Sample records for landfill gas methanol

  1. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    USA ICEF2006-1578 LANDFILL GAS FUELED HCCI DEMONSTRATIONengine that runs on landfill gas. The project team led bynatural gas and simulated landfill gas as a fuel source.

  2. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    USA ICEF2006-1578 LANDFILL GAS FUELED HCCI DEMONSTRATIONengine that runs on landfill gas. The project team led bygas and simulated landfill gas as a fuel source. This

  3. LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND PRELIMINARY MODELING RESULTS O.BOUR*, E,UniversitéLaval, Sainte-Foy, Canada SUMMARY: Lateral landfill gas migration occurs in the surroundings of a MSW landfill complementary physical measures were used to build a conceptual model of lateral landfill gas migration

  4. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  5. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study, 2013 Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

  6. Renewable LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to LNG Plant Renewable LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to LNG Plant Success story about LNG from landfill gas....

  7. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects Webinar (text version) Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects Webinar (text version) Below is the text...

  8. Capture and Utilisation of Landfill Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    . In his 2003 review of energy recovery from landfill gas, Willumsen1 reported that as of 2001, there were thermal energy, or 20,000 tonnes of methane (CH4) per year. LANDFILLING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE 40 Austria 15 Switzerland 10 Norway 20 Denmark 21 Sweden 70 Finland 10 Poland 10 Czech Republic 5

  9. Long term performance of boilers using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulledge, J.; Cosulich, J.; Ahmed, S.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US EPA estimates that approximately 600 to 700 landfills produce sufficient gas for profitable energy production in the United States. The gas from these landfills could provide enough electricity for about 3 million homes. Yet, there are only about 120 operating landfill gas to energy facilities. A lack of information on successful projects may cause part of this shortfall. This paper provides information on 4 successful projects using landfill gas fired boilers, some of which have operated over a decade. Natural gas fired boilers can be easily converted to bum landfill gas. Several modifications to Districts` boilers, described in this paper, have resulted in many years of safe and corrosion free operation. Most of the modifications are minor. Conversion can be accomplished for under $100,000 in many cases. Information on the reliability and longevity of landfill gas supplies is also provided. Gas from a given landfill is generally available over 99.5% of the time with about 5 brief flow interruptions annually. Actual data from 3 landfills document the high availability of landfill gas. To show the longevity of landfill gas flows, data from the Palos Verdes Landfill are provided. The Palos Verdes Landfill closed in 1980. The Palos Verdes. Landfill Gas to Energy Facility is currently producing over 8 megawatts. Landfill gas pretreatment is not required for boilers. In cases where the landfill gas is being piped offsite, it is usually cost effective to dehydrate the landfill gas. Landfill gas bums cleaner than natural gas. NO{sub x} emissions from landfill gas fired boilers are lower because of the carbon dioxide in the landfill gas. Trace organic destruction efficiency is usually over 99% in landfill gas fired boilers. In addition, flare emissions are eliminated when landfill gas is used to displace fossil fuels in boilers.

  10. Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dever, S.A. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia) and GHD Pty. Ltd., 10 Bond Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia)]. E-mail: stuart_dever@ghd.com.au; Swarbrick, G.E. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: g.swarbrick@unsw.edu.au; Stuetz, R.M. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.stuetz@unsw.edu.au

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions.

  11. DETERMINATION OF GUIDANCE VALUES FOR CLOSED LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DETERMINATION OF GUIDANCE VALUES FOR CLOSED LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS O. BOUR*, S. BERGER**, C Gambetta, 74 000 Annecy SUMMARY: In order to promote active landfill gas collection and treatment or natural attenuation, it is necessary to identify trigger values concerning landfill gas emissions

  12. Characterization of landfill gas composition at the Fresh Kills municipal solid-waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eklund, B.; Anderson, E.P.; Walker, B.L.; Burrows, D.B. [Radian International, LLC, Austin, TX (United States)] [Radian International, LLC, Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most common disposal method in the US for municipal solid waste (MSW) is burial in landfills. Until recently, air emissions from these landfills were not regulated. Under the New Source Performance Standards and Emission Guidelines for MSW landfills, MSW operators are required to determine the nonmethane organic gas generation rate of their landfill through modeling and/or measurements. This paper summarizes speciated nonmethane organic compound (NMOC) measurement data collected during an intensive, short-term field program. Over 250 separate landfill gas samples were collected from emission sources at the Fresh Kills landfill in New York City and analyzed for approximately 150 different analytes. The average total NMOC value for the landfill was 438 ppmv (as hexane) versus the regulatory default value of 4,000 ppmv (as hexane). Over 70 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected and quantified in the landfill gas samples. The typical gas composition for this landfill was determined as well as estimates of the spatial, temporal, and measurement variability in the gas composition. The data for NMOC show that the gas composition within the landfill is equivalent to the composition of the gas exiting the landfill through passive vents and through the soil cover.

  13. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  14. Technology and economics of gas utilization: Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seddon, D.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the current and emerging technology for the conversion of natural gas into methanol and assesses its impact on the production economics. Technologies of potential use for offshore developments of large gas reserves or associated gas are discussed. New technologies for the production of methanol synthesis-gas, such as autothermal reforming and GHR technology, are described and the economic advantages over conventional steam reforming are quantified. New methanol synthesis technology, such as slurry phase reactors, are outlined but appear to offer little advantage over conventional technology for offshore gas utilization. The purification of methanol for fuel and chemical grade product is outlined and the cost of transport presented. The data presented gives an overview of the production costs for production of methanol from large gas reserves (> 1Tcf, 25--35PJ/a) and smaller scale reserves (10--20MMscfd, 4--10PJ/a). The variation of the production cost of methanol with gas price indicates that the gas price is the principal economic consideration. However, adoption of new technology will improve production economics by an amount equivalent to an incremental gas cost of about $0.5/GJ. For gas reserves of low development cost, the adoption of new technology is not a prerequisite to economic viability.

  15. LANDFILL-GAS-TO-ENERGY PROJECTS: AN ANALYSIS OF NET PRIVATE AND SOCIAL BENEFITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Materials Table A1: Model Results for West Lake Landfill WEST LAKE IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Landfill WEST COUNTY IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Average Landfill Gas Generation (mmcf/yr) 1,075 1,735 $1,250 Table A3: Model Results for Modern Landfill MODERN IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Average

  16. July 17, 2012, Webinar: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar, held July 17, 2012, provided information on the challenges and benefits of developing successful community landfill gas-to-energy projects in Will County, Illinois, and Escambia...

  17. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

  18. Capturing, Purifying, and Liquefying Landfill Gas for Transportation Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    landfill biomethane to liquefied natural gas for use as transportation fuel. The aim is to develop, and liquefaction of biomethane. The resulting liquefied natural gas will consist of cryogenically liquefied. This project will also serve as a model for similar facilities in California to use native biogas resources

  19. Policy Analysis Landfill-Gas-to-Energy Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    perspectives in comparison to current subsidies. It was found that the private breakeven price of electricityPolicy Analysis Landfill-Gas-to-Energy Projects: Analysis of Net Private and Social Benefits P A U gas also has the potential to be used to generate electricity.In1994,the

  20. Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.

  1. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  2. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blum, David B. (108 Tall Oaks Dr., Wayne, NJ 07470); Gelbein, Abraham P. (45 Headley Rd., Morristown, NJ 07960)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  3. Case Studies from the Climate Technology Partnership: Landfill Gas Projects in South Korea and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larney, C.; Heil, M.; Ha, G. A.

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines landfill gas projects in South Korea. Two case studies provide concrete examples of lessons learned and offer practical guidance for future projects.

  4. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects Webinar (text version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the Webinar titled "Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects," originally presented on July 17, 2012.

  5. Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehlinger, Victoria M.

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    pathways for the production of methanol from shale gas. The composition of the shale gas feedstock is assumed to come from the Barnett Shale Play located near Fort Worth, Texas, which is currently the most active shale gas play in the US. Process...

  6. Woodland Landfill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: Energy Resources JumpWood,WoodfordLandfill Gas Recovery

  7. Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:EnergyOssian,ParleInformationPenobscot County, Maine:Landfill Gas

  8. PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam Reforming, and Reverse-Water-Gas-Shift. PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam...

  9. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Jeremy W.F., E-mail: jmorris@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Crest, Marion, E-mail: marion.crest@suez-env.com [Suez Environnement, 38 rue du President Wilson, 78230 Le Pecq (France); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Spokas, Kurt A., E-mail: kurt.spokas@ars.usda.gov [United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, 439 Borlaug Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Akerman, Anna, E-mail: anna.akerman@sita.fr [SITA France, Tour CB 21, 16 Place de l'Iris, 92040 Paris La Defense Cedex (France); Yuan, Lei, E-mail: lyuan@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance-based evaluation of landfill gas control system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical framework to evaluate transition from active to passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Focus on cover oxidation as an alternative means of passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrates research on long-term landfill behavior with practical guidance. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society's interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of landfill covers.

  10. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfield, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the US and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. A pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations: less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide.

  11. Int. J. Environment and Pollution, V0/. IS, No.4, 2001 Economic evaluation of a landfill system with gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Int. J. Environment and Pollution, V0/. IS, No.4, 2001 Economic evaluation of a landfill system be made as follows: Yedla, S. and Parikh, 1.K. (2001) 'Economic evaluation of a landfill system with gas.K. Parikh Economic evaluation of a landfill system with gas recovery 435 Tonnes per dayMillion tonnes per

  12. Investigation of Integrated Subsurface Processing of Landfill Gas and Carbon Sequestration, Johnson County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. David Newell; Timothy R. Carr

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, KS is operated by Deffenbaugh Industries and serves much of metropolitan Kansas City. Refuse, which is dumped in large plastic-underlined trash cells covering several acres, is covered over with shale shortly after burial. The landfill waste, once it fills the cell, is then drilled by Kansas City LFG, so that the gas generated by anaerobic decomposition of the refuse can be harvested. Production of raw landfill gas from the Johnson County landfill comes from 150 wells. Daily production is approximately 2.2 to 2.5 mmcf, of which approximately 50% is methane and 50% is carbon dioxide and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds). Heating value is approximately 550 BTU/scf. A upgrading plant, utilizing an amine process, rejects the carbon dioxide and NMVOCs, and upgrades the gas to pipeline quality (i.e., nominally a heating value >950 BTU/scf). The gas is sold to a pipeline adjacent to the landfill. With coal-bearing strata underlying the landfill, and carbon dioxide a major effluent gas derived from the upgrading process, the Johnson County Landfill is potentially an ideal setting to study the feasibility of injecting the effluent gas in the coals for both enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon sequestration. To these ends, coals below the landfill were cored and then were analyzed for their thickness and sorbed gas content, which ranged up to 79 scf/ton. Assuming 1 1/2 square miles of land (960 acres) at the Johnson County Landfill can be utilized for coalbed and shale gas recovery, the total amount of in-place gas calculates to 946,200 mcf, or 946.2 mmcf, or 0.95 bcf (i.e., 985.6 mcf/acre X 960 acres). Assuming that carbon dioxide can be imbibed by the coals and shales on a 2:1 ratio compared to the gas that was originally present, then 1682 to 1720 days (4.6 to 4.7 years) of landfill carbon dioxide production can be sequestered by the coals and shales immediately under the landfill. Three coal--the Bevier, Fleming, and Mulberry coals--are the major coals of sufficient thickness (nominally >1-foot) that can imbibe carbon dioxide gas with an enhanced coalbed injection. Comparison of the adsorption gas content of coals to the gas desorbed from the coals shows that the degree of saturation decreases with depth for the coals.

  13. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy for conducting gas tracer tests and measuring water saturations in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Yoojin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M. Erfan; Chiu, Pei [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yazdani, Ramin [Yolo County Planning and Public Works Department, Division of Integrated Waste Management, Yolo County, 44090 County Rd. 28H, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Imhoff, Paul T., E-mail: imhoff@udel.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy tested for measuring tracer gas in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement errors for tracer gases were 1-3% in landfill gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Background signals from landfill gas result in elevated limits of detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique is much less expensive and easier to use than GC. - Abstract: Gas tracer tests can be used to determine gas flow patterns within landfills, quantify volatile contaminant residence time, and measure water within refuse. While gas chromatography (GC) has been traditionally used to analyze gas tracers in refuse, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) might allow real-time measurements with reduced personnel costs and greater mobility and ease of use. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PAS for conducting gas tracer tests in landfills. Two tracer gases, difluoromethane (DFM) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}), were measured with a commercial PAS instrument. Relative measurement errors were invariant with tracer concentration but influenced by background gas: errors were 1-3% in landfill gas but 4-5% in air. Two partitioning gas tracer tests were conducted in an aerobic landfill, and limits of detection (LODs) were 3-4 times larger for DFM with PAS versus GC due to temporal changes in background signals. While higher LODs can be compensated by injecting larger tracer mass, changes in background signals increased the uncertainty in measured water saturations by up to 25% over comparable GC methods. PAS has distinct advantages over GC with respect to personnel costs and ease of use, although for field applications GC analyses of select samples are recommended to quantify instrument interferences.

  14. Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: Viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Fadel, Mutasem, E-mail: mfadel@aub.edu.lb [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon); Abi-Esber, Layale; Salhab, Samer [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LFG emissions are measured at an abandoned landfill with highly organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mean headspace and vent emissions are 0.240 and 0.074 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At sites with high food waste content, LFG generation drops rapidly after site closure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The viability of LFG recovery for CDMs in developing countries is doubtful. - Abstract: This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH{sub 4} flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188 {+-} 0.014, 0.224 {+-} 0.012 and 0.237 {+-} 0.008 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m{sup 2} hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06-0.89 l/m{sup 2} hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42-2.46 l/m{sup 2} hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L{sub 0}) values in the range of 19.8-102.6 m{sup 3}/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste.

  15. BUNCOMBE COUNTY WASTEWATER PRE-TREATMENT AND LANDFILL GAS TO ENERGY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon Creighton

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to construct a landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE) facility that generates a renewable energy source utilizing landfill gas to power a 1.4MW generator, while at the same time reducing the amount of leachate hauled offsite for treatment. The project included an enhanced gas collection and control system, gas conditioning equipment, and a 1.4 MW generator set. The production of cleaner renewable energy will help offset the carbon footprint of other energy sources that are currently utilized.

  16. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  17. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). 3) The Project will annually produce 365,292 MWh?s of clean energy. 4) By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO{sub 2} equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 28.3 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  18. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, W.R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L.A.

    2000-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery. Work was done in the following areas: (1) production of natural gas pipeline methane for liquefaction at an existing LNG facility, (2) production of LNG from sewage digester gas, (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling in the production of LNG, liquid CO{sub 2} and pipeline methane, (4) cost estimates for an LNG production facility at the Arden Landfill in Washington PA.

  19. Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory-phase transition metal oxide cations can convert methane to methanol. Methane activation by MO+ is discussed such as methanol has attracted great experimental and theoretical interest due to its importance as an industrial

  20. IEA-Renewable Energy Technologies, Bioenergy Agreement Task 37: Energy from Biogas and Landfill Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFP-06 IEA- Renewable Energy Technologies, Bioenergy Agreement Task 37: Energy from Biogas-Bioenergy, Task 37- Energy from Biogas and Landfill Gas", via samarbejde, informationsudveksling, fælles analyser. biogas fra anaerob udrådning (AD) som en integreret gylle og affalds behandlings teknologi. Arbejdet

  1. Impact of different plants on the gas profile of a landfill cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenauer, Thomas G., E-mail: thomas.reichenauer@ait.ac.at [Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, AIT - Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Watzinger, Andrea; Riesing, Johann [Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, AIT - Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Gerzabek, Martin H. [Institute of Soil Research, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Peter Jordan-Strasse 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: > Plants influence gas profile and methane oxidation in landfill covers. > Plants regulate water content and increase the availability of oxygen for methane oxidation. > Plant species with deep roots like alfalfa showed more stimulation of methane oxidation than plants with shallow root systems like grasses. - Abstract: Methane is an important greenhouse gas emitted from landfill sites and old waste dumps. Biological methane oxidation in landfill covers can help to reduce methane emissions. To determine the influence of different plant covers on this oxidation in a compost layer, we conducted a lysimeter study. We compared the effect of four different plant covers (grass, alfalfa + grass, miscanthus and black poplar) and of bare soil on the concentration of methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen in lysimeters filled with compost. Plants were essential for a sustainable reduction in methane concentrations, whereas in bare soil, methane oxidation declined already after 6 weeks. Enhanced microbial activity - expected in lysimeters with plants that were exposed to landfill gas - was supported by the increased temperature of the gas in the substrate and the higher methane oxidation potential. At the end of the first experimental year and from mid-April of the second experimental year, the methane concentration was most strongly reduced in the lysimeters containing alfalfa + grass, followed by poplar, miscanthus and grass. The observed differences probably reflect the different root morphology of the investigated plants, which influences oxygen transport to deeper compost layers and regulates the water content.

  2. Preferential oxidation of methanol and carbon monoxide for gas cleanup during methanol fuel processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdsell, S.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Inbody, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol fuel processing generates hydrogen for low-temperature, PEM fuel cell systems now being considered for transportation and other applications. Although liquid methanol fuel is convenient for this application, existing fuel processing techniques generate contaminants that degrade fuel cell performance. Through mathematical models and laboratory experiments chemical processing is described that removes CO and other contaminants from the anode feed stream.

  3. Greenhouse gas reduction by recovery and utilization of landfill methane and CO{sub 2} technical and market feasibility study, Boului Landfill, Bucharest, Romania. Final report, September 30, 1997--September 19, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, W.J.; Brown, W.R.; Siwajek, L. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Sanders, W.I. [Power Management Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States); Botgros, I. [Petrodesign, SA, Bucharest (Romania)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is a landfill gas to energy project rated at about 4 megawatts (electric) at startup, increasing to 8 megawatts over time. The project site is Boului Landfill, near Bucharest, Romania. The project improves regional air quality, reduces emission of greenhouse gases, controls and utilizes landfill methane, and supplies electric power to the local grid. The technical and economic feasibility of pre-treating Boului landfill gas with Acrion`s new landfill gas cleanup technology prior to combustion for power production us attractive. Acrion`s gas treatment provides several benefits to the currently structured electric generation project: (1) increase energy density of landfill gas from about 500 Btu/ft{sup 3} to about 750 Btu/ft{sup 3}; (2) remove contaminants from landfill gas to prolong engine life and reduce maintenance;; (3) recover carbon dioxide from landfill gas for Romanian markets; and (4) reduce emission of greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction attributable to successful implementation of the landfill gas to electric project, with commercial liquid CO{sub 2} recovery, is estimated to be 53 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent of its 15 year life.

  4. Economic Feasibility of Converting Landfill Gas to Natural Gas for Use as a Transportation Fuel in Refuse Trucks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprague, Stephen M.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    -to-energy (LFGTE) projects are underway in an attempt to curb emissions and make better use of this energy. The methane that is extracted from these landfills can be converted into a transportation fuel, sold as a pipeline-quality natural gas, operate turbines...

  5. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Landfill gas (LFG), composed largely of methane and carbon dioxide, is used in over 450 operational projects in 43 states. These projects convert a large source of greenhouse gases into a fuel that...

  6. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  7. Quantifying methane oxidation in a landfill-cover soil by gas push-pull tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, K.E. [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: gomezke@hotmail.com; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Lazzaro, A. [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schroth, M.H. [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: martin.schroth@env.ethz.ch

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) oxidation by aerobic methanotrophs in landfill-cover soils decreases emissions of landfill-produced CH{sub 4} to the atmosphere. To quantify in situ rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation we performed five gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) at each of two locations in the cover soil of the Lindenstock landfill (Liestal, Switzerland) over a 4 week period. GPPTs consist of the injection of a gas mixture containing CH{sub 4}, O{sub 2} and noble gas tracers followed by extraction from the same location. Quantification of first-order rate constants was based upon comparison of breakthrough curves of CH{sub 4} with either Ar or CH{sub 4} itself from a subsequent inactive GPPT containing acetylene as an inhibitor of CH{sub 4} oxidation. The maximum calculated first-order rate constant was 24.8 {+-} 0.8 h{sup -1} at location 1 and 18.9 {+-} 0.6 h{sup -1} at location 2. In general, location 2 had higher background CH{sub 4} concentrations in vertical profile samples than location 1. High background CH{sub 4} concentrations in the cover soil during some experiments adversely affected GPPT breakthrough curves and data interpretation. Real-time PCR verified the presence of a large population of methanotrophs at the two GPPT locations and comparison of stable carbon isotope fractionation of CH{sub 4} in an active GPPT and a subsequent inactive GPPT confirmed that microbial activity was responsible for the CH{sub 4} oxidation. The GPPT was shown to be a useful tool to reproducibly estimate in situ rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation in a landfill-cover soil when background CH{sub 4} concentrations were low.

  8. Investigation of the flame speeds of propane/methanol gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foote, K.L.; Villareal, J.

    1985-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests was conducted in an acoustically tuned flame tube in order to determine the laminar burning velocities in air of various propane/methanol gas mixtures. The experimental method is explained in detail, along with the tabular results. A 90% propane, 10% methanol mixture is shown to have a maximum burning velocity of 40.8 cm/s. A 65% propane, 35% methanol mixture has a maximum velocity of 41.8 cm/s. These maximum flame speeds are shown to be about the same as that of pure propane by the same method. Gulder has found evidence that the presence of methanol in some hydrocarbon fuels may actually inhibit combustion, but we see no apparent modifications in the combustion of propane when mixed with methanol.

  9. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014,ZaleskiThis Decision considersTable 1: PointsGas Reductions - Case Study,

  10. List of Landfill Gas Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,LakefrontLighthouseEvaporativesource HistorysourceGas

  11. Emerging technologies for the management and utilization of landfill gas. Final report, August 1994-August 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roe, S.; Reisman, J.; Strait, R.; Doorn, M.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report gives information on emerging technologies that are considered to be commercially available (Tier 1), currently undergoing research and development (Tier 2), or considered as potentially applicable (Tier 3), for the management of landfill gas (LFG) emissions or for the utilization of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from LFG. The emerging technologies that are considered to be Tier 1 are: (1) phosphoric acid fuel cells, (2) processes for converting CH4 from LFG to compressed LFG for vehicle fuel or other fuel uses, and (3) use of LFG as a fuel source for leachate evaporation systems. The Tier 2 technologies covered in the report are: (1) operation of landfills as anaerobic bioreactors, (2) operation of landfills are aerobic bioreactors, (3) production of ethanol from LFG, (4) production of commercial CO2 from LFG, and (5) use of LFG to provide fuel for heat and CO2 enhancement in greenhouses. Tier 3 technologies, considered as potentially applicable for LFG. include Stirling and Organic Rankine Cycle engines.

  12. Conversion of synthesis gas and methanol to hydrocarbons using zeolite catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Michael Anthony

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and dimethyl ether to hydrocarbons on ZSM-5. Kikuchu et al. (1984) report that the activity of ZSM-5 for methanol conversion decreased, but olefin selectivity increased, with decreasing alumina content. Relatively little information has been published... and oxygenates (methanol and dimethyl ether). Relatively little gaseous olefins were formed. The effect of the ZSM-5 support was to greatly reduce methane formation and to completely eliminate oxygenates. Table 1 Conversion of Synthesis Gas Over ZSM-5...

  13. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Hwayang-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Namhoon, E-mail: nhlee@anyang.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane.

  14. Electrical power obtained from burning landfill gas into a gas turbine generator: Experience after one year of operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabbri, R.; Mignani, N.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A typical example of a ``waste to energy'' concept can be found also in the landfill environment. The biogas derived by fermentation process is usually burnt into gas engines. This choice is usually due to the electric efficiency that is normally higher than gas turbine application and to the size that usually, almost in Italian landfill size, does not allow power higher than 1,000 kW. On the other side gas turbine applications, typically based on generator sets greater than 1,000 kW do not require special biogas pre-treatment; require less maintenance and have an extremely higher reliability. The paper describes an application of a gas turbine generator of 4,800 kW outlining the experiences collected after one year of operation. During this period, the system fulfilled the target of a total operating time greater than 8,000 hours. Description is done of the biogas compression system feeding the turbine and also of the subsystem adopted to reach the above mentioned target reliability.

  15. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biodegradation, landfill, gas generation, simulationPower, H. Landfill emission of gases into the atmosphere:a new approach to landfill operations that controls gas and

  16. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. The technical effort was conducted by EPRI, consultant David Thimsen, Kaltec of Minnesota, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Interpoll Laboratories. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made available two test skids originally used to test an ERC 30 kW carbonate fuel cell at the Destec Coal Gasification Plan in Plaquemine, LA. EPRI`s carbonate fuel cell pilot plant was installed at the Anoka County Regional Landfill in Ramsey, Minnesota. Additional gas cleaning equipment was installed to evaluate a potentially inexpensive, multi-stage gas cleaning process to remove sulfur and chlorine in the gas to levels acceptable for long-term, economical carbonate fuel cell operation. The pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations. Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorined hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide. These were the detection limits of the analytical procedures employed. It is probable that the actual concentrations are below these analytical limits.

  17. Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a homogenous catalyst for the production of methanol from purified synthesis gas at low temperature and low pressure which includes a transition metal capable of forming transition metal complexes with coordinating ligands and an alkoxide, the catalyst dissolved in a methanol solvent system, provided the transition metal complex is not transition metal carbonyl. The coordinating ligands can be selected from the group consisting of N-donor ligands, P-donor ligands, O-donor ligands, C-donor ligands, halogens and mixtures thereof.

  18. Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehlinger, Victoria M.

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology have made huge reservoirs of previously untapped shale gas and shale oil formations available for use. These new resources have already made a significant impact...

  19. Method for making methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mednick, R. Lawrence (Roslyn Heights, NY); Blum, David B. (Wayne, NJ)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  20. Method for making methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mednick, R. Lawrence (Roslyn Heights, NY); Blum, David B. (Wayne, NJ)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  1. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Phase II Final Report for January 25, 1999 - April 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, W. R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L. A.

    2000-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery.

  2. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spokas, K. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, St. Paul, MN (United States)]. E-mail: spokas@morris.ars.usda.gov; Bogner, J. [Landfills Inc., Wheaton, Illinois and University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Chanton, J.P. [Florida State University, Department of Oceanography, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Morcet, M. [Centre de Recherches pour l'Environnement l'Energie et le Dechet (CReeD), Veolia Environnement, Limay (France); Aran, C. [Centre de Recherches pour l'Environnement l'Energie et le Dechet (CReeD), Veolia Environnement, Limay (France); Graff, C. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, St. Paul, MN (United States); Golvan, Y. Moreau-Le [COLLEX Pty Ltd., CReeD, Veolia Environnement, Pyrmont NSW (Australia); Hebe, I. [Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME), French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management, Angers (France)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery.

