstract: Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research papers published during the period 1988-2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space and local pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources, mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that facilitating implementation involves a number of research challenges in terms of technology innovation, clarifying the conditions for realization and developing standardized frameworks for evaluating economic and environmental performance from a systems perspective. In order to address these challenges, a combination of applied and theoretical research is required.

  13. Modeling of leachate generation in municipal solid waste landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, James Bryan

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the inclusion of compaction effects and leachate generation and movement effects by Mehevec (1994) should provide the user with a tool for estimating leachate generation values and landfill capacity figures for a variety of initial design and operational...

  14. Installation of geosynthetic clay liners at California MSW landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, M.; Jesionek, K.S.; Dunn, R.J.; Kavazanjian, E. Jr.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California regulations for liner systems at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills require that alternatives to the prescriptive federal Subtitle D liner system have a containment capability greater than that of the prescriptive system. Regulators may also require a demonstration that use of the prescriptive system is burdensome prior to approval of an alternative liner design. This paper presents seven case histories of the design and installation of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) as an alternative to the low-permeability soil component of the prescriptive Subtitle D composite liner system at MSW landfills in California. These case histories cover GCLs from different manufacturers and landfill sites with a wide range of conditions including canyon landfills with slopes as steep as 1H:1V.

  15. Brownfield landfill remediation under the Illinois EPA site remediation program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, J.; Bruce, B.; Miller, J.; Wey, T.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brownfield type landfill remediation was completed at the Ft. Sheridan Historic Landmark District, a former Army Base Realignment and Closure Facility, in conjunction with the future development of 551 historic and new homes at this site. The project was completed during 1998 under the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (Illinois EPA) Site Remediation Program. This paper highlights the Illinois EPA's Site Remediation Program and the remediation of Landfills 3 and 4 at Fort Sheridan. The project involved removal of about 200,000 cubic yards of landfill waste, comprised of industrial and domestic refuse and demolition debris, and post-removal confirmation sampling of soils, sediment, surface water, and groundwater. The sample results were compared to the Illinois Risk-Based Cleanup levels for residential scenarios. The goal of the removal project was to obtain a No Further Remediation letter from the Illinois EPA to allow residential development of the landfill areas.

  16. Design of top covers supporting aerobic in situ stabilization of old landfills - An experimental simulation in lysimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrad, Marlies [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested engineered covers as surrogate to gas extraction during and after in situ aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined how covers influence gas emissions, water balance and leachate generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated effect of top covers on air-distribution in waste mass during aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest criteria and cover design to meet the demands during and after aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such cover systems may offer greenhouse gas emission reduction also after active aeration. - Abstract: Landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection is a promising tool to reduce long term emissions from organic waste fractions through accelerated biological stabilization. Top covers that enhance methane oxidation could provide a simple and economic way to mitigate residual greenhouse gas emissions from in situ aerated landfills, and may replace off-gas extraction and treatment, particularly at smaller and older sites. In this respect the installation of a landfill cover system adjusted to the forced-aerated landfill body is of great significance. Investigations into large scale lysimeters (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 m) under field conditions have been carried out using different top covers including compost materials and natural soils as a surrogate to gas extraction during active low pressure aeration. In the present study, the emission behaviour as well as the water balance performance of the lysimeters has been investigated, both prior to and during the first months of in situ aeration. Results reveal that mature sewage sludge compost (SSC) placed in one lysimeter exhibits in principle optimal ambient conditions for methanotrophic bacteria to enhance methane oxidation. Under laboratory conditions the mature compost mitigated CH{sub 4} loadings up to 300 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d. In addition, the compost material provided high air permeability even at 100% water holding capacity (WHC). In contrast, the more cohesive, mineral soil cover was expected to cause a notably uniform distribution of the injected air within the waste layer. Laboratory results also revealed sufficient air permeability of the soil materials (TS-F and SS-Z) placed in lysimeter C. However, at higher compaction density SS-Z became impermeable at 100% WHC. Methane emissions from the reference lysimeter with the smaller substrate cover (12-52 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) were significantly higher than fluxes from the other lysimeters (0-19 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) during in situ aeration. Regarding water balance, lysimeters covered with compost and compost-sand mixture, showed the lowest leachate rate (18-26% of the precipitation) due to the high water holding capacity and more favourable plant growth conditions compared to the lysimeters with mineral, more cohesive, soil covers (27-45% of the precipitation). On the basis of these results, the authors suggest a layered top cover system using both compost material as well as mineral soil in order to support active low-pressure aeration. Conventional soil materials with lower permeability may be used on top of the landfill body for a more uniform aeration of the waste due to an increased resistance to vertical gas flow. A compost cover may be built on top of the soil cover underlain by a gas distribution layer to improve methane oxidation rates and minimise water infiltration. By planting vegetation with a high transpiration rate, the leachate amount emanating from the landfill could be further minimised. The suggested design may be particularly suitable in combination with intermittent in situ aeration, in the later stage of an aeration measure, or at very small sites and shallow deposits. The top cover system could further regulate water infiltration into the landfill and mitigate residual CH{sub 4} emissions, even beyond the time of active aeration.

  17. Evaluation of battery/microturbine hybrid energy storage technologies at the University of Maryland :a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Anda, Mindi Farber (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes the technical and economic benefits derived from adding an energy storage component to an existing building cooling, heating, and power system that uses microturbine generation to augment utility-provided power. Three different types of battery energy storage were evaluated: flooded lead-acid, valve-regulated lead-acid, and zinc/bromine. Additionally, the economic advantages of hybrid generation/storage systems were evaluated for a representative range of utility tariffs. The analysis was done using the Distributed Energy Technology Simulator developed for the Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories by Energetics, Inc. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Energy Engineering.

  18. Microturbines | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio:Menomonee| OpenMickey HotVII, Cologne,Caldera, New Mexico |

  19. Estimation of mass transport parameters of gases for quantifying CH{sub 4} oxidation in landfill soil covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, J.; Moon, S.; Nam, K.; Kim, Y.-J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.Y. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH{sub 4}), which is one of the most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is produced from landfills. CH{sub 4} is biologically oxidized to carbon dioxide, which has a lower global warming potential than methane, when it passes through a cover soil. In order to quantify the amount of CH{sub 4} oxidized in a landfill cover soil, a soil column test, a diffusion cell test, and a mathematical model analysis were carried out. In the column test, maximum oxidation rates of CH{sub 4} (V{sub max}) showed higher values in the upper part of the column than those in the lower part caused by the penetration of O{sub 2} from the top. The organic matter content in the upper area was also higher due to the active microbial growth. The dispersion analysis results for O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in the column are counter-intuitive. As the upward flow rate of the landfill gas increased, the dispersion coefficient of CH{sub 4} slightly increased, possibly due to the effect of mechanical dispersion. On the other hand, as the upward flow rate of the landfill gas increased, the dispersion coefficient of O{sub 2} decreased. It is possible that the diffusion of gases in porous media is influenced by the counter-directional flow rate. Further analysis of other gases in the column, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, may be required to support this hypothesis, but in this paper we propose the possibility that the simulations using the diffusion coefficient of O{sub 2} under the natural condition may overestimate the penetration of O{sub 2} into the soil cover layer and consequently overestimate the oxidation of CH{sub 4}.

  20. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: Strong N{sub 2}O hotspots at the working face

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harborth, Peter, E-mail: p.harborth@tu-bs.de [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Fuß, Roland [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Münnich, Kai [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Flessa, Heinz [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Fricke, Klaus [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? First measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from an MBT landfill. ? High N{sub 2}O emissions from recently deposited material. ? N{sub 2}O emissions associated with aeration and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate. ? Strong negative correlation between CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O production activity. - Abstract: Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH{sub 4}) production in the landfill is strongly mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH{sub 4} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N{sub 2}O emissions of 20–200 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1} magnitude (up to 428 mg N m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}) were observed within 20 m of the working face. CH{sub 4} emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 30–40 m from the working face, where they reached about 10 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}. The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N{sub 2}O was 24.000 ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50 cm from the landfill surface a strong negative correlation between N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that strong N{sub 2}O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH{sub 4} mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially at MBT landfills.

  1. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  2. Metal speciation in landfill leachates with a focus on the influence of organic matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claret, Francis, E-mail: f.claret@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3 avenue C. Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans (France); Tournassat, Christophe; Crouzet, Catherine; Gaucher, Eric C. [BRGM, 3 avenue C. Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans (France); Schaefer, Thorsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Hydrogeology Group, D-12249 Berlin (Germany); Braibant, Gilles; Guyonnet, Dominique [BRGM, 3 avenue C. Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans (France)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > This study characterises the heavy-metal content in leachates collected from eight landfills in France. > Most of the metals are concentrated in the <30 kDa fraction, while Pb, Cu and Cd are associated with larger particles. > Metal complexation with OM is not sufficient to explain apparent supersaturation of metals with sulphide minerals. - Abstract: This study characterises the heavy-metal content in leachates collected from eight landfills in France. In order to identify heavy metal occurrence in the different size fractions of leachates, a cascade filtration protocol was applied directly in the field, under a nitrogen gas atmosphere to avoid metal oxidation. The results of analyses performed on the leachates suggest that most of the metals are concentrated in the <30 kDa fraction, while lead, copper and cadmium show an association with larger particles. Initial speciation calculations, without considering metal association with organic matter, suggest that leachate concentrations in lead, copper, nickel and zinc are super-saturated with respect to sulphur phases. Speciation calculations that account for metal complexation with organic matter, considered as fulvic acids based on C1(s) NEXAFS spectroscopy, show that this mechanism is not sufficient to explain such deviation from equilibrium conditions. It is therefore hypothesized that the deviation results also from the influence of biological activity on the kinetics of mineral phase precipitation and dissolution, thus providing a dynamic system. The results of chemical analyses of sampled fluids are compared with speciation calculations and some implications for the assessment of metal mobility and natural attenuation in a context of landfill risk assessment are discussed.

  3. Evaluation Framework and Tools for Distributed Energy Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gumerman, Etan Z.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit R.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    =1-2MW) • Commercial MicroTurbine (size=100kW) Commercial=1-2MW) • Commercial MicroTurbine (size=100kW) • Commercialcell systems, P V and microturbine systems, natural gas and

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of municipal landfill leachate as determined with bioassays and chemical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrab, Gregory Ernst

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    municipal landfill leachates were determined to have mean estimated cumulative cancer risks on the same order of magnitude (10 4) as leachates from co-disposal and hazardous waste landfills. The use of a battery of acute and chronic toxicity bioassays..., chemical analysis, and an estimated cancer risk calculation resulted in data providing evidence that municipal solid waste landfill leachates are as acutely and chronically toxic as co-disposal and hazardous waste landfill leachates. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...

  5. Above- and below-ground methane fluxes and methanotrophic activity in a landfill-cover soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroth, M.H., E-mail: martin.schroth@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Eugster, W. [Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 2, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gomez, K.E. [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gonzalez-Gil, G. [Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, EPF Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Niklaus, P.A. [Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 2, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Oester, P. [Oester Messtechnik, Bahnhofstrasse 3, 3600 Thun (Switzerland)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantify above- and below-ground CH{sub 4} fluxes in a landfill-cover soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} loading from the waste body. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane loading and emissions are highly variable in space and time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eddy covariance measurements yield largest estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential methanotrophic activity is high at a location with substantial CH{sub 4} loading. - Abstract: Landfills are a major anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH{sub 4}). However, much of the CH{sub 4} produced during the anaerobic degradation of organic waste is consumed by methanotrophic microorganisms during passage through the landfill-cover soil. On a section of a closed landfill near Liestal, Switzerland, we performed experiments to compare CH{sub 4} fluxes obtained by different methods at or above the cover-soil surface with below-ground fluxes, and to link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} ingress (loading) from the waste body at selected locations. Fluxes of CH{sub 4} into or out of the cover soil were quantified by eddy-covariance and static flux-chamber measurements. In addition, CH{sub 4} concentrations at the soil surface were monitored using a field-portable FID detector. Near-surface CH{sub 4} fluxes and CH{sub 4} loading were estimated from soil-gas concentration profiles in conjunction with radon measurements, and gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) were performed to quantify rates of microbial CH{sub 4} oxidation. Eddy-covariance measurements yielded by far the largest and probably most representative estimates of overall CH{sub 4} emissions from the test section (daily mean up to {approx}91,500 {mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), whereas flux-chamber measurements and CH{sub 4} concentration profiles indicated that at the majority of locations the cover soil was a net sink for atmospheric CH{sub 4} (uptake up to -380 {mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}) during the experimental period. Methane concentration profiles also indicated strong variability in CH{sub 4} loading over short distances in the cover soil, while potential methanotrophic activity derived from GPPTs was high (v{sub max} {approx} 13 mmol L{sup -1}(soil air) h{sup -1}) at a location with substantial CH{sub 4} loading. Our results provide a basis to assess spatial and temporal variability of CH{sub 4} dynamics in the complex terrain of a landfill-cover soil.

  6. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  7. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

  8. Modelling of stable isotope fractionation by methane oxidation and diffusion in landfill cover soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahieu, Koenraad [Laboratory of Applied Physical Chemistry (ISOFYS), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control (BIOMATH), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Koenraad.mahieu@lid.kviv.be; De Visscher, Alex [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Vanrolleghem, Peter A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control (BIOMATH), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Civil Engineering (modelEAU), Universite Laval, Pavillon Pouliot, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Van Cleemput, Oswald [Laboratory of Applied Physical Chemistry (ISOFYS), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique to measure biological methane oxidation in landfill cover soils that is gaining increased interest is the measurement of stable isotope fractionation in the methane. Usually to quantify methane oxidation, only fractionation by oxidation is taken into account. Recently it was shown that neglecting the isotope fractionation by diffusion results in underestimation of the methane oxidation. In this study a simulation model was developed that describes gas transport and methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. The model distinguishes between {sup 12}CH{sub 4}, {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, and {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D explicitly, and includes isotope fractionation by diffusion and oxidation. To evaluate the model, the simulations were compared with column experiments from previous studies. The predicted concentration profiles and isotopic profiles match the measured ones very well, with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 1.7 vol% in the concentration and a RMSD of 0.8 per mille in the {delta}{sup 13}C value, with {delta}{sup 13}C the relative {sup 13}C abundance as compared to an international standard. Overall, the comparison shows that a model-based isotope approach for the determination of methane oxidation efficiencies is feasible and superior to existing isotope methods.