  3. LANDFILL GAS CONVERSION TO LNG AND LCO{sub 2}. PHASE 1, FINAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1998-FEBRUARY 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK,W.J.; NEYMAN,M.; SIWAJEK,L.A.; BROWN,W.R.; VAN HAUWAERT,P.M.; CURREN,E.D.

    1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Process designs and economics were developed to produce LNG and liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from landfill gas (LFG) using the Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process. The patented Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process uses liquid CO{sub 2} to absorb contaminants from the LFG. The process steps are compression, drying, CO{sub 2} wash contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery, residual CO{sub 2} removal and methane liquefaction. Three flowsheets were developed using different residual CO{sub 2} removal schemes. These included physical solvent absorption (methanol), membranes and molecular sieves. The capital and operating costs of the flowsheets were very similar. The LNG production cost was around ten cents per gallon. In parallel with process flowsheet development, the business aspects of an eventual commercial project have been explored. The process was found to have significant potential commercial application. The business plan effort investigated the economics of LNG transportation, fueling, vehicle conversion, and markets. The commercial value of liquid CO{sub 2} was also investigated. This Phase 1 work, March 1998 through February 1999, was funded under Brookhaven National laboratory contract 725089 under the research program entitled ``Liquefied Natural Gas as a Heavy Vehicle Fuel.'' The Phase 2 effort will develop flowsheets for the following: (1) CO{sub 2} and pipeline gas production, with the pipeline methane being liquefied at a peak shaving site, (2) sewage digester gas as an alternate feedstock to LFG and (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling. Phase 2 will also study the modification of Acrion's process demonstration unit for the production of LNG and a market site for LNG production.

  4. Effect of the cathode gas diffusion layer on the water transport behavior and the performance of passive direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    of passive direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu, T.S. Zhao , W.W. Yang Department Direct methanol fuel cell Passive operation Neat methanol operation a b s t r a c t The passive operation of a direct methanol fuel cell with neat methanol requires the water that is pro- duced at the cathode

  5. Well-to-Wheels analysis of landfill gas-based pathways and their addition to the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, approximately 300 million standard cubic ft/day (mmscfd) of natural gas and 1600 MW of electricity are produced from the decomposition of organic waste at 519 U.S. landfills (EPA 2010a). Since landfill gas (LFG) is a renewable resource, this energy is considered renewable. When used as a vehicle fuel, compressed natural gas (CNG) produced from LFG consumes up to 185,000 Btu of fossil fuel and generates from 1.5 to 18.4 kg of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions per million Btu of fuel on a 'well-to-wheel' (WTW) basis. This compares with approximately 1.1 million Btu and 78.2 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for CNG from fossil natural gas and 1.2 million Btu and 97.5 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for petroleum gasoline. Because of the additional energy required for liquefaction, LFG-based liquefied natural gas (LNG) requires more fossil fuel (222,000-227,000 Btu/million Btu WTW) and generates more GHG emissions (approximately 22 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu WTW) if grid electricity is used for the liquefaction process. However, if some of the LFG is used to generate electricity for gas cleanup and liquefaction (or compression, in the case of CNG), vehicle fuel produced from LFG can have no fossil fuel input and only minimal GHG emissions (1.5-7.7 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu) on a WTW basis. Thus, LFG-based natural gas can be one of the lowest GHG-emitting fuels for light- or heavy-duty vehicles. This report discusses the size and scope of biomethane resources from landfills and the pathways by which those resources can be turned into and utilized as vehicle fuel. It includes characterizations of the LFG stream and the processes used to convert low-Btu LFG into high-Btu renewable natural gas (RNG); documents the conversion efficiencies and losses of those processes, the choice of processes modeled in GREET, and other assumptions used to construct GREET pathways; and presents GREET results by pathway stage. GREET estimates of well-to-pump (WTP), pump-to-wheel (PTW), and WTW energy, fossil fuel, and GHG emissions for each LFG-based pathway are then summarized and compared with similar estimates for fossil natural gas and petroleum pathways.

  6. Landfill gas energy utilization experience: Discussion of technical and non-technical issues, solutions, and trends. Final report, January 1992-September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doorn, M.; Pacey, J.; Augenstein, D.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report discusses technical and non-technical considerations associated with the development and operation of landfill gas to energy projects. Much of the report is based on interviews and site visits with the major developers and operators of the more than 110 projects in the U.S. The report also provides the history and trends of the landfill gas industry in the U.S. Graphs illustrate how the influence of reciprocating internal combustion (RIC) engines, compared to other utilization options, has steadily increased over time. The report summarizes information on new landfill gas utilization technologies, including vehicular fuel systems and fuel cells. Overall results of programs to demonstrate the operational feasibility of innovative technologies appear quite promising. Some of the non-technical problems and solutions described in the report are associated with the development of energy utilization options including project economics, barriers, and incentives.

  7. Gas phase synthesis of MTBE from methanol and isobutene over dealuminated zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collignon, F.; Mariani, M.; Moreno, S.; Remy, M.; Poncelet, G. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)] [Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas phase synthesis of MTBE from methanol and isobutene has been investigated over different zeolites. It is shown that bulk Si/Al ratio has a marked influence on the formation of MTBE. H-beta zeolite was found to be as active as acid Amberlyst-15 (reference catalyst), and noticeably superior to non- and dealuminated forms of H-Y, H-ZSM-5, zeolite omega, and H-mordenites. Screening test results obtained over other catalysts (SAPOs and pillared clays) are briefly commented. The contribution of the external surface of the zeolites to the reaction is discussed. In the case of H-Y zeolites, it is shown that extra framework Al species ({sup 27}Al NMR signal at 30 ppm) have a detrimental effect on the reaction. 64 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Economic Feasibility of Converting Landfill Gas to Natural Gas for Use as a Transportation Fuel in Refuse Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprague, Stephen M.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    to global climate change, diesel-fueled refuse trucks are one of the most concentrated sources of health-threatening air pollution in most cities. The landfills that they ultimately place their waste in are the second largest source of human-related methane...

  9. T2LBM Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model for TOUGH2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. , 1998, Modeling landfill gas generation and migration inPower, 1999, Landfill emission of gases into the atmosphere:1.0 modern landfill operators to control gas and leachate

  10. Effects of dry bulk density and particle size fraction on gas transport parameters in variably saturated landfill cover soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickramarachchi, Praneeth, E-mail: praneeth1977@yahoo.co.uk [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kawamoto, Ken; Hamamoto, Shoichiro [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nagamori, Masanao [Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Moldrup, Per [Environmental Engineering Section, Dept. of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Komatsu, Toshiko [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > The effects of soil physical properties on gas transport parameters were investigated. > Higher values of D{sub p} and k{sub a} exhibited in the '+gravel' than the '-gravel' fraction at same soil-air content ({epsilon}). > Recent power law models for D{sub p} (WLR) and k{sub a} (RPL) were modified. > Model parameters were linearly related to easily measurable dry bulk density ({rho}{sub b}). - Abstract: Landfill sites are emerging in climate change scenarios as a significant source of greenhouse gases. The compacted final soil cover at landfill sites plays a vital role for the emission, fate and transport of landfill gases. This study investigated the effects of dry bulk density, {rho}{sub b}, and particle size fraction on the main soil-gas transport parameters - soil-gas diffusivity (D{sub p}/D{sub o}, ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (k{sub a}) - under variably-saturated moisture conditions. Soil samples were prepared by three different compaction methods (Standard and Modified Proctor compaction, and hand compaction) with resulting {rho}{sub b} values ranging from 1.40 to 2.10 g cm{sup -3}. Results showed that D{sub p} and k{sub a} values for the '+gravel' fraction (<35 mm) became larger than for the '-gravel' fraction (<2 mm) under variably-saturated conditions for a given soil-air content ({epsilon}), likely due to enhanced gas diffusion and advection through less tortuous, large-pore networks. The effect of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} was most pronounced for the '+gravel' fraction. Normalized ratios were introduced for all soil-gas parameters: (i) for gas diffusivity D{sub p}/D{sub f}, the ratio of measured D{sub p} to D{sub p} in total porosity (f), (ii) for air permeability k{sub a}/k{sub a,pF4.1}, the ratio of measured k{sub a} to k{sub a} at 1235 kPa matric potential (=pF 4.1), and (iii) for soil-air content, the ratio of soil-air content ({epsilon}) to total porosity (f) (air saturation). Based on the normalized parameters, predictive power-law models for D{sub p}({epsilon}/f) and k{sub a}({epsilon}/f) models were developed based on a single parameter (water blockage factor M for D{sub p} and P for k{sub a}). The water blockage factors, M and P, were found to be linearly correlated to {rho}{sub b} values, and the effects of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} for both '+gravel' and '-gravel' fractions were well accounted for by the new models.

  11. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Marc L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the sources (e.g. , landfills, natural gas use, petroleumfrom landfills, livestock, natural gas transmission and use,sources sectors: landfills (LF), livestock (LS), natural gas

  12. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U., E-mail: heyer@ifas-hamburg.de; Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000–135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  13. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup ?1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup ?1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system emissions.

  14. Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

    2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

  15. Influence of mechanical-biological waste pre-treatment methods on the gas formation in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockreis, A. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: a.bockreis@iwar.tu-darmstadt.de; Steinberg, I. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to minimise emissions and environmental impacts, only pre-treated waste should be disposed of. For the last six years, a series of continuous experiments has been conducted at the Institute WAR, TU Darmstadt, in order to determine the emissions from pre-treated waste. Different kinds of pre-treated waste were incubated in several reactors and various data, including production and composition of the gas and the leachate, were collected. In this paper, the interim results of gas production and the gas composition from different types of waste after a running time of six years are presented and discussed.

  16. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Bringing new life to old landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabasca, L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the West Coast, Waste Management, Inc. is bringing new life to old landfills. The Bradley Landfill in Sun Valley, CA, just outside of Los Angeles, is being transformed into a recycling park, while a few hundred miles north, in the San Francisco Bay Area, an old landfill is now home to a transfer station and recycling center. WMI began transforming the landfill in the early 1990s.The first change was to process wood and green waste rather than landfilling it. In 1993, WMI added a sorting facility, and in 1994, after the Jan. 17 Northridge earthquake, the company added a construction and demolition debris (C and D) facility. There also is a landfill gas collection facility on the site. In the future, WMI hopes to add the following facilities: composting, railhaul, alternative fuels production, tire processing, and soil remediation. WMI also hopes several companies that use recycled materials as feedstock will build their plants at the landfill.

  18. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  19. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  20. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  2. The Development of Methanol Industry and Methanol Fuel in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.Y.; Li, Z.; Xie, K.C. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2007, China firmly established itself as the driver of the global methanol industry. The country became the world's largest methanol producer and consumer. The development of the methanol industry and methanol fuel in China is reviewed in this article. China is rich in coal but is short on oil and natural gas; unfortunately, transportation development will need more and more oil to provide the fuel. Methanol is becoming a dominant alternative fuel. China is showing the rest of the world how cleaner transportation fuels can be made from coal.

  3. Produce syngas for methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.L. (Foster Wheeler International Corp., Milan (IT))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined reforming, in which an oxygen reforming reactor is added downstream from a conventional tubular reactor to produce syngas for methanol, achieves a substantial reduction in energy consumption with the least impact on the environment. This paper reports that the advantages of this process scheme are as follows: 8% to 10% reduction in the consumption of natural gas per ton of methanol, The size of the primary reformer is reduced, Reduction of syngas compression requirement due to increased syngas pressure, Reduced steam consumption, Production of syngas with the stoichiometric composition required by methanol synthesis. Synthesis gases for the production of methanol and synfuels are basically mixtures of hydrogen and carbon oxides. They have been produced from natural gas by steam reforming, autothermal reforming and noncatalytic partial oxidation.

  4. UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline...

  5. MTBE/methanol supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, R.E.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. methanol production has become economically competitive with imports due to de-escalation of natural gas price from $3.07 mm Btu in January 1985 to $2.07 mm Btu by December 1985. This has reversed the earlier supply outlook when it appeared that additional methanol plants would shutdown due to low cost imports. Current gas cost in conjunction with projections for continued excess supply prompted DuPont to restart their 250 mm gpy plant at Beaumont, Texas. Other former producers are contemplating restarting idle units.

  6. Renewable Energy 32 (2007) 12431257 Methane generation in landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide. In his 2003 review of energy recovery from landfill gas, Willumsen [2,3] reported that as of 2001 followed by Germany and United Kingdom (Table 1). The capacity of most landfill gas-fuelled generators, close to Los Angeles California; the biogas is combusted in a steam boiler that powers a 50-MW turbine

  7. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkeby, Janus T.; Birgisdottir, Harpa [Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark, Building 424, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)], E-mail: thc@er.dtu.dk

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  8. California's AB 1493: Trendsetting or Setting Ourselves up to Fail?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002 UCLA Law Symposium on AB 1493, Edited Panelist Commentary

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gases, meth- anol and landfill gas . Hydrogen fuel cellswhile something like landfill gas is wasted, it willbiomass and landfill created methanol gas-fuel cells are

  9. Direct methanol fuel cell and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

  10. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  11. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John C (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  12. University of Washington Montlake Landfill Oversight Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    University of Washington Montlake Landfill Oversight Committee Montlake Landfill Project Guide Department with the review and approval of the Montlake Landfill Oversight Committee. #12;Montlake Landfill ...................................................................................................................................3 Figure 1 ­ Approximate Boundaries of the Montlake Landfill

  13. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  14. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  15. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decision support tool for landfill gas-to energy projects,”component of landfills to 100% HGWP gases a. HFC phase-out:

  16. Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas electricity contracts: A summary of the California Department of Water Resources contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachrach, Devra; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M W of geothermal, and 3 M W of landfill gas. The wind powerwind, geothermal, and landfill gas generators, provide theRISK: SUMMARY advance. Landfill gas and geothermal resources

  17. Landfill Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:

  18. Clean Air Act Title III accidental emission release risk management program, and how it applies to landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbard, C.S.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On June 20, 1996, EPA promulgated regulations pursuant to Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA). The rule, contained in 40 CFR Part 68, is called Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs, and is intended to improve accident prevention and emergency response practices at facilities that store and/or use hazardous substances. Methane is a designated highly hazardous chemical (HHC) under the rule. The rule applies to facilities that have 10,000 pounds of methane or more in any process, roughly equivalent to about 244,000 cubic feet of methane. The US EPA has interpreted this threshold quantity as applying to landfill gas within landfills. This paper presents an overview of the Accidental Release Prevention regulations, and how landfills are affected by the requirements. This paper describes methodologies for calculating the threshold quantity of landfill gas in a landfill. Methane is in landfill gas as a mixture. Because landfill gas can burn readily, down to concentrations of about five percent methane, the entire landfill gas mixture must be treated as the regulated substance, and counts toward the 10,000-pound threshold. It is reasonable to assume that the entire landfill gas collection system, active or passive, is filled with landfill gas, and that a calculation of the volume of the system would be a calculation of the landfill gas present in the process on the site. However, the US EPA has indicated that there are some instances in which pore space gas should be included in this calculation. This paper presents methods available to calculate the amount of pore space gas in a landfill, and how to determine how much of that gas might be available for an explosion. The paper goes through how to conduct the release assessment to determine the worst-case hazard zone around the landfill.

  19. Isotopic constraints on off-site migration of landfill CH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desrocher, S.; Lollar, B.S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geology

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Occurrences of CH{sub 4} in residential areas in the vicinity of the Beare Road landfill, Toronto, Canada, have raised public concern about potential off-site migration of CH{sub 4} from the landfill site. Carbon isotopic analysis of dissolved and gas phase CH{sub 4} at the Beare Road site, however, indicates that CH{sub 4} in the ground water systems in the vicinity of the landfill is related to naturally occurring microbial methanogenesis within these geologic units, rather than to contamination by landfill CH{sub 4}. CH{sub 4} gas in the landfill and landfill cover has {delta}{sup 13}C values typical of microbially produced gas. Concentrations of CH{sub 4} found in deep ground water in the Scarborough, Don, and Whitby Formations underlying the landfill are isotopically distinct from the landfill gases. They are isotopically and compositionally similar, however, to naturally occurring microbial CH{sub 4} identified in organic-rich glacial deposits throughout Ontario. The lack of any significant CH{sub 4} concentrations or concentration gradients in the upper tin zone between the landfill and the deep ground water aquifer is further evidence that no transport between the landfill and deep ground water is occurring.

  20. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olah, George; Prakash, G.K.

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO{sub 2} capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO{sub 2} and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields. ? Direct electrophilic bromination of methane to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to yield methanol was investigated on a wide variety of catalyst systems, but hydrolysis proved impractical for large-scale industrial application. ? Bireforming the correct ratio of methane, CO{sub 2}, and water on a NiO / MgO catalyst yielded the right proportion of H{sub 2}:CO (2:1) and proved to be stable for at least 250 hours of operation at 400 psi (28 atm). ? CO{sub 2} capture utilizing supported polyethyleneimines yielded a system capable of adsorbing CO{sub 2} from the air and release at nominal temperatures with negligible amine leaching. ? CO{sub 2} electrolysis to formate and syngas showed considerable increases in rate and selectivity by performing the reaction in a high pressure flow electrolyzer. ? Formic acid was shown to decompose selectively to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} using either Ru or Ir based homogeneous catalysts. ? Direct formic acid fuel cells were also investigated and showed higher than 40% voltage efficiency using reduced loadings of precious metals. A technoeconomic analysis was conducted to assess the viability of taking each of these processes to the industrial scale by applying the data gathered during the experiments to approximations based on currently used industrial processes. Several of these processes show significant promise for industrial scale up and use towards improving our nation’s energy independence.

  1. Methanol synthesis in a trickle bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tjandra, Sinoto

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemicals, which can not be synthesized directly and in high selectivity from synthesis gas (King and Grate, 1985). Methanol synthesis was first shown to be feasible by Mittash and Schneider (1913). In the 1920s, BASF introduced the first industrial... that illustrated a significant achievement in catalyst specificity because methanol is thermodynamically the least favorable product of all other products which can be synthesized from synthesis gas. The first industrial process developed by BASF in 1920s used a...

  2. Generating CO{sub 2}-credits through landfill in situ aeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritzkowski, M., E-mail: m.ritzkowski@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology, Harburger Schlossstr. 36, D-21079 Hamburg (Germany); Stegmann, R. [Consultants for Waste Management, Prof. R. Stegmann and Partner, Schellerdamm 19-21, D-21079 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are some of the major anthropogenic sources of methane emissions worldwide. The installation and operation of gas extraction systems for many landfills in Europe and the US, often including technical installations for energy recovery, significantly reduced these emissions during the last decades. Residual landfill gas, however, is still continuously produced after the energy recovery became economically unattractive, thus resulting in ongoing methane emissions for many years. By landfill in situ aeration these methane emissions can be widely avoided both, during the aeration process as well as in the subsequent aftercare period. Based on model calculations and online monitoring data the amount of avoided CO{sub 2-eq}. can be determined. For an in situ aerated landfill in northern Germany, acting as a case study, 83-95% (depending on the kind and quality of top cover) of the greenhouse gas emission potential could be reduced under strictly controlled conditions. Recently the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has approved a new methodology on the 'Avoidance of landfill gas emissions by in situ aeration of landfills' (). Based on this methodology landfill aeration projects might be considered for generation of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) in the course of CDM projects. This paper contributes towards an evaluation of the potential of landfill aeration for methane emissions reduction.

  3. Illinois Turning Landfill Trash into Future Cash

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Will County, Illinois officials yesterday formally broke ground on a new $7 million project (that includes $1 million of Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grant funds) to turn methane gas from the Prairie View Landfill into electricity in a partnership with Waste Management. Will County will receive revenue from the sale of the gas created from decomposing garbage which will be harnessed and converted to generate 4.8 megawatts of green electrical power and used to power up to 8,000 homes. The future revenue generated from the sale of the gas and the sale of the electricity could reach $1 million annually.

  4. Recovery of methanol in an MTBE process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whisenhunt, D.E.; Byers, G.L.; Hattiangadi, U.S.

    1988-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for the manufacture of methyltertiarybutylether (MTBE) in which methanol and a mixture of C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons containing isobutylene are contacted in a reaction zone containing an ion-exchange resin catalyst under suitable conditions to effect the reaction of methanol and isobutylene to produce a reaction product containing MTBE, unreacted methanol, unreacted isobutylene and other C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, the reaction product is introduced to a fractionation zone wherein it is separated into a bottoms product comprising essentially MTBE and an overhead product containing unreacted methanol, unreacted isobutylene, and other C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, and the overhead product is introduced to an absorption zone wherein the methanol is absorbed; the improvement is described which comprises utilizing silica gel as adsorbent and regenerating the silica gel adsorbent in a closed loop by contacting the silica gel absorbent with a desorption gas stream at an elevated temperature for a sufficient period of time to remove absorbed methanol, cooling the effluent from the adsorption zone to condense desorbed methanol removing desorbed methanol from the system and recycling the desorption gas to the adsorption zone.

  5. Controlling landfill closure costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millspaugh, M.P.; Ammerman, T.A. [Spectra Engineering, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill closure projects are significant undertakings typically costing well over $100,000/acre. Innovative designs, use of alternative grading and cover materials, and strong project management will substantially reduce the financial impact of a landfill closure project. This paper examines and evaluates the various elements of landfill closure projects and presents various measures which can be employed to reduce costs. Control measures evaluated include: the beneficial utilization of alternative materials such as coal ash, cement kiln dust, paper mill by-product, construction surplus soils, construction debris, and waste water treatment sludge; the appropriate application of Mandate Relief Variances to municipal landfill closures for reduced cover system requirements and reduced long-term post closure monitoring requirements; equivalent design opportunities; procurement of consulting and contractor services to maximize project value; long-term monitoring strategies; and grant loan programs. An analysis of closure costs under differing assumed closure designs based upon recently obtained bid data in New York State, is also provided as a means for presenting the potential savings which can be realized.

  6. MTBE, methanol prices rise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, G.D.L.; Cornitius, T.

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    After several months of drifting lower in line with declining autumn gasoline prices, tabs for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have turned around. There has been no big demand surge, but consumers and traders are beginning to build up inventories in advance of a series of midwinter shutdowns and turnarounds by producers. Spot prices, which dropped as low as 75 cts/gal, have rebounded to 90 cts/gal fob. Eager for a positive glimmer, methanol producers posted a 3-cts/gal increase in contract prices this month. It marks the first upward idea since February. In that time contract prices have dropped 75% from $1.55/gal to 39 cts/gal. A hard winter has hit early in much of the US sending natural gas prices up sharply. At the same time, formaldehyde and acetic acid markets remain firm, and with MTBE rebounding, methanol producers feel entitled to a piece of the action. {open_quotes}I don`t buy into this claim that MTBE demand is up and I don`t think producers can justify even a 3-cts/gal increase,{close_quotes} says one. {open_quotes}There is nothing in the economy to warrant a run-up. Housing starts are weaker, and demand is down at least 80,000 bbl/day with the MTBE shutdown.{close_quotes}

  7. Methanol from biomass via steam gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffman, J.A. [Wright-Malta Corp., Ballston Spa, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    R&D at Wright-Malta on gasification of biomass, and use of this gas in methanol synthesis, has now reached the stage where a demonstration plant is feasible. The gasifier has evolved into a long, slender, slightly declined, graded temperature stationary kiln, with a box beam rotor and twin piston feed. The methanol reactor is envisioned as a smaller, more declined, graded temperature, water-filled kiln, with a multi-pipe rotor. Input to the demo plant will be 100 tons/day of green (45% water) wood chips; output will be 11,000 gal/day of methanol and 7500 lbs/hr of steam. The over-all biomass to methanol system is tightly integrated in its mechanical design to take full advantage of the reactivity of biomass under a slow, steady, steamy pressurized cook, and the biomass pyrolysis and methanol synthesis exotherms. This is expected to yield good energy efficiency, environmental attractiveness, and economical operation.

  8. Communication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    but scarce oil and natural gas. Adapting to such limitations, it has developed a chemical industry, with the rest coming from natural gas (Peng, 2011). Methanol is commonly used to produce formaldehyde, methylCommunication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy and the environment

  9. Update on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate Treatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Study continued on p

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Update on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate Treatment Studyreatment, the County of Hawaii is considering an expansion of the South Hilo Sanitary Landfill (SHSL

  10. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  11. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  12. IpNose: Electronic nose for remote bad odour monitoring system in landfill sites Alex Perera*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    IpNose: Electronic nose for remote bad odour monitoring system in landfill sites Alex Perera to classify and quantify different gas/odours. Here we suggest the integration of a small form factor computer of bad odours in landfill sites. Preliminary approach to this application using commercial sensors

  13. GEOSYNTHETIC REINFORCEMENT IN LANDFILL DESIGN: US PERSPECTIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    GEOSYNTHETIC REINFORCEMENT IN LANDFILL DESIGN: US PERSPECTIVES Jorge G. Zornberg1 , M. ASCE Abstract: Geosynthetic reinforcement in landfill applications in the US has involved conventional reinforced soil structures and veneer stabilization with reinforcements placed along the landfill slope

  14. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koehler, J. [Woodward-Clyde International -- Americas, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  15. The influence of atmospheric pressure on landfill methane emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czepiel, P.M.; Shorter, J.H.; Mosher, B.; Allwine, E.; McManus, J.B.; Harriss, R.C.; Kolb, C.E.; Lamb, B.K

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions to the atmosphere in the United States. However, few measurements of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions have been reported. Here, we present the results of a multi-season study of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions using atmospheric tracer methods at the Nashua, New Hampshire Municipal landfill in the northeastern United States. The measurement data include 12 individual emission tests, each test consisting of 5-8 plume measurements. Measured emissions were negatively correlated with surface atmospheric pressure and ranged from 7.3 to 26.5 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} min{sup -1}. A simple regression model of our results was used to calculate an annual emission rate of 8.4x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These data, along with CH{sub 4} oxidation estimates based on emitted landfill gas isotopic characteristics and gas collection data, were used to estimate annual CH{sub 4} generation at this landfill. A reported gas collection rate of 7.1x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} and an estimated annual rate of CH{sub 4} oxidation by cover soils of 1.2x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} resulted in a calculated annual CH{sub 4} generation rate of 16.7x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These results underscore the necessity of understanding a landfill's dynamic environment before assessing long-term emissions potential.