  9. Metal Speciation in Landfill Leachates with a Focus on the Influence of Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F Claret; C Tournassat; C Crouzet; E Gaucher; T Schäfer; G Braibant; D Guyonnet

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study characterizes the heavy-metal content in leachates collected from eight landfills in France. In order to identify heavy metal occurrence in the different size fractions of leachates, a cascade filtration protocol was applied directly in the field, under a nitrogen gas atmosphere to avoid metal oxidation. The results of analyses performed on the leachates suggest that most of the metals are concentrated in the <30 kDa fraction, while lead, copper and cadmium show an association with larger particles. Initial speciation calculations, without considering metal association with organic matter, suggest that leachate concentrations in lead, copper, nickel and zinc are super-saturated with respect to sulphur phases. Speciation calculations that account for metal complexation with organic matter, considered as fulvic acids based on C1(s) NEXAFS spectroscopy, show that this mechanism is not sufficient to explain such deviation from equilibrium conditions. It is therefore hypothesized that the deviation results also from the influence of biological activity on the kinetics of mineral phase precipitation and dissolution, thus providing a dynamic system. The results of chemical analyses of sampled fluids are compared with speciation calculations and some implications for the assessment of metal mobility and natural attenuation in a context of landfill risk assessment are discussed.

  10. Air-substrate mercury exchange associated with landfill disposal of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei Xin; Mae S. Gustin; Kenneth Ladwig; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous laboratory studies have shown that lignite-derived fly ash emitted mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, whereas bituminous- and subbituminous-derived fly ash samples adsorbed Hg from the air. In addition, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were found to have higher Hg emission rates than fly ash. This study investigated in situ Hg emissions at a blended bituminous-subbituminous ash land-fill in the Great Lakes area and a lignite-derived ash and FGD solids landfill in the Midwestern United States using a dynamic field chamber. Fly ash and saturated FGD materials emitted Hg to atmosphere at low rates (- 0.1 to 1.2 ng/m{sup 2}hr), whereas FGD material mixed with fly ash and pyrite exhibited higher emission rates ({approximately} 10 ng/m{sup 2}hr) but were still comparable with natural background soils (- 0.3 to 13 ng/m{sup 2}hr). Air temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity were important factors correlated with measured Hg fluxes. Field study results were not consistent with corresponding laboratory observations in that fluxes measured in the latter were higher and more variable. This is hypothesized to be partially an artifact of the flux measurement methods. 19 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  12. JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / JULY 1999 / 583 RETENTION OF FREE LIQUIDS IN LANDFILLS UNDERGOING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    LIQUIDS IN LANDFILLS UNDERGOING VERTICAL EXPANSION By Jorge G. Zornberg,1 Member, ASCE, Bruce L. Jernigan undergoing compression due to a landfill vertical expansion. The mechanism of free liquid generation thickness that a landfill could reach without releasing liquids stored within the waste. The proposed

  13. Geosynthetics International, 2010, 17, No.3 Design of a landfill final cover system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geosynthetics International, 2010, 17, No.3 Design of a landfill final cover system T. D. Stark containment, Strength, Stability, Shearbox test, Failure, Final cover system, Landfill REFERENCE: Stark, T. D. & Newman, E. J. (20 I0). Design of a landfill final cover systcm. Geosynthetics [ntemational17, No.3, 124

  14. Clogging Potential of Tire Shred-Drainage Layer in Landfill Cover Systems Krishna R. Reddy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , drainage, hydraulic conductivity, landfill, recycling, tires #12;3 Introduction Over 280 million used1 Clogging Potential of Tire Shred-Drainage Layer in Landfill Cover Systems Krishna R. Reddy of shredded scrap tire drainage layers in landfill covers. Laboratory clogging tests were conducted using soil

  15. Beneficial Use of Shredded Tires as Drainage Material in Cover Systems for Abandoned Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; Landfills; Recycling; Slope stability; Drainage. Author keywords: Waste tires; Landfill cover; DrainageBeneficial Use of Shredded Tires as Drainage Material in Cover Systems for Abandoned Landfills Krishna R. Reddy1 ; Timothy D. Stark2 ; and Aravind Marella3 Abstract: Over 280 million tires

  16. Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Yucel Guney1 ; Savas in municipal solid waste landfills. However, natural clays may not always provide good contaminant sorption in solid waste landfills. DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE 1090-0241 2008 134:8 1166 CE Database subject headings

  17. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  19. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  20. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  1. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  2. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  3. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report represents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  4. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  5. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final PDWS for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria.

  6. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  7. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  8. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  9. Model to aid the design of composite landfill liners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammed, Kifayathulla

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODEL TO AID THE DESI(iN OF COMPOSITE LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by KIFAYATHULLA MOHAMMED Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1993... Major Subject: Safety Engineering MODEL TO AID THE DESIGN OF COMPOSITE LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by Kifayathulla Mohammed Approved as to style and content by: Kevin J. Mclnnes (Co-chairman of Committee) Richard P. Kon n (Member John P. Wagner...

  10. CONFIDENTIAL Saint-Gobain and Versailles : a long story starting in 1665...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Microturbines #12;Projects : Construction and Renovation CERAMIC IGNITERS (Gas Fired Heating and Cooking) FIBER

  11. Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wei

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    optimizations. Technologies assessed include photovoltaics (PV), solar thermal, gas turbines, microturbines, fuel cells,

  12. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimization Common DG devices are reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines, and fuel cells.

  13. Preliminary Design Procedure for Gas TurbineTopping Reverse-Flow Wave Rotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Norbert

    improvement of a 30 kW microturbine by implementing various wave-rotor topping cycles. Five different

  14. "Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Recycling (incl. composting) Waste-to Energy Landfi ll #12;16 Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in the EU 27 in 2006 Source: EUROSTAT 41% of Municipal Solid Waste across the EU 27 is still landfilled Rylander, CEO SYSAV, South Scania Waste Company, Sweden #12;2 The Waste Problem can only be solved

  15. Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, K.W.; Schrab, G.E.; Donnelly, K.C.

    to be representative of landfills of differing ages and types of wastes. Each sample was tested through three genetic toxicity bioassays (The Aspergillus diploid assay, the Bacillus DNA repair assay and the Salmonella/microsome assay) to measure the ability of each...

  16. Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, K.W.; Schrab, G.E.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to be representative of landfills of differing ages and types of wastes. Each sample was tested through three genetic toxicity bioassays (The Aspergillus diploid assay, the Bacillus DNA repair assay and the Salmonella/microsome assay) to measure the ability of each...

  17. Metals in Municipal Landfill Leachate And Their Health Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    raw leachate contains concentrations of heavy metals in excess ofthe drinking water standards of the un- saturated zone. If municipal solid waste is placed di- rectly into ground water, or if leachateMetals in Municipal Landfill Leachate And Their Health Effects STEPHEN C. JAMES, BS, MSCE Abstract

  18. Geosynthetics in Landfills Prepared by M. Bouazza and J. Zornberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    ; · geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs), which are composite materials consisting of bentonite and geosynthetics and a #12;geomembrane/compacted clay liner composite as the secondary liner system. The leak detectionGeosynthetics in Landfills Prepared by M. Bouazza and J. Zornberg Geosynthetics are extensively

  19. Story Road Landfill Solar Site Evaluation: San Jose

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the findings of a solar site evaluation conducted at the Story Road Landfill (Site) in the City of San Jose, California (City). This evaluation was conducted as part of a larger study to assess solar potential at multiple public facilities within the City.

  20. A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutch Jr, R. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States); Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Mahony, J. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

  1. Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Kontaksakis, M. [Municipal Company of Solid Waste Management, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Lazaridis, M., E-mail: lazaridi@mred.tuc.g [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

  2. Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and pipeline leak detection. Applications such as landfill emissions monitoring require measurements of gasRoom-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection Thomas To¨ pfer, Konstantin P of a compact, portable, room-temperature mid-infrared gas sensor is reported. The sensor is based on continuous

  3. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  4. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  5. Mixed waste landfill annual groundwater monitoring report April 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, Mark L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual groundwater sampling was conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories' Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL) in April 2005. Seven monitoring wells were sampled using a Bennett{trademark} pump in accordance with the April 2005 Mini-Sampling and Analysis Plan for the MWL (SNL/NM 2005). The samples were analyzed off site at General Engineering Laboratories, Inc. for a broad suite of radiochemical and chemical parameters, and the results are presented in this report. Sample splits were also collected from several of the wells by the New Mexico Environment Department U.S. Department of Energy Oversight Bureau; however, the split sample results are not included in this report. The results of the April 2005 annual groundwater monitoring conducted at the MWL showed constituent concentrations within the historical ranges for the site and indicated no evidence of groundwater contamination from the landfill.

  6. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included.

  7. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (Data Only) - First Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during First Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Proteciton Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  8. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-0874A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  9. Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, B.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Austin, TX (United States); Bonaparte, R.; Othman, M.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers (SHBs) used in waste containment or remediation applications. In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system (LCS) and leak detection system (LDS) liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs. Operational data for over 200 waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The top liner of the double-liner system for the units is either a geomembrane (GMB) alone, geomembrane overlying a geosynthetic clay liner (GMB/GCL), or geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (GMB/CCL). In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: (i) infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste (i.e., source control). SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper.

  10. Scaling methane oxidation: From laboratory incubation experiments to landfill cover field conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abichou, Tarek, E-mail: abichou@eng.fsu.edu [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32311 (United States); Mahieu, Koenraad; Chanton, Jeff [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32311 (United States); Romdhane, Mehrez; Mansouri, Imane [Unite de Recherche M.A.C.S., Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Gabes, Route de Medenine, 6029 Gabes (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluating field-scale methane oxidation in landfill cover soils using numerical models is gaining interest in the solid waste industry as research has made it clear that methane oxidation in the field is a complex function of climatic conditions, soil type, cover design, and incoming flux of landfill gas from the waste mass. Numerical models can account for these parameters as they change with time and space under field conditions. In this study, we developed temperature, and water content correction factors for methane oxidation parameters. We also introduced a possible correction to account for the different soil structure under field conditions. These parameters were defined in laboratory incubation experiments performed on homogenized soil specimens and were used to predict the actual methane oxidation rates to be expected under field conditions. Water content and temperature corrections factors were obtained for the methane oxidation rate parameter to be used when modeling methane oxidation in the field. To predict in situ measured rates of methane with the model it was necessary to set the half saturation constant of methane and oxygen, K{sub m}, to 5%, approximately five times larger than laboratory measured values. We hypothesize that this discrepancy reflects differences in soil structure between homogenized soil conditions in the lab and actual aggregated soil structure in the field. When all of these correction factors were re-introduced into the oxidation module of our model, it was able to reproduce surface emissions (as measured by static flux chambers) and percent oxidation (as measured by stable isotope techniques) within the range measured in the field.

  11. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  12. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  13. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.C. Adams

    2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT, MIAMISBURG, OHIO DCN: 0468-SR-02-0

  14. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.C. Adams

    2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT, MIAMISBURG, OHIO DCN: 0468-SR-03-0

  15. Application of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel for refuse trucks in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gokhale, Bhushan

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    sludge, and non hazardous industrial waste (8,9). The solid waste materials are classified under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (10). The next section describes different methods used for managing... REVIEW.......................................................................................4 Solid Waste Management.................................................................................4 LFG Cleaning Processes...

  16. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment ofEnergy State7/109T.M.TRUPACT-III

  17. Geophysical methods applied to characterize landfill covers with geocomposite F. Genelle1, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Geophysical methods applied to characterize landfill covers with geocomposite F. Genelle1, 2 , C attempt to characterize with geophysical methods the state of landfill covers to detect damages that can. The geophysical methods used were the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), cartography with an Automatic

  18. Sardinia 2007, Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium Potential for Reducing Global Methane Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    for Reducing Global Methane Emissions From Landfills, 2000-2030 E. MATTHEWS1 , N. J. THEMELIS2 1 NASA Goddard methane (CH4 )annually to the world's total CH4 emission of ~550 Tg/yr. Recycling and thermal treatment destined for landfills and to mitigating CH4 emission. Waste generation is estimated to more than double

  19. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  20. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  1. DESIGN OF A FAILED LANDFILL SLOPE By: Timothy D. Stark, W. Douglas Evans-, and Paul E. Sherry'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGN OF A FAILED LANDFILL SLOPE 1 ~) ~ ~ By: Timothy D. Stark, W. Douglas Evans-, and Paul E solid waste landfill in which lateral displacements of up to 900 ft (275 m) and vertical settlements municipal solid waste landfill occupies 135 acres (546 km 2 ) approximately 9 miles (15.3 km) n

  2. I 95 Landfill Phase II Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel JumpCounty, Texas: EnergyHy9Moat of Long| OpenLandfill Phase II

  3. Agricultural Biomass and Landfill Diversion Incentive (Texas) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM - Building Americaof Energy and Landfill

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Moyer Landfill Site, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Moyer Landfill is an inactive privately owned landfill located in Lower Providence Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The site was operated as a municipal landfill from the 1940's until April 1981, during which time it received municipal refuse and sewage sludges. According to local Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officials, the landfill accepted a variety of solid and liquid hazardous wastes, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, paints, low-level radioactive wastes, and incinerated materials in bulk form and/or containerized in drums. In 1972, when the Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources (PADER) rules and regulations became more restrictive, this landfill was cited, and finally in 1981, it was closed and brought into receivership of the U.S. District Court.