  16. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

    2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  17. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  18. Applying guidance for methane emission estimation for landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharff, Heijo [NV Afvalzorg, Postbus 2, 1566 ZG Assendelft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: h.scharff@afvalzorg.nl; Jacobs, Joeri [NV Afvalzorg, Postbus 2, 1566 ZG Assendelft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.jacobs@afvalzorg.nl

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of methane emission from landfills is important to evaluate measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Both the United Nations and the European Union have adopted protocols to ensure quantification of methane emission from individual landfills. The purpose of these protocols is to disclose emission data to regulators and the general public. Criteria such as timeliness, completeness, certainty, comparability, consistency and transparency are set for inclusion of emission data in a publicly accessible database. All methods given as guidance to landfill operators to estimate landfill methane emissions are based on models. In this paper the consequences of applying six different models for estimates of three landfills are explored. It is not the intention of this paper to criticise or validate models. The modelling results are compared with whole site methane emission measurements. A huge difference in results is observed. This raises doubts about the accuracy of the models. It also indicates that at least some of the criteria previously mentioned are not met for the tools currently available to estimate methane emissions from individual landfills. This will inevitably lead to compiling and comparing data with an incomparable origin. Harmonisation of models is recommended. This may not necessarily reduce uncertainty, but it will at least result in comparable, consistent and transparent data.

  19. A finite element simulation of biological conversion processes in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robeck, M., E-mail: markus.robeck@uni-due.de [Department of Water and Waste Management, Building Sciences, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany); Ricken, T. [Institute of Mechanics/Computational Mechanics, Building Sciences, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany); Widmann, R. [Department of Water and Waste Management, Building Sciences, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are the most common way of waste disposal worldwide. Biological processes convert the organic material into an environmentally harmful landfill gas, which has an impact on the greenhouse effect. After the depositing of waste has been stopped, current conversion processes continue and emissions last for several decades and even up to 100 years and longer. A good prediction of these processes is of high importance for landfill operators as well as for authorities, but suitable models for a realistic description of landfill processes are rather poor. In order to take the strong coupled conversion processes into account, a constitutive three-dimensional model based on the multiphase Theory of Porous Media (TPM) has been developed at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The theoretical formulations are implemented in the finite element code FEAP. With the presented calculation concept we are able to simulate the coupled processes that occur in an actual landfill. The model's theoretical background and the results of the simulations as well as the meantime successfully performed simulation of a real landfill body will be shown in the following.

  20. Capacity additions ease tight methanol supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greek, B.F. (C and EN, Houston, TX (US))

    1988-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Two menthanol plants now in operation - one in the U.S., the other in Chile - will boost global supplies of methanol more than 375 million gal annually. This large capacity addition and smaller expansions in other parts of the world will exceed demand growth during 1988 and 1989, easing the squeeze on supplies. As the result of increased supplies, methanol prices could slip slightly in the fourth quarter. They are more likely to decline next year, however. The two plants, which started up in August, are owned and operated by Tenneco Oil Co. Processing and Marketing and by Cape Horn Methanol (CHM). The Tenneco plant, located in Pasadena, Tex., was restarted after a shutdown in 1982 when prices for methanol were low. It now is running at full capacity of 125 million gal per year. The plant uses the low-pressure process technology of Lurgi, reportedly requiring for feedstock and energy between 100,000 and 125,000 cu ft of methane per gallon. Global trade in methanol smooths out the supply and demand inconsistencies. Surging methanol demand in the U.S. and in Western Europe has been met by imports from areas where methanol production is most economical - that is, where natural gas is readily available and has no other application as high in value. Canada, Chile, and Trinidad are examples of those areas.

  1. Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.

  2. Methanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  3. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: xwang25@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Padgett, Jennifer M. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Powell, John S. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Campus Box 7905, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup ?1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported.

  4. Settlement Prediction, Gas Modeling and Slope Stability Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Settlement Prediction, Gas Modeling and Slope Stability Analysis in Coll Cardús Landfill Li Yu using mechanical models Simulation of gas generation, transport and extraction in MSW landfill 1 models Simulation of gas generation, transport and extraction in MSW landfill 1) Analytical solution

  5. Livingston Parish Landfill Methane Recovery Project (Feasibility Study)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Steven

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Woodside Landfill is owned by Livingston Parish, Louisiana and is operated under contract by Waste Management of Louisiana LLC. This public owner/private operator partnership is commonplace in the solid waste industry today. The landfill has been in operation since approximately 1988 and has a permitted capacity of approximately 41 million cubic yards. Based on an assumed in-place waste density of 0.94 ton per cubic yard, the landfill could have an expected design capacity of 39.3 million tons. The landfill does have an active landfill gas collection and control system (LFGCCS) in place because it meets the minimum thresholds for the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The initial LFGCS was installed prior to 2006 and subsequent phases were installed in 2007 and 2010. The Parish received a grant from the United States Department of Energy in 2009 to evaluate the potential for landfill gas recovery and utilization at the Woodside Landfill. This includes a technical and economic feasibility study of a project to install a landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) plant and to compare alternative technologies. The LFGTE plant can take the form of on-site electrical generation, a direct use/medium Btu option, or a high-Btu upgrade technology. The technical evaluation in Section 2 of this report concludes that landfill gas from the Woodside landfill is suitable for recovery and utilization. The financial evaluations in sections 3, 4, and 5 of this report provide financial estimates of the returns for various utilization technologies. The report concludes that the most economically viable project is the Electricity Generation option, subject to the Parish’s ability and willingness to allocate adequate cash for initial capital and/or to obtain debt financing. However, even this option does not present a solid return: by our estimates, there is a 19 year simple payback on the electricity generation option. All of the energy recovery options discussed in this report economically stressed. The primary reason for this is the recent fundamental shift in the US energy landscape. Abundant supplies of natural gas have put downward pressure on any project that displaces natural gas or natural gas substitutes. Moreover, this shift appears long-term as domestic supplies for natural gas may have been increased for several hundred years. While electricity prices are less affected by natural gas prices than other thermal projects, they are still significantly affected since much of the power in the Entergy cost structure is driven by natural gas-fired generation. Consequently, rates reimbursed by the power company based on their avoided cost structure also face downward pressure over the near and intermediate term. In addition, there has been decreasing emphasis on environmental concerns regarding the production of thermal energy, and as a result both the voluntary and mandatory markets that drive green attribute prices have softened significantly over the past couple of years. Please note that energy markets are constantly changing due to fundamental supply and demand forces, as well as from external forces such as regulations and environmental concerns. At any point in the future, the outlook for energy prices may change and could deem either the electricity generation or pipeline injection project more feasible. This report is intended to serve as the primary background document for subsequent decisions made at Parish staff and governing board levels.

  6. Evaluation of methane emissions from Palermo municipal landfill: Comparison between field measurements and models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Bella, Gaetano, E-mail: dibella@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Di Trapani, Daniele, E-mail: ditrapani@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Viviani, Gaspare, E-mail: gviv@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) diffuse emissions from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills represent one of the most important anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas. CH{sub 4} is produced by anaerobic biodegradation of organic matter in landfilled MSW and constitutes a major component of landfill gas (LFG). Gas recovery is a suitable method to effectively control CH{sub 4} emissions from landfill sites and the quantification of CH{sub 4} emissions represents a good tool to evaluate the effectiveness of a gas recovery system in reducing LFG emissions. In particular, LFG emissions can indirectly be evaluated from mass balance equations between LFG production, recovery and oxidation in the landfill, as well as by a direct approach based on LFG emission measurements from the landfill surface. However, up to now few direct measurements of landfill CH{sub 4} diffuse emissions have been reported in the technical literature. In the present study, both modeling and direct emission measuring methodologies have been applied to the case study of Bellolampo landfill located in Palermo, Italy. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate CH{sub 4} diffuse emissions, based on direct measurements carried out with the flux accumulation chamber (static, non-stationary) method, as well as to obtain the CH{sub 4} contoured flux map of the landfill. Such emissions were compared with the estimate achieved by means of CH{sub 4} mass balance equations. The results showed that the emissions obtained by applying the flux chamber method are in good agreement with the ones derived by the application of the mass balance equation, and that the evaluated contoured flux maps represent a reliable tool to locate areas with abnormal emissions in order to optimize the gas recovery system efficiency.

  7. annual international landfill: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    landfill waste slide, a 300,000 cubic yard landfill failure involving a geosynthetic clay liner, and a 100Landfill Instability and Its Implications for Operation, Construction,...

  8. The production of methanol by the Brookhaven National Laboratory process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.B.; Williams, J.J.; Johnson, A.R.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to develop a capital cost estimate and methanol production costs for a new methanol process under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The cost of fuel delivered to the US Gulf Coast is compared with fuel produced by a conventional methanol process and a liquefied natural gas (LNG) process. The new methanol process is made possible by the development of a new liquid phase catalyst. The new liquid catalyst system can convert synthesis gas almost completely to methanol in a SINGLE pass through the methanol synthesis reactor. This catalyst system reduces synthesis reaction temperatures from about 260{degree}C to about 100{degree}C, permitting isothermal synthesis conditions, in contrast to the temperature gradients in currently available pelleted, solid catalysts. Natural gas feedstock can be processed at pressures under 250 psia. Since nitrogen in the synthesis gas can be tolerated, the autothermal reforming step (combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming over a nickel catalyst) uses preheated air rather than oxygen. However, even with nitrogen present, the volume of gas fed to the reactor can still be smaller than the volume of gas that must be circulated in a conventional reactor, which operates with low conversions and requires high recycle volumes. The characteristics of the BNL system permits a major improvement in methanol plant design and economics. 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Risk assessment of landfill disposal sites - State of the art

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butt, Talib E. [Sustainability Centre in Glasgow (SCG), George Moore Building, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: t_e_butt@hotmail.com; Lockley, Elaine [Be Environmental Ltd. Suite 213, Lomeshaye Business Village, Turner Road, Nelson, Lancashire, BB9 7DR, England (United Kingdom); Oduyemi, Kehinde O.K. [Built and Natural Environment, Baxter Building, University of Abertay Dundee, Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.oduyemi@abertay.ac.uk

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A risk assessment process can assist in drawing a cost-effective compromise between economic and environmental costs, thereby assuring that the philosophy of 'sustainable development' is adhered to. Nowadays risk analysis is in wide use to effectively manage environmental issues. Risk assessment is also applied to other subjects including health and safety, food, finance, ecology and epidemiology. The literature review of environmental risk assessments in general and risk assessment approaches particularly regarding landfill disposal sites undertaken by the authors, reveals that an integrated risk assessment methodology for landfill gas, leachate or degraded waste does not exist. A range of knowledge gaps is discovered in the literature reviewed to date. From the perspective of landfill leachate, this paper identifies the extent to which various risk analysis aspects are absent in the existing approaches.

  10. Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ustohalova, Veronika [Institute of Waste Management, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: veronika.ustohalova@uni-essen.de; Ricken, Tim [Institute of Mechanics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany); Widmann, Renatus [Institute of Waste Management, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section.

  11. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  12. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vol. ) in Methanol Furnace , 2 , . . . . . . . . , . , .Velocity Profiles in Methanol Furnace Temperature Profiles:to Pure Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . C02

  13. Global budget of methanol: Constraints from atmospheric observations Daniel J. Jacob,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Qinbin

    Global budget of methanol: Constraints from atmospheric observations Daniel J. Jacob,1 Brendan D of atmospheric methanol to examine the consistency between observed atmospheric concentrations and current of methanol in the model is 7 days; gas-phase oxidation by OH accounts for 63% of the global sink, dry

  14. Mechanism of O2 Activation and Methanol Production by (Di(2-pyridyl)methanesulfonate)PtII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Mechanism of O2 Activation and Methanol Production by (Di(2- pyridyl)methanesulfonate)PtII Me observed for the SN2 functionalization to form methanol by two isomeric (dpms)PtIV Me(OH)2 complexes, one conversion of methane to methanol at low temper- ature is crucial for transportation of shale gas produced

  15. Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; DeLuchi, Mark A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the U.S. were coal, oil shale, and biomass. Natural gas (produced from coal and oil shale, methanol produced frommethanol was rated below oil shale and other coal-liquid

  16. Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities Arun to minimize public health and environmental impacts. Landfilling is the process by which residual solid waste is placed in a landfill. #12;Case in Supreme Court · Pathetic condition of Solid waste practices in India

  17. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimmer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.wimmer@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? The isotopic signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates is linked to the reactivity of MSW. ? Isotopic signatures of leachates depend on aerobic/anaerobic conditions in landfills. ? In situ aeration of landfills can be monitored by isotope analysis in leachate. ? The isotopic analysis of leachates can be used for assessing the stability of MSW. ? ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates helps to define the duration of landfill aftercare. - Abstract: Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of ?{sup 13}C, ?{sup 2}H and ?{sup 18}O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25 year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the ?{sup 13}C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (?{sup 13}C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of ?20‰ to ?25‰. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in ?{sup 13}C-DIC up to values of +10‰ and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW. During aeration of a landfill the aerobic degradation of the remaining organic matter caused a decrease to a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of about ?20‰. Therefore carbon isotope analysis in leachates and groundwater can be used for tracing the oxidation–reduction status of MSW landfills. Our results indicate that monitoring of stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates over a longer time period (e.g. during in situ aeration) is a powerful and cost-effective tool for characterising the biodegradability and stability of the organic matter in landfilled municipal solid waste and can be used for monitoring the progress of in situ aeration.

  18. T2LBM Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model for TOUGH2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7 2. LANDFILL BIODEGRADATIONof methanogenic activities in a landfill bioreactor treatingmethane production from landfill bioreactor, J. Env. Eng. ,

  19. Turning waste into energy beats landfilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Turning waste into energy beats landfilling By Christopher Hume The Hamilton Spectator (Nov 16, the fact remains that dumping garbage in a landfill site is far more environmentally destructive, damaging wrong with that picture: it describes landfill, where spontaneous combustion occurs regularly

  20. Methanol from biomass via steam gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffman, J.A. [Wright-Malta Corp., Ballston Spa, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    R & D at Wright-Malta on gasification of biomass, and use of this gas in methanol synthesis, has now reached the stage where a demonstration plant is feasible. The gasifier has evolved into a long, slender, slightly declined, graded temperature series of stationary kiln sections, with box beam rotors and twin piston feed. The methanol reactor is envisioned as a smaller, more declined, graded temperature, water-filled stationary kiln, with a multi-pipe rotor. Input to the demo plant will be 100 tons/day of green (45% water) wood chips; output is projected at 11,000 gal/day of methanol and 7500 lbs/hr of steam. The over-all biomass to methanol system is tightly integrated in its mechanical design to take full advantage of the reactivity of biomass under a slow, steady, steamy pressurized cook, and the biomass pyrolysis and methanol synthesis exotherms. This is expected to yield good energy efficiency, environmental attractiveness, and economical operation.

  1. Methanol emission from low mass protostars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Maret; C. Ceccarelli; A. G. G. M. Tielens; E. Caux; B. Lefloch; A. Faure; A. Castets; D. R. Flower

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of methanol lines in a sample of Class 0 low mass protostars. Using a 1-D radiative transfer model, we derive the abundances in the envelopes. In two sources of the sample, the observations can only be reproduced by the model if the methanol abundance is enhanced by about two order of magnitude in the inner hot region of the envelope. Two other sources show similar jumps, although at a lower confidence level. The observations for the other three sources are well reproduced with a constant abundance, but the presence of a jump cannot be ruled out. The observed methanol abundances in the warm gas around low mass protostars are orders of magnitude higher than gas phase chemistry models predict. Hence, in agreement with other evidences, this suggest that the high methanol abundance reflects recent evaporation of ices due to the heating by the newly formed star. The observed abundance ratios of CH3 OH, H2 CO, and CO are in good agreement with grain surface chemistry models. However, the absolute abundances are more difficult to reproduce and may point towards the presence of multiple ice components in these regions.

  2. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharabaghi, B. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: bgharaba@uoguelph.ca; Singh, M.K. [Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Inkratas, C. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: cinkrata@uoguelph.ca; Fleming, I.R. [Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5A9 (Canada)], E-mail: ian.fleming@usask.ca; McBean, E. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects.

  3. Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayalon, O. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management and NRERC, Haifa University, 32000 Haifa (Israel)]. E-mail: agofira@tx.technion.ac.il; Becker, N. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management and NRERC, Haifa University, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Department of Economics and Management, Tel Hai College and NRERC, University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel); Shani, E. [Dan Region Association of Towns, Sanitation and Waste Disposal (Israel)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hiriya landfill, Israel's largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use planning. The purpose of the present research is to perform a cost-benefit analysis of engineering and architectural-landscape rehabilitation projects considered for the site. An engineering rehabilitation project is required for the reduction of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, slope instability and leachate formation. An architectural-landscape rehabilitation project would consider improvements to the site to make it suitable for future end uses such as a public park. The findings reveal that reclamation is worthwhile only in the case of architectural-landscape rehabilitation of the landfill, converting it into a public park. Engineering rehabilitation alone was found to be unjustified, but is essential to enable the development of a public park.

  4. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yochim, April, E-mail: ayochim@regionofwaterloo.ca [Region of Waterloo Waste Management Division, 925 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2J 3Z4 (Canada); Zytner, Richard G., E-mail: rzytner@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); McBean, Edward A., E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Endres, Anthony L., E-mail: alendres@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable at 33.9% for the drier landfill and 18.1% for the wetter landfill. Infiltration experiments also showed the potential to measure small increases in water content.

  5. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  6. 4, 125164, 2007 Methanol exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 125­164, 2007 Methanol exchange between grassland and the atmosphere A. Brunner et al. Title Discussions Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Methanol (albrecht.neftel@art.admin.ch) 125 #12;BGD 4, 125­164, 2007 Methanol exchange between grassland

  7. Methanol plant ship: implementation study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The study compiled the economic, commercial and financing requirements of a floating plant ship with a production capacity of 3,000 tons of methanol a day. The raw material for the methanol production would be supplied from a natural gas reserve off the coast of Trinidad. The report has a separate section for each aspect of the plant ship project, such as methanol storage; logistics of transporting methanol to the United States; the required sub-sea installation to bring natural gas to the plant ship; and plant ship design and equipment. It gives a detailed description of a proposed organizational structure and its tax consequences. The project's financial requirements and economic impact are examined. The environmental consequences and other operator issues are analyzed. Tables and figures accompany the report.

  8. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from combustion of fuel Power loss from evacuated exhaustturbo and ATA Engine power losses Power rejected by enginesteady state operation Power loss from escaping exhaust

  9. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Girard, J. W. , 2001, “HCCI combustion: analysis andratio effect on methane HCCI combustion,” Journal ofEquivalence ratio-EGR control of HCCI engine operation and

  10. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion engine,” Prenticemany aspects of internal combustion engine design. Involvedof ICEF2006 ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division 2006

  11. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemical- kinetic model of propane HCCI combustion,” SAEof a four-cylinder 1.9 l propane- fueled homogeneous chargethe fuel line can use propane from a tank and NG from the

  12. EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of closing the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and the Solid Waste Landfill. The Washington State Department of Ecology is a cooperating agency in preparing this EA.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Experimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack as e.g. methanol as the hydrogen carrier and reforming it to a hydrogen rich gas can solve some of these storage issues. The work presented here examines the use of a heat exchanger methanol reformer for use

  14. In Proc of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Symposium, 199th Electrochem.l Soc. Mtg, Washington DC, 3/01.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    In Proc of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Symposium, 199th Electrochem.l Soc. Mtg, Washington DC, 3/01. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF LIQUID-FEED DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS Z. H. Wang and C. Y. Wang Electrochemical methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Diffusion and convection of both gas and liquid phases are considered

  15. Fuel Effects on a Low-Swirl Injector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlejohn, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equivalent to those from landfill gas to liquified petroleumlandfill and biomass fuels, H 2 -enriched CH 4 to simulate refinery gas

  16. Technology Overview Using Case Studies of Alternative Landfill Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Technology Overview Using Case Studies of Alternative Landfill Technologies and Associated Regulatory Topics Prepared by Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council Alternative Landfill Technologies of Alternative Landfill Technologies and Associated Regulatory Topics March 2003 Prepared by Interstate

  17. assessing landfill performance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bhanpur Landfil Site CiteSeer Summary: The most common means for disposing of municipal solid waste is burial in a sanitary landfill. However, many landfill are underestimate the...

  18. Bioreactor Landfill Research and Demonstration Project Northern Oaks Landfill, Harrison, MI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xiando; Voice, Thomas; and Hashsham, Syed A.

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A bioreactor landfill cell with 1.2-acre footprint was constructed, filled, operated, and monitored at Northern Oaks Recycling and Disposal Facility (NORDF) at Harrison, MI. With a filled volume of 74,239 cubic yards, the cell contained approximately 35,317 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 20,777 tons of cover soil. It was laid on the slope of an existing cell but separated by a geosynthetic membrane liner. After the cell reached a design height of 60 feet, it was covered with a geosynthetic membrane cap. A three-dimensional monitoring system to collect data at 48 different locations was designed and installed during the construction phase of the bioreactor cell. Each location had a cluster of monitoring devices consisting of a probe to monitor moisture and temperature, a leachate collection basin, and a gas sampling port. An increase in moisture content of the MSW in the bioreactor cell was achieved by pumping leachate collected on-site from various other cells, as well as recirculation of leachate from the bioreactor landfill cell itself. Three types of leachate injection systems were evaluated in this bioreactor cell for their efficacy to distribute pumped leachate uniformly: a leachate injection pipe buried in a 6-ft wide horizontal stone mound, a 15-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer, and a 60-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer. All leachate injection systems were installed on top of the compacted waste surface. The distribution of water and resulting MSW moisture content throughout the bioreactor cell was found to be similar for the three designs. Water coming into and leaving the cell (leachate pumped in, precipitation, snow, evaporation, and collected leachate) was monitored in order to carry out a water balance. Using a leachate injection rate of 26 – 30 gal/yard3, the average moisture content increased from 25% to 35% (wet based) over the period of this study. One of the key aspects of this bioreactor landfill study was to evaluate bioreactor start up and performance in locations with colder climate. For lifts filled during the summer months, methane generation started within three months after completion of the lift. For lifts filled in winter months, very little methane production occurred even eight months after filling. The temperature data indicated that subzero or slightly above zero (oC) temperatures persisted for unusually long periods (more than six months) in the lifts filled during winter months. This was likely due to the high thermal insulation capability of the MSW and the low level of biological activity during start up. This observation indicates that bioreactor landfills located in cold climate and filled during winter months may require mechanisms to increase temperature and initiate biodegradation. Thus, besides moisture, temperature may be the next important factor controlling the biological decomposition in anaerobic bioreactor landfills. Spatial and temporal characterization of leachate samples indicated the presence of low levels of commonly used volatile organic compounds (including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and toluene) and metals (including arsenic, chromium, and zinc). Changes and leachate and gaseous sample characteristics correlated with enhanced biological activity and increase in temperature. Continued monitoring of this bioreactor landfill cell is expected to yield critical data needed for start up, design, and operation of this emerging process.

  19. Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Facilities (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides rules and guidelines for landfills, including those that treat waste to generate electricity. The law...

  20. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostko, Oleg

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Table 1 Appearance energies for pure and protonated methanoland methanol-water clusters evaluated from photoionizationVUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water

  1. CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities This document explores...

  2. Knowledge based ranking algorithm for comparative assessment of post-closure care needs of closed landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sizirici, Banu, E-mail: bsy3@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, Civil Engineering Department, 2104 Adelbert Road, Bingham Bld. Room: 216, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tansel, Berrin; Kumar, Vivek [Florida International University, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Post-closure care (PCC) activities at landfills include cap maintenance; water quality monitoring; maintenance and monitoring of the gas collection/control system, leachate collection system, groundwater monitoring wells, and surface water management system; and general site maintenance. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated data and knowledge based decision making tool for preliminary estimation of PCC needs at closed landfills. To develop the decision making tool, 11 categories of parameters were identified as critical areas which could affect future PCC needs. Each category was further analyzed by detailed questions which could be answered with limited data and knowledge about the site, its history, location, and site specific characteristics. Depending on the existing knowledge base, a score was assigned to each question (on a scale 1-10, as 1 being the best and 10 being the worst). Each category was also assigned a weight based on its relative importance on the site conditions and PCC needs. The overall landfill score was obtained from the total weighted sum attained. Based on the overall score, landfill conditions could be categorized as critical, acceptable, or good. Critical condition indicates that the landfill may be a threat to the human health and the environment and necessary steps should be taken. Acceptable condition indicates that the landfill is currently stable and the monitoring should be continued. Good condition indicates that the landfill is stable and the monitoring activities can be reduced in the future. The knowledge base algorithm was applied to two case study landfills for preliminary assessment of PCC performance.

  3. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assamoi, Bernadette [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada); Lawryshyn, Yuri, E-mail: yuri.lawryshyn@utoronto.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residential waste diversion initiatives are more successful with organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using a incineration to manage part of the waste is better environmentally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incineration leads to more power plant emission offsets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilling all of the waste would be preferred financially. - Abstract: This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  4. Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. (STFI, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

  6. Recirculation of municipal landfill leachate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinkowski, Brian Jude

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Under the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), land disposal of hazardous waste in new facilities cannot take place unless these three conditions are met: 1. There are no other means available for disposal, 2. Double... as it passes through the landfill and liners are used to stop the migration oF the leachate into the groundwater by acting as a barrier. Style of the Water Pollution Control Federation RCRA defines hazardous waste as "a solid waste, or combination of solid...

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock. As each facility has different guidelines and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock-581-3468 Garfield City of Enid Landfill 580-249-4917 Garvin Foster Waste Disposal Landfill 405-238-2012 Jackson City-436-1403 Call ahead, may limit qty. Pottawatomie Absolute Waste Solutions 405-598-3893 Call ahead Seminole

  8. H-D Substitution in Interstellar Solid Methanol: A Key Route for D Enrichment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akihiro Nagaoka; Naoki Watanabe; Akira Kouchi

    2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Deuterium enrichment of interstellar methanol is reproduced experimentally for the first time via grain-surface H-D substitution in solid methanol at an atomic D/H ratio of 0.1. Although previous gas-grain models successfully reproduce the deuterium enrichments observed in interstellar methanol molecules (D/H of up to 0.4, compared to the cosmic ratio of $\\sim 10^{-5})$, the models exclusively focus on deuterium fractionation resulting from the successive addition of atomic hydrogen/deuterium on CO. The mechanism proposed here represents a key route for deuterium enrichment that reproduces the high observed abundances of deuterated methanol, including multiple deuterations.

  9. T2LBM Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model for TOUGH2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    activities in a landfill bioreactor treating the organicproduction from landfill bioreactor, J. Env. Eng. , August,Version 1.0: Landfill Bioreactor Model for TOUGH2 Curtis M.

  10. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    boundary conditions for the mesoscale landfill bioreactor. (and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor Curtisapplied it to our own mesoscale laboratory aerobic landfill

  11. Franklin County Sanitary Landfill - Landfill Gas (LFG) to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Project

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStation LocationsGeneseeValley of theEthanol8 F l e e

  12. Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davoli, E., E-mail: enrico.davoli@marionegri.i [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M. [Progress S.r.l., Via Nicola A. Porpora 147, 20131 Milano (Italy); Fanelli, R. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation ( and ).