  5. Case study: The development of a rule action to implement the federal emission guidelines for existing municipal solid waste landfills by the Ventura County Air Pollution Control District

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moralez, D.A. [Ventura Country Air Pollution Control District, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will highlight the key revisions to existing District Rule 74.17, Solid Waste Disposal Sites and the key requirements of new District Rule 74.17.1, Municipal Solid Waste Landfills to meet new federal requirements. The rule action is necessary to incorporate and implement the requirements of a New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) in Title 40 CFR, Part 60, Subpart Cc -- Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (District) is one of only three other districts in California that had previously adopted a landfill gas control rule before the federal EG requirements were adopted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in March of 1996. Also, because existing District Rule 74.17 requirements were adopted into the State Implementation Plan (SIP) by the EPA in 1994, several key requirements are carried forward into new District Rule 74.17.1 to prevent a relaxation of the requirements that existing MSW landfills already fulfill. The goal of the rule action was to develop revisions to existing District Rule 74.17 and develop requirements for new District Rule 74.17.1 that at a minimum would incorporate and implement the requirements specified by the EG without causing a relaxation of the existing rule requirements. Because existing District Rule 74.17 and the EG have different non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emission limits, staff gave considerable evaluation to this difference and concluded that, in general, the emission limits are equivalent. Also, based on all of the information reviewed, it is District staff`s opinion that the amount of NMOC emissions controlled from the requirements in new District Rule 74.17.1 are, in general, equivalent to the amount of NMOC emissions control from the requirements in existing Rule 74.17.

  6. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data on CCW disposal practices and State regulatory requirements at landfills and surface impoundments that were permitted, built, or laterally expanded between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2004. The scope of the study excluded waste units that manage CCWs in active or abandoned coal mines. The EPA identified the following three areas of interest: (1) Recent and current CCW industry surface disposal management practices, (2) State regulatory requirements for CCW management, and (3) Implementation of State requirements (i.e., the extent to which States grant or deny operator requests to waive or vary regulatory requirements and the rationales for doing so). DOE and the EPA obtained data on recent and current disposal practices from a questionnaire that the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group (USWAG) distributed to its members that own or operate coal-fired power plants. USWAG, formed in 1978, is responsible for addressing solid and hazardous waste issues on behalf of the utility industry. It is an informal consortium of approximately 80 utility operating companies, the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the American Gas Association (AGA). EEI is the principal national association of investor-owned electric power and light companies. NRECA is the national association of rural electric cooperatives. APPA is the national association of publicly owned electric utilities. AGA is the national association of natural gas utilities. Together, USWAG member companies and trade associations represent more than 85% of the total electric generating capacity of the United States and service more than 95% of the nation's consumers of electricity. To verify the survey findings, the EPA also asked State regulators from nine selected States that are leading consumers of coal for electricity generation for information on disposal units that may not have been covered in the USWAG survey. The selected States were Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, North Da

  7. A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercial); percentage of landfill gas (methane) that islevel. ? Percentage of landfill gas (methane) that iscarbon emissions: landfill gas capture. Landfill gas is

  8. Last spring, an Ohio waste slope collapsed, displacing 1.5 million cu yd of waste. Remedial measures can prevent similar failures at ~~grandfathered" landfills.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measures can prevent similar failures at ~~grandfathered" landfills. r I n the early morning hours of March of "grandfathered" landfill slopes. (Grandfathered landfills do not have an engineered liner system.) Because following case history are ap- plicable to the design, operation and expan- sion of many landfills. BEFORE

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on a brownfield site at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin. The site currently has a PV system in place and was assessed for further PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.1333/kWh and incentives offered by the State of Wisconsin and by the serving utility, Madison Gas and Electric. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  10. Certification report for final closure of Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents the Geotek Engineering Company, Inc., (Geotek) record of activities to support certification of final closure Of the subject Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II. Ex as noted herein, final closure of the landfill was completed in accordance with the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill 11 Closure/Post Closure Plan, Revision 2, submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) on April 14, 1992, and approved by TDEC on May 27, 1994 (the ``Closure Plan``). minor modification to the Closure Plan allowing partial closure of the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II (Phase 1) was approved by TDEC on August 3, 1994. The Phase I portion of the closure for the subject landfill was completed on March 25, 1995. A closure certification report entitled Certification Report for Partial Closure of Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II was submitted to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (LMES) on March 28, 1995. The final closure represents the completion of the closure activities for the entire Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II Site. The contents of this report and accompanying certification are based on observations by Geotek engineers and geologists during closure activities and on review of reports, records, laboratory test results, and other information furnished to Geotek by LMES.

  11. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  12. Radiological survey of the Shpack Landfill, Norton, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Haywood, F.F.; Witt, D.A.; Myrick, T.E.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Loy, E.T.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a radiological survey of the Shpack Landfill, Norton, Massachusetts, are given in this report. The survey was conducted over approximately eight acres which had received radioactive wastes from 1946 to 1965. The survey included measurement of the following: external gamma radiation at the surface and at 1 m (3 ft) above the surface throughout the site; beta-gamma exposure rates at 1 cm (0.4 in.) from the surface throughout the site; concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 238/U, and /sup 235/U in surface and subsurface soil on the site; and concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 210/Pb in groundwater on the site and in surface water on and near the site. Results indicate that the radioactive contamination is confined to the site and to the swamp immediately adjacent to the site.

  13. Using GIS to Identify Remediation Areas in Landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linda A.Tedrow

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the use of GIS mapping software—ArcMap and ArcInfo Workstation—by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as a non-intrusive method of locating and characterizing radioactive waste in a 97-acre landfill to aid in planning cleanup efforts. The fine-scale techniques and methods used offer potential application for other burial sites for which hazards indicate a non-intrusive approach. By converting many boxes of paper shipping records in multiple formats into a relational database linked to spatial data, the INEEL has related the paper history to our current GIS technologies and spatial data layers. The wide breadth of GIS techniques and tools quickly display areas in need of remediation as well as evaluate methods of remediation for specific areas as the site characterization is better understood and early assumptions are refined.

  14. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  15. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model for TOUGH2, LawrenceFigures Biodegradation Bioreactor Aerobic CO2 + H2O + heat1. Schematic of bioreactor and T2LBM conceptualizations.

  16. Investigating the mechanism behind environmental injustice around municipal landfill sites in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Elizabeth

    model with which neighbourhood exposure to landfills could be classified. This gave the exposure classification a degree of realism not generally incorporated in similar studies. The research revealed clear evidence that deprived neighbourhoods...

  17. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  18. Overburden effects on waste compaction and leachate generation in municipal landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehevec, Adam Wade

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a model to predict the effects of overburden pressure on the formation of leachate within municipal solid waste landfills. In addition, it estimates the compaction and subsequent settlement that the waste will undergo due...

  19. MONITORING LANDFILL COVER BY ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY1 TOMOGRAPHY ON AN EXPERIMENTAL SITE2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with geosynthetics44 (geomembranes or Geosynthetic Clay Liners), depending on the date of closure (Silvestre et45 al: landfill cover, gravelly clay material, heterogeneity, compaction, electrical30 resistivity, multivariate

  20. Methane production during the anaerobic decomposition of composted and raw organic refuse in simulated landfill cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Margrit Evelyn

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane contributes 20% annually to increases in global warming, and is explosive at concentrations of 5-15% in air. Landfills contribute 15% to total methane emissions. This study was conducted to determine the potential decrease in methane...

  1. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nahman, Anton, E-mail: anahman@csir.co.za [Environmental and Resource Economics Group, Natural Resources and the Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 320, Stellenbosch 7599 (South Africa)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. > Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. > Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. > Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. > Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of municipal landfill leachate as determined with bioassays and chemical analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrab, Gregory Ernst

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE AS DETERMINED WITH BIOASSAYS AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS A Thesis by GREGORY ERNST SCHRAB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Soil Science ACUTF AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE AS DETERMINED WITH BIOASSAYS AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS A Thesis by GREGORY ERNST SCHRAB Approved as to style...

  3. Field versus laboratory characterization of clay deposits for use as in situ municipal landfill liners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Sharon Elizabeth

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FIELD VERSUS LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION OF CLAY DEPOSITS FOR USE AS IN SITU MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by SHARON ELIZABETH WECHSLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas Aa? University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of . KASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1990 Major Subject: Geology FIELD VERSUS LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION OF CLAY DEPOSITS FOR USE AS IN SITU MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by SHARON ELIZABETH WECHSLER Approved as to style...

  4. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    role of hydrogen in landfill gas utilization. Sacramento,landfills (yielding “landfill gas”) and livestock-manure-Diverted Methane in landfill gas Methane in biogas from

  5. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    role of hydrogen in landfill gas utilization. Sacramento,landfills (yielding “landfill gas”) and livestock-manure-Diverted Methane in landfill gas Methane in biogas from

  6. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    110 Table 26. Landfill gas GHG reductionlandfills to utilize the landfill gas generally includes acollection system. Landfill gas from throughout landfills

  7. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a landfill is nearby, landfill gas could also be burned inthe boilers. Landfill gas consists mostly of methane (CH 4 )

  8. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boggs, C.J. [Argonne National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States); Shaddoan, W.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Paducah, KY (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Johnson County Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, Kansas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Citizens of Shawnee, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Kansas that are particularly well suited for grid-tied solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. This report assesses the Johnson County Landfill for possible grid-tied PV installations and estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. The report findings are applicable to other landfills in the surrounding area.

  10. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiriac, R., E-mail: rodica.chiriac@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); De Araujos Morais, J. [Universite Federal de Paraiba, Campus I Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Carre, J. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bayard, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Chovelon, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gourdon, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

  11. CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW February 2007 Available online 9 April 2007 Abstract Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential

  12. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 6, NO. 2, JUNE 1997 91 Uses of Electroplated Aluminum for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electrodes. Another example is gas- and fluid-driven microturbines, where both the flow and output power

  13. Landfill cover performance monitoring using time domain reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neher, E.R.; Cotten, G.B. [Parsons Infrastructure & Technology Group, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McElroy, D. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) systems were installed to monitor soil moisture in two newly constructed landfill covers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Each TDR system includes four vertical arrays with each array consisting of four TDR probes located at depths of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm. The deepest probes at 60 cm were installed beneath a compacted soil layer to analyze infiltration through the compacted layer. Based on the TDR data, infiltration through the two covers between March and October, 1997 ranged from less than measurable to 1.5 cm. However, due to a prohibition on penetrating the buried waste and resulting limits on probe placement depths, deeper percolation was not evaluated. Some of the advantages found in the application of TDR for infiltration monitoring at this site are the relative low cost and rugged nature of the equipment. Also, of particular importance, the ability to collect frequent moisture measurements allows the capture and evaluation of soil moisture changes resulting from episodic precipitation events. Disadvantages include the inability to install the probes into the waste, difficulties in interpretation of infiltration during freeze/thaw periods, and some excessive noise in the data.

  14. Recharging U.S. Energy Policy: Advocating for a National Renewable Portfolio Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunt, Robin J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar, wind, biomass. landfill gas, ocean (including tidal,electric, photovoltaics, landfill gas, wind, biomass,

  15. GeoChip-based Analysis of Groundwater Microbial Diversity in Norman Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Parisi, Victoria; Kang, Sanghoon; Deng, Ye; Nostrand, Joy Van; Masoner, Jason; Cozzarelli, Isabelle; Suflita, Joseph; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Norman Landfill is a closed municipal solid waste landfill located on an alluvium associated with the Canadian River in Norman, Oklahoma. It has operated as a research site since 1994 because it is typical of many closed landfill sites across the U.S. Leachate from the unlined landfill forms a groundwater plume that extends downgradient approximately 250 m from the landfill toward the Canadian River. To investigate the impact of the landfill leachate on the diversity and functional structure of microbial communities, groundwater samples were taken from eight monitoring wells at a depth of 5m, and analyzed using a comprehensive functional gene array covering about 50,000 genes involved in key microbial processes, such as biogeochemical cycling of C, N, P, and S, and bioremediation of organic contaminants and metals. Wells are located within a transect along a presumed flow path with different distances to the center of the leachate plume. Our analyses showed that microbial communities were obviously impacted by the leachate-component from the landfill. The number of genes detected and microbial diversity indices in the center (LF2B) and its closest (MLS35) wells were significantly less than those detected in other more downgradient wells, while no significant changes were observed in the relative abundance (i.e., percentage of each gene category) for most gene categories. However, the microbial community composition or structure of the landfill groundwater did not clearly show a significant correlation with the distance from well LF2B. Burkholderia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were found to be the dominant microbial populations detected in all wells, while Bradyrhizobium sp. and Ralstonia sp. were dominant populations for seven wells except LF2B. In addition, Mantel test and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicate that pH, sulfate, ammonia nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have significant effects on the microbial community structure. The results suggest that the leachate from unlined landfills significantly impact the structures of groundwater microbial communities, and that more distal wells recover by natural attenuation.

  16. Statistical comparison of leachate from hazardous, codisposal, and municipal solid waste landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbons, R.D.; Dolan, D.G.; May, H.; O'Leary, K.; O'Hara, R.

    1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been considerable debate regarding the chemical characterization of landfill leachate in general and the comparison of various types of landfill leachate (e.g., hazardous, codisposal, and municipal) in particular. For example, the preamble to the US EPA Subtitle D regulation (40 CFR Parts 257 and 258) suggests that there are no significant differences between the number and concentration of toxic constituents in hazardous versus municipal solid waste landfill leachate. The purpose of this paper is to statistically test this hypothesis in a large leachate database comprising 1490 leachate samples from 283 sample points (i.e., monitoring location such as a leachate sump) in 93 landfill waste cells (i.e., a section of a facility that took a specific waste stream or collection of similar waste streams) from 48 sites with municipal, codisposal, or hazardous waste site histories. Results of the analysis reveal clear differention between landfill leachate types, both in terms of constituents detected and their concentrations. The result of the analysis is a classification function that can estimate the probability that new leachate or ground water sample was produced by the disposal of municipal, codisposal, or hazardous waste. This type of computation is illustrated, and applications of the model to Superfund cost-allocation problems are discussed.

  17. TECHNICAL REPORTS The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    TECHNICAL REPORTS 1396 The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range of potential by composting and GHG emissions during composting. The primary carbon credits associated with composting are through CH4 avoidance when feedstocks are composted instead of landfilled (municipal solid waste

  18. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  19. 1st International Conference on Final Sinks, September 23-25, 2010 Vienna, Austria From Sanitary to Sustainable Landfilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szmolyan, Peter

    Rechberger (AT) Daniele Di Trapani (IT) Formation of Hanging Water Tables in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills) Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in several incineration residues and simple estimation of their fate in landfill Fan Lu (CN) Biostabilization of Municipal Solid Waste with High Water

  20. Landfill Disamenities And Better Utilization of Waste Resources Presented to the Wisconsin Governor's Task Force on Waste Materials Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    're heading, or should be heading regarding solid waste disposal. I began my environmental engineering career in New York State in the 1960's. We had many problems with polluting solid waste dumps, landfill fires, WTE facilities. We know that municipal solid waste, MSW landfills in the US are estimated to release

  1. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 5): Tri-County Landfill/Waste Management Illinois, South Elgin, IL, April 23, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tri-County/Elgin Landfill Superfund Site (TCLF) encompasses both the Tri-County and Elgin Landfills. The purpose of this ESD is to explain why the design for the landfill cap component of the remedy differs from that set forth in the ROD (PB93-964133) and to address the cost differentials associated with the change.

  2. Feasibility Study of Solar Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico (Second Study)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a solar photovoltaics (PV) system on landfill sites in Puerto Rico. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). The report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system. The landfills and sites considered in this report were all determined feasible areas in which to implement solar PV systems.

  3. Quantifying the Air Pollution Exposure Consequences of Distributed Electricity Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heath, Garvin A.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; Nazaroff, William W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels, including oil, landfill gas, and diesel. For most ofopportunity fuels" such as landfill gas) and fuel cells withconsumed (natural gas, landfill gas, digester gas, diesel

  4. Public Health Benefits of End-Use Electrical Energy Efficiency in California: An Exploratory Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cogen Cogen Natural Gas Landfill Gas Tulare Tulare Woodwasteas agricultural and wood waste, landfill gas, and mlmicipalscf digester gas, or Btu/ scf landfill gas. HVs are given in

  5. Systems and methods for measuring a parameter of a landfill including a barrier cap and wireless sensor systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Svoboda, John M.; Johnson, James T.

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a parameter of a landfill including a cap, without passing wires through the cap, includes burying a sensor apparatus in the landfill prior to closing the landfill with the cap; providing a reader capable of communicating with the sensor apparatus via radio frequency (RF); placing an antenna above the barrier, spaced apart from the sensor apparatus; coupling the antenna to the reader either before or after placing the antenna above the barrier; providing power to the sensor apparatus, via the antenna, by generating a field using the reader; accumulating and storing power in the sensor apparatus; sensing a parameter of the landfill using the sensor apparatus while using power; and transmitting the sensed parameter to the reader via a wireless response signal. A system for measuring a parameter of a landfill is also provided.

  6. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  7. Capping as an alternative for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes some of the regulatory and technical issues concerning the use of capping as a containment strategy for radioactive and hazardous waste. Capping alternatives for closure of landfills is not just an engineering problem, but rather involves complex physical, biological, and chemical processes requiring a multidisciplinary approach to develop designs that will work over the long haul and are cost-effective. Much of the information has been distilled from regulatory and guidance documents and a compilation of research activities on waste disposal, contaminant transport processes, and technology development for landfills that has been conducted over the last 21 years.

  8. Renewable Energy Holdings Landfill Gas Wales Ltd REH Wales | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form History FacebookRegenesys Holdings LtdInformation

  9. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrDigesterLandfillGas | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrinters Jump to: navigation, searchEnergy

  10. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrDigesterLandfillGas | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrintersInformationEnergy Information

  11. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2DigesterLandfillGas | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar GroupInformation SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrPellets

  12. Renewable LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to LNG Plant |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida4Visitors3(Presentation)Hydrogen:

  13. Project Sponsors: UCI Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    of a Commercial Microturbine Generator". 8th U. S. National Combustion Meeting. · R. Hack and V. McDonell. (2008 Microturbine Generator." Journal of Eng. Gas Turb. & Power 130 (1). OVERVIEW Fluid dynamics and chemical

  14. 1 Copyright 2003 by ASME Proceedings of IMECE'03

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Norbert

    investigations performed by the authors for a microturbine (30 kW) and a novel enhancement of a state rotor, gas turbine, microturbine, refrigeration, shock wave INTRODUCTION Utilization of unsteady flow

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Tri County/Elgin Landfill Site, Elgin, IL. (First remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The 66-acre Tri County Landfill (TCL) site comprises two former landfills the Tri County Landfill and the Elgin Landfill, located near the junction of Kane, Cook and DuPage Counties, Illinois. The two disposal operations overlapped to the point where the two landfills were indistinguishable. Land use in the area is predominantly agricultural. The local residents and businesses use private wells as their drinking water supply. Prior to the 1940's, both landfills were used for gravel mining operations. From 1968 to 1976, the TCL received liquid and industrial waste. State and county inspection reports revealed that open dumping, area filling, and dumping into the abandonded gravel quarry had occurred at the site. In addition, confined dumping, inadequate daily cover, blowing litter, fires, lack of access restrictions, and leachate flows were typical problems reported. In 1981, the landfill was closed with a final cover.

  16. Landfills a thing of the past in Germany where advanced waste management By Evridiki Bersi -Kathimerini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Landfills a thing of the past in Germany where advanced waste management rules By Evridiki Bersi but that day has already come in Germany. On June 1, 2005, Germany imposed a ban on traditional garbage dumps, replacing them with one of the most advanced waste-management systems in the world. In the 1970s, Germany

  17. Development of a Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring a Bioreactor Landfill Asis Nasipuri,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasipuri, Asis

    1 Development of a Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring a Bioreactor Landfill Asis Nasipuri,1 (704) 687 6953; email: vogunro@uncc.edu Abstract Recent studies of aerobic bioreactors have of the temperature and moisture in the bioreactor. This work presents the development and implementation

  18. Analysis of Vegetative on Six Different Landfill Cover Profiles in an Arid Environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; McClellan, Yvonne; Reavis, Bruce A.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Newman, Gretchen; Wolters, Gale

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs was constructed and monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle 'D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle 'C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for arid environments. The demonstration was intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. A portion of this project involves the characterization of vegetation establishment and growth on the landfill covers. The various prototype landfill covers were expected to have varying flux rates (Dwyer et al 2000). The landfill covers were further expected to influence vegetation establishment and growth, which may impact site erosion potential and long-term site integrity. Objectives of this phase were to quantify the types of plants occupying each site, the percentage of ground covered by these plants, the density (number of plants per unit area) of plants, and the plant biomass production. The results of this vegetation analysis are presented in this report.3 DRAFT07/06/14AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank all technical and support staff from Sandia and the USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Station not included in the authors' list of this document for their valuable contributions to this research. We would also like to acknowledge the Department of Energy's Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area for funding this work.4

  19. REACTION AND COMBUSTION INDICATORS IN MSW LANDFILLS Jeffrey W. Martin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Ohio. ABSTRACT Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills may contain aluminum from residential and commercial solid waste, industrial waste, and aluminum production wastes. Some aluminum-bearing waste municipal solid waste, industrial wastes, and aluminum production waste such as dross, salt cake, baghouse

  20. Results of the radiological survey at the Town of Tonawanda Landfill, Tonawanda, New York (TNY001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Murray, M.E.; Uziel, M.S.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at the Town of Tonawanda Landfill, Tonawanda, New York. The survey was performed in September 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if radioactive materials from work performed under government contract at the Linde Air Products Division of Union Carbide Corporation, Tonawanda, New York, had been deposited in the landfill. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey suggest that material originating at the Linde plant may have been deposited in the landfill. Soil samples S54 and B12 contained technologically enhanced levels of {sup 238}U not unlike the product formerly produced by the Linde plant. In contrast, samples B4A, B5A and B7B, containing elevated concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 230}Th with much lower concentrations of {sup 238}U, were similar to the residue or byproduct of the refinery operation conducted at the Linde plant. In 24 instances, soil samples from the Town of Tonawanda Landfill exceeded DOE guideline values for {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, and/or {sup 230}Th in surface or subsurface soil. Nine of these samples contained radionuclide concentrations more than 30 times the guideline value.

  1. Results of the radiological survey at the Town of Tonawanda Landfill, Tonawanda, New York (TNY001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Murray, M.E.; Uziel, M.S.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at the Town of Tonawanda Landfill, Tonawanda, New York. The survey was performed in September 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if radioactive materials from work performed under government contract at the Linde Air Products Division of Union Carbide Corporation, Tonawanda, New York, had been deposited in the landfill. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey suggest that material originating at the Linde plant may have been deposited in the landfill. Soil samples S54 and B12 contained technologically enhanced levels of [sup 238]U not unlike the product formerly produced by the Linde plant. In contrast, samples B4A, B5A and B7B, containing elevated concentrations of [sup 226]Ra and [sup 230]Th with much lower concentrations of [sup 238]U, were similar to the residue or byproduct of the refinery operation conducted at the Linde plant. In 24 instances, soil samples from the Town of Tonawanda Landfill exceeded DOE guideline values for [sup 238]U, [sup 226]Ra, and/or [sup 230]Th in surface or subsurface soil. Nine of these samples contained radionuclide concentrations more than 30 times the guideline value.

  2. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  3. Comparison of four composite landfill liner systems considering leakage rate and mass flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    systems, i.e., Subtitle D com- posite liner system, composite liner system with a geosynthetic clay liner (with a 61 cm (2 feet) or 91.5 cm (3 feet) thick compacted clay liner), were evaluated in termsComparison of four composite landfill liner systems considering leakage rate and mass flux T

  4. SERVICE LIFE OF A LANDFILL LINER SYSTEM SUBJECTED TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    hydraulic conductivity compacted soil liners and geosynthetic clay liners. This paper uses10 a case history, low hydraulic conductivity compacted25 soil liner (LHCSL), geotextiles, and geosynthetic clay linerSERVICE LIFE OF A LANDFILL LINER SYSTEM SUBJECTED TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Timothy D. Stark, Ph

  5. Optimisation of sanitary landfill leachate treatment in a sequencing batch reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimisation of sanitary landfill leachate treatment in a sequencing batch reactor A. Spagni, S al. 1988; Kjeldsen et al. 2002). Among several technologies, sequen- cing batch reactors (SBRs) haveH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) have been frequently used for monitoring and control of batch reactors

  6. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazdani, Ramin, E-mail: ryazdani@sbcglobal.net [Yolo County Planning and Public Works Department, Division of Integrated Waste Management, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@eos.ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Augenstein, Don, E-mail: iemdon@aol.com [Institute for Environmental Management, Inc., Palo Alto, CA 94306 (United States); Kayhanian, Masoud, E-mail: mdkayhanian@ucdavis.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Tchobanoglous, George, E-mail: gtchobanoglous@ucdavis.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  7. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calaf-Forn, Maria, E-mail: mcalaf@ent.cat [Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, E-08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona (Spain); Roca, Jordi [Departament de Teoria Econòmica, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Diagonal, 696, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi [ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, E-08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the “polluter pays” principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary.

  8. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Richard; Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based on traditional gas turbine or engine technologies canas reciprocating engines and gas turbines, for use in dataare included whereas gas turbine and microturbine systems

  9. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conversion methods (landfill gas?to?methane production, from the Minnesota Methane landfill gas facilities.   In conversion of sewer gas, landfill gas, or other renewable 

  10. Effects of adding wash tower effluent to Ano Liossia landfill to enhance bioreaction c by Olympia Galenianou.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galenianou, Olympia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical study was performed on the effects of adding sulfate-rich wash tower effluent from the Athens hospital waste incinerator to the Ano Liossia landfill of Athens. The method of mass balance was used to examine ...

  11. EA-0767: Construction and Experiment of an Industrial Solid Waste Landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary at the U.S. Department of Energy's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion plant...

  12. Annual Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis Review for the ICDF Landfill FY 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen Koslow

    2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses low-level waste disposal operations at the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) landfill from the start of operations in Fiscal Year 2003 through Fiscal Year 2008. The ICDF was authorized in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision for disposal of waste from the Idaho National Laboratory Site CERCLA environmental restoration activities. The ICDF has been operating since 2003 in compliance with the CERCLA requirements and the waste acceptance criteria developed in the CERCLA process. In developing the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision, U.S. Department of Energy Order (DOE) 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management', was identified as a 'to be considered' requirement for the ICDF. The annual review requirement under DOE Order 435.1 was determined to be an administrative requirement and, therefore, annual reviews were not prepared on an annual basis. However, the landfill has been operating for 5 years and, since the waste forms and inventories disposed of have changed from what was originally envisioned for the ICDF landfill, the ICDF project team has decided that this annual review is necessary to document the changes and provide a basis for any updates in analyses that may be necessary to continue to meet the substantive requirements of DOE Order 435.1. For facilities regulated under DOE Order 435.1-1, U.S. DOE Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management', IV.P.(4)(c) stipulates that annual summaries of low-level waste disposal operations shall be prepared with respect to the conclusions and recommendations of the performance assessment and composite analysis. Important factors considered in this review include facility operations, waste receipts, and results from monitoring and research and development programs. There have been no significant changes in operations at the landfill in respect to the disposal geometry, the verification of waste characteristics, and the tracking of inventories against total limits that would affect the results and conclusions of the performance assessment. Waste receipts to date and projected waste receipts through Fiscal Year 2012 are both greater than the inventory assessed in the performance assessment and composite analysis. The waste forms disposed of to the landfill are different from the waste form (compacted soil) assessed in the performance assessment. The leak detection system and groundwater monitoring results indicate the landfill has not leaked. The results of the performance assessment/composite analysis are valid (i.e., there is still a reasonable expectation of meeting performance objectives) but the new information indicates less conservatism in the results than previously believed.

  13. Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems.