  13. An Assessment of the Disposal of Petroleum Industry NORM in Nonhazardous Landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnish, John J.; Blunt, Deborah, L.; Haffenden, Rebecca A.; Herbert, Jennifer; Pfingston, Manjula; Smith, Karen P.; Williams, Gustavious P.

    1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the disposal of radium-bearing NORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the MDEQ guidelines was modeled to evaluate potential radiological doses and resultant health risks to workers and the general public. In addition, the study included an evaluation of the potential doses and health risks associated with disposing of a separate NORM waste stream generated by the petroleum industry--wastes containing lead-210 (Pb-210) and its progeny. Both NORM waste streams are characterized in Section 3 of this report. The study also included reviews of (1) the regulatory constraints applicable to the disposal of NORM in nonhazardous landfills in several major oil and gas producing states (Section 2) and (2) the typical costs associated with disposing of NORM, covering disposal options currently permitted by most state regulations as well as the nonhazardous landfill option (Section 4).

  14. Pilot-scale experiment on anaerobic bioreactor landfills in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Jianguo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China (China)], E-mail: jianguoj@tsinghua.edu.cn; Yang, Guodong; Deng, Zhou; Huang, Yunfeng [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China (China); Huang, Zhonglin; Feng, Xiangming; Zhou, Shengyong; Zhang, Chaoping [Xiaping Solid Waste Landfill, Shenzhen 518019, PR China (China)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing countries have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This paper describes the impacts of leachate recirculation and recirculation loadings on waste stabilization, landfill gas (LFG) generation and leachate characteristics. Four simulated anaerobic columns, R1-R4, were each filled with about 30 tons of waste and recirculated weekly with 1.6, 0.8 and 0.2 m{sup 3} leachate and 0.1 m{sup 3} tap water. The results indicated that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) half-time of leachate from R1 was about 180 days, which was 8-14 weeks shorter than that of R2-R4. A large amount of LFG was first produced in R1, and its generation rate was positively correlated to the COD or volatile fatty acid concentrations of influent leachates after the 30th week. By the 50th week of recirculation, the waste in R1 was more stabilized, with 931.2 kg COD or 175.6 kg total organic carbon released and with the highest landfill gas production. However, this contributed mainly to washout by leachate, which also resulted in the reduction of LFG generation potential and accumulation of ammonia and/or phosphorus in the early stage. Therefore, the regimes of leachate recirculation should be adjusted to the phases of waste stabilization to enhance efficiency of energy recovery. Integrated with the strategy of in situ leachate management, extra pre-treatment or post-treatment methods to remove the nutrients are recommended.

  15. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  16. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site`s B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  17. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site's B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  18. Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirschhorn, J.S. [Hirschhorn and Associates, Wheaton, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

  19. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

  20. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictions B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel TemperatureMETHANOL METHANOL / COAL SLURRY j i Ali. @ i o N I. . , .PURE N METHANOL METHANOL I COAL SLURRY u o Obb~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~

  1. A flow field enabling operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    A flow field enabling operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated methanol Q. Xu Available online 8 October 2010 Keywords: Fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells Concentrated methanol Flow field a b s t r a c t In this work, an anode flow field that allows a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC

  2. Analysis of Mass Transport of Methanol at the Anode of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Analysis of Mass Transport of Methanol at the Anode of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell C. Xu,a Y. L. He transport of methanol at the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC and show that the overall mass current density of an in-house-fabricated DMFC with different flow fields for various methanol

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odusanya, David O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Okonkwo, Jonathan O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: OkonkwoOJ@tut.ac.za; Botha, Ben [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

  4. Alumina catalysts for reduction of NOx from methanol fueled diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Toshiro; Noda, Akira; Sakamoto, Takashi; Sato, Yoshio [Ministry of Transport of Japan, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NOx selective reducing catalysts are expected to be used for lean-burn gasoline engines and diesel engines as an effective NOx reduction measure. The authors are interested in the combination of methanol, as a reducing agent, and alumina catalyst, and have considered the NOx reduction method using effectively much unburned methanol. In this report, in order to investigate the effect of NOx reduction by the alumina catalyst, the experiment was carried out by feeding the actual exhaust gas from the methanol engine into the alumina catalyst. As a result, it was confirmed that, without addition of any other reducing agents into the exhaust gas, the alumina catalyst has activity to reduce NOx.

  5. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend greatly on the cost of electricity. Currently, PREPA has an average electric rate of $0.119/kWh. Based on past electric rate increases in Puerto Rico and other islands in the Caribbean, this rate could increase to $0.15/kWh or higher in a relatively short amount of time. In the coming years, increasing electrical rates and increased necessity for clean power will continue to improve the feasibility of implementing solar PV systems at these sites.

  6. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral Intensity With 5% Coal (x ::: 86.9 cm) CalculatedPredictions B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel TemperatureMethanol as the Fuel B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel C.

  7. The molecular environment of massive star forming cores associated with Class II methanol maser emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Longmore; M. G. Burton; P. J. Barnes; T. Wong; C. R. Purcell; J. Ott

    2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol maser emission has proven to be an excellent signpost of regions undergoing massive star formation (MSF). To investigate their role as an evolutionary tracer, we have recently completed a large observing program with the ATCA to derive the dynamical and physical properties of molecular/ionised gas towards a sample of MSF regions traced by 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission. We find that the molecular gas in many of these regions breaks up into multiple sub-clumps which we separate into groups based on their association with/without methanol maser and cm continuum emission. The temperature and dynamic state of the molecular gas is markedly different between the groups. Based on these differences, we attempt to assess the evolutionary state of the cores in the groups and thus investigate the role of class II methanol masers as a tracer of MSF.

  8. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  9. Wasting Time : a leisure infrastructure for mega-landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Margaret)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are consolidating into fewer, taller, and more massive singular objects in the exurban landscape.This thesis looks at one instance in Virginia, the first regional landfill in the state to accept trash from New ...

  10. Landfill Instability and Its Implications Operation, Construction, and Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    landfill waste slide, a 300,000 cubic yard landfill failure involving a geosynthetic clay liner, and a 100 occurred involving liner systems during construction and waste containment closures. Recently an older

  11. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cyclic trimer containing two methanol molecules and a waterTable 1 Appearance energies for pure and protonated methanoland methanol-water clusters evaluated from photoionization

  12. Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachor, Ingke, E-mail: i.rachor@ifb.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Institute of Soil Science, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria [University of Hamburg, Institute of Soil Science, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm{sup -3}, reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material.

  13. alternative landfill cover: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    words: landfills; energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors...

  14. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Abstract: The desorption kinetics of methanol,...

  15. Methanol detection in M82

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Martín; J. Martín-Pintado; R. Mauersberger

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a multilevel study of the emission of methanol, detected for the first time in this galaxy, and discuss the origin of its emission. The high observed methanol abundance of a few 10^-9 can only be explained if injection of methanol from dust grains is taken into account. While the overall [CH3OH]/[NH3] ratio is much larger than observed towards other starbursts, the dense high excitation component shows a similar value to that found in NGC 253 and Maffei 2. Our observations suggest the molecular material in M 82 to be formed by dense warm cores, shielded from the UV radiation and similar to the molecular clouds in other starbursts, surrounded by a less dense photodissociated halo. The dense warm cores are likely the location of recent and future star formation within M 82.

  16. Analysis and Design of Evapotranspirative Cover for Hazardous Waste Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Analysis and Design of Evapotranspirative Cover for Hazardous Waste Landfill Jorge G. Zornberg, M, Inc. OII Superfund landfill in southern California. This cover system constitutes the first ET cover:6 427 CE Database subject headings: Evapotranspiration; Coating; Landfills; Hazardous waste; Design

  17. Biological Removal of Siloxanes from Landfill and Digester Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biological Removal of Siloxanes from Landfill and Digester Gases: Opportunities and Challenges S U) presents challenges for using landfill and digester gases as energy fuels because of the formation volatilize from waste at landfills and wastewater treatment plants (1). As a result, biogas produced

  18. Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills G. Vincent Calder, Ph.D.1 ; and Timothy D. Stark, Ph.D., P.E., F.ASCE2 Abstract: Aluminum enters municipal solid waste MSW landfills from: Solid wastes; Aluminum; Chemicals; Waste disposal; Landfills. Author keywords: Solid waste; Leachate

  19. Distances to Galactic methanol masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. L. J. Rygl; A. Brunthaler; K. M. Menten; M. J. Reid; H. J. van Langevelde

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first EVN parallax measurements of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in star forming regions of the Galaxy. The 6.7 GHz methanol maser transition is a very valuable astrometric tool, for its large stability and confined velocity spread, which makes it ideal to measure proper motions and parallaxes. Eight well-studied massive star forming regions have been observed during five EVN sessions of 24 hours duration each and we present here preliminary results for five of them. We achieve accuracies of up to 51 $\\mu$as, which still have the potential to be proved by more ideal observational circumstances.

  20. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  1. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  2. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  3. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chs@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fredenslund, Anders M., E-mail: amf@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Chanton, Jeffrey, E-mail: jchanton@fsu.edu [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, 117 N. Woodward Avenue, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Fl 32306-4320 (United States); Pedersen, Gitte Bukh, E-mail: gbp@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Kjeldsen, Peter, E-mail: pk@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH{sub 4} emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called 'biocovers') to enhance biological oxidation of CH{sub 4}. A full scale biocover system to reduce CH{sub 4} emissions was installed at Fakse landfill, Denmark using composted yard waste as active material supporting CH{sub 4} oxidation. Ten biowindows with a total area of 5000 m{sup 2} were integrated into the existing cover at the 12 ha site. To increase CH{sub 4} load to the biowindows, leachate wells were capped, and clay was added to slopes at the site. Point measurements using flux chambers suggested in most cases that almost all CH{sub 4} was oxidized, but more detailed studies on emissions from the site after installation of the biocover as well as measurements of total CH{sub 4} emissions showed that a significant portion of the emission quantified in the baseline study continued unabated from the site. Total emission measurements suggested a reduction in CH{sub 4} emission of approximately 28% at the end of the one year monitoring period. This was supported by analysis of stable carbon isotopes which showed an increase in oxidation efficiency from 16% to 41%. The project documented that integrating approaches such a whole landfill emission measurements using tracer techniques or stable carbon isotope measurements of ambient air samples are needed to document CH{sub 4} mitigation efficiencies of biocover systems. The study also revealed that there still exist several challenges to better optimize the functionality. The most important challenges are to control gas flow and evenly distribute the gas into the biocovers.

  4. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren; Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  5. Detection of 6.7 GHz methanol absorption towards hot corinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Pandian; S. Leurini; K. M. Menten; A. Belloche; P. F. Goldsmith

    2008-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz have been found exclusively towards high-mass star forming regions. Recently, some Class 0 protostars have been found to display conditions similar to what are found in hot cores that are associated with massive star formation. These hot corino sources have densities, gas temperatures, and methanol abundances that are adequate for exciting strong 6.7 GHz maser emission. This raises the question of whether 6.7 GHz methanol masers can be found in both hot corinos and massive star forming regions, and if not, whether thermal methanol emission can be detected. We searched for the 6.7 GHz methanol line towards five hot corino sources in the Perseus region using the Arecibo radio telescope. To constrain the excitation conditions of methanol, we observed thermal submillimeter lines of methanol in the NGC1333-IRAS 4 region with the APEX telescope. We did not detect 6.7 GHz emission in any of the sources, but found absorption against the cosmic microwave background in NGC1333-IRAS 4A and NGC1333-IRAS 4B. Using a large velocity gradient analysis, we modeled the excitation of methanol over a wide range of physical parameters, and verify that the 6.7 GHz line is indeed strongly anti-inverted for densities lower than 10^6 cm^-3. We used the submillimeter observations of methanol to verify the predictions of our model for IRAS 4A by comparison with other CH3OH transitions. Our results indicate that the methanol observations from the APEX and Arecibo telescopes are consistent with dense (n ~ 10^6 cm^-3), cold (T ~ 15-30 K) gas. The lack of maser emission in hot corinos and low-mass protostellar objects in general may be due to densities that are much higher than the quenching density in the region where the radiation field is conducive to maser pumping.

  6. Low Crossover of Methanol and Water Through Thin Membranes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Crossover of Methanol and Water Through Thin Membranes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Fuqiang State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA Low crossover of both methanol and water through a polymer membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is essential for using high concentration

  7. A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu i g h t s " A sandwich structured membrane for DMFCs operating with neat methanol is proposed. " The membrane offers better water management for DMFCs operating with neat methanol. " The sandwich structured

  8. Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,Methanol...n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,Methanol...n - ,,nÈ145; published online 27 June 2007 The dynamics of an excess electron in size-selected methanol clusters electron6­11 and its cluster counterparts,12­18 water n - . The solvated electron in liquid methanol has

  9. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5 acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  10. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  11. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  12. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  13. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  14. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  15. Methanol Masers and Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Sobolev; A. B. Ostrovskii; M. S. Kirsanova; O. V. Shelemei; M. A. Voronkov; A. V. Malyshev

    2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol masers which are traditionally divided into two classes provide possibility to study important parts of the star forming regions: Class~II masers trace vicinities of the massive YSOs while class~I masers are likely to trace more distant parts of the outflows where newer stars can form. There are many methanol transitions which produce observed masers. This allows to use pumping analysis for estimation of the physical parameters in the maser formation regions and its environment, for the study of their evolution. Extensive surveys in different masing transitions allow to conclude on the values of the temperatures, densities, dust properties, etc. in the bulk of masing regions. Variability of the brightest masers is monitored during several years. In some cases it is probably caused by the changes of the dust temperature which follow variations in the brightness of the central YSO reflecting the character of the accretion process. A unified catalogue of the class II methanol masers consisting of more than 500 objects is compiled. Analysis of the data shows that: physical conditions within the usual maser source vary considerably; maser brightness is determined by parameters of some distinguished part of the object - maser formation region; class II methanol masers are formed not within the outflows but in the regions affected by their propagation. It is shown that the "near" solutions for the kinematic distances to the sources can be used for statistical analysis. The luminosity function of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers is constructed. It is shown that improvement of the sensitivity of surveys can increase number of detected maser sources considerably.

  16. 6, 39453963, 2006 Methanol inside aged

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACPD 6, 3945­3963, 2006 Methanol inside aged tropical biomass burning plumes G. Dufour et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions First space-borne measurements of methanol inside aged tropical biomass. Dufour (gaelle.dufour@lmd.polytechnique.fr) 3945 #12;ACPD 6, 3945­3963, 2006 Methanol inside aged

  17. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  18. Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Fuel Cells TM Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power A Fuel Cell System Developer-17, 2002 Phoenix, Arizona #12;Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power Outline (1 Energy Content (Wh) Volume(cm^3) Li-Ion Battery DMFC #12;Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

  19. Soil Insulation For Barrier Layer Protection In Landfill Covers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory Smith Roy

    Landfill covers are designed to isolate waste from the environment by incorporating low-permeability barrier layers. The barrier layer minimizes and controls gas escaping from the waste and the amount of infiltrating moisture available for leachate generation. Barrier layers are typically designed and constructed of a thick layer of compacted fine-grain native soil material or a manufactured geosynthetic clay liner. The barrier layer must be protected from frost damage. Freezing of a compacted soil layer has been shown to cause quick and irreversible degradation. Large increases in permeability have been demonstrated in compacted clay barriers subjected to a minimum number of freezing and thawing cycles. Design methods to protect the barrier layer from frost damage have not been addressed in the research literature. A design procedure is addressed in this paper that determines the thickness of soil required to protect a barrier layer. The procedure is based on sitespecific temperature ...

  20. Photovoltaic olar nergy Development on Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .pvnavigator.com environmentally sensitive desert lands, as is the case for some largescale solar developments impacts of natural lands developed for solar energy at high environmental costs. InnovativePhotovoltaic olar nergy Development on Landfills ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH PIER Environmental

  1. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  2. Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

  3. Emissions from two methanol-powered buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullman, T.L.; Hare, C.T.; Baines, T.M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions from the two methanol-powered buses used in the California Methanol Bus Demonstration have been characterized. The M.A.N. SU 240 bus is powered by M.A.N.'s D2566 FMUH methanol engine, and utilizes catalytic exhaust aftertreatment. The GMC RTS II 04 bus is powered by a first-generation DDAD 6V-92TA methanol engine without exhaust aftertreatment. Emissions of HC, CO, NO/subX/, unburned methanol, aldehydes, total particulates, and the soluble fraction of particulate were determined for both buses over steady-state and transient chassis dynamometer test cycles. Emission levels from the M.A.N. bus were considerably lower than those from the GMC bus, with the exception of NO/subX/. Comparison of emission levels from methanol-and diesel-powered buses indicates that substantial reductions in emissions are possible with careful implementation of methanol fueling.

  4. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF 12.2 GHz METHANOL MASERS ASSOCIATED WITH A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Green, J. A.; Voronkov, M. A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Fuller, G. A.; Quinn, L. J.; Avison, A., E-mail: Shari.Breen@csiro.au [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present definitive detection statistics for 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward a complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam survey south of declination -20{sup 0}. In total, we detect 250 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward 580 6.7 GHz methanol masers. This equates to a detection rate of 43.1%, which is lower than that of previous significant searches of comparable sensitivity. Both the velocity ranges and the flux densities of the target 6.7 GHz sources surpass that of their 12.2 GHz companion in almost all cases. Eighty percent of the detected 12.2 GHz methanol maser peaks are coincident in velocity with the 6.7 GHz maser peak. Our data support an evolutionary scenario whereby the 12.2 GHz sources are associated with a somewhat later evolutionary stage than the 6.7 GHz sources devoid of this transition. Furthermore, we find that the 6.7 GHz and 12.2 GHz methanol sources increase in luminosity as they evolve. In addition to this, evidence for an increase in velocity range with evolution is presented. This implies that it is not only the luminosity but also the volume of gas conducive to the different maser transitions that increases as the sources evolve. Comparison with GLIMPSE mid-infrared sources has revealed a coincidence rate between the locations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers and GLIMPSE point sources similar to that achieved in previous studies. Overall, the properties of the GLIMPSE sources with and without 12.2 GHz counterparts are similar. There is a higher 12.2 GHz detection rate toward those 6.7 GHz methanol masers that are coincident with extended green objects.

  5. Methanol market slowly tightens as Brazil starts soaking up material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, I.

    1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the US methanol market's response to mandated oxygen requirements in reformulated gasoline has been disappointing, the European market has surprisingly been tightening in recent weeks and looks set for a price rise in first-quarter 1993. The tightness is being felt mainly in the Mediterranean market, where the Libyan methanol plant is running at only 70% because of problems with gas feedstock supplies. More significantly, the Brazilian government has now given the go-ahead for a yearlong extension on imports of methanol for use as an ethanol replacement in fuel blending. The new authorization sets a monthly import limit of 48,000 m.t. during that period. Libya is an important supplier of methanol to the Brazilian market and has already shipped about 20,000 m.t. since the authorization was given. Another major supplier to Brazil is Russia, from its two giant 750,000-m.t./year plants at Gubakha and Tomsk. The material is shipped from the terminal at Yuzhnyy on the Black Sea, in Ukrainian territory since the collapse of the Soviet Union.

  6. BACK-ANALYSES OF LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURES Nejan Huvaj-Sarihan Timothy D. Stark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BACK-ANALYSES OF LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURES Nejan Huvaj-Sarihan Timothy D. Stark University strength of MSW. The back-analysis of failed waste slopes in the Gnojna Grora landfill in Poland, Istanbul Landfill in Turkey, Hiriya Landfill in Israel, and Payatas Landfill in Philippines are presented

  7. Solute retention in column liquid chromatography. X. Determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients in methanol, water, and their mixtures, by combined gas-liquid and liquid-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djerki, R.A.; Laub, R.J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Raoult's-law activity coefficients of 3- to 7-carbon aliphatic aldehyde, ketone, ester, and alcohol solutes at infinite dilution in methanol, water, and mixtures of the two and in polydimethysiloxane, all at 293-308 K, have been determined for the first time by appropriate combination of GLC and LLC retention data. The latter data are reported in terms of mole factions, while the former are given in concentration units of molality. However, interpretation of the data is difficult because of the multiplicity of the retention mechanisms. Nevertheless, the combined GLC/LLC technique, which had been applied previously only to pure solvents, is said to offer a number of advantages over static techniques for the determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients with volatile solvents, especially with mixtures of solvents.

  8. Request for Qualifications for Sacramento Landfill

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Request for Qualifications (RFQ) solicits experienced companies to design, permit, finance, build, and operate a solar photovoltaic farm (SPV Farm) on the City of Sacramento’s 28th Street Landfill. Respondents to this RFQ must demonstrate experience and capacity to design, permit, finance, build, and operate a SPV Farm that generates electricity that can be sold for electrical use through a power-purchase agreement. Submittals must be prepared and delivered in accordance with the requirements set forth in this document.

  9. Stochastic modelling of landfill processes incorporating waste heterogeneity and data uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharof, A.I.; Butler, A.P

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A landfill is a very complex heterogeneous environment and as such it presents many modelling challenges. Attempts to develop models that reproduce these complexities generally involve the use of large numbers of spatially dependent parameters that cannot be properly characterised in the face of data uncertainty. An alternative method is presented, which couples a simplified microbial degradation model with a stochastic hydrological and contaminant transport model. This provides a framework for incorporating the complex effects of spatial heterogeneity within the landfill in a simplified manner, along with other key variables. A methodology for handling data uncertainty is also integrated into the model structure. Illustrative examples of the model's output are presented to demonstrate effects of data uncertainty on leachate composition and gas volume prediction.

  10. Field performance of a geosynthetic clay liner landfill capping system under simulated waste subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, W. [Hochschule fur Architektur und Bauwesen (Germany); Siegmund, M. [Materialforschungs - und, Prufanstalt (Germany); Alexiew, D.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible landfill capping system consisting of a 3-D-geocore composite for gas vent, a Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) for sealing and a 3-D-geocore composite for drainage of the vegetation soil was built on a test field at Michelshoehe landfill near Weimar, Germany. At four locations airbags were installed underneath the thin capping system to simulate subsidences. On top of three of these airbags overlaps of the GCL were positioned, for comparison there was no overlap at the fourth location. After hydratation of the GCL the airbags were de-aerated and subsidences occurred with app. 5 % tensile strain in the GCL. For three weeks the test field was intensively sprinkled in intervals. Then horizontal and vertical deformations were measured, but not displacements were registered in the overlaps. The evaluation of the GCL`s permeability showed no significant difference between the locations with and without overlaps.

  11. GeoChip-based Analysis of Groundwater Microbial Diversity in Norman Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhenmei

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diversity in Norman Landfill Zhenmei Lu 1,2 , Zhili He 2,4 ,projects/norlan / ABSTRACT The Norman Landfill is a closedmunicipal solid waste landfill located on an alluvium

  12. Enhanced Landfill Mining Symposium EEC/WTERT Participation at ELFM Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhanced Landfill Mining Symposium EEC/WTERT Participation at ELFM Conference of Enhanced Landfill Mining. Held at the Greenville (Center of Cleantech of old landfills, each containing valuable resources that are untapped

  13. Hydrogeological Environmental Assessment of Sanitary Landfill Project at Jammu City, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagar, Bharat Bhushan; Mirza, Umar Karim

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DRASTIC Method The prepared landfill project is supposed toAssessment of Sanitary Landfill Project at Jammu City, Indiaimpact of a proposed landfill facility for the city of Jammu

  14. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1179. Popov, V. ; Power, H. Landfill emission of gases intoC.M. T2LBM Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model forand recovery from landfills, Ann Arbor Science Publishers,

  15. Hydrogeological Environmental Assessment of Sanitary Landfill Project at Jammu City, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagar, Bharat Bhushan; Mirza, Umar Karim

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Sanitary Landfill Project at Jammu City, India Bharata proposed landfill facility for the city of Jammu in India.landfill projects have been conceived, designed, and completed in India.

  16. Evaluation of three geophysical methods to locate undocumented landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brand, Stephen Gardner

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal Object. The Arrows Are Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Figure 45: Magnetic Profile over Area Fill, Station 19, Brenham Landfill. 84 Figure 46: Magnetic Profile over Undisturbed Area, Station... and the road. Thus the northern portion of the entrance way loop especially on the western side was not landfilled. The pond on the north western boundary of the landfill in the well buffer zone was installed for fire control purposes. After the entrance...

  17. Test method for the measurement of methanol emissions from stationary sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pate, B.A.; Peterson, M.R.; Rickman, E.E.; Jayanty, R.K.M.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol was designated under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as a pollutant to be regulated. A test method has been developed for the measurement of methanol emissions from stationary sources. The methanol sampling train (MST) consists of a glass-lined heated probe, two condensate knockout traps, and three sorbent cartridges packed with Anasorb 747. The Anasorb samples were desorbed with a 1:1 mixture of carbon disulfide and N,N-dimethylformamide. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Following laboratory testing, field tests of the MST and the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) sampling method for methanol were conducted at two pulp and paper mills. In accordance with EPA Methol 301, two pairs of trains were run in parallel for six runs, collecting a total of 24 samples by each method. During each run, half of the trains were spiked with a known amount of methanol. The sampling location at the first test was an inlet vent to a softwood bleach plant scrubber where the methanol concentration was about 30 ppm. A second field test was conducted at the vent of a black liquor oxidation tank where the methanol concentration was about 350 ppm. Samples were shown to be stable for at least 2 weeks after collection.

  18. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Cynthia (Newington, CT); Ren, Xiaoming (Menands, NY); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Niskayuna, NY)

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  19. Methanol in the L1551 Circumbinary Torus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glenn J. White; C. W. M. Fridlund; P. Bergman; A. Beardsmore; Rene Liseau; R. R. Phillips

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We report observations of gaseous methanol in an edge-on torus surrounding the young stellar object L1551 IRS5. The peaks in the torus are separated by ~ 10,000 AU from L1551 IRS5, and contain ~ 0.03 earth masses of cold methanol. We infer that the methanol abundance increases in the outer part of the torus, probably as a result of methanol evaporation from dust grain surfaces heated by the shock luminosity associated with the shocks associated with the jets of an externally located x-ray source. Any methanol released in such a cold environment will rapidly freeze again, spreading methanol throughout the circumbinary torus to nascent dust grains, planitesimals, and primitive bodies. These observations probe the initial chemical conditions of matter infalling onto the disk.

  20. Modeling Analysis of Biosparging at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, D.

    1998-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a groundwater modeling study that evaluates the performance of the biosparging system at the Sanitary Landfill.

  1. CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    following CHP technologies: Reciprocating Engine, Microturbine, Combustion Turbines, Stirling Engine, and Fuel Cell. CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater...