  14. Landfill Cover Revegetation at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas » MethaneJohnsonKristina

  15. Title I conceptual design for Pit 6 landfill closure at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonnell, B.A.; Obenauf, K.S. [Golder Associates, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this design project is to evaluate and prepare design and construction documents for a closure cover cap for the Pit 6 Landfill located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300. This submittal constitutes the Title I Design (Conceptual Design) for the closure cover of the Pit 6 Landfill. A Title I Design is generally 30 percent of the design effort. Title H Design takes the design to 100 percent complete. Comments and edits to this Title I Design will be addressed in the Title II design submittal. Contents of this report are as follows: project background; design issues and engineering approach; design drawings; calculation packages; construction specifications outline; and construction quality assurance plan outline.

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1994. Benzene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, mercury, nonvolatile beta, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 140 ft/year during first and fourth quarters 1994.

  17. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1997 and 1997 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of forty-eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1997. Lead (total recoverable), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, mercury, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, tritium, and 1.2-dichloropropane also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 139 ft/year during first quarter 1997 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter.

  18. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Southside Sanitary Landfill, Indianapolis, IN, September 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Southside Sanitary Landfill (SSL) site, in Indianapolis, Indiana. The results of the Remedial Investigation showed the previous measures were adequate to protect human health and the environment and no unacceptable risk remains at the site. Therefore, the selected remedy for this site is a no further action. The operators of SSL have undertaken specific remedial measures in an attempt to decrease any threat of release of contaminants from the site.

  19. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  20. Determination of operating limits for radionuclides for a proposed landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Kocher, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating limits for radionuclides in sanitary and industrial wastes were determined for a proposed landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. These limits, which may be very small but nonzero, are not mandated by law or regulation but are needed for rational operation. The primary advantages of establishing such operating limits include (a) technically defensible screening criteria for landfill-destined solid wastes, (b) significant reductions in the required capacity of radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities, and (c) reductions in costs associated with storage and disposal of radioactive materials. The approach was based on analyses of potential contamination of groundwater at the plant boundary and the potential exposure to radioactivity of an intruder at the landfill after closure. The groundwater analysis includes (a) a source model describing the disposal of waste and the release of radionuclides from waste to groundwater, (b) site-specific groundwater flow and contaminant transport calculations, and (c) calculations of operating limits from the dose objective and conversion factors. The intruder analysis includes pathways through ingestion of contaminated vegetables and soil, external exposure to contaminated soil, and inhalation of suspended activity from contaminated soil particles. In both analyses, a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) was adopted.

  1. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  2. An Integrated Hydrogen Vision for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass, natural gas, landfill gas, oil, and coal, as wellmunicipal solid waste “landfill gas” and waste gases from

  3. Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    municipal solid waste “landfill gas” and waste gases fromin Israel, a solar and landfill gas demonstration in Canada,23. Solar-Powered Landfill Gas Conversion in Saskatoon,

  4. Managing R&D Risk in Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Papineau, Maya

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    other capacity such as landfill gas-based production. The 7electricity (no cogen) landfill gas electricity anaerobicanaerobic digestion. Landfill gas electricity is already

  5. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill Gas.paper.htm. April 2004. 20. Landfill Gas The decomposition ofgas. Therefore, the landfill gas is often collected and

  6. Factors driving wind power development in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    geothermal, digester and landfill gas, small hydro, andenergy sources, such as landfill gas. Market Factors Theenergy sources, such as landfill gas. Integrated Resource

  7. A Guidebook for Low-Carbon Development at the Local Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    level. Percentage of landfill gas (methane) that is capturedenergy and reducing carbon emissions: landfill gas capture.Landfill gas is primarily methane; thus it can be captured

  8. Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006. * Does not include landfill gas from municipal wastemegawatts from solid-fuel, landfill gas and digester gasother fuels. Both landfill gas and digester ecological and

  9. Transforming trash: reuse as a waste management and climate change mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergara, Sintana Eugenia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10: GHG emission sensitivity to landfill gas collectionfollowed by incineration, then landfill gas combustion), andthrough increased landfill gas collection; and avoided GHG

  10. Development of Energy Balances for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Sahtaye, Jayant

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    geothermal, wind, solar, landfill gas and municipal solidgeothermal, wind, solar, landfill gas and municipal solidsolid wasted, and landfill gas is also shown in this

  11. An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borglin, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hill Air Force Base Landfill Gas to Energy Biogas Caseoperators control leachate, landfill gas emissions, odors,USDepartmentofState 2006). Landfill gas (LFG) is created by

  12. Proceedings of the TOUGH Symposium 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moridis, George J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fatal flaws in measuring landfill gas generation rates byEvaluation and mitigation of landfill gas impacts on cadmiumpneumatic estimation of landfill gas generation rates at

  13. California's AB 1493: Trendsetting or Setting Ourselves up to Fail?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002 UCLA Law Symposium on AB 1493, Edited Panelist Commentary

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gases, meth- anol and landfill gas . Hydrogen fuel cellswhile something like landfill gas is wasted, it willbiomass and landfill created methanol gas-fuel cells are

  14. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reductions through flaring landfill gas, from which it makessuch as commercial landfill gas, truck speed controls andelectric drivers Commercial landfill gas Transportation mode

  15. Innovation, renewable energy, and state investment: Case studies of leading clean energy funds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Milford, Lewis; Porter, Kevin; Clark, Roger

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    projects (including landfill gas, manure, wastewatertechnologies include landfill gas and biogas from wastewateras a few digester and landfill gas systems and one large

  16. PTC, ITC, or Cash Grant? An Analysis of the Choice Facing Renewable Power Projects in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A10. Net Value of ITC for Landfill Gas (10% Nominal Discountbiomass, geothermal, landfill gas, municipal solid waste,biomass, geothermal, and landfill gas projects. Section 4

  17. The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: An early assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Langniss, Ole

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waste products, and landfill gas are eligible purchases ofthe end of 2001. 12 new landfill gas projects with 44 MW ofthe moment, as untapped landfill gas resource opportunities

  18. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blair, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    eligible hydropower, landfill gas, and municipal solidgeothermal, biomass, landfill gas, solar, ocean, and theCo-Fired Biomass Landfill Gas Solar Ocean Existing (2004) Y

  19. Selected Abstracts & Bibliography of International Oil Spill Research, through 1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research & Development Program Electronic Bibliography

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microbiology. Energy from landfill gas. Proceedings of aconference on energy from landfill gas. 164-175. The Unitedmicrobiology. Energy from landfill gas. Proceedings of a

  20. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbo-contaminated soils, comprehensive report, December 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    variable success. The landfill gas analyzer proved extremelyfor the detection of landfill gases. It was used for thesewell gas. A Landtec landfill gas analyzer (Landtec, Colton,

  1. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blair, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    eligible hydropower, landfill gas, and municipal solidwind, geothermal, biomass, landfill gas, solar, ocean, andCo-Fired Biomass Landfill Gas Solar Ocean Existing (2004) Y

  2. PTC, ITC, or Cash Grant? An Analysis of the Choice Facing Renewable Power Projects in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A10. Net Value of ITC for Landfill Gas (10% Nominal Discountopen-loop biomass, geothermal, landfill gas, municipal solidbiomass, geothermal, and landfill gas projects. Section 4

  3. Mixed waste landfill cell construction at energy solutions LLC: a regulator's perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukes, G.C.; Willoughby, O.H. [Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Div. of Solid and Hazardous Waste (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A small percentage of the property that EnergySolutions' (formerly Envirocare) operates at Clive, Utah is permitted by the State of Utah as a treatment, storage and disposal facility for mixed waste. Mixed Waste is defined as a hazardous waste (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 261.3) that also has a radioactive component. Typically, the waste EnergySolutions receives at its mixed waste facility is contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds while also contaminated with radioactivity. For EnergySolutions, the largest generator of mixed waste is the United States Department of Energy. However, EnergySolutions also accepts a wide variety of mixed waste from other generators. For many wastes, EnergySolutions goes through the process of characterization and acceptance (if appropriate) of the waste, treating the waste (if necessary), confirmation that the waste meets Land Disposal Restriction, and disposal of the waste in its mixed waste landfill cell (MWLC). EnergySolutions originally received its State-issued Part B (RCRA) permit in 1990. The Permit allows a mixed waste landfill cell footprint that covers roughly 10 hectares and includes 20 individual 'sumps'. EnergySolutions chose to build small segments of the landfill cell as waste receipts dictated. Nearly 16 years later, EnergySolutions has just completed its Phase V construction project. 18 of the 20 sumps in the original design have been constructed. The last two sumps are anticipated to be its Phase VI construction project. Further expansion of its mixed waste disposal landfill capacity beyond the current design would require a permit modification request and approval by the Executive Secretary of the Utah Solid and Hazardous Waste Control Board. Construction of the landfill cell is governed by the Construction Quality Assurance/Quality Control manual of its State-issued Permit. The construction of each sump is made up of (from the bottom up): a foundation; three feet of engineered clay; primary and secondary geo-synthetics (60 mil HDPE, geo-fabric and geo-textile); a two foot soil protective cover; tertiary geo-synthetics (80 mil HDPE, geo-fabric and geo-textile); and a final two foot soil protective cover. The Utah Department of Environmental Quality Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (UDEQ/DSHW) oversees the construction process and reviews the documentation after the construction is complete. If all aspects of the construction process are met, the Executive Secretary of the Utah Solid and Hazardous Waste Control Board approves the landfill cell for disposal. It is the role of the regulator to ensure to the stakeholders that the landfill cell has been constructed in accordance with the State-issued permit and that the cell is protective of human health and the environment. A final determination may require conflict resolution between the agency and the facility. (authors)

  4. Probabilistic performance-assessment modeling of the mixed waste landfill at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc.); Miller, Mark Laverne; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A probabilistic performance assessment has been conducted to evaluate the fate and transport of radionuclides (americium-241, cesium-137, cobalt-60, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, radon-222, strontium-90, thorium-232, tritium, uranium-238), heavy metals (lead and cadmium), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL). Probabilistic analyses were performed to quantify uncertainties inherent in the system and models for a 1,000-year period, and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify parameters and processes that were most important to the simulated performance metrics. Comparisons between simulated results and measured values at the MWL were made to gain confidence in the models and perform calibrations when data were available. In addition, long-term monitoring requirements and triggers were recommended based on the results of the quantified uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. At least one-hundred realizations were simulated for each scenario defined in the performance assessment. Conservative values and assumptions were used to define values and distributions of uncertain input parameters when site data were not available. Results showed that exposure to tritium via the air pathway exceeded the regulatory metric of 10 mrem/year in about 2% of the simulated realizations when the receptor was located at the MWL (continuously exposed to the air directly above the MWL). Simulations showed that peak radon gas fluxes exceeded the design standard of 20 pCi/m{sup 2}/s in about 3% of the realizations if up to 1% of the containers of sealed radium-226 sources were assumed to completely degrade in the future. If up to 100% of the containers of radium-226 sources were assumed to completely degrade, 30% of the realizations yielded radon surface fluxes that exceeded the design standard. For the groundwater pathway, simulations showed that none of the radionuclides or heavy metals (lead and cadmium) reached the groundwater during the 1,000-year evaluation period. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was used as a proxy for other VOCs because of its mobility and potential to exceed maximum contaminant levels in the groundwater relative to other VOCs. Simulations showed that PCE reached the groundwater, but only 1% of the realizations yielded aquifer concentrations that exceeded the regulatory metric of 5 {micro}g/L. Based on these results, monitoring triggers have been proposed for the air, surface soil, vadose zone, and groundwater at the MWL. Specific triggers include numerical thresholds for radon concentrations in the air, tritium concentrations in surface soil, infiltration through the vadose zone, and uranium and select VOC concentrations in groundwater. The proposed triggers are based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy regulatory standards. If a trigger is exceeded, then a trigger evaluation process will be initiated which will allow sufficient data to be collected to assess trends and recommend corrective actions, if necessary.

  5. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR THE AREA 3 LANDFILL COMPLEX, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, CAU 424, REVISION 0, MARCH 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE /NV

    1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for the Area 3 Landfill Complex (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 424) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 424 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs), each an individual landfill located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound (DOE/NV, 1996a): (1) Landfill A3-1 is CAS No. 03-08-001-A301. (2) Landfill A3-2 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A302. (3) Landfill A3-3 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A303. (4) Landfill A3-4 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A304. (5) Landfill A3-5 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A305. (6) Landfill A3-6 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A306. (7) Landfill A3-7 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A307. (8) Landfill A3-8 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A308. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (6) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS. In June and July 1997, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). Details can be found in Appendix A of this document. The results indicated four groupings of site characteristics as shown in Table ES-1. Based on the potential exposure pathways, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for CAU No. 424: (1) Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soils containing waste. (2) Remediate the site per applicable state and federal regulations (NAC, 1996c). (3) Prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. Based on the review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the TTR, the following alternatives were developed for consideration at the Area 3 Landfill Complex CAU: Alternative 1 - No Action; Alternative 2 - Administrative Closure; Alternative 3 - Partial Excavation, Backfill, and Recontouring The corrective action alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy-selection decision factors. Based on the results of this evaluation, preferred alternatives were selected for each CAS as indicated in Table ES-2. The preferred corrective action alternatives were evaluated on their technical merits, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety. The alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. These alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will reduce potential future exposure pathways to the contents of the landfills. During corrective action implementation, these alternatives will present minimal potential threat to site workers who come in contact with the waste. However, procedures will be developed and implemented to ensure worker health and safety.

  6. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  7. Mixed waste storage facility CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Solid waste landfill CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report consists of two papers reviewing the waste storage facility and the landfill projects proposed for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant complex. The first paper is a review of DOE`s conceptual design report for a mixed waste storage facility. This evaluation is to review the necessity of constructing a separate mixed waste storage facility. The structure is to be capable of receiving, weighing, sampling and the interim storage of wastes for a five year period beginning in 1996. The estimated cost is assessed at approximately $18 million. The review is to help comprehend and decide whether a new storage building is a feasible approach to the PGDP mixed waste storage problem or should some alternate approach be considered. The second paper reviews DOE`s conceptual design report for a solid waste landfill. This solid waste landfill evaluation is to compare costs and the necessity to provide a new landfill that would meet State of Kentucky regulations. The assessment considered funding for a ten year storage facility, but includes a review of other facility needs such as a radiation detection building, compactor/baler machinery, material handling equipment, along with other personnel and equipment storage buildings at a cost of approximately $4.1 million. The review is to help discern whether a landfill only or the addition of compaction equipment is prudent.

  8. Application of a NAPL partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) to support DNAPL remediation at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico chemical waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studer, J.E. [INTERA Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mariner, P.; Jin, M. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chlorinated solvents as dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) are present at a large number of hazardous waste sites across the U.S. and world. DNAPL is difficult to detect in the subsurface, much less characterize to any degree of accuracy. Without proper site characterization, remedial decisions are often difficult to make and technically effective, cost-efficient remediations are even more difficult to obtain. A new non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) characterization technology that is superior to conventional technologies has been developed and applied at full-scale. This technology, referred to as the Partitioning Interwell Tracer Test (PITT), has been adopted from oil-field practices and tailored to environmental application in the vadose and saturated zones. A PITT has been applied for the first time at full-scale to characterize DNAPL in the vadose zone. The PITT was applied in December 1995 beneath two side-by-side organic disposal pits at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) RCRA Interim Status Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. DNAPL, consisting of a mixture of chlorinated solvents, aromatic hydrocarbons, and PCE oils, is known to exist in at least one of the two buried pits. The vadose zone PITT was conducted by injecting a slug of non-partitioning and NAPL-partitioning tracers into and through a zone of interest under a controlled forced gradient. The forced gradient was created by a balanced extraction of soil gas at a location 55 feet from the injector. The extracted gas stream was sampled over time to define tracer break-through curves. Soil gas sampling ports from multilevel monitoring installations were sampled to define break-through curves at specific locations and depths. Analytical instrumentation such as gas chromatographs and a photoacoustical analyzers operated autonomously, were used for tracer detection.

  9. Natural gas recovery, storage, and utilization SBIR program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker, H.D.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A Fossil Energy natural-gas topic has been a part of the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program since 1988. To date, 50 Phase SBIR natural-gas applications have been funded. Of these 50, 24 were successful in obtaining Phase II SBIR funding. The current Phase II natural-gas research projects awarded under the SBIR program and managed by METC are presented by award year. The presented information on these 2-year projects includes project title, awardee, and a project summary. The 1992 Phase II projects are: landfill gas recovery for vehicular natural gas and food grade carbon dioxide; brine disposal process for coalbed gas production; spontaneous natural as oxidative dimerization across mixed conducting ceramic membranes; low-cost offshore drilling system for natural gas hydrates; motorless directional drill for oil and gas wells; and development of a multiple fracture creation process for stimulation of horizontally drilled wells.The 1993 Phase II projects include: process for sweetening sour gas by direct thermolysis of hydrogen sulfide; remote leak survey capability for natural gas transport storage and distribution systems; reinterpretation of existing wellbore log data using neural-based patter recognition processes; and advanced liquid membrane system for natural gas purification.

  10. Carbon brainprint – An estimate of the intellectual contribution of research institutions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterton, Julia; Parsons, David; Nicholls, John; Longhurst, Phil; Bernon, Mike; Palmer, Andrew; Brennan, Feargal; Kolios, Athanasios; Wilson, Ian; Ishiyama, Edward; Clements-Croome, Derek; Elmualim, Abbas; Darby, Howard; Yearley, Thomas; Davies, Gareth

    2015-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    turbine blades to improve engine efficiency Cranfield Improved delivery vehicle logistics to save fuel Cranfield Training for landfill gas inspectors to improve methane capture Cranfield Novel offshore vertical axis wind turbines compared... , this was 196 excluded from the assessment. 197 3.2 Novel offshore vertical axis wind turbines 198 Researchers within the School of Engineering at Cranfield University were part of a 199 consortium to develop further the concept of Novel Offshore Vertical...

  11. Liquid balance monitoring inside conventional, Retrofit, and bio-reactor landfill cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abichou, Tarek, E-mail: abichou@eng.fsu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Florida State University, 2525 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32311 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Green, Roger; Hater, Gary [Waste Management Inc., Cincinnati, OH 45211 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • The Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213 L Mg{sup ?1} (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste). • The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198 L Mg{sup ?1} from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells. • The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. • Measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from accumulated liquid by balance. • The in-place saturated hydraulic conductivity of the MSW was calculated to be in the range of 10{sup ?8} to 10{sup ?7} m s{sup ?1}. - Abstract: The Outer Loop landfill bioreactor (OLLB) in Louisville, KY, USA has been the site of a study to evaluate long-term bioreactor performance at a full-scale operational landfill. Three types of landfill units were studied including a conventional landfill (Control cell), a new landfill area that had an air addition and recirculation piping network installed as waste was being placed (As-Built cell), and a conventional landfill that was modified to allow for liquids recirculation (Retrofit cell). During the monitoring period, the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213 L Mg{sup ?1} (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste), respectively. The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198 L Mg{sup ?1} from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells, respectively. The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. In the Control and As-Built cells, leachate head on liner decreased once waste placement stopped. The measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from the estimate of accumulated liquid by the liquid balance. Additionally, measurements on excavated solid waste samples revealed large spatial variability in waste moisture content. The degree of saturation in the Control cells decreased from 85% to 75%. The degree of saturation increased from 82% to 83% due to liquids addition in the Retrofit cells and decreased back to 80% once liquid addition stopped. In the As-Built cells, the degree of saturation increased from 87% to 97% during filling activities and then started to decrease soon after filling activities stopped to reach 92% at the end of the monitoring period. The measured leachate generation rates were used to estimate an in-place saturated hydraulic conductivity of the MSW in the range of 10{sup ?8} to 10{sup ?7} m s{sup ?1} which is lower than previous reports. In the Control and Retrofit cells, the net loss in liquids, 43 and 12 L Mg{sup ?1}, respectively, was similar to the measured settlement of 15% and 5–8% strain, respectively (Abichou et al., 2013). The increase in net liquid volume in the As-Built cells indicates that the 37% (average) measured settlement strain in these cells cannot be due to consolidation as the waste mass did not lose any moisture but rather suggests that settlement was attributable to lubrication of waste particle contacts, softening of flexible porous materials, and additional biological degradation.

  12. Public health assessment for Sayreville Landfill, Sayreville, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980505754. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sayreville Landfill site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey, was used primarily for the disposal of municipal wastes from 1970 through 1977. Illegal dumping of possibly hazardous materials allegedly occurred during active landfill operations and after landfill closure. Organic and inorganic compounds were found in on-site subsurface soil, ground water, surface water, and sediments at levels above public health assessment comparison values. The community is concerned about the safety of eating fish from the South River. The potential exists for past, present, and future exposure of local residents and workers to contaminated subsurface soil, nearby surface water, and sediments. The New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) has concluded that the site is an indeterminate public health hazard since insufficient data exist for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed.

  13. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Microturbine Power Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    added to internal combustion generator line No Power converter will be purchased from Turbo Genset General Electric, Global Research Center & GE Industrial Developing...

  14. List of Microturbines Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,LakefrontLighthouseEvaporativesourcesource Historysource

  15. Distributed Energy Technology Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T ADRAFTJanuary 2004 | Department of EnergyOctober

  16. OpenEI Community - Microturbine Systems Market

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOfficeOhio: Energy Resourcesen)5/0 en Global8/0

  17. Large-Scale Field Study of Landfill Covers at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for dry environments. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing demonstration.

  18. Assessment of an active dry barrier for a landfill cover system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stormont, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ankeny, M.D.; Burkhard, M.E.; Tansey, M.K.; Kelsey, J.A. [Stephens (Daniel B.) and Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry barrier is a layer of geologic material that is dried by air flow. An active dry barrier system can be designed, installed, and operated as part of a landfill cover system. An active system uses blowers and fans to move air through a high-permeability layer within the cover system. Depending principally on the air-flow rate, it is possible for a dry barrier to remove enough water to substantially reduce the likelihood of water percolating through the cover system. If a material with a relatively great storage capacity, such as processed tuff, is used as the coarse layer, then the efficiency of the dry barrier will be increased.

  19. EXPEDITING THE PATH TO CLOSURE THE CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL, SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S.G.; Schofield, D.P.; Davis, M.J.; Methvin, R.; Mitchell, M.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is undergoing closure subject to the requirements of Subtitle C of RCRA. This paper identifies regulatory mechanisms that have and continue to expedite and simplify the closure of the CWL. These include (1) the Environmental Restoration (ER) Programmatic effort to achieve progress quickly with respect to the standard regulatory processes, which resulted in the performance of voluntary corrective measures at the CWL years in advance of the standard process schedule, (2) the management and disposal of CWL remediation wastes and materials according to the risks posed, and (3) the combination of multiple regulatory requirements into a single submittal.

  20. I 95 Municipal Landfill Phase I Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel JumpCounty, Texas: EnergyHy9Moat of Long| OpenLandfill Phase

  1. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  2. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  3. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and chloroethene (vinyl chloride) were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1996. Benzene, trichloroethylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead (total recoverable), gross alpha, mercury (total recoverable), tetrachloroethylene, fluoride, thallium, radium-226, radium-228, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 141 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter 1996

  4. Determination of operating limits for radionuclides for a proposed landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Kocher, D.C.

    1994-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating limits for radionuclides in sanitary and industrial wastes were determined for a proposed landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky. These limits, which may be very small but nonzero, are not mandated by law or regulation but are needed for rational operation. The approach was based on analyses of the potential contamination of groundwater at the plant boundary and the potential exposure to radioactivity of an intruder at the landfill after closure. The groundwater analysis includes (1) a source model describing the disposal of waste and the release of radionuclides from waste to the groundwater, (2) site-specific groundwater flow and contaminant transport calculations, and (3) calculations of operating limits from the dose limit and conversion factors. The intruder analysis includes pathways through ingestion of contaminated vegetables and soil, external exposure to contaminated soil, and inhalation of suspended activity from contaminated soil particles. In both analyses, a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) was adopted. The intended application of the results is to refine the radiological monitoring standards employed by the PGDP Health Physics personnel to determine what constitutes radioactive wastes, with concurrence of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

  5. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  6. Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haas, Reinhard

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass, Biogas, Landfill gas, Sewage gas, Geothermal)€/MWh; Sewage and landfill gas: 45-60 €/MWh; Wind OnshoreMWh; Landfill-, Sewage- & Landfill gas: 64.5-74.4 €/MWh; PV:

  7. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation and mitigation of landfill gas impacts on cadmium325 Landfill Gasgroundwater flow paths. 5.2 Landfill Gas Impacts McGrath et

  8. Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharifi, Mozafar [Razi University Center for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Baghabrisham 67149, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sharifimozafar@gmail.com; Hadidi, Mosslem [Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: hadidi_moslem@yahoo.com; Vessali, Elahe [Paradise Ave, Azad University, School of Agriculture, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: elahe_vesali@yahoo.com; Mosstafakhani, Parasto [Razi University Centre for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Baghabrisham 67149, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mostafakhany2003@yahoo.com; Taheri, Kamal [Regional office of Water Resource Management, Zan Boulevard, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: taheri.kamal@gmail.com; Shahoie, Saber [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kurdistan University, University Boulevard, Sanandadj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: shahoei@yahoo.com; Khodamoradpour, Mehran [Regional office of Climatology, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mehrankhodamorad@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The evaluation of a hazardous waste disposal site is a complicated process because it requires data from diverse social and environmental fields. These data often involve processing of a significant amount of spatial information which can be used by GIS as an important tool for land use suitability analysis. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of hazardous waste landfill sites in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. The study employs a two-stage analysis to provide a spatial decision support system for hazardous waste management in a typically under developed region. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify the most suitable sites using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to new chosen criteria. Using 21 exclusionary criteria, as input layers, masked maps were prepared. Creating various intermediate or analysis map layers a final overlay map was obtained representing areas for hazardous waste landfill sites. In order to evaluate different landfill sites produced by the overlaying a landfill suitability index system was developed representing cumulative effects of relative importance (weights) and suitability values of 14 non-exclusionary criteria including several criteria resulting from field observation. Using this suitability index 15 different sites were visited and based on the numerical evaluation provided by MCDA most suitable sites were determined.

  9. Is it Worth it? A Comparative Analysis of Cost-Benefit Projections for State Renewables Portfolio Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation, while hydro, landfill gas, and solar eachGeothermal Solar Hydro Landfill Gas Biomass Co-Fire Biomass

  10. On mobilization of lead and arsenic in groundwater in response to CO2 leakage from deep geological storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation and mitigation of landfill gas impacts on cadmiummunicipal solid waste (MSW) landfill gas on the release of

  11. Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies (e.g. , wind, landfill gas, etc. ), and in the2 projects, which include landfill gas plants, have received

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Baltimore by using landfill gas (methane) to co-generateIt involves using landfill gas (methane) currently being

  13. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RPS generation, while hydro, landfill gas, and solar eachGeothermal Solar Hydro Landfill Gas Biomass Co-Fire Biomass

  14. Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of Policy Options and Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minnesota Methane owns a landfill gas facility located infor example, that wind or landfill gas energy was conveyed,

  15. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermal, solar PV, and landfill gas, while PGE initiallywave energy, solar, landfill gas, and MSW, but excluded each

  16. Renewable Portfolio Standards in the United States - A Status Report with Data Through 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Though wind, solar, landfill-gas, and geothermal energy areas: biodiesel; biomass; landfill gas; ethanol; non-fossil-

  17. A Water Balance Study of Four Landfill Cover Designs at Material Disposal Area B in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David D. Breshears; Fairley J. Barnes; John W. Nyhan; Johnny A. Salazar

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of disposing of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose an unacceptable hazard. In order to achieve this, the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Program is comparing the performance of several different surface covers at Material Disposal Area (MDA) B in Los Alamos. Two conventional landfill were compared with an improved cover designed to minimize plant and animal intrusion and to minimize water infiltration into the underlying wastes. The conventional covers varied in depth and both conventional and improved designs had different combinations of vegetation (grass verses shrub) and gravel mulch (no mulch verses mulch). These treatments were applied to each of 12 plots and water balance parameters were measured from March1987 through June 1995. Adding a gravel mulch significantly influenced the plant covered field plots receiving no gravel mulch averaged 21.2% shrub cover, while plots with gravel had a 20% larger percent cover of shrubs. However, the influence of gravel mulch on the grass cover was even larger than the influence on shrub cover, average grass cover on the plots with no gravel was 16.3%, compared with a 42% increase in grass cover due to gravel mulch. These cover relationships are important to reduce runoff on the landfill cover, as shown by a regression model that predicts that as ground cover is increased from 30 to 90%,annual runoff is reduced from 8.8 to 0.98 cm-a nine-fold increase. We also found that decreasing the slope of the landfill cover from 6 to 2% reduced runoff from the landfill cover by 2.7-fold. To minimize the risk of hazardous waste from landfills to humans, runoff and seepage need to be minimized and evapotranspiration maximized on the landfill cover. This has to be accomplished for dry and wet years at MDA B. Seepage consisted of 1.9% and 6.2% of the precipitation in the average and once in ten year events, respectively, whereas corresponding values for runoff were 13% and 16%; these changes were accompanied by corresponding decreases in evapotranspiration, which accounted for 86% and only 78% of the precipitation occurring on the average and once in ten year even~ respectively.