  2. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  3. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulaseFuels and VehiclesMethanol to someone by

  5. GeoChip-based Analysis of Groundwater Microbial Diversity in Norman Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhenmei

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is a closed municipal solid waste landfill located on anis a closed municipal solid waste landfill sited on thecollection system, received solid waste for surface disposal

  6. THE ROLE OF METHANOL IN THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF TITAN'S PRIMORDIAL OCEAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschamps, Frederic [Institute of Geophysics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Mousis, Olivier [Universite de Franche-Comte, Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Sanchez-Valle, Carmen [Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Lunine, Jonathan I., E-mail: frederic.deschamps@erdw.ethz.c [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'Tor Vergata', Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key parameter that controls the crystallization of primordial oceans in large icy moons is the presence of anti-freeze compounds, which may have maintained primordial oceans over the age of the solar system. Here we investigate the influence of methanol, a possible anti-freeze candidate, on the crystallization of Titan's primordial ocean. Using a thermodynamic model of the solar nebula and assuming a plausible composition of its initial gas phase, we first calculate the condensation sequence of ices in Saturn's feeding zone, and show that in Titan's building blocks methanol can have a mass fraction of {approx}4 wt% relative to water, i.e., methanol can be up to four times more abundant than ammonia. We then combine available data on the phase diagram of the water-methanol system and scaling laws derived from thermal convection to estimate the influence of methanol on the dynamics of the outer ice I shell and on the heat transfer through this layer. For a fraction of methanol consistent with the building blocks composition we determined, the vigor of convection in the ice I shell is strongly reduced. The effect of 5 wt% methanol is equivalent to that of 3 wt% ammonia. Thus, if methanol is present in the primordial ocean of Titan, the crystallization may stop, and a sub-surface ocean may be maintained between the ice I and high-pressure ice layers. A preliminary estimate indicates that the presence of 4 wt% methanol and 1 wt% ammonia may result in an ocean of thickness at least 90 km.

  7. Application of the Kellogg reforming exchanger system to large scale methanol plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, G.; Schneider, R.V. III [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In a majority of existing methanol production facilities, synthesis gas is furnished typically by a tubular fired steam reformer which uses natural gas as a feedstock. When one considers all synthesis gas produced from both ammonia and methanol plants, well over 80% is produced in a conventional reforming furnace. Steam reforming in a conventional sense, however, requires a considerable investment in both capital equipment and on-going maintenance and further, the use of such a unit operation will require heat recovery in the form of steam which forces the hand of the designer with respect to machinery driver selection. The authors have investigated alternatives to the coinventional approach with a view towards developing a process for methanol production that would be hopefully less expensive to construct, easier to operate and more reliable over the course of long term operation. In this paper, the authors present an alternative methanol plant process based on Kellogg`s proprietary reforming exchanger system (KRES). The flowsheet presented herein is for a 1500 MTPD facility that will produce US Federal Grade AA + methanol and will be compared on an economic basis to a conventional plant with respect to investment requirements and expected energy efficiency.

  8. Properties of a soft-core model of methanol: An integral equation theory and computer simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huš, Matej; Urbic, Tomaz, E-mail: tomaz.urbic@fkkt.uni-lj.si [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Chair of Physical Chemistry, Ve?na pot 113, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Munaò, Gianmarco [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d'Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamic and structural properties of a coarse-grained model of methanol are examined by Monte Carlo simulations and reference interaction site model (RISM) integral equation theory. Methanol particles are described as dimers formed from an apolar Lennard-Jones sphere, mimicking the methyl group, and a sphere with a core-softened potential as the hydroxyl group. Different closure approximations of the RISM theory are compared and discussed. The liquid structure of methanol is investigated by calculating site-site radial distribution functions and static structure factors for a wide range of temperatures and densities. Results obtained show a good agreement between RISM and Monte Carlo simulations. The phase behavior of methanol is investigated by employing different thermodynamic routes for the calculation of the RISM free energy, drawing gas-liquid coexistence curves that match the simulation data. Preliminary indications for a putative second critical point between two different liquid phases of methanol are also discussed.

  9. LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING GEOSYTNTHETICS Virginia L. Wilson: Geosynthetics: Lessons Learned from Failures International Geosynthetics Society editors J.P. Giroud, K.L. Soderman and G.P. Raymond November 12, 1998 #12;LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING

  10. Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 landfills may contain aluminum from residential and commercial solid waste, industrial waste, and aluminum American Society of Civil Engineers. CE Database subject headings: Solid wastes; Leaching; Aluminum

  11. Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris: Arsenic phased out of many residential uses in the United States, the disposal of CCA-treated wood remains. Catastrophic events have also led to the concentrated disposal of CCA-treated wood, often in unlined landfills

  12. Comparison between lab- and full-scale applications of in situ aeration of an old landfill and assessment of long-term emission development after completion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrad, Marlies; Gamperling, Oliver [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water–Atmosphere–Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water–Atmosphere–Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Current data on in situ aeration effects from the first Austrian full-scale case study. ? Data on lasting waste stabilisation after aeration completion. ? Information on the transferability of results from lab- to full-scale aeration. - Abstract: Sustainable landfilling has become a fundamental objective in many modern waste management concepts. In this context, the in situ aeration of landfills has been recognised for its potential to convert conventional anaerobic landfills into biological stabilised state, whereby both current and potential (long-term) emissions of the landfilled waste are mitigated. In recent years, different in situ aeration concepts have been successfully applied in Europe, North America and Asia, all pursuing different objectives and strategies. In Austria, the first full-scale application of in situ landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection and simultaneous off-gas collection and treatment was implemented on an old, small municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill (2.6 ha) in autumn 2007. Complementary laboratory investigations were conducted with waste samples taken from the landfill site in order to provide more information on the transferability of the results from lab- to full-scale aeration measures. In addition, long-term emission development of the stabilised waste after aeration completion was assessed in an ongoing laboratory experiment. Although the initial waste material was described as mostly stable in terms of the biological parameters gas generation potential over 21 days (GP{sub 21}) and respiration activity over 4 days (RA{sub 4}), the lab-scale experiments indicated that aeration, which led to a significant improvement of leachate quality, was accompanied by further measurable changes in the solid waste material under optimised conditions. Even 75 weeks after aeration completion the leachate, as well as gaseous emissions from the stabilised waste material, remained low and stayed below the authorised Austrian discharge limits. However, the application of in situ aeration at the investigated landfill is a factor 10 behind the lab-based predictions after 3 years of operation, mainly due to technical limitations in the full-scale operation (e.g. high air flow resistivity due to high water content of waste and temporarily high water levels within the landfill; limited efficiency of the aeration wells). In addition, material preparation (e.g. sieving, sorting and homogenisation) prior to the emplacement in Landfill Simulation Reactors (LSRs) must be considered when transferring results from lab- to full-scale application.

  13. Organic and nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yanjie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection in Water Transport Engineering Ministry of Communications, Tianjin Research Institute of Water Transport Engineering, Tianjin 300456 (China); Ji Min, E-mail: jmtju@yahoo.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li Ruying [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin Feifei [Tianjin Tanggu Sino French Water Supply Co. Ltd., Tianjin 300450 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aerobic granular sludge SBR was used to treat real landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different ammonium inputs were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DO variations were consistent with the GSBR performances at low ammonium inputs. - Abstract: Granule sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) were established for landfill leachate treatment, and the COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Results showed that COD removal rate decreased as influent ammonium concentration increasing. Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different influent ammonium levels were also studied. When the ammonium concentration in the landfill leachate was 366 mg L{sup -1}, the dominant nitrogen removal process in the GSBR was simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Under the ammonium concentration of 788 mg L{sup -1}, nitrite accumulation occurred and the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen gas by the shortcut denitrification process. When the influent ammonium increased to a higher level of 1105 mg L{sup -1}, accumulation of nitrite and nitrate lasted in the whole cycle, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and ammonium decreased to only 35.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Results also showed that DO was a useful process controlling parameter for the organics and nitrogen removal at low ammonium input.

  14. Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  15. Cost comparisons of alternative landfill final covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle ``D`` Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle ``C`` Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed of uniform size, side-by-side. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  16. Planning document for the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Center for Ecological Risk Assessment & Management; Bostick, K.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Environmental Science Group

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy and Department of Defense are faced with the closure of thousands of decommissioned radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste landfills as a part of ongoing Environmental Restoration activities. Regulations on the closure of hazardous and radioactive waste landfills require the construction of a ``low-permeability`` cover over the unit to limit the migration of liquids into the underlying waste. These landfills must be maintained and monitored for 30 years to ensure that hazardous materials are not migrating from the landfill. This test plan is intended as an initial road map for planning, designing, constructing, evaluating, and documenting the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD). It describes the goals/ objectives, scope, tasks, responsibilities, technical approach, and deliverables for the demonstration.

  17. Methanol Along the Path from Envelope to Protoplanetary Disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interstellar methanol is considered to be a parent species of larger, more complex organic molecules. A physicochemical simulation of infalling parcels of matter is performed for a low-mass star-forming system to trace the chemical evolution from cloud to disc. An axisymmetric 2D semi-analytic model generates the time-dependent density and velocity distributions, and full continuum radiative transfer is performed to calculate the dust temperature and the UV radiation field at each position as a function of time. A comprehensive gas-grain chemical network is employed to compute the chemical abundances along infall trajectories. Two physical scenarios are studied, one in which the dominant disc growth mechanism is viscous spreading, and another in which continuous infall of matter prevails. The results show that the infall path influences the abundance of methanol entering each type of disc, ranging from complete loss of methanol to an enhancement by a factor of > 1 relative to the prestellar phase. Critical ch...

  18. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

  19. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

    1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

  20. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts. Abstract: We...

  1. A Theoretical Study of Methanol Oxidation Catalyzed by Isolated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methanol Oxidation Catalyzed by Isolated Vanadia Clusters Supported on the (101) Surface of Anatase. A Theoretical Study of Methanol Oxidation Catalyzed by Isolated Vanadia...

  2. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  3. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects...

  4. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Abstract: Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed...

  5. Alternative Landfill Cover. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of an engineered cover is to isolate the underlying waste. A key element to isolating the wastes from the environment, engineered covers should minimize or prevent water from infiltrating into the landfill and coming into contact with the waste, thereby minimizing leachate generation. The U.S. EPA construction guidelines for soil hydraulic barriers specify that the soil moisture content and compactive effort may be increased to ensure that the barrier achieves a specified permeability of 1 x 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. However, constructing a soil barrier with high moisture content makes the soil more difficult to work and increases the required compactive effort to achieve the specified density, ultimately increasing the construction cost of the barrier. Alternative landfill cover designs rely on soil physical properties, hydraulic characteristics, and vegetation requirements to lower the flux rate of water through the cover. They can achieve greater reliability than the prescriptive RCRA Subtitle C design, especially under arid or semi-arid environmental conditions. With an alternative cover design, compacted soil barriers can be constructed with a soil moisture content that makes placement and compaction of the soil easier and less expensive. Under these conditions, the soil barrier has more capacity to absorb and control moisture within it, thereby enhancing the reliability of the barrier. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance, data.

  6. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  7. PREFERENTIAL FLOW THROUGH EARTHEN LANDFILL COVERS: FIELD EVALUATION OF ROOT ZONE WATER QUALITY MODEL (RZWQM) AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract PREFERENTIAL FLOW THROUGH EARTHEN LANDFILL COVERS: FIELD EVALUATION OF ROOT ZONE WATER into the waste, earthen landfill covers are constructed once a landfill reaches its capacity. Formation earthen landfill covers during service. Most commonly used water balance models that are used

  8. The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons of Geophysics #12;2 #12;The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. With several hundred MSW landfills in both the US and UK, estimating

  9. Associations of water and methanol masers at milli-arcsec angular resolution in two high-mass young stellar objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Goddi; L. Moscadelli; A. Sanna; R. Cesaroni; V. Minier

    2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Most previous high-angular (methanol masers. While high-angular resolution observations have clarified that water masers originate from shocks associated with protostellar jets, different environments have been proposed in several sources to explain the origin of methanol masers. Tha aim of the paper is to investigate the nature of the methanol maser birthplace in SFRs and the association between the water and methanol maser emission in the same young stellar object. We have conducted phase-reference Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of water and methanol masers toward two high-mass SFRs, Sh 2-255 IR and AFGL 5142. In Sh 2-255 IR water masers are aligned along a direction close to the orientation of the molecular outflow observed on angular scales of 1-10 arcsec, tracing possibly the disk-wind emerging from the disk atmosphere. In AFGL 5142 water masers trace expansion at the base of a protostellar jet, whilst methanol masers are more probably tracing infalling than outflowing gas. The results for AFGL 5142 suggest that water and methanol masers trace different kinematic structures in the circumstellar gas.

  10. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

  11. Biomass gasification project gets funding to solve black liquor safety and landfill problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, N.P.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on biomass gasifications. The main by-product in pulp making is black liquor from virgin fiber; the main by-product in paper recycling is fiber residue. Although the black liquor is recycled for chemical and energy recovery, safety problems plague the boilers currently used to do this. The fiber residue is usually transported to a landfill. The system being developed by MTCI will convert black liquor and fiber residue into a combustible gas, which can then be used for a wide variety of thermal or power generation applications.

  12. Towards the optimal integrated production of biodiesel with internal recycling of methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of CO2 is performed by means of PSA and the syngas is fed to the methanol synthesis reactor. The most traditional is similar to the one that produces syngas from natural gas or coal, which can] . In order to generate the syngas out of the glycerol, a number of recent studies have evaluated

  13. Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tallec, G.; Bureau, C. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France); Peu, P.; Benoist, J.C. [Cemagref, UR GERE, 17 Avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes (France); Lemunier, M. [Suez-Environnement, CIRADE, 38 Av. Jean Jaures, 78440 Gargenville (France); Budka, A.; Presse, D. [SITA France, 132 Rue des 3 Fontanot, 92000 Nanterre Cedex (France); Bouchez, T. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France)], E-mail: theodore.bouchez@cemagref.fr

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N{sub 2}O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N{sub 2}O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N{sub 2}O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N{sub 2}O releases: 8.1 {+-} 0.16 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 384), 4.2 {+-} 0.14 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 132) and 1.9 {+-} 0.10 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N{sub 2}O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N{sub 2}O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection.

  14. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  15. Methanol engine conversion feasibility study: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the selection of the surface-assisted ignition technique to convert two-stroke Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. This study was the first phase of the Florida Department of Transportation methanol bus engine development project. It determined both the feasibility and technical approach for converting Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. State-of-the-art conversion options, associated fuel formulations, and anticipated performance were identified. Economic considerations and technical limitations were examined. The surface-assisted conversion was determined to be feasible and was recommended for hardware development.

  16. Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:Landowners andLodgepole, Nebraska:Longboard CapitalEnergy Information

  17. Landfill Gas Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and national laboratories to create a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. This program is largely focused on biomass fuels,...

  18. annual landfill gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors 18 Proceedings...

  19. Albany Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit

  20. Winnebago County Landfill Gas Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTEDBird,Wilsonville, Oregon:WindPoleWisconsin:Wing,Winn,

  1. Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG| OpenInformation HandbookOhio:

  2. Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas, October 2002 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prev next > Sun Mon Tue WedWhatEnergy Powering

  3. Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas, October 2002 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Powersubsidiary of

  4. Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,Southeast Colorado PowerSouthwestern PublicSovelloEnergySpadra

  5. Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOffice of StateOklahomaField,Olde WestInformation

  6. Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon, France: EnergyBagley Public UtilitiesBaldHomes

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulaseFuelsConversions to someoneRefuse Vehicles

  8. UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin Baxin HydropowerTrinityTurnbull HydroUKFinance,Risoe Centreproject

  9. RCWMD Badlands Landfill Gas Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethodInformationeNevada < RAPID‎78.6048 -458

  10. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009 The United States

  11. Landfill mining: A critical review of two decades of research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krook, Joakim, E-mail: joakim.krook@liu.se [Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, Niclas; Eklund, Mats [Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze two decades of landfill mining research regarding trends and topics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer So far landfill mining has mainly been used to solve waste management issues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new perspective on landfills as resource reservoirs is emerging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of resource extraction from landfills is significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We outline several key challenges for realization of resource extraction from landfills. - Abstract: Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research papers published during the period 1988-2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space and local pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources, mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that facilitating implementation involves a number of research challenges in terms of technology innovation, clarifying the conditions for realization and developing standardized frameworks for evaluating economic and environmental performance from a systems perspective. In order to address these challenges, a combination of applied and theoretical research is required.

  12. Methanol Maser Polarization in W3(OH)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. H. T. Vlemmings; L. Harvey-Smith; R. J. Cohen

    2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first 6.7 GHz methanol maser linear polarization map of the extended filamentary maser structure around the compact HII region W3(OH). The methanol masers show linear polarization up to 8 per cent and the polarization angles indicate a magnetic field direction along the North-South maser structure. The polarization angles are consistent with those measured for the OH masers, taking into account external Faraday rotation toward W3(OH), and confirm that the OH and methanol masers are found in similar physical conditions. Additionally we discuss the Zeeman splitting of the 6.7 GHz methanol transition and present an upper limit of ~22 mG for the magnetic field strength in the maser region. The upper limit is fully consistent with the field strengths derived from OH maser Zeeman splitting.

  13. Mit Methanol iridiumkatalysiert C-C-Bindungen knpfen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    Mit Methanol iridiumkatalysiert C-C-Bindungen knüpfen i Die Reaktivität von Methanol (1) beruht meist auf dem nucleophilen Sauerstoffatom. Obwohl Methanol industriell im Monsanto-Prozess carbo, dass Methanol iridiumkatalysiert leicht an Allene (2) addiert. Damit entstehen 2,2-disub- stituierte

  14. Methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst composite for direct methanol fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of Pt.sub.3Cr/C so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  15. Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  16. Methanol plant ship: Appendix. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The document is an appendix to the final report on a proposed methanol plant ship off of the coast of Trinidad. The document incorporates the results of the redetermination of capital required to implement the project. It also presents a revised cost analysis, with better accuracy, for the project. The projected operating revenues and revised expenses are also given. As a continuation of the information presented in the final report, the methanol market and proposed products are discussed in the report.

  17. Pd and Pd-Cu Alloy Deposited Nafion Membranes for Reduction of Methanol Crossover in Direct Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Pd and Pd-Cu Alloy Deposited Nafion Membranes for Reduction of Methanol Crossover in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells J. Prabhuram, T. S. Zhao,*,z Z. X. Liang, H. Yang, and C. W. Wong Department Kong, China To reduce methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs , Nafion 115 membrane

  18. Modeling of leachate generation in municipal solid waste landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, James Bryan

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the inclusion of compaction effects and leachate generation and movement effects by Mehevec (1994) should provide the user with a tool for estimating leachate generation values and landfill capacity figures for a variety of initial design and operational...

  19. Installation of geosynthetic clay liners at California MSW landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, M.; Jesionek, K.S.; Dunn, R.J.; Kavazanjian, E. Jr.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California regulations for liner systems at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills require that alternatives to the prescriptive federal Subtitle D liner system have a containment capability greater than that of the prescriptive system. Regulators may also require a demonstration that use of the prescriptive system is burdensome prior to approval of an alternative liner design. This paper presents seven case histories of the design and installation of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) as an alternative to the low-permeability soil component of the prescriptive Subtitle D composite liner system at MSW landfills in California. These case histories cover GCLs from different manufacturers and landfill sites with a wide range of conditions including canyon landfills with slopes as steep as 1H:1V.

  20. Brownfield landfill remediation under the Illinois EPA site remediation program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, J.; Bruce, B.; Miller, J.; Wey, T.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brownfield type landfill remediation was completed at the Ft. Sheridan Historic Landmark District, a former Army Base Realignment and Closure Facility, in conjunction with the future development of 551 historic and new homes at this site. The project was completed during 1998 under the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (Illinois EPA) Site Remediation Program. This paper highlights the Illinois EPA's Site Remediation Program and the remediation of Landfills 3 and 4 at Fort Sheridan. The project involved removal of about 200,000 cubic yards of landfill waste, comprised of industrial and domestic refuse and demolition debris, and post-removal confirmation sampling of soils, sediment, surface water, and groundwater. The sample results were compared to the Illinois Risk-Based Cleanup levels for residential scenarios. The goal of the removal project was to obtain a No Further Remediation letter from the Illinois EPA to allow residential development of the landfill areas.

  1. Design of top covers supporting aerobic in situ stabilization of old landfills - An experimental simulation in lysimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrad, Marlies [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested engineered covers as surrogate to gas extraction during and after in situ aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined how covers influence gas emissions, water balance and leachate generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated effect of top covers on air-distribution in waste mass during aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest criteria and cover design to meet the demands during and after aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such cover systems may offer greenhouse gas emission reduction also after active aeration. - Abstract: Landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection is a promising tool to reduce long term emissions from organic waste fractions through accelerated biological stabilization. Top covers that enhance methane oxidation could provide a simple and economic way to mitigate residual greenhouse gas emissions from in situ aerated landfills, and may replace off-gas extraction and treatment, particularly at smaller and older sites. In this respect the installation of a landfill cover system adjusted to the forced-aerated landfill body is of great significance. Investigations into large scale lysimeters (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 m) under field conditions have been carried out using different top covers including compost materials and natural soils as a surrogate to gas extraction during active low pressure aeration. In the present study, the emission behaviour as well as the water balance performance of the lysimeters has been investigated, both prior to and during the first months of in situ aeration. Results reveal that mature sewage sludge compost (SSC) placed in one lysimeter exhibits in principle optimal ambient conditions for methanotrophic bacteria to enhance methane oxidation. Under laboratory conditions the mature compost mitigated CH{sub 4} loadings up to 300 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d. In addition, the compost material provided high air permeability even at 100% water holding capacity (WHC). In contrast, the more cohesive, mineral soil cover was expected to cause a notably uniform distribution of the injected air within the waste layer. Laboratory results also revealed sufficient air permeability of the soil materials (TS-F and SS-Z) placed in lysimeter C. However, at higher compaction density SS-Z became impermeable at 100% WHC. Methane emissions from the reference lysimeter with the smaller substrate cover (12-52 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) were significantly higher than fluxes from the other lysimeters (0-19 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) during in situ aeration. Regarding water balance, lysimeters covered with compost and compost-sand mixture, showed the lowest leachate rate (18-26% of the precipitation) due to the high water holding capacity and more favourable plant growth conditions compared to the lysimeters with mineral, more cohesive, soil covers (27-45% of the precipitation). On the basis of these results, the authors suggest a layered top cover system using both compost material as well as mineral soil in order to support active low-pressure aeration. Conventional soil materials with lower permeability may be used on top of the landfill body for a more uniform aeration of the waste due to an increased resistance to vertical gas flow. A compost cover may be built on top of the soil cover underlain by a gas distribution layer to improve methane oxidation rates and minimise water infiltration. By planting vegetation with a high transpiration rate, the leachate amount emanating from the landfill could be further minimised. The suggested design may be particularly suitable in combination with intermittent in situ aeration, in the later stage of an aeration measure, or at very small sites and shallow deposits. The top cover system could further regulate water infiltration into the landfill and mitigate residual CH{sub 4} emissions, even beyond the time of active aeration.

  2. Mechanism of Methanol Synthesis on Cu through CO2 and CO Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabow, Lars C.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a comprehensive mean-field microkinetic model for the methanol synthesis and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions that includes novel reaction intermediates, such as formic acid (HCOOH) and hydroxymethoxy (CH?O?) and allows for the formation of formic acid (HCOOH), formaldehyde (CH?O), and methyl formate (HCOOCH?) as byproducts. All input model parameters were initially derived from periodic, self-consistent, GGA-PW91 density functional theory calculations on the Cu(111) surface and subsequently fitted to published experimentalmethanol synthesis rate data, which were collected under realistic conditions on a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al?O? catalyst. We find that the WGS reaction follows the carboxyl (COOH)-mediated path and that both CO and CO? hydrogenation pathways are active for methanol synthesis. Under typical industrial methanol synthesis conditions, CO? hydrogenation is responsible for ?2/3 of the methanol produced. The intermediates of the CO? pathway for methanol synthesis include HCOO*, HCOOH*, CH?O?*, CH?O*, and CH?O*. The formation of formate (HCOO*) from CO?* and H* on Cu(111) does not involve an intermediate carbonate (CO?*) species, and hydrogenation of HCOO* leads to HCOOH* instead of dioxymethylene (H?CO?*). The effect of CO is not only promotional; CO* is also hydrogenated in significant amounts to HCO*, CH?O *, CH?O*, and CH?OH*. We considered two possibilities for CO promotion: (a) removal of OH* via COOH* to form CO? and hydrogen (WGS), and (b) CO-assisted hydrogenation of various surface intermediates, with HCO* being the H-donor. Only the former mechanism contributes to methanol formation, but its effect is small compared with that of direct CO hydrogenation to methanol. Overall, methanol synthesis rates are limited by methoxy (CH?O*) formation at low CO?/(CO+CO?) ratios and by CH?O* hydrogenation in CO?-rich feeds. CH?O* hydrogenation is the common slow step for both the CO and the CO? methanol synthesis routes; the relative contribution of each route is determined by their respective slow steps HCO*+H*?CH?O*+* and HCOOH*+H*?CH?O?*+* as well as by feed composition and reaction conditions. An analysis of the fitted parameters for a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al?O? catalyst suggests that a more open Cu surface, for example, Cu(110), Cu(100), and Cu(211) partially covered by oxygen, may provide a better model for the active site of methanol synthesis, but our studies cannot exclude a synergistic effect with the ZnO support.

  3. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AROUND 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS. I. AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandian, J. D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Wyrowski, F.; Menten, K. M., E-mail: jagadheep@iist.ac.in [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz are known to be tracers of high-mass star formation in our Galaxy. In this paper, we study the large-scale physical conditions in the star-forming clumps/cores associated with 6.7 GHz methanol masers using observations of the (1, 1), (2, 2), and (3, 3) inversion transitions of ammonia with the Effelsberg telescope. The gas kinetic temperature is found to be higher than in infrared dark clouds, highlighting the relatively evolved nature of the maser sources. Other than a weak correlation between maser luminosity and the ammonia line width, we do not find any differences between low- and high-luminosity methanol masers.

  4. Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from CO/CO2/H2/H2O Mixtures: the Source of C in Methanol and the Role of Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, Charles T.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low temperature (403 – 453K) conversions of CO:hydrogen and CO2:hydrogen mixtures (6 bar total pressure) to methanol over copper catalysts are both assisted by the presence of small amounts of water (mole fraction ~0.04%-0.5%). For CO2:hydrogen reaction mixtures, the water product from both methanol synthesis and reverse water gas shift serves to initiate both reactions in an autocatalytic manner. In the case of CO:D2 mixtures, very little methanol is produced until small amounts of water are added. The effect of water on methanol production is more immediate than in CO2:D2, yet the steady state rates are similar. Tracer experiments in 13CO:12CO2:hydrogen (with or without added water), show that the dominant source of C in the methanol product gradually shifts from CO2 to CO as the temperature is lowered. Cu-bound formate, the major IR visible surface species under CO2:hydrogen, is not visible in CO:moist hydrogen. Though formate is visible in the tracer experiments, the symmetric stretch is absent. These results, in conjunction with recent DFT calculations on Cu(111), point to carboxyl as a common intermediate for both methanol synthesis and reverse water gas shift, with formate playing a spectator co-adsorbate role.

  5. Electronic Effect in Methanol Dehydrogenation on Pt Surfaces: Potential Control during Methanol Electrooxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    advanced insight into the design of an optimal catalyst as the anode for direct methanol fuel cells. SECTION: Energy Conversion and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport Fuel cells are promising alternative energy conversion. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs

  6. WIDESPREAD METHANOL EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC CENTER: THE ROLE OF COSMIC RAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Royster, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Viti, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower St. London, WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the discovery of a widespread population of collisionally excited methanol J = 4{sub -1} to 3{sub 0} E sources at 36.2 GHz from the inner 66' Multiplication-Sign 18' (160 Multiplication-Sign 43 pc) of the Galactic center. This spectral feature was imaged with a spectral resolution of 16.6 km s{sup -1} taken from 41 channels of a Very Large Array continuum survey of the Galactic center region. The revelation of 356 methanol sources, most of which are maser candidates, suggests a large abundance of methanol in the gas phase in the Galactic center region. There is also spatial and kinematic correlation between SiO (2-1) and CH{sub 3}OH emission from four Galactic center clouds: the +50 and +20 km s{sup -1} clouds and G0.13-0.13 and G0.25 + 0.01. The enhanced abundance of methanol is accounted for in terms of induced photodesorption by cosmic rays as they travel through a molecular core, collide, dissociate, ionize, and excite Lyman Werner transitions of H{sub 2}. A time-dependent chemical model in which cosmic rays drive the chemistry of the gas predicts CH{sub 3}OH abundance of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -7} on a chemical timescale of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} years. The average methanol abundance produced by the release of methanol from grain surfaces is consistent with the available data.

  7. Falling MTBE demand bursts the methanol bubble

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiesmann, G.; Cornitius, T.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol spot markets in Europe and the US have been hit hard by weakening demand from methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) producers. In Europe, spot prices for domestic T2 product have dropped to DM620-DM630/m.t. fob from early-January prices above DM800/m.t. and US spot prices have slipped to $1.05/gal fob from $1.35/gal. While chemical applications for methanol show sustained demand, sharp methanol hikes during 1994 have priced MTBE out of the gasoline-additive market. {open_quotes}We`ve learned an important lesson. We killed [MTBE] applications in the rest of the world,{close_quotes} says one European methanol producer. Even with methanol currently at DM620/m.t., another manufacturer points out, MTBE production costs still total $300/m.t., $30/m.t. more than MTBE spot prices. Since late 1994, Europe`s 3.3-million m.t./year MTBE production has been cut back 30%.

  8. Estimation of mass transport parameters of gases for quantifying CH{sub 4} oxidation in landfill soil covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, J.; Moon, S.; Nam, K.; Kim, Y.-J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.Y. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH{sub 4}), which is one of the most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is produced from landfills. CH{sub 4} is biologically oxidized to carbon dioxide, which has a lower global warming potential than methane, when it passes through a cover soil. In order to quantify the amount of CH{sub 4} oxidized in a landfill cover soil, a soil column test, a diffusion cell test, and a mathematical model analysis were carried out. In the column test, maximum oxidation rates of CH{sub 4} (V{sub max}) showed higher values in the upper part of the column than those in the lower part caused by the penetration of O{sub 2} from the top. The organic matter content in the upper area was also higher due to the active microbial growth. The dispersion analysis results for O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in the column are counter-intuitive. As the upward flow rate of the landfill gas increased, the dispersion coefficient of CH{sub 4} slightly increased, possibly due to the effect of mechanical dispersion. On the other hand, as the upward flow rate of the landfill gas increased, the dispersion coefficient of O{sub 2} decreased. It is possible that the diffusion of gases in porous media is influenced by the counter-directional flow rate. Further analysis of other gases in the column, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, may be required to support this hypothesis, but in this paper we propose the possibility that the simulations using the diffusion coefficient of O{sub 2} under the natural condition may overestimate the penetration of O{sub 2} into the soil cover layer and consequently overestimate the oxidation of CH{sub 4}.

  9. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: Strong N{sub 2}O hotspots at the working face

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harborth, Peter, E-mail: p.harborth@tu-bs.de [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Fuß, Roland [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Münnich, Kai [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Flessa, Heinz [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Fricke, Klaus [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? First measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from an MBT landfill. ? High N{sub 2}O emissions from recently deposited material. ? N{sub 2}O emissions associated with aeration and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate. ? Strong negative correlation between CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O production activity. - Abstract: Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH{sub 4}) production in the landfill is strongly mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH{sub 4} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N{sub 2}O emissions of 20–200 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1} magnitude (up to 428 mg N m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}) were observed within 20 m of the working face. CH{sub 4} emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 30–40 m from the working face, where they reached about 10 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}. The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N{sub 2}O was 24.000 ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50 cm from the landfill surface a strong negative correlation between N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that strong N{sub 2}O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH{sub 4} mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially at MBT landfills.

  10. A Theoretical Study of Methanol Synthesis from CO(2) Hydrogenation on Metal-doped Cu(111) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu P.; Yang, Y.; White, M.G.

    2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were employed to investigate the methanol synthesis reaction from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation (CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2} {yields} CH{sub 3}OH + H{sub 2}O) on metal-doped Cu(111) surfaces. Both the formate pathway and the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction followed by a CO hydrogenation pathway (RWGS + CO-Hydro) were considered in the study. Our calculations showed that the overall methanol yield increased in the sequence: Au/Cu(111) < Cu(111) < Pd/Cu(111) < Rh/Cu(111) < Pt/Cu(111) < Ni/Cu(111). On Au/Cu(111) and Cu(111), the formate pathway dominates the methanol production. Doping Au does not help the methanol synthesis on Cu(111). Pd, Rh, Pt, and Ni are able to promote the methanol production on Cu(111), where the conversion via the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathway is much faster than that via the formate pathway. Further kinetic analysis revealed that the methanol yield on Cu(111) was controlled by three factors: the dioxomethylene hydrogenation barrier, the CO binding energy, and the CO hydrogenation barrier. Accordingly, two possible descriptors are identified which can be used to describe the catalytic activity of Cu-based catalysts toward methanol synthesis. One is the activation barrier of dioxomethylene hydrogenation, and the other is the CO binding energy. An ideal Cu-based catalyst for the methanol synthesis via CO{sub 2} hydrogenation should be able to hydrogenate dioxomethylene easily and bond CO moderately, being strong enough to favor the desired CO hydrogenation rather than CO desorption but weak enough to prevent CO poisoning. In this way, the methanol production via both the formate and the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathways can be facilitated.

  11. Comparison of Methanol Exposure Routes Reported to Texas Poison Control Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Givens, Melissa; Kalbfleisch, Kristine; Bryson, Scott

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    guidelines on the treatment of methanol poisoning, J ToxicolHantson PE, Acute methanol intoxication: physiopathology,The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors, Crit Rev Toxicol.

  12. Methanol sensor operated in a passive mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor outputs a signal related to a concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution adjacent the sensor. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is included with an anode side and a cathode side. An anode current collector supports the anode side of the MEA and has a flow channel therethrough for flowing a stream of the aqueous solution and forms a physical barrier to control access of the methanol to the anode side of the MEA. A cathode current collector supports the cathode side of the MEA and is configured for air access to the cathode side of the MEA. A current sensor is connected to measure the current in a short circuit across the sensor electrodes to provide an output signal functionally related to the concentration of methanol in the aqueous solution.

  13. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  14. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  15. Metal speciation in landfill leachates with a focus on the influence of organic matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claret, Francis, E-mail: f.claret@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3 avenue C. Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans (France); Tournassat, Christophe; Crouzet, Catherine; Gaucher, Eric C. [BRGM, 3 avenue C. Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans (France); Schaefer, Thorsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Hydrogeology Group, D-12249 Berlin (Germany); Braibant, Gilles; Guyonnet, Dominique [BRGM, 3 avenue C. Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans (France)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > This study characterises the heavy-metal content in leachates collected from eight landfills in France. > Most of the metals are concentrated in the <30 kDa fraction, while Pb, Cu and Cd are associated with larger particles. > Metal complexation with OM is not sufficient to explain apparent supersaturation of metals with sulphide minerals. - Abstract: This study characterises the heavy-metal content in leachates collected from eight landfills in France. In order to identify heavy metal occurrence in the different size fractions of leachates, a cascade filtration protocol was applied directly in the field, under a nitrogen gas atmosphere to avoid metal oxidation. The results of analyses performed on the leachates suggest that most of the metals are concentrated in the <30 kDa fraction, while lead, copper and cadmium show an association with larger particles. Initial speciation calculations, without considering metal association with organic matter, suggest that leachate concentrations in lead, copper, nickel and zinc are super-saturated with respect to sulphur phases. Speciation calculations that account for metal complexation with organic matter, considered as fulvic acids based on C1(s) NEXAFS spectroscopy, show that this mechanism is not sufficient to explain such deviation from equilibrium conditions. It is therefore hypothesized that the deviation results also from the influence of biological activity on the kinetics of mineral phase precipitation and dissolution, thus providing a dynamic system. The results of chemical analyses of sampled fluids are compared with speciation calculations and some implications for the assessment of metal mobility and natural attenuation in a context of landfill risk assessment are discussed.

  16. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Sobolev, A. M. [Astronomical Observatory, Ural Federal University, Lenin avenue 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Lo, N., E-mail: Simon.Ellingsen@utas.edu.au [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Casilla 36-D (Chile)

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  17. Methanex considers methanol, MTBE in Qatar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    CW has learned that Methanex Corp. is considering entering one of two methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects in Qatar. Executive v.p. Michael Wilson says that part of the company`s New Zealand plant could be moved to a site in Qatar, which would lower capital costs for the possible project by $75 million-$100 million. Both Qatar General Petroleum Corp. and Qatar Fuel Additives are developing methanol and MTBE projects at Umm Said, Qatar. Methanex says its goal is to ensure low-cost feedstocks.

  18. Liquid phase methanol reactor staging process for the production of methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonnell, Leo W. (Macungie, PA); Perka, Alan T. (Macungie, PA); Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a process for the production of methanol from a syngas feed containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Basically, the process is the combination of two liquid phase methanol reactors into a staging process, such that each reactor is operated to favor a particular reaction mechanism. In the first reactor, the operation is controlled to favor the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and in the second reactor, the operation is controlled so as to favor the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This staging process results in substantial increases in methanol yield.

  19. Methanol synthesis on ZnO(0001{sup ¯}). IV. Reaction mechanisms and electronic structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenzel, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.frenzel@theochem.rub.de; Marx, Dominik [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol synthesis from CO and H{sub 2} over ZnO, which requires high temperatures and high pressures giving rise to a complex interplay of physical and chemical processes over this heterogeneous catalyst surface, is investigated using ab initio simulations. The redox properties of the surrounding gas phase are known to directly impact on the catalyst properties and thus, set the overall catalytic reactivity of this easily reducible oxide material. In Paper III of our series [J. Kiss, J. Frenzel, N. N. Nair, B. Meyer, and D. Marx, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064710 (2011)] we have qualitatively shown that for the partially hydroxylated and defective ZnO(0001{sup ¯}) surface there exists an intricate network of surface chemical reactions. In the present study, we employ advanced molecular dynamics techniques to resolve in detail this reaction network in terms of elementary steps on the defective surface, which is in stepwise equilibrium with the gas phase. The two individual reduction steps were investigated by ab initio metadynamics sampling of free energy landscapes in three-dimensional reaction subspaces. By also sampling adsorption and desorption processes and thus molecular species that are in the gas phase but close to the surface, our approach successfully generated several alternative pathways of methanol synthesis. The obtained results suggest an Eley-Rideal mechanism for both reduction steps, thus involving “near-surface” molecules from the gas phase, to give methanol preferentially over a strongly reduced catalyst surface, while important side reactions are of Langmuir-Hinshelwood type. Catalyst re-reduction by H{sub 2} stemming from the gas phase is a crucial process after each reduction step in order to maintain the catalyst's activity toward methanol formation and to close the catalytic cycle in some reaction channels. Furthermore, the role of oxygen vacancies, side reactions, and spectator species is investigated and mechanistic details are discussed based on extensive electronic structure analysis.

  20. Acute and chronic toxicity of municipal landfill leachate as determined with bioassays and chemical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrab, Gregory Ernst

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    municipal landfill leachates were determined to have mean estimated cumulative cancer risks on the same order of magnitude (10 4) as leachates from co-disposal and hazardous waste landfills. The use of a battery of acute and chronic toxicity bioassays..., chemical analysis, and an estimated cancer risk calculation resulted in data providing evidence that municipal solid waste landfill leachates are as acutely and chronically toxic as co-disposal and hazardous waste landfill leachates. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...

  1. Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films. Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films. Abstract: The...

  2. Experimental Investigation on the Interaction of Water and Methanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation on the Interaction of Water and Methanol with Anatase-TiO2(101). Experimental Investigation on the Interaction of Water and Methanol with Anatase-TiO2(101). Abstract:...

  3. Site Competition During Coadsorption of Acetone with Methanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site Competition During Coadsorption of Acetone with Methanol and Water on TiO2(110). Site Competition During Coadsorption of Acetone with Methanol and Water on TiO2(110)....

  4. Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a CuSiO2 catalyst. Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a...

  5. Level Alignment of a Prototypical Photocatalytic System: Methanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Level Alignment of a Prototypical Photocatalytic System: Methanol on TiO2(110). Level Alignment of a Prototypical Photocatalytic System: Methanol on TiO2(110). Abstract:...

  6. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Wednesday, 03 December 2014 00:00 Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that...

  7. Theoretical study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the polar Zn-terminated ZnO(0001) surface. Theoretical study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the polar Zn-terminated ZnO(0001)...

  8. Above- and below-ground methane fluxes and methanotrophic activity in a landfill-cover soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroth, M.H., E-mail: martin.schroth@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Eugster, W. [Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 2, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gomez, K.E. [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gonzalez-Gil, G. [Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, EPF Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Niklaus, P.A. [Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 2, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Oester, P. [Oester Messtechnik, Bahnhofstrasse 3, 3600 Thun (Switzerland)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantify above- and below-ground CH{sub 4} fluxes in a landfill-cover soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} loading from the waste body. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane loading and emissions are highly variable in space and time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eddy covariance measurements yield largest estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential methanotrophic activity is high at a location with substantial CH{sub 4} loading. - Abstract: Landfills are a major anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH{sub 4}). However, much of the CH{sub 4} produced during the anaerobic degradation of organic waste is consumed by methanotrophic microorganisms during passage through the landfill-cover soil. On a section of a closed landfill near Liestal, Switzerland, we performed experiments to compare CH{sub 4} fluxes obtained by different methods at or above the cover-soil surface with below-ground fluxes, and to link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} ingress (loading) from the waste body at selected locations. Fluxes of CH{sub 4} into or out of the cover soil were quantified by eddy-covariance and static flux-chamber measurements. In addition, CH{sub 4} concentrations at the soil surface were monitored using a field-portable FID detector. Near-surface CH{sub 4} fluxes and CH{sub 4} loading were estimated from soil-gas concentration profiles in conjunction with radon measurements, and gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) were performed to quantify rates of microbial CH{sub 4} oxidation. Eddy-covariance measurements yielded by far the largest and probably most representative estimates of overall CH{sub 4} emissions from the test section (daily mean up to {approx}91,500 {mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), whereas flux-chamber measurements and CH{sub 4} concentration profiles indicated that at the majority of locations the cover soil was a net sink for atmospheric CH{sub 4} (uptake up to -380 {mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}) during the experimental period. Methane concentration profiles also indicated strong variability in CH{sub 4} loading over short distances in the cover soil, while potential methanotrophic activity derived from GPPTs was high (v{sub max} {approx} 13 mmol L{sup -1}(soil air) h{sup -1}) at a location with substantial CH{sub 4} loading. Our results provide a basis to assess spatial and temporal variability of CH{sub 4} dynamics in the complex terrain of a landfill-cover soil.

  9. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  10. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  11. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  12. Modelling of stable isotope fractionation by methane oxidation and diffusion in landfill cover soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahieu, Koenraad [Laboratory of Applied Physical Chemistry (ISOFYS), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control (BIOMATH), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Koenraad.mahieu@lid.kviv.be; De Visscher, Alex [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Vanrolleghem, Peter A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control (BIOMATH), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Civil Engineering (modelEAU), Universite Laval, Pavillon Pouliot, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Van Cleemput, Oswald [Laboratory of Applied Physical Chemistry (ISOFYS), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique to measure biological methane oxidation in landfill cover soils that is gaining increased interest is the measurement of stable isotope fractionation in the methane. Usually to quantify methane oxidation, only fractionation by oxidation is taken into account. Recently it was shown that neglecting the isotope fractionation by diffusion results in underestimation of the methane oxidation. In this study a simulation model was developed that describes gas transport and methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. The model distinguishes between {sup 12}CH{sub 4}, {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, and {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D explicitly, and includes isotope fractionation by diffusion and oxidation. To evaluate the model, the simulations were compared with column experiments from previous studies. The predicted concentration profiles and isotopic profiles match the measured ones very well, with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 1.7 vol% in the concentration and a RMSD of 0.8 per mille in the {delta}{sup 13}C value, with {delta}{sup 13}C the relative {sup 13}C abundance as compared to an international standard. Overall, the comparison shows that a model-based isotope approach for the determination of methane oxidation efficiencies is feasible and superior to existing isotope methods.

  13. Metal Speciation in Landfill Leachates with a Focus on the Influence of Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F Claret; C Tournassat; C Crouzet; E Gaucher; T Schäfer; G Braibant; D Guyonnet

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study characterizes the heavy-metal content in leachates collected from eight landfills in France. In order to identify heavy metal occurrence in the different size fractions of leachates, a cascade filtration protocol was applied directly in the field, under a nitrogen gas atmosphere to avoid metal oxidation. The results of analyses performed on the leachates suggest that most of the metals are concentrated in the <30 kDa fraction, while lead, copper and cadmium show an association with larger particles. Initial speciation calculations, without considering metal association with organic matter, suggest that leachate concentrations in lead, copper, nickel and zinc are super-saturated with respect to sulphur phases. Speciation calculations that account for metal complexation with organic matter, considered as fulvic acids based on C1(s) NEXAFS spectroscopy, show that this mechanism is not sufficient to explain such deviation from equilibrium conditions. It is therefore hypothesized that the deviation results also from the influence of biological activity on the kinetics of mineral phase precipitation and dissolution, thus providing a dynamic system. The results of chemical analyses of sampled fluids are compared with speciation calculations and some implications for the assessment of metal mobility and natural attenuation in a context of landfill risk assessment are discussed.

  14. Air-substrate mercury exchange associated with landfill disposal of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei Xin; Mae S. Gustin; Kenneth Ladwig; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous laboratory studies have shown that lignite-derived fly ash emitted mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, whereas bituminous- and subbituminous-derived fly ash samples adsorbed Hg from the air. In addition, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were found to have higher Hg emission rates than fly ash. This study investigated in situ Hg emissions at a blended bituminous-subbituminous ash land-fill in the Great Lakes area and a lignite-derived ash and FGD solids landfill in the Midwestern United States using a dynamic field chamber. Fly ash and saturated FGD materials emitted Hg to atmosphere at low rates (- 0.1 to 1.2 ng/m{sup 2}hr), whereas FGD material mixed with fly ash and pyrite exhibited higher emission rates ({approximately} 10 ng/m{sup 2}hr) but were still comparable with natural background soils (- 0.3 to 13 ng/m{sup 2}hr). Air temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity were important factors correlated with measured Hg fluxes. Field study results were not consistent with corresponding laboratory observations in that fluxes measured in the latter were higher and more variable. This is hypothesized to be partially an artifact of the flux measurement methods. 19 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  16. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of NO and N02 in a Turbulent Propane/Air Di fusion Flame,"Fuel Methanol Ethanol Ethane Propane i so Octane n - Cetanestage of the secondary Propane, at A spark air line contains

  17. JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / JULY 1999 / 583 RETENTION OF FREE LIQUIDS IN LANDFILLS UNDERGOING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    LIQUIDS IN LANDFILLS UNDERGOING VERTICAL EXPANSION By Jorge G. Zornberg,1 Member, ASCE, Bruce L. Jernigan undergoing compression due to a landfill vertical expansion. The mechanism of free liquid generation thickness that a landfill could reach without releasing liquids stored within the waste. The proposed

  18. Geosynthetics International, 2010, 17, No.3 Design of a landfill final cover system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geosynthetics International, 2010, 17, No.3 Design of a landfill final cover system T. D. Stark containment, Strength, Stability, Shearbox test, Failure, Final cover system, Landfill REFERENCE: Stark, T. D. & Newman, E. J. (20 I0). Design of a landfill final cover systcm. Geosynthetics [ntemational17, No.3, 124

  19. Clogging Potential of Tire Shred-Drainage Layer in Landfill Cover Systems Krishna R. Reddy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , drainage, hydraulic conductivity, landfill, recycling, tires #12;3 Introduction Over 280 million used1 Clogging Potential of Tire Shred-Drainage Layer in Landfill Cover Systems Krishna R. Reddy of shredded scrap tire drainage layers in landfill covers. Laboratory clogging tests were conducted using soil

  20. Beneficial Use of Shredded Tires as Drainage Material in Cover Systems for Abandoned Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; Landfills; Recycling; Slope stability; Drainage. Author keywords: Waste tires; Landfill cover; DrainageBeneficial Use of Shredded Tires as Drainage Material in Cover Systems for Abandoned Landfills Krishna R. Reddy1 ; Timothy D. Stark2 ; and Aravind Marella3 Abstract: Over 280 million tires

  1. Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Yucel Guney1 ; Savas in municipal solid waste landfills. However, natural clays may not always provide good contaminant sorption in solid waste landfills. DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE 1090-0241 2008 134:8 1166 CE Database subject headings

  2. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water, methanol + water, and ethanol + water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kouichi; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Minoura, Tsuyoshi [Mitui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system methanol + ethanol + water and its constituent binary systems of methanol + water and ethanol + water at 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15 K. The apparatus that was used made it possible to control the measured temperature and total pressure by computer. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  3. Dissociative recombination of protonated methanol W. D. Geppert,*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Tom

    Dissociative recombination of protonated methanol W. D. Geppert,*a M. Hamberg,a R. D. Thomas,a F. O located in Stockholm, Sweden. Analysis of the data yielded the result that formation of methanol or deuterated methanol accounted for only 3 and 6% of the total rate in CH3OH2 + and CD3OD2 + , respectively

  4. Fuel Cells Bulletin February 2005 Effect of methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    FEATURE Fuel Cells Bulletin February 2005 12 Effect of methanol concentration on passive DMFC performance The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has attracted extensive interest from scientists energy density of methanol (6100 W h/kg at 25°C) is much higher than that of gaseous fuels.[1­6] Recently

  5. Competition between vitrification and crystallization of methanol at high pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Competition between vitrification and crystallization of methanol at high pressure Marco J. P methanol at high pressure up to 33 GPa at room temperature with x-ray diffraction, optical polarization and vitrification is observed when methanol is superpressed beyond the freezing pressure of 3.5 GPa: between 5

  6. Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol Catalyzed, with CÀH Activation (generated by dissolution[6] of Au2O3) react with methane at 1808C to selectively generate methanol (as a mixture of the ester and methanol) in high yield (Table 1, entries 1 and 2). As expected, the irreversible

  7. Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation* Brenda L:Ru nanoparticles on carbon (PtRu/C) for use as an electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. This bimetallic carbonyl support particles. Cyclic voltammo- grams of methanol oxidation from the two catalysts showed

  8. Methanol maser survey using the EVN Anna Bartkiewicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Langevelde, Huib Jan

    Methanol maser survey using the EVN Anna Bartkiewicz Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus-mail: langevelde@jive.nl We present the results of a five year campaign observing 6.7 GHz methanol masers towards a new type of masers. We discuss the origin of elliptically shaped methanol masers in massive star

  9. First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol Reinhard Beer,1 Mark W) and methanol (CH3OH), well above the normal background levels. This is the first time that these molecules have. Citation: Beer, R., et al. (2008), First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

  10. Adsorption of intact methanol on Ru,,0001... Pawel Gazdzicki,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adsorption of intact methanol on Ru,,0001... Pawel Gazdzicki,1 Per Uvdal,2 and Peter Jakob1,a 1 the adsorption of methanol on the clean Ru 0001 surface at T 80 K. Thereby, clear evidence for intact adsorption upon adsorption of methanol on Ru 0001 , even at low temperatures, as well as partial recombinative

  11. Effects of Methanol on the Retinal Function of Juvenile Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casanova, Christian

    Effects of Methanol on the Retinal Function of Juvenile Rats C. Plaziac1 , P. Lachapelle2 , C Received 18 April 2002; accepted 22 July 2002 Abstract We have investigated the effect of methanol exposure recorded prior to and up to 72 h after the administration of methanol. Data were compared to a control

  12. Molecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong Laser Fields Bishnu Thapa and H surfaces of methanol neutral, monocation, and singlet and triplet dication were explored using the CBS in the presence of a 2.9 × 1014 W/cm2 800 nm laser field for methanol monocation on the ground state potential

  13. Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan Department of Physics structure, including all atomic positions, of methanol at high pressure and room temperature pressure of methanol is 3.5 GPa. In practice however, it is very easy to superpress the liquid phase

  14. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY DETECTION OF 36.2 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN SAGITTARIUS A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjouwerman, Lorant O. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Pihlstroem, Ylva M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 800 Yale Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Fish, Vincent L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States)], E-mail: lsjouwerman@nrao.edu, E-mail: ylva@unm.edu, E-mail: vfish@haystack.mit.edu

    2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the interferometric detection of 36.2 GHz Class I methanol emission with the new 27-40 GHz Ka-band receivers available on the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). The brightness temperatures of the interferometric 36 GHz detections unambiguously indicate for the first time that the emission is maser emission. The 36 GHz methanol masers are not co-spatial with 1720 MHz OH masers, indicating that the two species trace different shocks. The 36 GHz and 44 GHz methanol masers, which are collisionally pumped, do not necessarily co-exist and may trace different methanol gas. The methanol masers seem correlated with NH{sub 3}(3,3) density peaks. We favor an explanation in which the 36 GHz Class I methanol masers outline regions of cloud-cloud collisions, perhaps just before the onset of the formation of individual massive stars. The transition of the Very Large Array (VLA) to the EVLA is well under way, and these detections demonstrate the bright future of this completely renewed instrument.