  18. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1993. Benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethene 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, lindane, mercury, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. No groundwater contaminants were observed in wells screened in the lower section of Steed Pond Aquifer.

  19. Probabilistic performance-assessment modeling of the mixed waste landfill at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L. (.); Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc.); Miller, Mark Laverne; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A probabilistic performance assessment has been conducted to evaluate the fate and transport of radionuclides (americium-241, cesium-137, cobalt-60, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, radon-222, strontium-90, thorium-232, tritium, uranium-238), heavy metals (lead and cadmium), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL). Probabilistic analyses were performed to quantify uncertainties inherent in the system and models for a 1,000-year period, and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify parameters and processes that were most important to the simulated performance metrics. Comparisons between simulated results and measured values at the MWL were made to gain confidence in the models and perform calibrations when data were available. In addition, long-term monitoring requirements and triggers were recommended based on the results of the quantified uncertainty and sensitivity analyses.

  20. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Feo, Giovanni, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Williams, Ian D. [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Opinions and knowledge of young people in Italy about waste were studied. • Historic opposition to construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome. • Awareness of waste management develops with knowledge of environmental issues. • Many stakeholders’ views are needed when siting a new waste management facility. • Respondents’ opinions were influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. - Abstract: The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders – technicians, politicians and citizens – all have to be part of the decision process when siting a new waste management facility. The opinions of the young respondents were significantly influenced by their level of environmental knowledge.

  1. Application of the Software as a Service Model to the Control of Complex Building Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas powered internal combustion engines and fuel cells, boththis S3 case, internal combustion engines and fuel cells areresources such as internal combustion engines, microturbines

  2. Expected Technological Innovation to Drive Global Market for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innovation to Drive Global Market for Microturbine Systems Home > Groups > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency John55364's picture Submitted by John55364(95) Contributor...

  3. Comparative Performance Analysis of IADR Operating in Natural Gas-Fired and Waste-Heat CHP Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Sand, James R [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel utilization can be dramatically improved through effective recycle of 'waste' heat produced as a by-product of on-site or near-site power generation technologies. Development of modular compact cooling, heating, and power (CHP) systems for end-use applications in commercial and institutional buildings is a key part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) energy policy. To effectively use the thermal energy from a wide variety of sources which is normally discarded to the ambient, many components such as heat exchangers, boilers, absorption chillers, and desiccant dehumidification systems must be further developed. Recently a compact, cost-effective, and energy-efficient integrated active-desiccant vapor-compression hybrid rooftop (IADR) unit has been introduced in the market. It combines the advantages of an advanced direct-expansion cooling system with the dehumidification capability of an active desiccant wheel. The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of the IADR operation in baseline mode, when desiccant wheel regeneration is driven by a natural gas burner, and in CHP mode, when the waste heat recovered from microturbine exhaust gas is used for desiccant regeneration. Comparative analysis shows an excellent potential for more efficient use of the desiccant dehumidification as part of a CHP system and the importance of proper sizing of the CHP components. The most crucial factor in exploiting the efficiency of this application is the maximum use of thermal energy recovered for heating of regeneration air.

  4. Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site in Thessaloniki, sending thick black

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site to break. This led to sludge flowing into some nearby houses. Authorities are due to begin the cleanup

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Hertel Landfill, town of Plattekill, Ulster County, NY. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The 80-acre Hertel Landfill site consists of a 13-acre former municipal landfill and adjacent land in Plattekill, Ulster County, New York. The site overlies two natural aquifers. In 1976, the site was shut down for a variety of violations, including illegal dumping of industrial wastes and violating a town ordinance prohibiting the disposal of non-local waste. As a result of these improper disposal practices, a number of State investigations were conducted, which identified contamination by various organic compounds and metals in the onsite soil and ground water. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses soil contaminated by landfill wastes, and ground water contaminated by landfill leachate. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; other organics including phenols; and metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  6. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment

  7. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Michigan. (2001a). Landfill Gas Recovery at Ford Waynein their boilers with landfill gas from a nearby landfill,American energy usage from landfill gas by the end of 2001 (

  8. ORNL/TM-2005/263 ANCILLARY SERVICES PROVIDED FROM DER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    ............................................................................................................................... 2 2.1 MICROTURBINE

  9. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and closure of the solid waste landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the proposed construction, operation, and closure of a Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) that would be designed in accordance with Commonwealth of Kentucky landfill regulations (401 Kentucky Administrative Regulations Chapters 47 and 48 and Kentucky Revised Statutes 224.855). PGDP produces approximately 7,200 cubic yards per year of non-hazardous, non-radioactive solid waste currently being disposed of in a transitional contained (residential) landfill cell (Cell No. 3). New Kentucky landfill regulations mandate that all existing landfills be upgraded to meet the requirements of the new regulations or stop receiving wastes by June 30, 1995. Cell No. 3 must stop receiving wastes at that time and be closed and capped within 180 days after final receipt of wastes. The proposed SWL would occupy 25 acres of a 60-acre site immediately north of the existing PGDP landfill (Cell No. 3). The EA evaluated the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action and reasonable alternative actions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action which will significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, it is determined that an environmental impact statement will not be prepared, and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  10. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

    2011-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  11. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

  12. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  13. Health assessment for Shpack Landfill, Attleboro/North, Massachusetts, Region 1. CERCLIS No. MAD980503973. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Shpack Landfill site is on the National Priorities List (NPL). The landfill received both domestic and industrial waste, including inorganic and organic chemicals as well as radioactive waste. Ground water contains vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chromium, barium, copper, nickel, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, lead, polychlorinated biphenyl-1260 (Aroclor-1260), radium-226, alpha particles and beta particles. Surface and subsurface soil samples contained radium-226, uranium-238, uranium-235, uranium-234, and visual evidence of metal plating waste sludges. The site is considered to be of potential health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the potential for exposure to hazardous substances via ingestion of contaminated soils at the site and future ingestion of contaminated domestic well water.

  14. Reduction of COD in leachate from a hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke-making facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, K.; O`Toole, T.J. [Chester Environmental, Moon Township, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke manufacturing facility was in operation between July 1990 and December 1991. A system was constructed to collect and treat the leachate from the landfill prior to discharge to the river. Occasionally, the discharge from the treatment facility exceeded the permit limitations for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The objectives of this study were to determine treatment methods which would enable compliance with the applicable discharge limits; to establish the desired operating conditions of the process; and to investigate the effect of various parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, and reaction time on the COD destruction efficiency. The characteristics of the landfill leachate in question were significantly variable in terms of chemical composition. A review of the influent quality data suggests that the COD concentration ranges between 80 and 390 mg/l. The oxidation processes using Fenton`s reagent or a combination of UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst are capable of reducing the COD concentration of the leachate below the discharge limitation of 35 mg/l. The estimated capital cost associated with the Fenton`s reagent process is approximately $525,000, and the annual operating and maintenance cost is $560,000. The estimated capital cost for the UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst treatment system is $565,000. The annual operating and maintenance cost of this process would be approximately $430,000.

  15. Evaluation of two solid waste landfills, a Superfund site, and strip mining on ground water quality in Portage County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, D.L. (OH/EPA, Logan, OH (United States)); Moody, J.B. (J.B. Moody and Associates, Athens, OH (United States)); Smith, G.W. (Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Willow Creek Landfill, the Jones Landfill, the Summit National Superfund Site, and Peterson Strip Mine are located in a 2 mi[sup 2] area in the SE portion of Portage County, OH. This study evaluated these potential sources of environmental pollution on ground water resources in 2 townships in Portage County, OH. The study area, comprising 15 mi[sup 2], is located in the glaciated portion of NE Ohio. The geology consists of alternating sandstones, siltstones, shales, and coal of the Pottsville Group of Pennsylvanian Age, overlain with glacial drift of the Wisconsin Glaciation of the Pleistocene Epoch. The Pottsville Formation was divided into 3 aquifers: shallow, intermediate, and deep for this study. 55 domestic wells in the study area and 13 monitoring wells at Willow Creek landfill were samples and analyzed for 23 inorganic chemical parameters. High concentrations of total dissolved solids, hardness, Cl, SO[sub 4], Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Na were found in wells located to the SE and W of the potential contamination sources, from water in the shallow aquifer. The other two aquifers are inorganically uncontaminated at this time. The presence of a buried glacial valley is influencing the ground water flow patterns locally, which results in an increase in total dissolved solids with other inorganic geochemical parameters to the west of the four contamination sources.

  16. Oppenheimer's Box of Chocolates: Remediation of the Manhattan Project Landfill at Los Alamos National Laboratory - 12283

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Donald L.; Ramsey, Susan S.; Finn, Kevin P.; Chaloupka, Allan B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Material Disposal Area B (MDA B) is the oldest radioactive waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Operated from 1944-48, MDA B was the disposal facility for the Manhattan Project. Recognized as one of the most challenging environmental remediation projects at Los Alamos, the excavation of MDA B received $110 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to accelerate this complex remediation work. Several factors combined to create significant challenges to remediating the landfill known in the 1940's as the 'contaminated dump'. The secrecy surrounding the Manhattan Project meant that no records were kept of radiological materials and chemicals disposed or of the landfill design. An extensive review of historical documents and interviews with early laboratory personnel resulted in a list of hundreds of hazardous chemicals that could have been buried in MDA B. Also, historical reports of MDA B spontaneously combusting on three occasions -with 50-foot flames and pink smoke spewing across the mesa during the last incident in 1948-indicated that hazardous materials were likely present in MDA B. To complicate matters further, though MDA B was located on an isolated mesa in the 1940's, the landfill has since been surrounded by a Los Alamos commercial district. The local newspaper, hardware store and a number of other businesses are located directly across the street from MDA B. This close proximity to the public and the potential for hazardous materials in MDA B necessitated conducting remediation work within protective enclosures. Potential chemical hazards and radiological inventory were better defined using a minimally intrusive sampling method called direct push technology (DPT) prior to excavation. Even with extensive sampling and planning the project team encountered many surprises and challenges during the project. The one area where planning did not fail to meet reality was safety. There were no serious worker injuries and the minor injuries recorded were those common to construction type activities. Extensive monitoring along the site boundary demonstrated that no hazardous chemicals were released and radiological dose to the public was within administrative limits. More than three years of effort by the LANL project team went into the planning for remediation of Material Disposal Area B. Hundreds of historical documents were reviewed; retired personnel were extensively interviewed and noninvasive techniques were used to characterize the site. The information collected was incorporated into the safety requirements, cost estimate, schedule and primary execution plan for the project. Ultimately the waste volume managed by the project approached 40000 m{sup 3}, more than double the original project estimate. This increase had a major impact on both project cost and schedule. Nuclear safety requirements for the project were based on an estimated MDA B radionuclide inventory of 12 PE-Ci. When excavation was complete over 123 PE-Ci had been removed from the trenches. The radionuclide inventory at MDA B was an order of magnitude higher than estimated. Work at MDA B could not have proceeded without the safety basis exemption from DOE-HQ. The one area where planning did not fail to meet reality was safety. There were no serious worker injuries and the minor injuries recorded were those common to construction type activities. Extensive monitoring along the site boundary demonstrated that no hazardous chemicals were released and radiological dose to the public was within administrative limits. (authors)

  17. Strength and conformance testing of a GCL used in a solid waste landfill lining system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, K.S. [CH2M Hill, Anchorage, AK (United States); O`Brien, A.J. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes strength and conformance tests conducted on a Bentomat ST geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) used in a composite lining system for the Cells 4 and 5 expansion of the Anchorage Regional Landfill in Anchorage, Alaska. The Cells 4 and 5 lining system included use of an 80-mil, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner overlying a GCL on both the sideslopes and base of the cells. The use of this lining system in a Seismic Zone 4 area on relatively steep side slopes required careful evaluation of both internal shear strength of the GCL and interface friction between the GCL and textured HDPE. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate both peak and residual GCL internal strengths at normal loads up to 552 kiloPascals (80 pounds per square inch). Laboratory tests also were conducted to evaluate the interface strength between the GCL and Serrot box and point textured HDPE. Interface strengths between both woven and nonwoven sides of the GCL and the textured HDPE were evaluated. Considerations related to use of peak or residual strengths for various interim stability cases are described in this paper. Stability analyses using stress-dependent interface and internal strengths for the GCL are addressed. The quality assurance and conformance testing program adopted for the project on GCL is discussed also.