  15. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  17. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  18. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  19. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  20. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  1. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report represents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  2. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  3. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final PDWS for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria.

  4. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  5. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  6. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  7. Model to aid the design of composite landfill liners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammed, Kifayathulla

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODEL TO AID THE DESI(iN OF COMPOSITE LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by KIFAYATHULLA MOHAMMED Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1993... Major Subject: Safety Engineering MODEL TO AID THE DESIGN OF COMPOSITE LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by Kifayathulla Mohammed Approved as to style and content by: Kevin J. Mclnnes (Co-chairman of Committee) Richard P. Kon n (Member John P. Wagner...

  8. The nature and formation of coke in the reaction of methanol to hydrocarbons over chabazite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Kenneth Woot

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    45 Figure 9. Relationship between enhanced coke formation with increasing yields of paraffins and diminishing yields of olefins 46 Figure 10. Gas chromatogram of the concentrated carbon tetrachloride extract of spent catalyst pellets . . . 49...THE NATURE ABD FORMATION OF COKE IB THE REACTIOB OF METHANOL TO HIDROCARBOBS OVER CHABAZITE A Thesis KENNETH WOOT MCLAUGHLLN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM Univers ty partial. fulfillment nf the req~nt fo~he degree of MASTER...

  9. Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency methanol (CH3OH) and aqueous methanol solutions were investigated using broad bandwidth sum frequency of methanol molecules at the air-liquid interfaces of neat methanol and aqueous methanol solutions. However

  10. Using Rare Gas Permeation to Probe Methanol Diffusion near the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at temperatures just above the glass transition. The diffusivity near the glass transition is characterized by an activation energy and prefactor that are seven and 1030...

  11. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

    2010-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have attempted to hydrogenate adsorbed formate species on copper catalysts to probe the importance of this postulated mechanistic step in methanol synthesis. Surface formate coverages up to 0.25 were produced at temperatures between 413K and 453K on supported (Cu/SiO2) copper and unsupported copper catalysts. The adlayers were produced by various methods including (1) steady state catalytic conditions in CO2-H2 (3:1, 6 bar) atmospheres, and (2) by exposure of the catalysts to formic acid. As reported in earlier work, the catalytic surface at steady state contains bidentate formate species with coverages up to saturation levels of ~ 0.25 at the low temperatures of this study. The reactivity of these formate adlayers was investigated at relevant reaction temperatures in atmospheres containing up to 6 bar H2 partial pressure by simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy measurements. The yield of methanol during the attempted hydrogenation (“titration”) of these adlayers was insignificant (<0.2 mol % of the formate adlayer) even in dry hydrogen partial pressures up to 6 bar. Hydrogen titration of formate species produced from formic acid also failed to produce significant quantities of methanol, and attempted titration in gases consisting of CO-hydrogen mixtures or dry CO2 were also unproductive. The formate decomposition kinetics, measured by IR, were also unaffected by these changes in the gas composition. Similar experiments on unsupported copper also failed to show any methanol. From these results, we conclude that methanol synthesis on copper cannot result from the direct hydrogenation of (bidentate) formate species in simple steps involving adsorbed H species alone. Furthermore, experiments performed on both supported (Cu/SiO2) and unsupported copper catalysts gave similar results implying that the methanol synthesis reaction mechanism only involves metal surface chemistry. Pre-exposure of the bidentate formate adlayer to oxidation by O2 or N2O produces a change to a monodentate configuration. Attempted titration of this monodentate formate/O coadsorbed layer in dry hydrogen produces significant quantities of methanol, although decomposition of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen remains the dominant reaction pathway. Simultaneous production of water is also observed during this titration as the copper surface is re-reduced. These results indicate that co-adsorbates related to surface oxygen or water-derived species may be critical to methanol production on copper, perhaps assisting in the hydrogenation of adsorbed formate to adsorbed methoxyl.

  12. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  13. "Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Recycling (incl. composting) Waste-to Energy Landfi ll #12;16 Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in the EU 27 in 2006 Source: EUROSTAT 41% of Municipal Solid Waste across the EU 27 is still landfilled Rylander, CEO SYSAV, South Scania Waste Company, Sweden #12;2 The Waste Problem can only be solved

  14. Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, K.W.; Schrab, G.E.; Donnelly, K.C.

    to be representative of landfills of differing ages and types of wastes. Each sample was tested through three genetic toxicity bioassays (The Aspergillus diploid assay, the Bacillus DNA repair assay and the Salmonella/microsome assay) to measure the ability of each...

  15. Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, K.W.; Schrab, G.E.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to be representative of landfills of differing ages and types of wastes. Each sample was tested through three genetic toxicity bioassays (The Aspergillus diploid assay, the Bacillus DNA repair assay and the Salmonella/microsome assay) to measure the ability of each...

  16. Metals in Municipal Landfill Leachate And Their Health Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    raw leachate contains concentrations of heavy metals in excess ofthe drinking water standards of the un- saturated zone. If municipal solid waste is placed di- rectly into ground water, or if leachateMetals in Municipal Landfill Leachate And Their Health Effects STEPHEN C. JAMES, BS, MSCE Abstract

  17. Geosynthetics in Landfills Prepared by M. Bouazza and J. Zornberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    ; · geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs), which are composite materials consisting of bentonite and geosynthetics and a #12;geomembrane/compacted clay liner composite as the secondary liner system. The leak detectionGeosynthetics in Landfills Prepared by M. Bouazza and J. Zornberg Geosynthetics are extensively

  18. Story Road Landfill Solar Site Evaluation: San Jose

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the findings of a solar site evaluation conducted at the Story Road Landfill (Site) in the City of San Jose, California (City). This evaluation was conducted as part of a larger study to assess solar potential at multiple public facilities within the City.

  19. A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutch Jr, R. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States); Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Mahony, J. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

  20. Simultaneous MS-IR Studies of Surface Formate Reactivity Under Methanol Synthesis Conditions on Cu/SiO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The coverages and surface lifetimes of copper-bound formates on Cu/SiO2 catalysts, and the steady-state rates of reverse water-gas shift and methanol synthesis have been measured simultaneously by mass (MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies under a variety of elevated pressure conditions at temperatures between 140 and 160°C. DCOO lifetimes under steady state catalytic conditions in CO2:D2 atmospheres were measured by 12C – 13C isotope transients (SSITKA). The values range from 220s at 160°C to 660s at 140°C. The catalytic rates of both reverse water gas shift (RWGS) and methanol synthesis are ~100-fold slower than this formate removal rate back to CO2+1/2 H2, and thus they do not significantly influence the formate lifetime or coverage at steady state. The formate coverage is instead determined by formate’s rapid production / decomposition equilibrium with gas phase CO2+H2. The results are consistent with formate being an intermediate in methanol synthesis, but with the rate-controlling step being after formate production (for example, its further hydrogenation to methoxy). A 2-3 fold shorter life time (faster decomposition rate) was observed for formate under reactions conditions when both D2 and CO2 are present than in pure Ar or D2+Ar alone, attributed to effects of coadsorbates (produced in D2 and CO2) on adsorbed formate reaction pathways. The carbon which appears in the methanol product spends a longer time on the surface than the formate species, 1.8 times as long at 140°C. The additional delay on the surface is attributed in part to readsorption of methanol on the catalyst, thus obscuring the mechanistic link between formate and methanol.

  1. METHANOL AS A TRACER OF FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levshakov, S. A. [A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Saint Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Reimers, D., E-mail: lev@astro.ioffe.rssi.ru, E-mail: mgk@mf1309.spb.edu, E-mail: st2e101@hs.uni-hamburg.de [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methanol molecule CH{sub 3}OH has a complex microwave spectrum with a large number of very strong lines. This spectrum includes purely rotational transitions as well as transitions with contributions of the internal degree of freedom associated with the hindered rotation of the OH group. The latter takes place due to the tunneling of hydrogen through the potential barriers between three equivalent potential minima. Such transitions are highly sensitive to changes in the electron-to-proton mass ratio, {mu} = m{sub e}/m{sub p}, and have different responses to {mu}-variations. The highest sensitivity is found for the mixed rotation-tunneling transitions at low frequencies. Observing methanol lines provides more stringent limits on the hypothetical variation of {mu} than ammonia observation with the same velocity resolution. We show that the best-quality radio astronomical data on methanol maser lines constrain the variability of {mu} in the Milky Way at the level of |{Delta}{mu}/{mu}| < 28 x 10{sup -9} (1{sigma}) which is in line with the previously obtained ammonia result, |{Delta}{mu}/{mu}| < 29 x 10{sup -9} (1{sigma}). This estimate can be further improved if the rest frequencies of the CH{sub 3}OH microwave lines will be measured more accurately.

  2. Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Kontaksakis, M. [Municipal Company of Solid Waste Management, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Lazaridis, M., E-mail: lazaridi@mred.tuc.g [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

  3. Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and pipeline leak detection. Applications such as landfill emissions monitoring require measurements of gasRoom-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection Thomas To¨ pfer, Konstantin P of a compact, portable, room-temperature mid-infrared gas sensor is reported. The sensor is based on continuous

  4. MAJOR STRUCTURES OF THE INNER GALAXY DELINEATED BY 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J. A.; Caswell, J. L.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Breen, S. L.; Voronkov, M. A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Avison, A.; Fuller, G. A.; Gray, M. D. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Burton, M. G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Pestalozzi, M. [INAF/IFSI, via del Fosso del Cabaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Thompson, M. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the longitude-velocity distribution of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in the context of the inner structure of our Galaxy. We analyze the correlation in velocities within this distribution and identify density enhancements indicating large-scale regions of enhanced star formation. These are interpreted as the starting points of the spiral arms and the interaction of the Galactic bar with the 3 kpc arms. The methanol masers support the presence of a long thin bar with a 45{sup 0} orientation. Signatures of the full 3 kpc arm structure are seen, including a prominent tangent at approximately -22{sup 0} Galactic longitude. We compare this distribution with existing models of the gas dynamics of our Galaxy. The 3 kpc arm structure appears likely to correspond to the radius of corotation resonance of the bar, with the bar on its inner surface and the starting points of the spiral arms on its outer surface.

  5. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  6. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  7. advanced direct methanol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Direct Methanol Materials Science Websites Summary: increases the overall cost of the cell, reducing the fuel conversion efficiency. An alternative to H2): Application to...

  8. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse...

  9. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Fuel Cells for Portable Power." Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Novel Materials...

  10. Methanol Observation of IRAS 19312+1950: A Possible New Type of Class I Methanol Masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Salii, Svetlana V; Zhang, Yong; Yung, Bosco H K; Deguchi, Shuji

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the result of a systematic methanol observation toward IRAS 19312+1950. The properties of the SiO, H2O and OH masers of this object are consistent with those of mass-losing evolved stars, but some other properties are difficult to explain in the standard scheme of stellar evolution in its late stage. Interestingly, a tentative detection of radio methanol lines was suggested toward this object by a previous observation. To date, there are no confirmed detections of methanol emission towards evolved stars, so investigation of this possible detection is important to better understand the circumstellar physical/chemical environment of IRAS 19312+1950. In this study, we systematically observed multiple methanol lines of IRAS 19312+1950 in the lambda=3mm, 7mm, and 13mm bands, and detected 6 lines including 4 thermal lines and 2 class I maser lines. We derived basic physical parameters including kinetic temperature and relative abundances by fitting a radiative transfer model. According to the derived exci...

  11. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  12. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  13. Mixed waste landfill annual groundwater monitoring report April 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, Mark L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual groundwater sampling was conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories' Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL) in April 2005. Seven monitoring wells were sampled using a Bennett{trademark} pump in accordance with the April 2005 Mini-Sampling and Analysis Plan for the MWL (SNL/NM 2005). The samples were analyzed off site at General Engineering Laboratories, Inc. for a broad suite of radiochemical and chemical parameters, and the results are presented in this report. Sample splits were also collected from several of the wells by the New Mexico Environment Department U.S. Department of Energy Oversight Bureau; however, the split sample results are not included in this report. The results of the April 2005 annual groundwater monitoring conducted at the MWL showed constituent concentrations within the historical ranges for the site and indicated no evidence of groundwater contamination from the landfill.

  14. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included.

  15. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (Data Only) - First Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during First Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Proteciton Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-0874A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  17. Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, B.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Austin, TX (United States); Bonaparte, R.; Othman, M.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers (SHBs) used in waste containment or remediation applications. In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system (LCS) and leak detection system (LDS) liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs. Operational data for over 200 waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The top liner of the double-liner system for the units is either a geomembrane (GMB) alone, geomembrane overlying a geosynthetic clay liner (GMB/GCL), or geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (GMB/CCL). In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: (i) infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste (i.e., source control). SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper.

  18. Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning resolved pump-probe experiments have been conducted on the deuterated hydroxyl stretch of methanol-d in a solution containing 0.8% methanol-d/23% methanol-h in carbon tetrachloride. Methanol-d molecules that both

  19. Scaling methane oxidation: From laboratory incubation experiments to landfill cover field conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abichou, Tarek, E-mail: abichou@eng.fsu.edu [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32311 (United States); Mahieu, Koenraad; Chanton, Jeff [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32311 (United States); Romdhane, Mehrez; Mansouri, Imane [Unite de Recherche M.A.C.S., Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Gabes, Route de Medenine, 6029 Gabes (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluating field-scale methane oxidation in landfill cover soils using numerical models is gaining interest in the solid waste industry as research has made it clear that methane oxidation in the field is a complex function of climatic conditions, soil type, cover design, and incoming flux of landfill gas from the waste mass. Numerical models can account for these parameters as they change with time and space under field conditions. In this study, we developed temperature, and water content correction factors for methane oxidation parameters. We also introduced a possible correction to account for the different soil structure under field conditions. These parameters were defined in laboratory incubation experiments performed on homogenized soil specimens and were used to predict the actual methane oxidation rates to be expected under field conditions. Water content and temperature corrections factors were obtained for the methane oxidation rate parameter to be used when modeling methane oxidation in the field. To predict in situ measured rates of methane with the model it was necessary to set the half saturation constant of methane and oxygen, K{sub m}, to 5%, approximately five times larger than laboratory measured values. We hypothesize that this discrepancy reflects differences in soil structure between homogenized soil conditions in the lab and actual aggregated soil structure in the field. When all of these correction factors were re-introduced into the oxidation module of our model, it was able to reproduce surface emissions (as measured by static flux chambers) and percent oxidation (as measured by stable isotope techniques) within the range measured in the field.

  20. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  1. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  2. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and later COP and the industrial partners investigated the use of syngas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort were to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from syngas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The intended result of the project was to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that would be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The EECP study conducted in Phase 1 of the IMPPCCT Project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there were minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the syngas. However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase 2 was to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase 1 RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies were designed to address the technical concerns that would mak

  3. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.C. Adams

    2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT, MIAMISBURG, OHIO DCN: 0468-SR-02-0

  4. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.C. Adams

    2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT, MIAMISBURG, OHIO DCN: 0468-SR-03-0

  5. Application of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel for refuse trucks in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gokhale, Bhushan

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    sludge, and non hazardous industrial waste (8,9). The solid waste materials are classified under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (10). The next section describes different methods used for managing... REVIEW.......................................................................................4 Solid Waste Management.................................................................................4 LFG Cleaning Processes...

  6. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment ofEnergy State7/109T.M.TRUPACT-III

  7. Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

  8. The Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey--I: Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagadheep D. Pandian; Paul F. Goldsmith; Avinash A. Deshpande

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of an unbiased survey for 6.7 GHz methanol masers in the Galactic plane carried out using the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. A total of 18.2 square degrees was surveyed with uniform sampling at 35.2 deg methanol masers are clustered, reflecting the formation of massive stars in clusters.

  9. Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over PdZnOAl2O3 Catalysts. Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over PdZnOAl2O3 Catalysts. Abstract: A PdZnOAl2O3...

  10. Importance of Diffusion in Methanol Photochemistry on TiO2(110...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Importance of Diffusion in Methanol Photochemistry on TiO2(110). Importance of Diffusion in Methanol Photochemistry on TiO2(110). Abstract: The photoactivity of methanol on the...

  11. Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from CO/CO2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O Mixtures: the Source of C in Methanol and the Role of Water Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O...

  12. Understanding the effect of modifying elements in supported vanadia bilayered catalysts for methanol oxidation to formaldehyde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vining, William Collins

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Si Figure 1.1. Schematic of methanol oxidation over isolatedSiO 2 catalysts for methanol oxidation, 163-171, Copyright (rate constant at 550 K for methanol oxidation plotted versus

  13. Volume$3, number 3 CHEMICAL. PHYSICS LETTERS 1 Februrf 1978 INTERACTION OF METHANOL WITH RUTHENIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Volume$3, number 3 CHEMICAL. PHYSICS LETTERS 1 Februrf 1978 INTERACTION OF METHANOL WITH RUTHENIUM of methanol with a clean methods. Methanol dissociates upon adsorption at 300 K and yields Ha(g) and chemisorbed CO as the domiwt

  14. EFFECTS OF METAL-SUPPORT INTERACTIONS ON THE SYNTHESIS OF METHANOL OVER PALLADIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryndin, Yu A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Synthesis of Methanol over Palladium by Yu. A.ABSTRACT The synthesis of methanol and other products fromThe specific activity for methanol synthesis decreased in

  15. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOI-P Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work continued on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, product-use test program. Approximately 12,000 gallons of fuel-grade methanol (98+ wt% methanol, 4 wt% water) produced during operation on carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas at the LPMEOW Demonstration Unit was loaded into trailers and shipped off-site for Mure product-use testing. At one of the projects, three buses have been tested on chemical-grade methanol and on fhel-grade methanol from the LPMEOW Demonstration Project. During the reporting period, planning for a proof-of-concept test run of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME~ Process at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX continued. The commercial catalyst manufacturer (Calsicat) has prepared the first batch of dehydration catalyst in large-scale equipment. Air Products will test a sample of this material in the laboratory autoclave. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laborato~ autoclave), was monitored for the initial extended operation at the lower initial reactor operating temperature of 235oC. At this condition, the decrease in catalyst activity with time from the period 20 December 1997 through 27 January 1998 occurred at a rate of 1.0% per day, which represented a significant improvement over the 3.4Yi per day decline measured during the initial six weeks of operation in April and May of 1997. The deactivation rate also improved from the longer-term rate of 1.6% per day calculated throughout the summer and autumn of 1997.

  16. COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project. Overall plant availability (defined as the percentage of time that the LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit was able to operate, with the exclusion of scheduled outages) was 97.5%, and the longest operating run without interruption of any kind was 94 days. Over 103.9 million gallons of methanol was produced; Eastman accepted all of the available methanol for use in the production of methyl acetate, and ultimately cellulose acetate and acetic acid.

  17. Proton exchange membrane materials for the advancement of direct methanol fuel-cell technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Christopher J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and methods of synthesis, that can be used as a proton exchange membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell. In contrast with Nafion.RTM. PEM materials, which have random sulfonation, the new class of materials have ordered sulfonation achieved through self-assembly of alternating polyimide segments of different molecular weights comprising, for example, highly sulfonated hydrophilic PDA-DASA polyimide segment alternating with an unsulfonated hydrophobic 6FDA-DAS polyimide segment. An inorganic phase, e.g., 0.5 5 wt % TEOS, can be incorporated in the sulfonated polyimide copolymer to further improve its properties. The new materials exhibit reduced swelling when exposed to water, increased thermal stability, and decreased O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 gas permeability, while retaining proton conductivities similar to Nafion.RTM.. These improved properties may allow direct methanol fuel cells to operate at higher temperatures and with higher efficiencies due to reduced methanol crossover.

  18. Low temperature catalyst system for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.

    1984-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent discloses a catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (150/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The catalyst components are used in slurry form and comprise (1) a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-ROH-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms and (2) a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. For the first component, Nic is preferred (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). For the second component, Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is preferred. The mixture is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  19. Mobil plans methanol plant in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobil Chemical (Houston) is in discussions with Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. (NNPC; Lagos) on a joint venture methanol plant at Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The U.S. firm has invited process owners to submit proposals for a 1-million m.t./year unit and hopes to select the technology by the end of this year. Three proposals have been submitted: Lurgi, offering its own low-pressure process; John Brown/Davy, with the ICI process; and M.W. Kellogg, proposing its own technology. Shareholding in the joint venture is yet to be decided, but it is likely to be a 50/50 tie-up. Marketing of Mobil's share or of the entire tonnage would be handled by Mobil Petrochemical International (Brussels). The plant could be onstream in late 1996.

  20. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1--6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  1. Role of Water in Methanol Photochemistry on Rutile TiO2(110)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methanol photochemistry or thermal decomposition of methanol to methoxy. However, terminal OH groups (OHt), prepared by coadsorption of water and oxygen atoms, thermally...

  2. The 6.7-GHz and 25-GHz methanol masers in OMC-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Voronkov; A. M. Sobolev; S. P. Ellingsen; A. B. Ostrovskii

    2005-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) has been used to search for methanol maser emission at 6.7 GHz towards OMC-1. Two features peaking at 7.2 km/s and -1.1 km/s have been detected. The former has at least two components close in both velocity and position. It is located south-east of the Orion Kleinmann-Low (Orion-KL) nebula in the region of outflow traced by the 25-GHz methanol masers and the 95-GHz methanol emission. It is shown by modelling that in contrast to the widespread opinion that simultaneous masing of methanol transitions of different classes is impossible there are conditions for which simultaneous masing of the class II transition at 6.7-GHz and some class I transitions (e.g. the series at 25 GHz) is possible. A relevant example is provided, in which the pumping occurs via the first torsionally excited state and is driven by radiation of the dust intermixed with the gas in the cloud. In this regime the dust temperature is significantly lower (T is about 60 K) than in the case of bright 6.7-GHz masers (T>150 K). The narrow spectral feature at -1.1 km/s has a brightness temperature greater than about 1400 K, which suggests that it is probably a maser. It emanates from the Orion South region and is probably associated with the approaching part of outflow seen in CO. The 25-GHz maser associated with OMC-1 was observed quasi-simultaneously with the 6.7-GHz observations. No 25-GHz emission associated with the -1.1 km/s 6.7 GHz feature towards Orion South was detected.

  3. Geophysical methods applied to characterize landfill covers with geocomposite F. Genelle1, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Geophysical methods applied to characterize landfill covers with geocomposite F. Genelle1, 2 , C attempt to characterize with geophysical methods the state of landfill covers to detect damages that can. The geophysical methods used were the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), cartography with an Automatic

  4. Sardinia 2007, Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium Potential for Reducing Global Methane Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    for Reducing Global Methane Emissions From Landfills, 2000-2030 E. MATTHEWS1 , N. J. THEMELIS2 1 NASA Goddard methane (CH4 )annually to the world's total CH4 emission of ~550 Tg/yr. Recycling and thermal treatment destined for landfills and to mitigating CH4 emission. Waste generation is estimated to more than double

  5. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  6. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  7. DESIGN OF A FAILED LANDFILL SLOPE By: Timothy D. Stark, W. Douglas Evans-, and Paul E. Sherry'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGN OF A FAILED LANDFILL SLOPE 1 ~) ~ ~ By: Timothy D. Stark, W. Douglas Evans-, and Paul E solid waste landfill in which lateral displacements of up to 900 ft (275 m) and vertical settlements municipal solid waste landfill occupies 135 acres (546 km 2 ) approximately 9 miles (15.3 km) n

  8. I 95 Landfill Phase II Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel JumpCounty, Texas: EnergyHy9Moat of Long| OpenLandfill Phase II

  9. Agricultural Biomass and Landfill Diversion Incentive (Texas) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM - Building Americaof Energy and Landfill

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Moyer Landfill Site, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Moyer Landfill is an inactive privately owned landfill located in Lower Providence Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The site was operated as a municipal landfill from the 1940's until April 1981, during which time it received municipal refuse and sewage sludges. According to local Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officials, the landfill accepted a variety of solid and liquid hazardous wastes, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, paints, low-level radioactive wastes, and incinerated materials in bulk form and/or containerized in drums. In 1972, when the Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources (PADER) rules and regulations became more restrictive, this landfill was cited, and finally in 1981, it was closed and brought into receivership of the U.S. District Court.

  11. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, Stephen; Mountz, David; He, Wensheng; Zhang, Tao

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct methanol fuel cell membranes were developed using blends of different polyelectrolytes with PVDF. The membranes showed complex relationships between polyelectrolyte chemistry, morphology, and processing. Although the PVDF grade was found to have little effect on the membrane permselectivity, it does impact membrane conductivity and methanol permeation values. Other factors, such as varying the polyelectrolyte polarity, using varying crosslinking agents, and adjusting the equivalent weight of the membranes impacted methanol permeation, permselectivity, and areal resistance. We now understand, within the scope of the project work completed, how these inter-related performance properties can be tailored to achieve a balance of performance.

  12. ICI and Penspen in Nigerian and Qatari methanol deals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.K. consulting and engineering company Penspen Ltd. (London) has signed a second joint venture agreement in Qatar and has selected the ICI (London) methanol process. The technology will also be used in a world-scale methanol plant in Nigeria that Penspen is helping to set up. Under the first agreement, signed on January 1 with Qatar General Petroleum Corp. (QGPC), a 50/50 venture is being formed to build a $370-million, 2,000-m.t./day methanol plant at Umm Said. ICI will provide its low-pressure technology and help market 75% of the output. Completion is due late 1994.

  13. Case study: The development of a rule action to implement the federal emission guidelines for existing municipal solid waste landfills by the Ventura County Air Pollution Control District

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moralez, D.A. [Ventura Country Air Pollution Control District, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will highlight the key revisions to existing District Rule 74.17, Solid Waste Disposal Sites and the key requirements of new District Rule 74.17.1, Municipal Solid Waste Landfills to meet new federal requirements. The rule action is necessary to incorporate and implement the requirements of a New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) in Title 40 CFR, Part 60, Subpart Cc -- Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (District) is one of only three other districts in California that had previously adopted a landfill gas control rule before the federal EG requirements were adopted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in March of 1996. Also, because existing District Rule 74.17 requirements were adopted into the State Implementation Plan (SIP) by the EPA in 1994, several key requirements are carried forward into new District Rule 74.17.1 to prevent a relaxation of the requirements that existing MSW landfills already fulfill. The goal of the rule action was to develop revisions to existing District Rule 74.17 and develop requirements for new District Rule 74.17.1 that at a minimum would incorporate and implement the requirements specified by the EG without causing a relaxation of the existing rule requirements. Because existing District Rule 74.17 and the EG have different non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emission limits, staff gave considerable evaluation to this difference and concluded that, in general, the emission limits are equivalent. Also, based on all of the information reviewed, it is District staff`s opinion that the amount of NMOC emissions controlled from the requirements in new District Rule 74.17.1 are, in general, equivalent to the amount of NMOC emissions control from the requirements in existing Rule 74.17.

  14. Fundamental Studies of Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on Cu(111), Cu Clusters, and Cu/ZnO(000?)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.; Yang, Y.; Evans, J.; Rodriguez, J.A.; White, M.G.

    2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of experimental and theoretical methods were employed to investigate the synthesis of methanolvia CO{sub 2}hydrogenation (CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2} {yields} CH{sub 3}OH + H{sub 2}O) on Cu(111) and Cunanoparticle surfaces. High pressure reactivity studies show that Cunanoparticles supported on a ZnO(000{bar 1}) single crystal exhibit a higher catalytic activity than the Cu(111) planar surface. Complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculations of methanol synthesis were also performed for a Cu(111) surface and unsupported Cu{sub 29} nanoparticles, and the results support a higher activity for Cu nanoparticles. The DFT calculations show that methanol synthesis on Cu surfaces proceeds through a formate intermediate and the overall reaction rate is limited by both formate and dioxomethylene hydrogenation. Moreover, the superior activity of the nanoparticle is associated with its fluxionality and the presence of low-coordinated Cu sites, which stabilize the key intermediates, e.g. formate and dioxomethylene, and lower the barrier for the rate-limiting hydrogenation process. The reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS) reaction (CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2} {yields} CO + H{sub 2}O) was experimentally observed to compete with methanol synthesis and was also considered in our DFT calculations. In agreement with experiment, the rate of the RWGS reaction on Cu nanoparticles is estimated to be 2 orders of magnitude faster than methanol synthesis at T = 573 K. The experiments and calculations also indicate that CO produced by the fast RWGS reaction does not undergo subsequent hydrogenation to methanol, but instead simply accumulates as a product. Methanol production from CO hydrogenation via the RWGS pathway is hindered by the first hydrogenation of CO to formyl, which is not stable and prefers to dissociate into CO and H atoms on Cu. Our calculated results suggest that the methanol yield over Cu-based catalysts could be improved by adding dopants or promoters which are able to stabilize formyl species or facilitate the hydrogenation of formate and dioxomethylene. the RWGS pathway is hindered by the first hydrogenation of CO to formyl, which is not stable and prefers to dissociate into CO and H atoms on Cu. Our calculated results suggest that the methanol yield over Cu-based catalysts could be improved by adding dopants or promoters which are able to stabilize formyl species or facilitate the hydrogenation of formate and dioxomethylene.

  15. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data on CCW disposal practices and State regulatory requirements at landfills and surface impoundments that were permitted, built, or laterally expanded between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2004. The scope of the study excluded waste units that manage CCWs in active or abandoned coal mines. The EPA identified the following three areas of interest: (1) Recent and current CCW industry surface disposal management practices, (2) State regulatory requirements for CCW management, and (3) Implementation of State requirements (i.e., the extent to which States grant or deny operator requests to waive or vary regulatory requirements and the rationales for doing so). DOE and the EPA obtained data on recent and current disposal practices from a questionnaire that the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group (USWAG) distributed to its members that own or operate coal-fired power plants. USWAG, formed in 1978, is responsible for addressing solid and hazardous waste issues on behalf of the utility industry. It is an informal consortium of approximately 80 utility operating companies, the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the American Gas Association (AGA). EEI is the principal national association of investor-owned electric power and light companies. NRECA is the national association of rural electric cooperatives. APPA is the national association of publicly owned electric utilities. AGA is the national association of natural gas utilities. Together, USWAG member companies and trade associations represent more than 85% of the total electric generating capacity of the United States and service more than 95% of the nation's consumers of electricity. To verify the survey findings, the EPA also asked State regulators from nine selected States that are leading consumers of coal for electricity generation for information on disposal units that may not have been covered in the USWAG survey. The selected States were Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, North Da

  16. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOEP") Demonstration Project at K.ingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L, P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOHY Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. On 4 October 1994, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and signed the agreements that would form the Partnership, secure the demonstration site, and provide the financial commitment and overall project management for the project. These partnership agreements became effective on 15 March 1995, when DOE authorized the commencement of Budget Period No. 2 (Mod. AO08 to the Cooperative Agreement). The Partnership has subcontracted with Air Products to provide the overall management of the project, and to act as the primary interface with DOE. As subcontractor to the Partnership, Air Products will also provide the engineering design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and will provide the technical and engineering supervision needed to conduct the operational testing program required as part of the project. As subcontractor to Air Products, Eastman will be responsible for operation of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and for the interconnection and supply of synthesis gas, utilities, product storage, and other needed sewices. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas fi-om Eastman's integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOHTM process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small 3,200 gallons per day, DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates.

  17. A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercial); percentage of landfill gas (methane) that islevel. ? Percentage of landfill gas (methane) that iscarbon emissions: landfill gas capture. Landfill gas is

  18. Last spring, an Ohio waste slope collapsed, displacing 1.5 million cu yd of waste. Remedial measures can prevent similar failures at ~~grandfathered" landfills.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measures can prevent similar failures at ~~grandfathered" landfills. r I n the early morning hours of March of "grandfathered" landfill slopes. (Grandfathered landfills do not have an engineered liner system.) Because following case history are ap- plicable to the design, operation and expan- sion of many landfills. BEFORE

  19. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  20. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946); O'Hare, Thomas E. (11 Geiger Pl., Huntington Station, NY 11746); Mahajan, Devinder (14 Locust Ct., Selden, NY 11784)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  1. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is NiC (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  2. Coadsorption of methanol and isobutene on HY zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogelbauer, A.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lercher, J.A. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1995-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to develop a better understanding of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis on zeolites, the coadsorption of methanol and isobutene on HY zeolite was investigated using IR spectroscopy. Initial adsorption of isobutene alone at 35{degree}C led to rapid oligomerization yielding strongly bound oligomers. The subsequent coadsorption of methanol did not induce any changes in the zeolite-adsorbate complexes. TPD following the coadsorption showed that the Bronsted acid sites could be restored by temperature treatment above approximately 300{degree}C. When methanol was adsorbed first and isobutene was subsequently coadsorbed, MTBE was formed even at 35{degree}C on the catalyst surface. MTBE desorbed easily at a temperature of 70{degree}C, restoring a major fraction of the Bronsted acid sites. Methanol was concluded to decrease the probability of oligomerization by effectively competing for the acid sites. 34 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Evaluation of reformed methanol as an automotive engine fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall, David M

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal, oil shale, tar sands, and renewable resources [12], of which there are abundant supplies. Also, methanol could be distributed through the present fuel distribution network with some minor modifications. Hydrogen has also be investi- gated...

  4. Characterization of Microexplosion Phenomena of Methanol-Glycerol Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Ge-Yi

    2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions even when combusting glycerol-based mixtures. In this research, microexplosion phenomena of methanol-in-glycerol mixtures have been studied using a high speed camera and an acoustic sensor system. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm has been...

  5. THE METHANOL MASER EMISSION IN W51 C.J. PHILLIPS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Langevelde, Huib Jan

    THE METHANOL MASER EMISSION IN W51 C.J. PHILLIPS1 and H.J. VAN LANGEVELDE2 1 CSIRO; E-mail: chris.7-GHz methanol maser emission towards W51. In the W51 Main region, the bulk of the methanol is offset from an UCHII region. This probably indicates the methanol emission arises at the interface

  6. Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on MCM-48

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported-1462 ReceiVed: August 16, 2006; In Final Form: October 10, 2006 The mechanism of methanol oxidation. Methanol reacts reversibly, at a ratio of approximately 1 methanol per V, with one V-O-Si to produce both V

  7. Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Exfoliated and Functionalized Calcium Niobate Nanosheets in Water and Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    and Methanol Elizabeth C. Carroll, Owen C. Compton, Dorte Madsen, Frank E. Osterloh, and Delmar S. Larsen-order kinetics on a sub-nanosecond time scale that depended on the nanosheet size. Methanol was used and methanol solutions. Methanol is known as an efficient sacrificial electron donor for layered metal oxide

  8. Author's personal copy Modeling of a passive DMFC operating with neat methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Author's personal copy Modeling of a passive DMFC operating with neat methanol W.W. Yang, T.S. Zhao 2011 Keywords: Fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells Neat methanol Mass transport Model a b s t r a c t A mathematical model is developed to simulate the fundamental transport phenomena in a passive direct methanol

  9. Theoretical characterization of the hydrogen-bond interaction of diacetamide with water and methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    and methanol Minh Tho Nguyen, Natalie Leroux and The re` se Zeegers-Huyskens* Department of Chemistry formed from interaction of diacetamide with water and methanol. In both water and methanol complexes/6-31G** level being [44 kJ mol~1 for the water complex and [48 kJ mol~1 for the methanol complex

  10. 6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS AND TRACERS OF GALACTIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS AND TRACERS OF GALACTIC STRUCTURE A Dissertation Jagadheep Dhanasekara Pandian ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS transition of methanol is the strongest of methanol masers, and is the second strongest maser transition ever

  11. Mid-Infrared Source Multiplicity within Hot Molecular Cores traced by Methanol Masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Longmore; M. G. Burton; V. Minier; A. J. Walsh

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present high resolution, mid-infrared images toward three hot molecular cores signposted by methanol maser emission; G173.49+2.42 (S231, S233IR), G188.95+0.89 (S252, AFGL-5180) and G192.60-0.05 (S255IR). Each of the cores was targeted with Michelle on Gemini North using 5 filters from 7.9 to 18.5 microns. We find each contains both large regions of extended emission and multiple, luminous point sources which, from their extremely red colours (F[18.5]/F[7.9] >= 3), appear to be embedded young stellar objects. The closest angular separations of the point sources in the three regions are 0.79, 1.00 and 3.33 arcseconds corresponding to linear separations of 1,700, 1,800 and 6,000AU respectively. The methanol maser emission is found closest to the brightest MIR point source (within the assumed 1 arcsecond pointing accuracy). Mass and luminosity estimates for the sources range from 3-22 Msol and 50-40,000 Lsol. Assuming the MIR sources are embedded objects and the observed gas mass provides the bulk of the reservoir from which the stars formed, it is difficult to generate the observed distributions for the most massive cluster members from the gas in the cores using a standard form of the IMF.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on a brownfield site at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin. The site currently has a PV system in place and was assessed for further PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.1333/kWh and incentives offered by the State of Wisconsin and by the serving utility, Madison Gas and Electric. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  13. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurau, Bogdan

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  14. Certification report for final closure of Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents the Geotek Engineering Company, Inc., (Geotek) record of activities to support certification of final closure Of the subject Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II. Ex as noted herein, final closure of the landfill was completed in accordance with the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill 11 Closure/Post Closure Plan, Revision 2, submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) on April 14, 1992, and approved by TDEC on May 27, 1994 (the ``Closure Plan``). minor modification to the Closure Plan allowing partial closure of the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II (Phase 1) was approved by TDEC on August 3, 1994. The Phase I portion of the closure for the subject landfill was completed on March 25, 1995. A closure certification report entitled Certification Report for Partial Closure of Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II was submitted to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (LMES) on March 28, 1995. The final closure represents the completion of the closure activities for the entire Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II Site. The contents of this report and accompanying certification are based on observations by Geotek engineers and geologists during closure activities and on review of reports, records, laboratory test results, and other information furnished to Geotek by LMES.

  15. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a Furnace Burning City of Heavy Fuel Oil (from Sato, et . ~"a copper catalyst. heavy fuel oil, naptha, or natural gas,from city gas and heavy fuel oil burning in the Kyoto

  16. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels.

  17. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  18. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

  19. Radiological survey of the Shpack Landfill, Norton, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Haywood, F.F.; Witt, D.A.; Myrick, T.E.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Loy, E.T.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a radiological survey of the Shpack Landfill, Norton, Massachusetts, are given in this report. The survey was conducted over approximately eight acres which had received radioactive wastes from 1946 to 1965. The survey included measurement of the following: external gamma radiation at the surface and at 1 m (3 ft) above the surface throughout the site; beta-gamma exposure rates at 1 cm (0.4 in.) from the surface throughout the site; concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 238/U, and /sup 235/U in surface and subsurface soil on the site; and concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 210/Pb in groundwater on the site and in surface water on and near the site. Results indicate that the radioactive contamination is confined to the site and to the swamp immediately adjacent to the site.

  20. Using GIS to Identify Remediation Areas in Landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linda A.Tedrow

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the use of GIS mapping software—ArcMap and ArcInfo Workstation—by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as a non-intrusive method of locating and characterizing radioactive waste in a 97-acre landfill to aid in planning cleanup efforts. The fine-scale techniques and methods used offer potential application for other burial sites for which hazards indicate a non-intrusive approach. By converting many boxes of paper shipping records in multiple formats into a relational database linked to spatial data, the INEEL has related the paper history to our current GIS technologies and spatial data layers. The wide breadth of GIS techniques and tools quickly display areas in need of remediation as well as evaluate methods of remediation for specific areas as the site characterization is better understood and early assumptions are refined.

  1. Oxidation of Methanol on 2nd and 3rd Row Group VIII Transition Metals (Pt, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, and Ru): Application to Direct Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Oxidation of Methanol on 2nd and 3rd Row Group VIII Transition Metals (Pt, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, and Ru): Application to Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Jeremy Kua and William A. Goddard III* Contribution from functional theory (B3LYP)], we calculated the 13 most likely intermediate species for methanol oxidation

  2. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 1, October 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products). This document describes major accomplishments in project development for Fiscal Year 1993. The preliminary process hazards review, project safety plan, schedule, and cost management report are included as appendices. The demonstration is sited at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. Air Products and Eastman are working on a partnership agreement which will form the Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. As a limited partner in the venture, Eastman will own and operate the demonstration unit. The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modem coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol.

  3. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  4. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  5. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  6. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model for TOUGH2, LawrenceFigures Biodegradation Bioreactor Aerobic CO2 + H2O + heat1. Schematic of bioreactor and T2LBM conceptualizations.

  7. Investigating the mechanism behind environmental injustice around municipal landfill sites in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Elizabeth

    model with which neighbourhood exposure to landfills could be classified. This gave the exposure classification a degree of realism not generally incorporated in similar studies. The research revealed clear evidence that deprived neighbourhoods...

  8. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  9. Overburden effects on waste compaction and leachate generation in municipal landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehevec, Adam Wade

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a model to predict the effects of overburden pressure on the formation of leachate within municipal solid waste landfills. In addition, it estimates the compaction and subsequent settlement that the waste will undergo due...

  10. MONITORING LANDFILL COVER BY ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY1 TOMOGRAPHY ON AN EXPERIMENTAL SITE2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with geosynthetics44 (geomembranes or Geosynthetic Clay Liners), depending on the date of closure (Silvestre et45 al: landfill cover, gravelly clay material, heterogeneity, compaction, electrical30 resistivity, multivariate

  11. Methane production during the anaerobic decomposition of composted and raw organic refuse in simulated landfill cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Margrit Evelyn

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane contributes 20% annually to increases in global warming, and is explosive at concentrations of 5-15% in air. Landfills contribute 15% to total methane emissions. This study was conducted to determine the potential decrease in methane...

  12. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol process. Technical progress report number 8, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallon per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small (10 TPD), DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers. A carefully developed test plan will allow operations at Eastman to simulate electricity demand load-following in coal-based IGCC facilities. The operations will also demonstrate the enhanced stability and heat dissipation of the conversion process, its reliable on/off operation, and its ability to produce methanol as a clean liquid fuel without additional upgrading.

  13. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Ferrin, Peter A.; Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Nilekar, Anand U.; Koh, Shirlaine; Bae, Sang Eun; Brankovic, Stanko R.; Strasser, Peter; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed surfaces as reactivity descriptors, we screen bulk and surface alloy catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation activity. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties: (1) the ability to activate methanol, (2) the ability to activate water, and (3) the ability to react off surface intermediates (such as CO* and OH*). Based on this analysis, an alloy catalyst made up of Cu and Pt should have a synergistic effect facilitating the activity towards methanol electro-oxidation. Using these two reactivity descriptors, a surface PtCu3 alloy is proposed to have the best catalytic properties of the Pt–Cu model catalysts tested, similar to those of a Pt–Ru bulk alloy. To validate the model, experiments on a Pt(111) surface modified with different amounts of Cu adatoms are performed. Adding Cu to a Pt(111) surface increases the methanol oxidation current by more than a factor of three, supporting our theoretical predictions for improved electrocatalysts.

  14. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Lynch

    2004-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  15. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nahman, Anton, E-mail: anahman@csir.co.za [Environmental and Resource Economics Group, Natural Resources and the Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 320, Stellenbosch 7599 (South Africa)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. > Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. > Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. > Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. > Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of municipal landfill leachate as determined with bioassays and chemical analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrab, Gregory Ernst

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE AS DETERMINED WITH BIOASSAYS AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS A Thesis by GREGORY ERNST SCHRAB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Soil Science ACUTF AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE AS DETERMINED WITH BIOASSAYS AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS A Thesis by GREGORY ERNST SCHRAB Approved as to style...

  17. Field versus laboratory characterization of clay deposits for use as in situ municipal landfill liners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Sharon Elizabeth

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FIELD VERSUS LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION OF CLAY DEPOSITS FOR USE AS IN SITU MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by SHARON ELIZABETH WECHSLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas Aa? University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of . KASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1990 Major Subject: Geology FIELD VERSUS LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION OF CLAY DEPOSITS FOR USE AS IN SITU MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by SHARON ELIZABETH WECHSLER Approved as to style...

  18. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    role of hydrogen in landfill gas utilization. Sacramento,landfills (yielding “landfill gas”) and livestock-manure-Diverted Methane in landfill gas Methane in biogas from

  19. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    role of hydrogen in landfill gas utilization. Sacramento,landfills (yielding “landfill gas”) and livestock-manure-Diverted Methane in landfill gas Methane in biogas from

  20. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    110 Table 26. Landfill gas GHG reductionlandfills to utilize the landfill gas generally includes acollection system. Landfill gas from throughout landfills

  1. Clustering Dynamics in Water/Methanol Mixtures: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study at 205 K < T < 295 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Clustering Dynamics in Water/Methanol Mixtures: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study at 205 K functional groups in water/methanol mixtures at different methanol molar fractions (XMeOH ) 0, 0.04, 0.1, 0 in the mixtures, at all the methanol molar fractions, are faster than those of pure water and methanol because

  2. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a landfill is nearby, landfill gas could also be burned inthe boilers. Landfill gas consists mostly of methane (CH 4 )

  3. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boggs, C.J. [Argonne National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States); Shaddoan, W.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Paducah, KY (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

  4. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Johnson County Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, Kansas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Citizens of Shawnee, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Kansas that are particularly well suited for grid-tied solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. This report assesses the Johnson County Landfill for possible grid-tied PV installations and estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. The report findings are applicable to other landfills in the surrounding area.

  5. Selection of hydrate suppression methods for gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrens, S.D.; Covington, K.K.; Collie, J.T. III

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will discuss and compare the methods used to suppress hydrate formation in natural gas streams. Included in the comparison will be regenerated systems using ethylene glycol and non-regenerated systems using methanol. A comparison will be made between the quantities of methanol and ethylene glycol required to achieve a given a suppression. A discussion of BTEX emissions resulting from the ethylene glycol regenerator along with the effect or process variables on these emissions is also given.

  6. Perovskite anode electrocatalysis for direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, J.H.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation explores direct methanol fuel cells incorporating perovskite anode electrocatalysts. Preliminary electrochemical performance was addressed following incorporation of electrocatalysts into polymer electrolyte (Nafion 417) fuel cells. Perovskite electrocatalysts demonstrating activity towards direct methanol oxidation during cyclic voltammetry measurements included, respectively, SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrRu[sub 0.5]Pd[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrPdO[sub 3], SmCoO[sub 3], SrRuO[sub 3], La[sub 0.8]Ce[sub 0.2]CoC[sub 3],SrCo[sub 0.5]Ti[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], and La[sub 0.8]Sr[sub 0.2]CoO[sub 3] where SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]P[sub 3] gave methanol oxidation currents up to 28 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.45 V vs. SCE. Correlations were found between electrocatalyst solid-state and thermodynamic parameters corresponding to, respectively, molecular electronic polarizability, the optical dielectric constant, the perovskite spin-only magnetic moment, the number of d-electrons in perovskite A and B lattice sites, and the average metal-oxygen binding energy for the perovskite lattice, and corresponding fuel cell performance. This may have future merit for the prediction of new electrocatalyst family members for promoting direct methanol oxidation. Methanol diffusion from anode to cathode compartments appears to be a major obstacle to the development of polymer electrolyte methanol fuel cells.

  7. Comparison of Bond Scission Sequence of Methanol on Tungsten Monocarbide and Pt-Modified Tungsten Monocarbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.; Stottlemyer, A.L.; Chen, J.G.

    2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to control the bond scission sequence of O-H, C-H, and C-O bonds is of critical importance in the effective utilization of oxygenate molecules, such as in reforming reactions and in alcohol fuel cells. In the current study, we use methanol as a probe molecule to demonstrate the possibility to control the decomposition pathways by supporting monolayer coverage of Pt on a tungsten monocarbide (WC) surface. Density functional theory (DFT) results reveal that on the WC and Pt/WC surfaces CH{sub 3}OH decomposes via O-H bond scission to form the methoxy (*CH{sub 3} O) intermediate. The subsequent decomposition of methoxy on the WC surface occurs through the C-O bond scission to form *CH{sub 3}, which reacts with surface *H to produce CH{sub 4}. In contrast, the decomposition of methoxy on the Pt/WC surface favors the C-H bond scission to produce *CH{sub 2} O, which prevents the formation of the *CH{sub 3} species and leads to the formation of a *CO intermediate through subsequent deprotonation steps. The DFT predictions are validated using temperature programmed desorption to quantify the gas-phase product yields and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy to determine the surface intermediates from methanol decomposition on Pt, WC, and Pt/WC surfaces.

  8. Analysis of depolarization ratios of ClNO{sub 2} dissolved in methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimithioti, Marilena; Hayes, Sophia C., E-mail: shayes@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678, Nicosia (Cyprus); Akimov, Alexey V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Prezhdo, Oleg V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed analysis of the resonance Raman depolarization ratio dispersion curve for the N–O symmetric stretch of nitryl chloride in methanol at excitation wavelengths spanning the D absorption band is presented. The depolarization ratios are modeled using the time-dependent formalism for Raman scattering with contributions from two excited states (2{sup 1}A{sub 1} and 3{sup 1}B{sub 1}), which are taken as linearly dissociative along the Cl–N coordinate. The analysis focuses on the interplay between different types of broadening revealing the importance of inhomogenous broadening in determining the relative contributions of the two electronic transitions. We find that the transition dipole moment (M) for 2{sup 1}A{sub 1} is greater than for 3{sup 1}B{sub 1}, in agreement with gas phase calculations in the literature [A. Lesar, M. Hdoscek, M. Muhlhauser, and S. D. Peyerimhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 84 (2004)]. However, we find that the polarity of the solvent influences the excited state energetics, leading to a reversal in the ordering of these two states with 3{sup 1}B{sub 1} shifting to lower energies. Molecular dynamics simulations along with linear response and ab initio calculations support the evidence extracted from resonance Raman intensity analysis, providing insights on ClNO{sub 2} electronic structure, solvation effects in methanol, and the source of broadening, emphasizing the importance of a contribution from inhomogeneous linewidth.

  9. Single-cell protein from methanol with Enterobacter aerogenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnan, S.O.; Abodreheba, A.O.

    1987-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An identified Enterobacter aerogenes utilizing methanol as a sole carbon source was studied for the optimization of biomass production and the reduction of its nucleic acid content. Results indicated that the highest yield and conversion were obtained at 0.5% methanol. The addition of seawater as a source of trace elements has an adverse effect. However, the addition of urea as source of nitrogen enhanced the growth of E. aerogenes. Heat shock at 60 degrees C for one minute followed by incubation at 50 degrees C for 2 hours caused 72.6% reduction in the nucleic acid. 12 references.

  10. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  11. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiriac, R., E-mail: rodica.chiriac@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); De Araujos Morais, J. [Universite Federal de Paraiba, Campus I Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Carre, J. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bayard, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Chovelon, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gourdon, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

  12. CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW February 2007 Available online 9 April 2007 Abstract Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential

  13. An Investigation of Different Methods of Fabricating Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Kwame (Kwame J.)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol fuel cells are electrochemical conversion devices that produce electricity from methanol fuel. The current process of fabricating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is tedious and if it is not sufficiently ...

  14. Imaging Adsorbate O-H Bond Cleavage: Methanol on TiO2(110). ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O-H Bond Cleavage: Methanol on TiO2(110). Abstract: We investigated methanol adsorption and dissociation on bridge-bonded oxygen vacancies of TiO2(110) (1×1) surface...

  15. A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Water and Methanol in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Adsorption of Water and Methanol in Zeolite BEA: A Molecular Simulation Study. A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Water and Methanol in Zeolite BEA: A Molecular...

  16. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on In2O3(110): A DFT Study. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on...

  17. Supplementary Information for Methanol as a sensitive probe for spatial and temporal variations of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplementary Information for Methanol as a sensitive probe for spatial and temporal variations.757 0.68(5) Table I. Methanol (12 CH16 3 OH) maser transitions and accurate rest frequencies taken from

  18. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

  19. Landfill cover performance monitoring using time domain reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neher, E.R.; Cotten, G.B. [Parsons Infrastructure & Technology Group, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McElroy, D. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) systems were installed to monitor soil moisture in two newly constructed landfill covers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Each TDR system includes four vertical arrays with each array consisting of four TDR probes located at depths of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm. The deepest probes at 60 cm were installed beneath a compacted soil layer to analyze infiltration through the compacted layer. Based on the TDR data, infiltration through the two covers between March and October, 1997 ranged from less than measurable to 1.5 cm. However, due to a prohibition on penetrating the buried waste and resulting limits on probe placement depths, deeper percolation was not evaluated. Some of the advantages found in the application of TDR for infiltration monitoring at this site are the relative low cost and rugged nature of the equipment. Also, of particular importance, the ability to collect frequent moisture measurements allows the capture and evaluation of soil moisture changes resulting from episodic precipitation events. Disadvantages include the inability to install the probes into the waste, difficulties in interpretation of infiltration during freeze/thaw periods, and some excessive noise in the data.

  20. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Experimental and Model Validation Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Experimental and Model Validation Study M. Mench, J. Scott, S. Thynell boundary Fuel cell performance Current density distribution measurements Conclusions #12;3 Method, flow rate, species inlet and fuel cell temperature, and humidity. Transparent polycarbonate windows