  18. An Analysis of the DER Adoption Climate in Japan Using Optimization Results for Prototype Buildings with U.S. Comparisons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test Results of a Micro Gas Turbine, The Japan Society ofof the P15 07 micro gas turbine, and determined economicallyby natural gas engine (GE), gas turbine (GT), microturbine (

  19. An Analysis of the DER Adoption Climate in Japan Using Optimization Results for Prototype Buildings with U.S. Comparisons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the P15 07 micro gas turbine, and determined economicallyTest Results of a Micro Gas Turbine, The Japan Society ofby natural gas engine (GE), gas turbine (GT), microturbine (

  20. Transforming trash: reuse as a waste management and climate change mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergara, Sintana Eugenia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from a National Landfill Greenhouse Gas Inventory Model. ”Methane generation in landfills. ” Renewable Energy 32:50 3.2.1. Landfill

  1. Proceedings of the TOUGH Symposium 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moridis, George J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation and mitigation of landfill gas impacts on cadmiumG. Townsend, The bioreactor landfill: its status and future,emission estimation for landfills, Waste Manage. , 26 417-

  2. A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercial); percentage of landfill gas (methane) that isamount of waste going to landfill also reduces emissions ofof organic waste in landfills. ? Recycling, and overall

  3. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of thesmall hydro, digester gas, landfill gas, and municipal solidDigester Gas 1 ( 1) Landfill Gas Waste Tire *“Claimed” means

  4. Public Health Benefits of End-Use Electrical Energy Efficiency in California: An Exploratory Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cogen Cogen Natural Gas Landfill Gas Tulare Tulare Woodwasteand wood waste, landfill gas, and mlmicipal solid waste andscf digester gas, or Btu/ scf landfill gas. HVs are given in

  5. DOE/BNL Liquid Natural Gas Heavy Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Wegrzyn; Wai-Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    As a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions, increasing economic growth, and reducing the dependency on imported oil, the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory (DOE/ BNL) is promoting the substitution of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in heavy-vehicles that are currently being fueled by diesel. Heavy vehicles are defined as Class 7 and 8 trucks (> 118,000 pounds GVVV), and transit buses that have a fuel usage greater than 10,000 gallons per year and driving range of more than 300 miles. The key in making LNG market-competitive with all types of diesel fuels is in improving energy efficiency and reducing costs of LNG technologies through systems integration. This paper integrates together the three LNG technologies of: (1) production from landfills and remote well sites; (2) cryogenic fuel delivery systems; and (3) state-of-the-art storage tank and refueling facilities, with market end-use strategies. The program's goal is to develop these technologies and strategies under a ''green'' and ''clean'' strategy. This ''green'' approach reduces the net contribution of global warming gases by reducing levels of methane and carbon dioxide released by heavy vehicles usage to below recoverable amounts of natural gas from landfills and other natural resources. Clean technology refers to efficient use of energy with low environmental emissions. The objective of the program is to promote fuel competition by having LNG priced between $0.40 - $0.50 per gallon with a combined production, fuel delivery and engine systems efficiency approaching 45%. This can make LNG a viable alternative to diesel.

  6. The Excavation and Remediation of the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KWIECINSKI,DANIEL ALBERT; METHVIN,RHONDA KAY; SCHOFIELD,DONALD P.; YOUNG,SHARISSA G.

    1999-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a 1.9-acre disposal site that was used for the disposal of chemical wastes generated by many of SNL/NM research laboratories from 1962 until 1985. These laboratories were primarily involved in the design, research and development of non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and the waste generated by these labs included small quantities of a wide assortment of chemical products. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan for the Chemical Waste Landfill was approved by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in 1992. Subsequent site characterization activities identified the presence of significant amounts of chromium in the soil as far as 80 feet below ground surface (fbgs) and the delineation of a solvent plume in the vadose zone that extends to groundwater approximately 500 fbgs. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in some groundwater samples at concentrations slightly above the drinking water limit of 5 parts per billion. In 1997 an active vapor extraction system reduced the size of the TCE vapor plume and for the last six quarterly sampling events groundwater samples have not detected TCE above the drinking water standard. A source term removal, being conducted as a Voluntary Corrective Measure (VCM), began in September 1998 and is expected to take up to two years. Four distinct disposal areas were identified from historical data and the contents of disposal pits and trenches in these areas, in addition to much of the highly contaminated soil surrounding the disposal cells, are currently being excavated. Buried waste and debris are expected to extend to a depth of 12 to 15 fbgs. Excavation will focus on the removal of buried debris and contaminated soil in a sequential, area by area manner and will proceed to whatever depth is required in order to remove all pit contents. Up to 50,000 cubic yards of soil and debris will be removed and managed during the excavation of the CWL. As part of the excavation process, soil is being separated from the buried debris using a 2-inch mechanical screen. After separation from the soil, debris items are further-segregated by matrix into the following categories: wood, scrap metal, concrete/aggregates, resins, compatible debris, intact chemical containers, radioactive and mixed waste, and high hazard items. One of the greatest sources of hazards throughout the excavation process is the removal of numerous intact chemical containers with unknown contents. A large portion of the excavated soil is contaminated with metals and/or solvents, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are also known to be present. Most of the contaminated soils being excavated will be taken to the nearby Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) for treatment and management while a majority of the containers will be taken to the Hazardous Waste Management Facility or the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility for proper treatment and/or disposal at permitted offsite facilities.

  7. Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AGUILAR,RICHARD; DWYER,STEPHEN F.; REAVIS,BRUCE A.; NEWMAN,GRETCHEN CARR; LOFTIN,SAMUEL R.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cobble mulch and composted biosolids, greenwaste, and dairy manure were added to arid soil in an attempt to improve plant establishment and production, minimize erosion, increase evapotranspiration, and reduce leaching. Twenty-four plots (10 x 10 m) were established in a completely randomized block design (8 treatments, 3 plots per treatment). Treatments included (1) non-irrigated control, (2) irrigated control, (3) non-irrigated greenwaste compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (4) irrigated greenwaste compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (5) non-irrigated biosolids compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (6) irrigated biosolids compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (7) cobble-mulch, and (8) non-irrigated dairy manure compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot). Soil samples were collected from each plot for laboratory analyses to assess organic matter contents, macro-nutrient levels and trace metal contents, and nitrogen mineralization potential. All plots were seeded similarly with approximately equal portions of cool and warm season native grasses. The organic composts (greenwaste, biosolids, dairy manure) added to the soils substantially increased soil organic matter and plant nutrients including total nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the results of a laboratory study of the soils' nitrogen mineralization potential after the application of the various composts showed that the soil nitrogen-supplying capability decreased to non-amended soil levels by the start of the second growing season. Thus, from the standpoint of nitrogen fertilizer value, the benefits of the organic compost amendments appear to have been relatively short-lived. The addition of biosolids compost, however, did not produce significant changes in the soils' copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations and thus did not induce adverse environmental conditions due to excessive heavy metal concentrations. Supplemental irrigation water during the first and second growing seasons did not appear to increase plant biomass production in the irrigated control plots over that produced in the non-irrigated control plots. This surprising result was probably due to the cumulative effects of other factors that influenced the initial establishment and production of plants in the plots (e.g., plant species competition, seed germination delay times, differences in nutrient release and availability). Variation within individual plots, and among the three replicate plots associated with each treatment, rendered many of the recorded differences in vegetation establishment and production statistically insignificant. However, after two complete growing seasons the highest total plant foliar cover and the greatest biomass production and plant species diversity occurred in the cobble-mulched plots. These results suggest that cobble-mulch may be the desired amendment in re-vegetated arid landfill covers if the principal objectives are to quickly establish vegetation cover, stabilize the site from erosion, and increase water usage by plants, thereby reducing the potential for leaching and contaminant movement from the landfill's waste-bearing zone.

  8. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assessments of biomethane production and upgrading toUpgrading techniques for landfill gas have improved so that landfill biomethane

  9. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assessments of biomethane production and upgrading toUpgrading techniques for landfill gas have improved so that landfill biomethane

  10. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villanueva, A. [European Topic Centre on Resource and Waste Management, Hojbro Plads 4, DK-1200 Copenhagen K (Denmark)], E-mail: alejandro@villanueva.dk; Wenzel, H. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark, Building 424, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type. Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made, to discuss whether it is at all valid to use the LCA methodology in its current development state to guide policy decisions on paper waste. A total of nine LCA studies containing altogether 73 scenarios were selected from a thorough, international literature search. The selected studies are LCAs including comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover the three paper cycle system areas: raw materials and forestry, paper production, and disposal/recovery. It was found that the outcome of the individual LCA studies largely depended on the choices made in some of these assumptions, most specifically the ones concerning energy use and generation, and forestry.

  11. Preliminary data from an instantaneous profile test conducted near the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayliss, S.C. [DanShar, Inc., Bosque Farms, NM (United States); Goering, T.J.; McVey, M.D. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strong, W.R.; Peace, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Project

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents data from an instantaneous profile test conducted near the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area 3. The test was performed from December 1993 through 1995 as part of the environmental Restoration Project`s Phase 2 RCRA Facility Investigation of the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the test was to measure the unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils near the Mixed Waste Landfill. The instantaneous profile test and instrumentation are described, and the pressure and moisture content data from the test are presented. These data may be useful for understanding the unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils in Technical Area 3 and for model validation, verification, and calibration.

  12. Tomographic data developed using the ABEM RAMAC borehole radar system at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLeod, G.A.; Barker, D.L.; Molnar, S. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The ABEM RAMAC borehole radar system was run as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration for Sandia National Laboratories at Kirtland AFB. Tomograms were created between three test boreholes-UCAP No. 1, UCAP No. 2, and UCAP No. 3. These tomograms clearly delineate areas of amplitude attenuation and residual time of arrival or slowness differences. Plots for slowness were made using both the maximum and minimum of the first arrival pulse. The data demonstrates that the ABEM RAMAC 60-MHz pulse sampling radar system can be used to collect usable data in a highly conductive environment.

  13. Survey and assessment of the effects of nonconventional gases on gas distribution equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasionowski, W.J.; Scott, M.I.; Gracey, W.C.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature search and a survey of the gas industry were conducted to assess potential problems in the distribution of nonconventional gases. Available literature did not uncover data that would describe potential problems or substantiate the presence of harmful trace elements in final gas compositions produced from various SNG processes. Information from the survey indicates that some companies have encountered problems with nonconventional gases and extraneous additives such as landfill gas, refinery off-gases, oil gas, carbureted water gas, coke-oven gas, propane-air, and compressor lubricant oils. These nonconventional gases and compressor oils may 1) cause pipeline corrosion, 2) degrade some elastomeric materials and greases and affect the integrity of seals, gaskets, O-rings, and meter and regulator diaphragms, and 3) cause operational and safety problems. The survey indicated that 62% of the responding companies plan to use supplemental gas, with most planning on more than one type. Distribution companies intend to significantly increase their use of polyethylene piping from 11.6% in 1980 to 22.4% in 2000 for gas mains and from 33.4% to 50.3% in 2000 for gas service lines.

  14. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boerner, A. J. [IEAVP, ORISE, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maldonado, D. G. [IEAVP, ORISE, Oak Ridge, TN (United States; Hansen, Tom [Ameriphysics, LLC (United States)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for the DOE Paducah C-746-U Landfill. A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines. The ORISE-derived soil guidelines are specifically applicable to the Landfill at the end of its operational life. A suggested 'upper bound' multiple of the derived soil guidelines for individual shipments is provided.

  15. In-situ studies on the performance of landfill caps (compacted soil liners, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, capillary barriers)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melchior, S. [IGB - Ingenieurbuero fuer Grundbau, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1986 different types of landfill covers have been studied in-situ on the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg, Germany. Water balance data are available for eight years. The performance of different carriers has been measured by collecting the leakage on areas ranging from 100 m{sup 2} to 500 m{sup 2}. Composite liners with geomembranes performed best, showing no leakage. An extended capillary barrier also performed well. The performance of compacted soil liners, however, decreased severely within five years due to desiccation, shrinkage and plant root penetration (liner leakage now ranging from 150 mm/a to 200 mm/a). About 50 % of the water that reaches the surface of the liner is leaking through it. The maximum leakage rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} to 4 x 10{sup -8} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Two types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) have been tested for two years now with disappointing results. The GCL desiccated during the first dry summer of the study. High percolation rates through the GCL were measured during the following winter (45 mm resp. 63 mm in four months). Wetting of the GCL did not significantly reduce the percolation rates.

  16. Final construction quality assurance report for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V, Area 2, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bessom, W.H. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) has finished construction of Area 2 of the Y-12 Plant Industrial Landfill (ILF-V), classified as a Class 2 Landfill. This final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Area 2 was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. This report applies specifically to the Area 2 excavation, compacted clay soil liner, geomembrane liner, granular leachate collection layer, protective soil cover, and the leachate collection system. An ``As-Built`` survey was performed and is included. The drawings provide horizontal and vertical information for Area 2, the anchor trench, the leachate collection pipe, the temporary access road, and cross-sections of Area 2. This report provides documentation of the following items: the excavation activities of Area 2; the maximum recompacted coefficient of hydraulic conductivity or permeability of the soil is less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second (cm/sec); the total thickness of the compacted clay soil liner equals a minimum of 2 feet; a 40 mil impermeable geomembrane (polypropylene) flexible membrane liner (FML) and 16 oz. geotextile fabric was placed in direct contact with the compacted clay soil liner; a 12 inch granular leachate collection layer was installed and covered with a 8 oz. geotextile separation fabric; the installation of the leachate collection piping; and the two foot protective clay soil cover.

  17. SCENARIOS FOR MEETING CALIFORNIA'S 2050 CLIMATE GOALS California's Carbon Challenge Phase II Volume I: Non-Electricity Sectors and Overall Scenario Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Max

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increase recovery of landfill gas for use as a biomassto expand the recovery of landfill gas as a fuel and hasthe conversion of landfill gas to liquefied natural gas for

  18. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  19. Transforming trash: reuse as a waste management and climate change mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergara, Sintana Eugenia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    then landfill gas combustion), and landfilling (Williamssteam turbine, natural gas combustion turbine, natural gascomes from natural gas combustion (Marnay et al. 2002,

  20. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.